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  • 1.
    Ineland, Jens
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Karhina, Kateryna
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Workplace-based learning and school-to-work transitions among special needs upper-secondary students with intellectual disabilities in Sweden2019Inngår i: Book of Abstracts, NNDR 2019, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and research questions

    Having a job commonly viewed as important for people’s health and well-being as well as their social roles and social status in society. Work is also imposed by society for its socio-cultural values and provides prerequisites for social inclusion. There are several important transitions during the life course. Being able to gain and maintain a job is one them, a transition also strongly associated with adulthood as it brings autonomy, social networks and economic independence. People with intellectual disabilities, who have attended special upper secondary school, face harsh discrepancies between the desire to be employed and available opportunities. Although Sweden exhibits one of the highest measures of human equality and GDP growth worldwide, people with intellectual disabilities confront limited access to employment, compared to non-disabled citizens. To deal with this propensity, workplace-based learning (WBL) was implemented in the special upper secondary schools in Sweden in 2013. It is hoped that WBL will help students acquire vocational skills, learn vocational cultures and become a part of the community at a workplace. However, there is limited knowledge about WBL and if and how it enhances opportunities at the labor market for students with intellectual disabilities. This presentation reports experiences about WBL amongst professionals in schools from five different municipalities: how are they working with WBL, how is WBL monitored and evaluated, and to what extent is WBL perceived to improve entry to the labor market for students with intellectual disabilities?

    Method

    Our findings are based on empirical data retrieved through semi structured interviews with professionals working with WBL in special upper secondary schools. Data was collected in the autumn of 2018, thus the presentation report on up to date new findings. To analyze the empirical data, a thematic content analysis was conducted.

    Results

    Our presentation focuses on three preliminary findings. First, there is an overall positive view on WBL and the opportunities to enhance the students’ transition to employment. Second, there is no mutual evaluation and documentation procedures in the different municipalities, which professional collaboration and complicate coordinated transitions from school to work. Third, findings also show big differences, both in relation to both WBL and employments, between private and public sector employers. Despite of the recent changes in public policy, private sector still provides more WBL-places and employments for young adults with intellectual disabilities.

    Implications

    Our study suggest that more research on WBL and school-to-work transitions is needed, not at least research focusing on individual experiences amongst people with intellectual disabilities. It also indicate that improved coordination between school, employers and other work agencies is important to improve quality in WBL as well as enhance the possibilities for future employments for students with intellectual disabilities.

  • 2.
    Karhina, Kateryna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Social capital and well-being in the transitional setting of Ukraine2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The military conflict in Ukraine that started in 2014 was accompanied with many changes in the political, economic and social spheres. It brought informal volunteering activities (i.e. one form of social capital) to emerge, function and later to be formalized, in order to support soldiers and their families. This situation is unique given the transitional setting of Ukraine, which has led to comparably low levels of social capital and negative indicators of health and well-being. This thesis aims to explore social capital during military conflict in contemporary Ukraine and to analyze the associations between social capital and well-being, as well as the distribution of social capital among Ukrainian women and men.

    Methods: The study combines a qualitative and quantitative research design. A case study was conducted using qualitative methodology. Eighteen in-depth interviews were collected with providers and utilizers of volunteering services. Grounded Theory and social action ideal types methodology of Weber were used for the analysis. The quantitative research utilized two secondary datasets. The World Health Survey was utilized to analyze the association between social capital and physical and mental well-being for women (n=1723) and men (n=910) by means of multivariate logistic regression. The European Social Survey (wave 6) was used in order to investigate access to social capital and the determinants of gender inequalities in the access with a sample of 1377 women and 797 men. Multivariate logistic regression and postregression Fairlie’s decomposition analysis were used to analyze the determinants of the inequalities.

    Results: The key findings of this thesis show that social capital transforms during military conflict and takes particular forms in transitional settings. There are positive and negative effects on well-being connected to crisisrelated volunteering. The associations between social capital and well-being vary for women and men in favour of women. Social capital is unequally distributed between different social groups. Some forms of social capital may have stronger buffering effect on women than men in Ukraine. Access to social capital can be viewed as an indicator for social well-being, and thus social capital can be used both as a determinant and an outcome in social capital and health research.

    Conclusion: Informal social participation, i.e. volunteering might play an important role in societal crises and needs to be considered in social capital measurements and interventions. Social capital measurements utilized in stable societies do not evidently capture these forms, i.e. it is not taken into account. The associations between social capital and well-being depend on the measurements that are used. Since social capital has both positive and negative effects on well-being, this should be considered in research, policies and practices in order to prevent negative and promote positive outcomes. In Ukraine, as well as in other settings, social capital is an unequal resource for different societal groups. Reducing gender and income inequalities would probably influence the distribution of social capital within the society.

  • 3.
    Karhina, Kateryna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för polisutbildning vid Umeå universitet.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Gender and social inequalities in access to structural and cognitive social capital in Ukraine: what are the determinants?Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    Karhina, Kateryna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för polisutbildning vid Umeå universitet.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Social capital transformation, voluntarily services and mental health during times of military conflict in Ukraine2017Inngår i: Global Journal of Health Science, ISSN 1916-9736, E-ISSN 1916-9744, Vol. 9, nr 5, s. 141-155Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The effects of war as well as military conflict include long-term physical and psychological harm to children and adults. Social relations and trust play a role in peace building and conflict resolution. Social capital is believed to facilitate institutional and interpersonal trust as well as safety and security, and thus may become an important resource in times of military conflict.

    OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study are to analyse how social capital may be transformed due to a military conflict in contemporary Ukraine and to explore the role of voluntarily services in this change. Further we aim to discuss the possible influence of social capital transformation on mental health in times of military conflict.

    METHODS: A qualitative case study design was chosen to explore it. In-depth interviews were chosen as a method for data collection. Informant’s selection criteria were: either to be involved in volunteering activities in the city of Khmelnitsky (which is the place of research) or to receive volunteering help. 18 interviews were conducted.

    Informants were reached by snowball sampling. Interviews are collected, transcribed, translated and analyzed using constructive Grounded Theory approach of Charmaz.

    RESULTS: Our results show that social capital transforms during military conflict experiences. The changes happen both in cognitive and structural components since they are connected. The most important changes occur in bonding social capital, where new formation such as brotherhood, emerges and replaces previous bonding ties with family and friends. In addition, voluntarily acting actors (those who normally belong to bridging social capital) transform into relations with bonding entities. New forms of social capital are thus generated through the existence of voluntary services, and these networks provide essential social support in times of military conflict. Perceived support softens negative emotional responses to traumatic events. In line with the stress-buffering model, our results support that the formation of new social capital in times of military conflict may protect against the negative mental health effects of these experiences.

  • 5.
    Karhina, Kateryna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för polisutbildning vid Umeå universitet.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Voluntary work during times of military crisis: what motivates people to be involved and what are the effects on well-being?2017Inngår i: Psychology, ISSN 2152-7180, E-ISSN 2152-7199, Vol. 8, s. 1601-1619Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The positive health effects of volunteering are quite well described in the lite- rature; however, potential negative effects of volunteering are less explored. Volunteering got attention in Ukraine because of the recent political crisis that brought military conflict to the Eastern part of the country in 2014. In- formal volunteering has transformed into a formal one. In order to be able to organize volunteering that promotes well-being, it is important to have more in-depth knowledge about motives behind volunteering as well as the positive and potential negative effects of it. We explore the case voluntary work in of one of the cities in Ukraine. Military conflict context has its own specifics and different motives make people act voluntarily. There are goal-oriented, val- ue-oriented, affectual and traditional motives present in our data. The data shows that involvement in volunteering brings positive returns on well-being of the providers such as enlarging the circles of friendship and expanding the networks volunteers involved in; brings positive emotions into life; compen- sates the efforts and gives meaning to life. However, the negative effects of volunteering are also present. They are physical tiredness and a lot of time spent on volunteering activities; becoming disconnected from the ordinary (non-volunteering) world; unsafety; neglect of own needs and experiences of negative emotions out of the involvement in volunteering activities. 

  • 6.
    Karhina, Kateryna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för polisutbildning vid Umeå universitet. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Gender differences in the association between cognitive social capital, self-rated health, and depressive symptoms: a comparative analysis of Sweden and Ukraine2016Inngår i: International Journal of Mental Health Systems, ISSN 1752-4458, E-ISSN 1752-4458, Vol. 10, artikkel-id 37Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Social capital is one of the social determinants of health, but there is still a lack of studies comparing its significance for health in different cultural settings. This study investigates and compares the relations between individual cognitive social capital and depressive symptoms and self-rated health in Sweden and Ukraine for men and women separately.

    STUDY DESIGN: Two cross-sectional nationally representative surveys of adult populations were used for the analysis. Data from the Ukraine's World Health Survey and the Sweden's National Public Health Survey were analyzed in this comparative study.

    METHODS: The independent variable, cognitive social capital, was operationalized as institutional trust and feelings of safety. Depressive symptoms and self-rated health were used as the outcome variables. Crude and adjusted odds ratios and the 95 % confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression. The model also adjusted for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables.

    RESULTS: Institutional trust is higher in Sweden compared to Ukraine (31 % of the Swedes vs. 12 % of the Ukrainians reported high trust to their national government/parliament). There is a strong association between self-rated health and institutional trust for both sexes in Sweden (odds ratio/OR = 1.99; 95 % CI = 1.58-2.50 for women and OR = 1.82, CI = 1.48-2.24 for men who reported low institutional trust compared with those with high institutional trust) but only for women (OR = 1.88, CI = 1.12-3.15) in Ukraine. Trust thus seems to be more important for self-rated health of women and men in Sweden compared to their counterparts in Ukraine. Significant associations between depressive symptoms and institutional trust were not observed in either country after adjusting for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. A lack of feeling of safety increased the odds of having depressive symptoms among women (OR = 1.97, CI = 1.41-2.76) and men (OR = 3.91, CI = 2.19-6.97) in Sweden. The same association was observed for poor self-rated health among Swedish women (OR = 2.15, CI = 1.55-2.99) and men (OR = 2.75, CI = 1.58-4.80). In Ukraine, a lack of feeling of safety did not show any significant association with self-rated health or depressive symptoms for men, but it increased the odds of depressive symptoms among women (OR = 1.72, CI = 1.13-2.62).

    CONCLUSIONS: In general, individual cognitive social capital is higher in Sweden than in Ukraine, and there is a stronger association between cognitive social capital and self-rated health in Sweden than in Ukraine. Interventions aiming to increase cognitive social capital for health promoting purposes might be favorable in Sweden, but this is not evidently the case in Ukraine.

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