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  • 1. Abraham, Edit
    et al.
    Miskolczi, Pal
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Ayaydin, Ferhan
    Yu, Ping
    Kotogany, Edit
    Bako, Laszlo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Oetvoes, Krisztina
    Horvath, Gabor V.
    Dudits, Denes
    Immunodetection of retinoblastoma-related protein and its phosphorylated form in interphase and mitotic alfalfa cells2011In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 62, no 6, p. 2155-2168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant retinoblastoma-related (RBR) proteins are primarily considered as key regulators of G(1)/S phase transition, with functional roles in a variety of cellular events during plant growth and organ development. Polyclonal antibody against the C-terminal region of the Arabidopsis RBR1 protein also specifically recognizes the alfalfa 115 kDa MsRBR protein, as shown by the antigen competition assay. The MsRBR protein was detected in all cell cycle phases, with a moderate increase in samples representing G(2)/M cells. Antibody against the human phospho-pRb peptide (Ser807/811) cross-reacted with the same 115 kDa MsRBR protein and with the in vitro phosphorylated MsRBR protein C-terminal fragment. Phospho-MsRBR protein was low in G(1) cells. Its amount increased upon entry into the S phase and remained high during the G(2)/M phases. Roscovitine treatment abolished the activity of alfalfa MsCDKA1;1 and MsCDKB2;1, and the phospho-MsRBR protein level was significantly decreased in the treated cells. Colchicine block increased the detected levels of both forms of MsRBR protein. Reduced levels of the MsRBR protein in cells at stationary phase or grown in hormone-free medium can be a sign of the division-dependent presence of plant RBR proteins. Immunolocalization of the phospho-MsRBR protein indicated spots of variable number and size in the labelled interphase nuclei and high signal intensity of nuclear granules in prophase. Structures similar to phospho-MsRBR proteins cannot be recognized in later mitotic phases. Based on the presented western blot and immunolocalization data, the possible involvement of RBR proteins in G(2)/M phase regulation in plant cells is discussed.

  • 2. Betti, Marco
    et al.
    Bauwe, Hermann
    Busch, Florian A.
    Fernie, Alisdair R.
    Keech, Olivier
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Levey, Myles
    Ort, Donald R.
    Parry, Martin A. J.
    Sage, Rowan
    Timm, Stefan
    Walker, Berkley
    Weber, Andreas P. M.
    Manipulating photorespiration to increase plant productivity: recent advances and perspectives for crop improvement2016In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 67, no 10, p. 2977-2988Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recycling of the 2-phosphoglycolate generated by the oxygenase reaction of Rubisco requires a complex and energy-consuming set of reactions collectively known as the photorespiratory cycle. Several approaches aimed at reducing the rates of photorespiratory energy or carbon loss have been proposed, based either on screening for natural variation or by means of genetic engineering. Recent work indicates that plant yield can be substantially improved by the alteration of photorespiratory fluxes or by engineering artificial bypasses to photorespiration. However, there is also evidence indicating that, under certain environmental and/or nutritional conditions, reduced photorespiratory capacity may be detrimental to plant performance. Here we summarize recent advances obtained in photorespiratory engineering and discuss prospects for these advances to be transferred to major crops to help address the globally increasing demand for food and biomass production.

  • 3.
    Bollhoner, Benjamin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Prestele, Jakob
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Tuominen, Hannele
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Xylem cell death: emerging understanding of regulation and function2012In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 1081-1094Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary, as well as genetic, evidence suggests that vascular development evolved originally as a cell death programme that allowed enhanced movement of water in the extinct protracheophytes, and that secondary wall formation in the water-conducting cells evolved afterwards, providing mechanical support for effective long-distance transport of water. The extant vascular plants possess a common regulatory network to coordinate the different phases of xylem maturation, including secondary wall formation, cell death, and finally autolysis of the cell contents, by the action of recently identified NAC domain transcription factors. Consequently, xylem cell death is an inseparable part of the xylem maturation programme, making it difficult to uncouple cell death mechanistically from secondary wall formation, and thus identify the key factors specifically involved in regulation of cell death. Current knowledge suggests that the necessary components for xylem cell death are produced early during xylem differentiation, and cell death is prevented through the action of inhibitors and storage of hydrolytic enzymes in inactive forms in compartments such as the vacuole. Bursting of the central vacuole triggers autolytic hydrolysis of the cell contents, which ultimately leads to cell death. This cascade of events varies between the different xylem cell types. The water-transporting tracheary elements rely on a rapid cell death programme, with hydrolysis of cell contents taking place for the most part, if not entirely, after vacuolar bursting, while the xylem fibres disintegrate cellular contents at a slower pace, well before cell death. This review includes a detailed description of cell morphology, function of plant growth regulators, such as ethylene and thermospermine, and the action of hydrolytic nucleases and proteases during cell death of the different xylem cell types.

  • 4.
    Brouwer, Bastiaan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Gardeström, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Keech, Olivier
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    In response to partial plant shading, the lack of phytochrome A does not directly induce leaf senescence but alters the fine-tuning of chlorophyll biosynthesis2014In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 65, no 14, p. 4037-4049Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phytochrome is thought to control the induction of leaf senescence directly, however, the signalling and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, an ecophysiological approach was used to establish a functional connection between phytochrome signalling and the physiological processes underlying the induction of leaf senescence in response to shade. With shade it is important to distinguish between complete and partial shading, during which either the whole or only a part of the plant is shaded, respectively. It is first shown here that, while PHYB is required to maintain chlorophyll content in a completely shaded plant, only PHYA is involved in maintaining the leaf chlorophyll content in response to partial plant shading. Second, it is shown that leaf yellowing associated with strong partial shading in phyA-mutant plants actually correlates to a decreased biosynthesis of chlorophyll rather than to an increase of its degradation. Third, it is shown that the physiological impact of this decreased biosynthesis of chlorophyll in strongly shaded phyA-mutant leaves is accompanied by a decreased capacity to adjust the Light Compensation Point. However, the increased leaf yellowing in phyA-mutant plants is not accompanied by an increase of senescence-specific molecular markers, which argues against a direct role of PHYA in inducing leaf senescence in response to partial shade. In conclusion, it is proposed that PHYA, but not PHYB, is essential for fine-tuning the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway in response to partial shading. In turn, this mechanism allows the shaded leaf to adjust its photosynthetic machinery to very low irradiances, thus maintaining a positive carbon balance and repressing the induction of leaf senescence, which can occur under prolonged periods of shade.

  • 5.
    Bygdell, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Srivastava, Vaibhav
    Obudulu, Ogonna
    Srivastava, Manoj K.
    Nilsson, Robert
    Sundberg, Björn
    Trygg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Mellerowicz, Ewa J.
    Wingsle, Gunnar
    Protein expression in tension wood formation monitored at high tissue resolution in Populus2017In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 68, no 13, p. 3405-3417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tension wood (TW) is a specialized tissue with contractile properties that is formed by the vascular cambium in response to gravitational stimuli. We quantitatively analysed the proteomes of Populus tremula cambium and its xylem cell derivatives in stems forming normal wood (NW) and TW to reveal the mechanisms underlying TW formation. Phloem-, cambium-, and wood-forming tissues were sampled by tangential cryosectioning and pooled into nine independent samples. The proteomes of TW and NW samples were similar in the phloem and cambium samples, but diverged early during xylogenesis, demonstrating that reprogramming is an integral part of TW formation. For example, 14-3-3, reactive oxygen species, ribosomal and ATPase complex proteins were found to be up-regulated at early stages of xylem differentiation during TW formation. At later stages of xylem differentiation, proteins involved in the biosynthesis of cellulose and enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of rhamnogalacturonan-I, rhamnogalacturonan-II, arabinogalactan-II and fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins were up-regulated in TW. Surprisingly, two isoforms of exostosin family proteins with putative xylan xylosyl transferase function and several lignin biosynthesis proteins were also up-regulated, even though xylan and lignin are known to be less abundant in TW than in NW. These data provided new insight into the processes behind TW formation.

  • 6. Capovilla, Giovanna
    et al.
    Schmid, Markus
    Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Department of Molecular Biology, Tübingen, Germany.
    Posé, David
    Control of flowering by ambient temperature2015In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 59-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The timing of flowering is a crucial decision in the life cycle of plants since favourable conditions are needed to maximize reproductive success and, hence, the survival of the species. It is therefore not surprising that plants constantly monitor endogenous and environmental signals, such as day length (photoperiod) and temperature, to adjust the timing of the floral transition. Temperature in particular has been shown to have a tremendous effect on the timing of flowering: the effect of prolonged periods of cold, called the vernalization response, has been extensively studied and the underlying epigenetic mechanisms are reasonably well understood in Arabidopsis thaliana. In contrast, the effect of moderate changes in ambient growth temperature on the progression of flowering, the thermosensory pathway, is only starting to be understood on the molecular level. Several genes and molecular mechanisms underlying the thermosensory pathway have already been identified and characterized in detail. At a time when global temperature is rising due to climate change, this knowledge will be pivotal to ensure crop production in the future.

  • 7. Capovilla, Giovanna
    et al.
    Symeonidi, Efthymia
    Wu, Rui
    Schmid, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Department of Molecular Biology, Spemannstr. 35, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.
    Contribution of major FLM isoforms to temperature-dependent flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana2017In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 68, no 18, p. 5117-5127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    FLOWERING LOCUS M (FLM), a component of the thermosensory flowering time pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana, is regulated by temperature-dependent alternative splicing (AS). The main splicing variant, FLM-beta, is a well-documented floral repressor that is down-regulated in response to increasing ambient growth temperature. Two hypotheses have been formulated to explain how flowering time is modulated by AS of FLM. In the first model a second splice variant, FLM-delta, acts as a dominant negative isoform that competes with FLM-beta at elevated ambient temperatures, thereby indirectly promoting flowering. Alternatively, it has been suggested that the induction of flowering at elevated temperatures is caused only by reduced FLM-beta expression. To better understand the role of the two FLM splice forms, we employed CRISPR/Cas9 technology to specifically delete the exons that characterize each splice variant. Lines that produced repressive FLM-beta but were incapable of producing FLM-delta were late flowering. In contrast, FLM-beta knockout lines that still produced FLM-delta flowered early, but not earlier than the flm-3 loss of function mutant, as would be expected if FLM-delta had a dominant-negative effect on flowering. Our data support the role of FLM-beta as a flower repressor and provide evidence that a contribution of FLM-delta to the regulation of flowering time in wild-type A. thaliana seems unlikely.

  • 8.
    Cheregi, Otilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Kotabová, Eva
    Prášil, Ondřej
    Schröder, Wolfgang P
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Kaňa, Radek
    Funk, Christiane
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Presence of state transitions in the cryptophyte alga Guillardia theta2015In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 66, no 20, p. 6461-6470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plants and algae have developed various regulatory mechanisms for optimal delivery of excitation energy to the photosystems even during fluctuating light conditions; these include state transitions as well as non-photochemical quenching. The former process maintains the balance by redistributing antennae excitation between the photosys-tems, meanwhile the latter by dissipating excessive excitation inside the antennae. In the present study, these mecha-nisms have been analysed in the cryptophyte alga Guillardia theta. Photoprotective non-photochemical quenching was observed in cultures only after they had entered the stationary growth phase. These cells displayed a diminished overall photosynthetic efficiency, measured as CO2 assimilation rate and electron transport rate. However, in the logarithmic growth phase G. theta cells redistributed excitation energy via a mechanism similar to state transitions. These state transitions were triggered by blue light absorbed by the membrane integrated chlorophyll a/c antennae, and green light absorbed by the lumenal biliproteins was ineffective. It is proposed that state transitions in G. thetaare induced by small re-arrangements of the intrinsic antennae proteins, resulting in their coupling/uncoupling to the photosystems in state 1 or state 2, respectively. G. theta therefore represents a chromalveolate algae able to perform state transitions.

  • 9.
    Crawford, Tim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Lehotai, Nóra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Strand, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    The role of retrograde signals during plant stress responses2018In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 69, no 11, p. 2783-2795Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chloroplast and mitochondria not only provide the energy to the plant cell but due to the sensitivity of organellar processes to perturbations caused by abiotic stress, they are also key cellular sensors of environmental fluctuations. Abiotic stresses result in reduced photosynthetic efficiency and thereby reduced energy supply for cellular processes. Thus, in order to acclimate to stress, plants must re-program gene expression and cellular metabolism to divert energy from growth and developmental processes to stress responses. To restore cellular energy homeostasis following exposure to stress, the activities of the organelles must be tightly co-ordinated with the transcriptional re-programming in the nucleus. Thus, communication between the organelles and the nucleus, so-called retrograde signalling, is essential to direct the energy use correctly during stress exposure. Stress-triggered retrograde signals are mediated by reactive oxygen species and metabolites including beta-cyclocitral, MEcPP (2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate), PAP (3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphate), and intermediates of the tetrapyrrole biosynthesis pathway. However, for the plant cell to respond optimally to environmental stress, these stress-triggered retrograde signalling pathways must be integrated with the cytosolic stress signalling network. We hypothesize that the Mediator transcriptional co-activator complex may play a key role as a regulatory hub in the nucleus, integrating the complex stress signalling networks originating in different cellular compartments.

  • 10. DELUCIA, EH
    et al.
    DAY, TA
    Oquist, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    THE POTENTIAL FOR PHOTOINHIBITION OF PINUS-SYLVESTRIS L SEEDLINGS EXPOSED TO HIGH LIGHT AND LOW SOIL-TEMPERATURE1991In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 42, no 238, p. 611-617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of high light and root chilling on gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and bulk shoot water potential (PSI-shoot) was examined for Pinus sylvestris seedlings. Transferring plants from low light (200-mu-mol m-2 s-1, PAR) and a soil temperature of 15-degrees-C to high light (850-mu-mol m-2 S-1) and 1-degrees-C caused > 90% decrease in net photosynthesis and leaf conductance measured at 350 mm3 dm-3 CO2, and a decrease in the ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence (F(v)/F(m)) from 0.83 to 0.63. The decrease in F(v)/F(m) was, however, only marginally greater than when seedlings were transferred from low to high light but kept at a soil temperature of 15-degrees-C. Thus, photoinhibition was a minor component of the substantial decrease observed for net photosynthesis at 1-degrees-C soil temperature. The decrease in net photosynthesis and PSI-shoot at 1-degrees-C was associated with an increased in calculated intracellular CO2 concentration, suggesting that non-stomatal factors related to water stress were involved in inhibiting carbon assimilation. Measurements at saturating external CO2 concentration, however, indicate that stomatal closure was the dominant factor limiting net photosynthesis at low soil temperature. This interpretation was confirmed with additional experiments using Pinus taeda and Picea engelmannii seedlings. Decreases in gas-exchange variables at 5-degrees-C soil temperature were not associated with changes in PSI-shoot. Thus, hormonal factors, localized decreases in PSI-needle, or changes in xylem flux may mediate the response to moderate root chilling.

  • 11.
    Escamez, Sacha
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Tuominen, Hannele
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Programmes of cell death and autolysis in tracheary elements: when a suicidal cell arranges its own corpse removal2014In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 65, no 5, p. 1313-1321Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Differentiation of tracheary elements (TEs) is finalized by programmed cell death (PCD) and autolysis. This review integrates TE differentiation, PCD, and autolysis in a biological and evolutionary context.Tracheary element (TE) differentiation represents a unique system to study plant developmental programmed cell death (PCD). TE PCD occurs after deposition of the secondary cell walls when an unknown signal induces tonoplast rupture and the arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. TE PCD is tightly followed by autolysis of the protoplast and partial hydrolysis of the primary cell walls. This review integrates TE differentiation, programmed cell death (PCD), and autolysis in a biological and evolutionary context. The collective evidence from the evolutionary and molecular studies suggests that TE differentiation consists primarily of a programme for cell death and autolysis under the direct control of the transcriptional master switches VASCULAR NAC DOMAIN 6 (VND6) and VND7. In this scenario, secondary cell walls represent a later innovation to improve the water transport capacity of TEs which necessitates transcriptional regulators downstream of VND6 and VND7. One of the most fascinating features of TEs is that they need to prepare their own corpse removal by expression and accumulation of hydrolases that are released from the vacuole after TE cell death. Therefore, TE differentiation involves, in addition to PCD, a programmed autolysis which is initiated before cell death and executed post-mortem. It has recently become clear that TE PCD and autolysis are separate processes with separate molecular regulation. Therefore, the importance of distinguishing between the cell death programme per se and autolysis in all plant PCD research and of careful description of the morphological, biochemical, and molecular sequences in each of these processes, is advocated.

  • 12. Guenin, Stephanie
    et al.
    Mauriat, Melanie
    Pelloux, Jerome
    Van Wuytswinkel, Olivier
    Bellini, Catherine
    Gutierrez, Laurent
    Normalization of qRT-PCR data: the necessity of adopting a systematic, experimental conditions-specific, validation of references2009In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 487-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantitative RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, also known as qRT-PCR or real-time RT-PCR) has been used in large proportions of transcriptome analyses published to date. The accuracy of the results obtained by this method strongly depends on accurate transcript normalization using stably expressed genes, known as references. Statistical algorithms have been developed recently to help validate reference genes but, surprisingly, this robust approach is under-utilized in plants. Instead, putative ’housekeeping’ genes tend to be used as references without any proper validation. The concept of normalization in transcript quantification is introduced here and the factors affecting its reliability in qRT-PCR are discussed in an attempt to convince molecular biologists, and non-specialists, that systematic validation of reference genes is essential for producing accurate, reliable data in qRT-PCR analyses, and thus should be an integral component of them.

  • 13. Guo, Qianqian
    et al.
    Turnbull, Matthew Hamish
    Song, Jiancheng
    Roche, Jessica
    Novak, Ondrej
    Späth, Jana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Jameson, Paula Elizabeth
    Love, Jonathan
    Depletion of carbohydrate reserves limits nitrate uptake during early regrowth in Lolium perenne L.2017In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 68, no 7, p. 1569-1583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanisms linking C/N balance to N uptake and assimilation are central to plant responses to changing soil nutrient levels. Defoliation and subsequent regrowth of grasses both impact C partitioning, thereby creating a significant point of interaction with soil N availability. Using defoliation as an experimental treatment, we investigated the dynamic relationships between plant carbohydrate status and NO3--responsive uptake systems, transporter gene expression, and nitrate assimilation in Lolium perenne L. High- and low-affinity NO3- uptake was reduced in an N-dependent manner in response to a rapid and large shift in carbohydrate remobilization triggered by defoliation. This reduction in NO3- uptake was rescued by an exogenous glucose supplement, confirming the carbohydrate dependence of NO3- uptake. The regulation of NO3- uptake in response to the perturbation of the plant C/N ratio was associated with changes in expression of putative high- and low-affinity NO3- transporters. Furthermore, NO3- assimilation appears to be regulated by the C-N status of the plant, implying a mechanism that signals the availability of C metabolites for NO3- uptake and assimilation at the whole-plant level. We also show that cytokinins may be involved in the regulation of N acquisition and assimilation in response to the changing plant C/N ratio.

  • 14. Hodges, Michael
    et al.
    Dellero, Younes
    Keech, Olivier
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Betti, Marco
    Raghavendra, Agepati S.
    Sage, Rowan
    Zhu, Xin-Guang
    Allen, Doug K.
    Weber, Andreas P. M.
    Perspectives for a better understanding of the metabolic integration of photorespiration within a complex plant primary metabolism network2016In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 67, no 10, p. 3015-3026Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in photorespiration research are described and future priorities to better understand the metabolic integration of the photorespiratory cycle within the complex network of plant primary metabolism are discussed.Photorespiration is an essential high flux metabolic pathway that is found in all oxygen-producing photosynthetic organisms. It is often viewed as a closed metabolic repair pathway that serves to detoxify 2-phosphoglycolic acid and to recycle carbon to fuel the Calvin-Benson cycle. However, this view is too simplistic since the photorespiratory cycle is known to interact with several primary metabolic pathways, including photosynthesis, nitrate assimilation, amino acid metabolism, C-1 metabolism and the Krebs (TCA) cycle. Here we will review recent advances in photorespiration research and discuss future priorities to better understand (i) the metabolic integration of the photorespiratory cycle within the complex network of plant primary metabolism and (ii) the importance of photorespiration in response to abiotic and biotic stresses.

  • 15. HUSSDANELL, K
    et al.
    Sellstedt, Anita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    NITROGENASE ACTIVITY IN RESPONSE TO DARKENING AND DEFOLIATION OF ALNUS-INCANA1985In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 36, no 170, p. 1352-1358Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Lastdrager, Jeroen
    et al.
    Molecular Plant Physiology, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands .
    Hanson, Johannes
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Molecular Plant Physiology, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Smeekens, Sjef
    Molecular Plant Physiology, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Sugar signals and the control of plant growth and development2014In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 65, no 3, p. 799-807Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sugars are key regulators that control plant growth and development, including biomass accumulation. Major sugar-responsive signalling systems are reviewed, with emphasis on trehalose 6-phosphate, TOR kinase, SnRK1, and the C/S1-bZIP network.Sugars have a central regulatory function in steering plant growth. This review focuses on information presented in the past 2 years on key players in sugar-mediated plant growth regulation, with emphasis on trehalose 6-phosphate, target of rapamycin kinase, and Snf1-related kinase 1 regulatory systems. The regulation of protein synthesis by sugars is fundamental to plant growth control, and recent advances in our understanding of the regulation of translation by sugars will be discussed.

  • 17. Lindén, Pernilla
    et al.
    Keech, Olivier
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Gardeström, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Moritz, Thomas
    Reduced mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase activity has a strong effect on photorespiratory metabolism as revealed by 13C labelling2016In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 67, no 10, p. 3123-3135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH) catalyses the interconversion of malate and oxaloacetate (OAA) in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Its activity is important for redox control of the mitochondrial matrix, through which it may participate in regulation of TCA cycle turnover. In Arabidopsis, there are two isoforms of mMDH. Here, we investigated to which extent the lack of the major isoform, mMDH1 accounting for about 60% of the activity, affected leaf metabolism. In air, rosettes of mmdh1 plants were only slightly smaller than wild type plants although the fresh weight was decreased by about 50%. In low CO2 the difference was much bigger, with mutant plants accumulating only 14% of fresh weight as compared to wild type. To investigate the metabolic background to the differences in growth, we developed a 13CO2 labelling method, using a custom-built chamber that enabled simultaneous treatment of sets of plants under controlled conditions. The metabolic profiles were analysed by gas- and liquid- chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry to investigate the metabolic adjustments between wild type and mmdh1. The genotypes responded similarly to high CO2 treatment both with respect to metabolite pools and 13C incorporation during a 2-h treatment. However, under low CO2 several metabolites differed between the two genotypes and, interestingly most of these were closely associated with photorespiration. We found that while the glycine/serine ratio increased, a concomitant altered glutamine/glutamate/α-ketoglutarate relation occurred. Taken together, our results indicate that adequate mMDH activity is essential to shuttle reductants out from the mitochondria to support the photorespiratory flux, and strengthen the idea that photorespiration is tightly intertwined with peripheral metabolic reactions.

  • 18.
    Lundmark, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Hurry, Vaughan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Lapointe, Line
    Département de biologie and Centre d’étude de la forêt, Université Laval, Québec City, Québec, Canada G1V 0A6.
    Low temperature maximizes growth of Crocus vernus (L.) Hill via changes in carbon partitioning and corm development.2009In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 60, no 7, p. 2203-2213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Crocus vernus, a spring bulbous species, prolonged growth at low temperatures results in the development of larger perennial organs and delayed foliar senescence. Because corm growth is known to stop before the first visual sign of leaf senescence, it is clear that factors other than leaf duration alone determine final corm size. The aim of this study was to determine whether reduced growth at higher temperatures was due to decreased carbon import to the corm or to changes in the partitioning of this carbon once it had reached the corm. Plants were grown under two temperature regimes and the amount of carbon fixed, transported, and converted into a storable form in the corm, as well as the partitioning into soluble carbohydrates, starch, and the cell wall, were monitored during the growth cycle. The reduced growth at higher temperature could not be explained by a restriction in carbon supply or by a reduced ability to convert the carbon into starch. However, under the higher temperature regime, the plant allocated more carbon to cell wall material, and the amount of glucose within the corm declined earlier in the season. Hexose to sucrose ratios might control the duration of corm growth in C. vernus by influencing the timing of the cell division, elongation, and maturation phases. It is suggested that it is this shift in carbon partitioning, not limited carbon supply or leaf duration, which is responsible for the smaller final biomass of the corm at higher temperatures.

  • 19. Mateo, Alfonso
    et al.
    Funck, Dietmar
    Mühlenbock, Per
    Kular, Baldeep
    Mullineaux, Philip M
    Karpinski, Stanislaw
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Controlled levels of salicylic acid are required for optimal photosynthesis and redox homeostasis.2006In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 57, no 8, p. 1795-807Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sudden exposure of plants to high light (HL) leads to metabolic and physiological disruption of the photosynthetic cells. Changes in ROS content, adjustment of photosynthetic processes and the antioxidant pools and, ultimately, gene induction are essential components for a successful acclimation to the new light conditions. The influence of salicylic acid (SA) on plant growth, short-term acclimation to HL, and on the redox homeostasis of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves was assessed here. The dwarf phenotype displayed by mutants with high SA content (cpr1-1, cpr5-1, cpr6-1, and dnd1-1) was less pronounced when these plants were grown in HL, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of SA on growth was partly overcome at higher light intensities. Moreover, higher SA content affected energy conversion processes in low light, but did not impair short-term acclimation to HL. On the other hand, mutants with low foliar SA content (NahG and sid2-2) were impaired in acclimation to transient exposure to HL and thus predisposed to oxidative stress. Low and high SA levels were strictly correlated to a lower and higher foliar H(2)O(2) content, respectively. Furthermore high SA was also associated with higher GSH contents, suggesting a tight correlation between SA, H(2)O(2) and GSH contents in plants. These observations implied an essential role of SA in the acclimation processes and in regulating the redox homeostasis of the cell. Implications for the role of SA in pathogen defence signalling are also discussed.

  • 20. Miguel, Andreia
    et al.
    Milhinhos, Ana
    Novak, Ondrej
    Jones, Brian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Miguel, Celia M.
    The SHORT-ROOT-like gene PtSHR2B is involved in Populus phellogen activity2016In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 67, no 5, p. 1545-1555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SHORT-ROOT (SHR) is a GRAS transcription factor first characterized for its role in the specification of the stem cell niche and radial patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana (At) roots. Three SHR-like genes have been identified in Populus trichocarpa (Pt). PtSHR1 shares high similarity with AtSHR over the entire length of the coding sequence. The two other Populus SHR-like genes, PtSHR2A and PtSHR2B, are shorter in their 5' ends when compared with AtSHR. Unlike PtSHR1, that is expressed throughout the cambial zone of greenhouse-grown Populus trees, PtSHR2Bprom:uidA expression was detected in the phellogen. Additionally, PtSHR1 and PtSHR2B expression patterns markedly differ in the shoot apex and roots of in vitro plants. Transgenic hybrid aspen expressing PtSHR2B under the 35S constitutive promoter showed overall reduced tree growth while the proportion of bark increased relative to the wood. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed increased transcript levels of cytokinin metabolism and response-related genes in the transgenic plants consistent with an increase of total cytokinin levels. This was confirmed by cytokinin quantification by LC-MS/MS. Our results indicate that PtSHR2B appears to function in the phellogen and therefore in the regulation of phellem and periderm formation, possibly acting through modulation of cytokinin homeostasis. Furthermore, this work points to a functional diversification of SHR after the divergence of the Populus and Arabidopsis lineages. This finding may contribute to selection and breeding strategies of cork oak in which, unlike Populus, the phellogen is active throughout the entire tree lifespan, being at the basis of a highly profitable cork industry.

  • 21. Mounet, Fabien
    et al.
    Moing, Annick
    Kowalczyk, Mariusz
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Rohrmann, Johannes
    Petit, Johann
    Garcia, Virginie
    Maucourt, Mickael
    Yano, Kentaro
    Deborde, Catherine
    Aoki, Koh
    Berges, Helene
    Granell, Antonio
    Fernie, Alisdair R.
    Bellini, Catherine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Rothan, Christophe
    Lemaire-Chamley, Martine
    Down-regulation of a single auxin efflux transport protein in tomato induces precocious fruit development2012In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 63, no 13, p. 4901-4917Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux transport protein family has been well characterized in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, where these proteins are crucial for auxin regulation of various aspects of plant development. Recent evidence indicates that PIN proteins may play a role in fruit set and early fruit development in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), but functional analyses of PIN-silenced plants failed to corroborate this hypothesis. Here it is demonstrated that silencing specifically the tomato SlPIN4 gene, which is predominantly expressed in tomato flower bud and young developing fruit, leads to parthenocarpic fruits due to precocious fruit development before fertilization. This phenotype was associated with only slight modifications of auxin homeostasis at early stages of flower bud development and with minor alterations of ARF and Aux/IAA gene expression. However, microarray transcriptome analysis and large-scale quantitative RT-PCR profiling of transcription factors in developing flower bud and fruit highlighted differentially expressed regulatory genes, which are potential targets for auxin control of fruit set and development in tomato. In conclusion, this work provides clear evidence that the tomato PIN protein SlPIN4 plays a major role in auxin regulation of tomato fruit set, possibly by preventing precocious fruit development in the absence of pollination, and further gives new insights into the target genes involved in fruit set.

  • 22.
    Pacurar, Daniel Ioan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 400372 Cluj Napoca, Romania.
    Pacurar, Monica Lacramioara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 400372 Cluj Napoca, Romania & Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden.
    Bussell, John Desmond
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden & Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Plant Energy Biology, University of Western Australia, Crawley WA 6009, Australia.
    Schwambach, Joseli
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden & V.
    Pop, Tiberia Ioana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 400372 Cluj Napoca, Romania.
    Kowalczyk, Mariusz
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden.
    Gutierrez, Laurent
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden & Université de Picardie Jules Verne, CRRBM & BIOPI EA3900, 80039 Amiens, France.
    Cavel, Emilie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Chaabouni, Salma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Ljung, Karin
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden.
    Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano
    Centro de Biotecnologia, Laboratório de Fisiologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 9500, CP15005, CEP 91501–970, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
    Pamfil, Doru
    University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 400372 Cluj Napoca, Romania.
    Bellini, Catherine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin, UMR1318 INRA-AgroParisTech 78026 Versailles Cedex, France.
    Identification of new adventitious rooting mutants amongst suppressors of the Arabidopsis thaliana superroot2 mutation2014In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 65, no 6, p. 1605-1618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The plant hormone auxin plays a central role in adventitious rooting and is routinely used with many economically important, vegetatively propagated plant species to promote adventitious root initiation and development on cuttings. Nevertheless the molecular mechanisms through which it acts are only starting to emerge. The Arabidopsis superroot2-1 (sur2-1) mutant overproduces auxin and, as a consequence, develops excessive adventitious roots in the hypocotyl. In order to increase the knowledge of adventitious rooting and of auxin signalling pathways and crosstalk, this study performed a screen for suppressors of superroot2-1 phenotype. These suppressors provide a new resource for discovery of genetic players involved in auxin signalling pathways or at the crosstalk of auxin and other hormones or environmental signals. This study reports the identification and characterization of 26 sur2-1 suppressor mutants, several of which were identified as mutations in candidate genes involved in either auxin biosynthesis or signalling. In addition to confirming the role of auxin as a central regulator of adventitious rooting, superroot2 suppressors indicated possible crosstalk with ethylene signalling in this process.

  • 23.
    Pacurar, Daniel Ioan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Pacurar, Monica Lacramioara
    Street, Nathaniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Bussell, John Desmond
    Pop, Tiberia Ioana
    Gutierrez, Laurent
    Bellini, Catherine
    A collection of INDEL markers for map-based cloning in seven Arabidopsis accessions2012In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 63, no 7, p. 2491-2501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The availability of a comprehensive set of resources including an entire annotated reference genome, sequenced alternative accessions, and a multitude of marker systems makes Arabidopsis thaliana an ideal platform for genetic mapping. PCR markers based on INsertions/DELetions (INDELs) are currently the most frequently used polymorphisms. For the most commonly used mapping combination, ColumbiaxLandsberg erecta (Col-0xLer-0), the Cereon polymorphism database is a valuable resource for the generation of polymorphic markers. However, because the number of markers available in public databases for accessions other than Col-0 and Ler-0 is extremely low, mapping using other accessions is far from straightforward. This issue arose while cloning mutations in the Wassilewskija (Ws-4) background. In this work, approaches are described for marker generation in Ws-4 x Col-0. Complementary strategies were employed to generate 229 INDEL markers. Firstly, existing Col-0/Ler-0 Cereon predicted polymorphisms were mined for transferability to Ws-4. Secondly, Ws-0 ecotype Illumina sequence data were analyzed to identify INDELs that could be used for the development of PCR-based markers for Col-0 and Ws-4. Finally, shotgun sequencing allowed the identification of INDELs directly between Col-0 and Ws-4. The polymorphism of the 229 markers was assessed in seven widely used Arabidopsis accessions, and PCR markers that allow a clear distinction between the diverged Ws-0 and Ws-4 accessions are detailed. The utility of the markers was demonstrated by mapping more than 35 mutations in a Col-0xWs-4 combination, an example of which is presented here. The potential contribution of next generation sequencing technologies to more traditional map-based cloning is discussed.

  • 24. Pencik, Ales
    et al.
    Casanova-Sáez, Ruben
    Pilarova, Veronika
    Zukauskaite, Asta
    Pinto, Rui
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Luis Micol, José
    Ljung, Karin
    Novák, Ondrej
    Ultra-rapid auxin metabolite profiling for high-throughput mutant screening in Arabidopsis2018In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 69, no 10, p. 2569-2579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) plays fundamental roles as a signalling molecule during numerous plant growth and development processes. The formation of local auxin gradients and auxin maxima/minima, which is very important for these processes, is regulated by auxin metabolism (biosynthesis, degradation, and conjugation) as well as transport. When studying auxin metabolism pathways it is crucial to combine data obtained from genetic investigations with the identification and quantification of individual metabolites. Thus, to facilitate efforts to elucidate auxin metabolism and its roles in plants, we have developed a high-throughput method for simultaneously quantifying IAA and its key metabolites in minute samples (<10 mg FW) of Arabidopsis thaliana tissues by in-tip micro solid-phase extraction and fast LC-tandem MS. As a proof of concept, we applied the method to a collection of Arabidopsis mutant lines and identified lines with altered IAA metabolite profiles using multivariate data analysis. Finally, we explored the correlation between IAA metabolite profiles and IAA-related phenotypes. The developed rapid analysis of large numbers of samples (>100 samples d(-1)) is a valuable tool to screen for novel regulators of auxin metabolism and homeostasis among large collections of genotypes.

  • 25.
    Persson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Gardeström, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Näsholm, Torgny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Uptake, metabolism and distribution of organic and inorganic nitrogen sources by Pinus sylvestris2006In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 57, no 11, p. 2651-2659Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although an increasing number of studies show that many plant species have the capacity to take up amino acids from exogenous sources, the importance of such uptake for plant nitrogen nutrition is largely unknown. Moreover, little is known regarding metabolism and distribution of amino acid-N following uptake or of the regulation of these processes in response to plant nitrogen status. Here results are presented from a study following uptake, metabolism, and distribution of nitrogen from Formula Formula Glu, or Ala in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L). In a parallel experiment, Ala uptake, processing, and shoot allocation were also monitored following a range of pretreatments intended to alter plant C- and N-status. Uptake data, metabolite profiles, N fluxes through metabolite pools and tissues, as well as alanine aminotransferase activity are presented. The results show that uptake of the organic N sources was equal to or larger than Formula uptake, while Formula uptake was comparatively low. Down-regulation of Ala uptake in response to pretreatments with NH4NO3 or methionine sulphoximine (MSX) indicates similarities between amino acid and inorganic N uptake regulation. N derived from amino acid uptake exhibited a rapid flux through the amino acid pool following uptake. Relative shoot allocation of amino acid-N was equal to that of Formula but smaller than for Formula Increased N status as well as MSX treatment significantly increased relative shoot allocation of Ala-N suggesting that Formula may have a role in the regulation of shoot allocation of amino acid-N.

  • 26. Sellstedt, Anita
    Diurnal variation in acetylene reduction and net hydrogen evolution in five tropical and sub-tropical nitrogen-fixing tree symbioses1989In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 40, p. 1163-1168-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Sellstedt, Anita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    NITROGEN AND CARBON UTILIZATION IN ALNUS-INCANA FIXING N-2 OR SUPPLIED WITH NO3 AT THE SAME RATE1986In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 37, no 179, p. 786-797Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Sellstedt, Anita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    The relations of haemoglobin. and lignin-like compounds to acetylene reduction in symbiotic Casuarina1991In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 42, p. 1331-1337Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Sellstedt, Anita
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    ATKINS, CA
    COMPOSITION OF AMINO-COMPOUNDS TRANSPORTED IN XYLEM OF CASUARINA SP1991In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 42, no 245, p. 1493-1497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seedlings (180-d-old) of Casuarina cunninghamiana L., C. equisetifolia Miq. and C. glauca Sieber inoculated with each of two different sources of Frankia, were analysed for translocated nitrogenous compounds in xylem sap. Analyses were also made on sap from nodulated and non-nodulated plants of C. glauca grown with or without a range of levels of combined nitrogen. Xylem exudates were collected from stems, roots, and individual nodules of nodulated plants and from stems and roots of non-nodulated plants. While the proportional composition of solutes varied, the same range of amino compounds was found in xylem sap from the three different symbioses. In C. glauca asparagine was the major amino acid in the root sap followed by proline, while in symbiotic C. cunninghamiana arginine accounted for more than 25% of the amino compounds. Citrulline was the major translocated product found in the stem exudate of symbiotic C. equisetifolia. Increasing concentrations of ammonium nitrate in the nutrient solution resulted in increasing levels of free ammonia and glutamine in xylem sap from stems of nodulated and non-nodulated C. glauca, but there was relatively little change in the prominent solutes, e.g. citrulline, proline, and arginine. The composition of nitrogenous solutes in stem or root exudates of C. glauca was similar to that of exudate collected from individual nodules and on this basis it was not possible to distinguish specific products of current N2 fixation in xylem. The main differences in N solute composition between the symbioses were apparently due to host plant effects rather than nodulation or the levels of combined N. Also, the data indicate that the use of the proportion of N in sap as citrulline (or indeed any other orgnaic N solute) could not be used as an index of nitrogen fixation.

  • 30. Sellstedt, Anita
    et al.
    Ståhl, Lena
    Mattsson, Ulrika
    Jonsson, Kerstin
    Högberg, Peter
    Can the 15N Dilution Technique be used to Study N2 Fixation in Tropical Tree Symbioses as Affected by Water Deficit?1993In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 44, no 12, p. 1749-1755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three methods were used to study N2 fixation and effects of water deficit on N2 fixation: C2H2 reduction assay (ARA), 15N dilution technique and accumulated N content. In addition, 15N dilution was calculated both in a traditional way and in a modified way, which takes into consideration N and 15N content for the plants before the experiment started. The three methods were applied on the following Rhizobium-symbioses: Acacia albida Del (Faidherbia albida (Del) A. Chev.) and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de Wit., and the Frankia-symbiosis Casuarina equisetifolia L. The plants wereabout 4-months-old when they were harvested.

    Nitrogen derived from N2 fixation in control plants of Acacia albida was 54·2 mg as measured with ARA, while it was 28·5 mg as measured with the 15N dilution technique, compared to 30·7 mg calculated as accumulated N. In comparison, L. leucocephala fixed 41·6 mg N (ARA), 53·5 mg N(15N dilution technique) and 56·3 mg N (accumulated N). The Frankia-symbiosis had fixed 27·4 mg N as measured by ARA, 8·1 mg N as measured by 15N dilution technique and 12·3 mg N as accumulated N. There were no differences between the estimates based ontraditional and modified ways of calculating 15N dilution.

    The immediate effect of water deficit treatment on N2 fixation was continuously measured inall species with ARA, which started to decrease approximately 10 d after the initiation of the treatment, and declined to less than 5% of the initial level after 21–28 d.

    The decrease in the amount of N derived from N2 fixation was studied in L. leucocephala during the period of treatment. There was a 26% decrease in amount of N derived from N2 fixation as result of water deficit (as measured with ARA), while the decrease was 23% when measured withboth the 15N dilution method and as accumulated N.

    The three different methods for measuring N2 fixation and effects of water deficit on N2 fixation are discussed.

  • 31.
    Serrato, Antonio Jesús
    et al.
    Department of Plant Molecular and Cell Biology, Estación Experimental del Zaidín (CSIC), Granada, Spain.
    Barajas López, Juan de Dios
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Chueca, Ana
    Department of Plant Molecular and Cell Biology, Estación Experimental del Zaidín (CSIC), Granada, Spain.
    Sahrawy, Mariam
    Department of Plant Molecular and Cell Biology, Estación Experimental del Zaidín (CSIC), Granada, Spain.
    Changing sugar partitioning in FBPase-manipulated plants2009In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 60, no 10, p. 2923-2931Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review offers an overview of the current state of our knowledge concerning the role of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) in sugar partitioning and biosynthesis, through the analysis of genetically manipulated plants. The existence of two well-characterized isoforms is a consequence of the subcellular compartmentalization of photosynthetic eukaryotes, conditioning their respective regulatory mechanisms and their influence over plant metabolism and photosynthesis. Both isoforms are important, as has been deduced from previous work with different plant species, although there is still much to be done in order to gain a definitive vision of this issue. Despite that, alteration of the FBPase content follows a general pattern, there are some differences that could be considered species-specific. Modifications lead to profound changes in the carbohydrate content and carbon allocation, raising questions as to whether flux of some sugars or sugar precursors from one side to the other of the chloroplast envelope occurs to rebalance carbohydrate metabolism or whether other compensatory, though not fully efficient, enzymatic activities come into play. Due to the pleiotropic nature of modifying the core carbon metabolism, an answer to the above questions would require an exhaustive study involving diverse aspects of plant physiology.

  • 32.
    Uberegui, Estefania
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Hall, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lorenzo, Oscar
    Schröder, Wolfgang P.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Balsera, Monica
    An Arabidopsis soluble chloroplast proteomic analysis reveals the participation of the Executer pathway in response to increased light conditions2015In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 66, no 7, p. 2067-2077Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Executer1 and Executer2 proteins have a fundamental role in the signalling pathway mediated by singlet oxygen in chloroplast; nonetheless, not much is known yet about their specific activity and features. Herein, we have followed a differential-expression proteomics approach to analyse the impact of Executer on the soluble chloroplast protein abundance in Arabidopsis. Because singlet oxygen plays a significant role in signalling the oxidative response of plants to light, our analysis also included the soluble chloroplast proteome of plants exposed to a moderate light intensity in the time frame of hours. A number of light- and genotype-responsive proteins were detected, and mass-spectrometry identification showed changes in abundance of several photosynthesis-and carbon metabolism-related proteins as well as proteins involved in plastid mRNA processing. Our results support the participation of the Executer proteins in signalling and control of chloroplast metabolism, and in the regulation of plant response to environmental changes.

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