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  • 1.
    Enevold, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Structure and morphology control of organic semiconductors for functional optoelectronic applications2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The functionality and application of organic semiconductors are largely dependent on their constituent structure and morphology. This thesis presents a number of functional and novel approaches for the control and tuning of structural and morphological features of a variety of organic semiconductor materials, and also demonstrates that these approaches can be utilized for improved device operation of field-effect transistors, organic solar cells and light-emitting electrochemical cells.

    The fullerene family is a particular group of closed-cage organic semiconductors, which can be photochemically coupled into larger dimeric or polymeric structures through the excitation of the fullerene molecules by light emission. In Paper I, we perform a detailed experimental and analytical investigation, which demonstrates that this photochemical monomer-to-dimer transformation requires that both constituent fullerene molecules are photoexcited. The direct consequence is that the initial probability for the photochemical transformation is dependent on the square of the light-emission intensity.

    The photochemical coupling of fullerene molecules commonly results in a distinctly lowered solubility in common hydrophobic solvents, which can be utilized for the direct patterning of fullerene films by resist-free lithography. In Paper II, we utilize this patterning opportunity for the fabrication of one-dimensional fullerene nano-stripes using two-beam laser interference lithography. A desired high contrast between the patterned and non-patterned fullerene regions is facilitated by the non-linear response of the photochemical transformation process, as predicted by the findings in Paper I. The patterned fullerene nano-stripes were utilized as the active material in field-effect transistors, which featured high electron mobility and large on-off ratio.

    This patterning was in Paper III extended into easy tunable two-dimensional fullerene structures by the design and development of an exposure setup, essentially comprising a laser and a spatial light modulator featuring >8 millions of independently controlled mirrors. With this approach, we could fabricate well-defined fullerene microdots over a several square-millimeter sized area, which was utilized as an internal out-coupling layer in a light-emitting electrochemical cell with significantly enhanced light output.

    Paper IV reports on the development of a new “spray-sintering” method for the cost-efficient solution-based deposition of the active material in light-emitting electrochemical cells. This carefully designed approach effectively resolves the issue with phase separation between the hydrophobic organic semiconductor and the hydrophilic electrolyte that results in a sub-par LEC performance, and also allows for the direct fabrication of LEC devices onto complex surfaces, including a stainless-steel fork.

    Paper V finally reports on the design and synthesis of a soluble small molecule, featuring a donor-acceptor-donor configuration. It acts as the donor when combined with a soluble fullerene acceptor in the active material of organic solar cells, and such devices with optimized donor/acceptor nanomorphology feature a high open-circuit voltage of ~1.0 V during solar illumination.

  • 2.
    Enevold, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Dahlberg, Tobias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Stangner, Tim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Tang, Shi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Lindh, E. Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Gracia-Espino, Eduardo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Andersson, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Edman, Ludvig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Tunable two-dimensional patterning of a semiconducting C60 fullerene film using a spatial light modulatorManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Enevold, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Larsen, Christian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Zakrisson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Andersson, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Edman, Ludvig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Realizing large-area arrays of semiconducting fullerene nanostructures with direct laser interference patterning2018In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 540-545Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Iqbal, Javed
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan.
    Enevold, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Larsen, Christian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Wang, Jia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Revoju, Srikanth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Barzegar, Hamid Reza
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Wågberg, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Eliasson, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Edman, Ludvig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    An arylene-vinylene based donor-acceptor-donor small molecule for the donor compound in high-voltage organic solar cells2016In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 155, p. 348-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) molecule has been designed and synthesized for use as the electron donating material in solution-processed small-molecule organic solar cells (OSCs). The D-A-D molecule comprises a central electron-accepting (2Z,2'Z)-2,2'-(2,5-bis(octyloxy)-1,4-phenylene)bis(3-(thiophen-2-yl)acry lonitrile) (ZOPTAN) core, which is chemically connected to two peripheral and electron-donating triphenylamine (TPA) units. The ZOPTAN-TPA molecule features a low HOMO level of -5.2 eV and an optical energy gap of 2.1 eV. Champion OSCs based on a solution-processed and non-annealed active material blend of [6,6]-phenyl-C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and ZOPTAN-TPA in a mass ratio of 2:1 exhibits a power conversion efficiency of 1.9% and a high open-circuit voltage of 1.0 V. 

  • 5.
    Sandström, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Asadpoordarvish, Amir
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Enevold, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Edman, Ludvig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Spraying Light: Ambient-Air Fabrication of Large-Area Emissive Devices on Complex-Shaped Surfaces2014In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 26, no 29, p. 4975-4980Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Light-emitting electrochemical cells, featuring uniform and efficient light emission over areas of 200 cm(2), are fabricated under ambient air with a for-the-purpose developed "spray-sintering" process. This fault-tolerant fabrication technique can also produce multicolored emission patterns via sequential deposition of different inks based on identical solvents. Significantly, additive spray-sintering using a mobile airbrush allows a straightforward addition of emissive function onto a wide variety of complex-shaped surfaces, as exemplified by the realization of a light-emitting kitchenware fork.

  • 6.
    Wang, Jia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Enevold, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Edman, Ludvig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Photochemical Transformation of Fullerenes2013In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 23, no 25, p. 3220-3225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental findings and associated theoretical insights regarding the photochemical transformation of fullerenes are reported, which challenge the conventional wisdom in the field and point out a viable path towards improved fullerene-based electronic devices. It is shown that the efficiency of the photochemical monomer-to-dimer transformation of the fullerene [6,6]-phenyl-C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) is strongly dependent on the light intensity, and this is utilized to demonstrate that direct patterning of an electroactive PCBM film can be effectuated by sub-second UV-light exposure followed by development in a tuned developer solution. By straightforward analytical reasoning, it is demonstrated that the observed intensity-dependent monomer-to-dimer transformation dictates that a significant back-reaction to the ground state must be in effect, which presumably originates from the excited-triplet state. By a combination of numerical modeling and analytical argumentation, it is further shown that the final dimer formation must constitute a bi-excited reaction between two neighboring monomers photo-excited to the triplet state.

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