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  • 1.
    Godhe, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Sjöqvist, Conny
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Sildever, Sirje
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Sefbom, Josefin
    University of Gothenburg.
    Harðardóttir, Sara
    Natural History Museum of Denmark, Denmark ; University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bertos-Fortis, Mireia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Bunse, Carina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Gross, Susanna
    University of Gothenburg.
    Johansson, Emma
    University of Gothenburg.
    Jonsson, Per R.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Khandan, Saghar
    Lund University.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Lips, Inga
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Lundholm, Nina
    Natural History Museum of Denmark, Denmark ; University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Rengefors, Karin E.
    Lund University.
    Sassenhagen, Ingrid
    Suikkanen, Sanna
    Sundqvist, Lisa
    Kremp, Anke
    Physical barriers and environmental gradients cause spatial and temporal genetic differentiation of an extensive algal bloom2016Inngår i: Journal of Biogeography, ISSN 0305-0270, E-ISSN 1365-2699, Vol. 43, nr 6, s. 1130-1142Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To test if a phytoplankton bloom is panmictic, or whether geographical and environmental factors cause spatial and temporal genetic structure.

    Location: Baltic Sea.

    Method: During four cruises, we isolated clonal strains of the diatom Skeletonema marinoifrom 9 to 10 stations along a 1132 km transect and analysed the genetic structure using eight microsatellites. Using F-statistics and Bayesian clustering analysis we determined if samples were significantly differentiated. A seascape approach was applied to examine correlations between gene flow and oceanographic connectivity, and combined partial Mantel test and RDA based variation partitioning to investigate associations with environmental gradients.

    Results: The bloom was initiated during the second half of March in the southern and the northern- parts of the transect, and later propagated offshore. By mid-April the bloom declined in the south, whereas high phytoplankton biomass was recorded northward. We found two significantly differentiated populations along the transect. Genotypes were significantly isolated by distance and by the south–north salinity gradient, which illustrated that the effects of distance and environment were confounded. The gene flow among the sampled stations was significantly correlated with oceanographic connectivity. The depletion of silica during the progression of the bloom was related to a temporal population genetic shift.

    Main conclusions: A phytoplankton bloom may propagate as a continuous cascade and yet be genetically structured over both spatial and temporal scales. The Baltic Sea spring bloom displayed strong spatial structure driven by oceanographic connectivity and geographical distance, which was enhanced by the pronounced salinity gradient. Temporal transition of conditions important for growth may induce genetic shifts and different phenotypic strategies, which serve to maintain the bloom over longer periods.

  • 2.
    Jonsson, Micael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Englund, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Wardle, David A.
    Direct and indirect effects of area, energy and habitat heterogeneity on breeding bird communities2011Inngår i: Journal of Biogeography, ISSN 0305-0270, E-ISSN 1365-2699, Vol. 38, nr 6, s. 1186-1196Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim To compare the ability of island biogeography theory, niche theory and species–energy theory to explain patterns of species richness and density for breeding bird communities across islands with contrasting characteristics.

    Location Thirty forested islands in two freshwater lakes in the boreal forest zone of northern Sweden (65°55′ N to 66°09′ N; 17°43′ E to 17°55′ E).

    Methods We performed bird censuses on 30 lake islands that have each previously been well characterized in terms of size, isolation, habitat heterogeneity (plant diversity and forest age), net primary productivity (NPP), and invertebrate prey abundance. To test the relative abilities of island biogeography theory, niche theory and species–energy theory to describe bird community patterns, we used both traditional statistical approaches (linear and multiple regressions) and structural equation modelling (SEM; in which both direct and indirect influences can be quantified).

    Results Using regression-based approaches, area and bird abundance were the two most important predictors of bird species richness. However, when the data were analysed by SEM, area was not found to exert a direct effect on bird species richness. Instead, terrestrial prey abundance was the strongest predictor of bird abundance, and bird abundance in combination with NPP was the best predictor of bird species richness. Area was only of indirect importance through its positive effect on terrestrial prey abundance, but habitat heterogeneity and spatial subsidies (emerging aquatic insects) also showed important indirect influences. Thus, our results provided the strongest support for species–energy theory.

    Main conclusions Our results suggest that, by using statistical approaches that allow for analyses of both direct and indirect influences, a seemingly direct influence of area on species richness can be explained by greater energy availability on larger islands. As such, animal community patterns that seem to be in line with island biogeography theory may be primarily driven by energy availability. Our results also point to the need to consider several aspects of habitat quality (e.g. heterogeneity, NPP, prey availability and spatial subsidies) for successful management of breeding bird diversity at local spatial scales and in fragmented or insular habitats.

  • 3.
    Karlsson Tiselius, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Lundbäck, Sofi
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Lönnell, Niklas
    Artdatabanken, Sverige Lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bryophyte community assembly on young land uplift islands: dispersal and habitat filtering assessed using species traits2019Inngår i: Journal of Biogeography, ISSN 0305-0270, E-ISSN 1365-2699Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To assess habitat filtering and dispersal limitation in spore plant community assembly using bryophytes on recently emerged land uplift islands as study system. Location Gulf of Bothnia, northern Europe. Taxa Bryophytes, including the spore plant phyla Bryophyta (mosses) and Marchantiophyta (liverworts).

    Methods: The species compositions of 20 coastal land uplift islands differing in age, area, connectivity and habitat composition were recorded in the field. In addition, we compiled a list of the regional species pool (446 species) and gathered data on species traits related to habitat affiliations (substrate, light, moisture, and pH) and dispersal capacity (regional abundance, spore size, sporophyte frequency, sexual system, vegetative propagules). For the 420 species with available trait data, we used multivariate generalized linear models to compare trait effects on species occurrence probabilities on the islands.

    Results: Occurrence probabilities depended strongly on habitat affiliations. In addition, occurrence probabilities were lower for predominantly asexual species than for sexual species and for regionally rare than for regionally abundant species. Having specialized asexual propagules increased occurrence probabilities, but compensated only partly for the reductions in asexual species. No effect of the size of sexually produced spores was detected. Comparison of trait effects across island size and connectivity gradients revealed (a) reduced habitat filtering on larger islands and (b) decreasing negative effects of being predominantly asexual with increasing island connectivity.

    Conclusions: Both habitat filtering and dispersal capacities affect the community assembly of spore plants on land uplift islands. Asexual mosses and liverworts show landscape scale (<= 10 km) dispersal limitation. The weak or absent relationships between island connectivity and the effects of dispersal traits suggest that colonization is regulated mainly by habitat availability and the abundance of each species in a "regional spore rain" from which colonists are recruited.

  • 4. Milotic, Tanja
    et al.
    Baltzinger, Christophe
    Eichberg, Carsten
    Eycott, Amy E.
    Heurich, Marco
    Mueller, Joerg
    Noriega, Jorge A.
    Menendez, Rosa
    Stadler, Jutta
    Adam, Reka
    Bargmann, Tessa
    Bilger, Isabelle
    Buse, Joern
    Calatayud, Joaquín
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Ciubuc, Constantin
    Boros, Gergely
    Jay-Robert, Pierre
    Kruus, Mart
    Merivee, Enno
    Miessen, Geoffrey
    Must, Anne
    Ardali, Elham
    Preda, Elena
    Rahimi, Iraj
    Rohwedder, Dirk
    Rose, Rob
    Slade, Eleanor M.
    Somay, Laszlo
    Tahmasebi, Pejman
    Ziani, Stefano
    Hoffmann, Maurice
    Functionally richer communities improve ecosystem functioning: dung removal and secondary seed dispersal by dung beetles in the Western Palaearctic2019Inngår i: Journal of Biogeography, ISSN 0305-0270, E-ISSN 1365-2699, Vol. 46, nr 1, s. 70-82Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: In several ecosystems, the diversity of functional species traits has been shown to have a stronger effect on ecosystem functioning than taxonomic diversity alone. However, few studies have explored this idea at a large geographical scale. In a multisite experiment, we unravelled the relationship between ecosystem function and functional completeness of species assemblages using dung beetles as a model group, focusing on dung removal and secondary seed dispersal.

    Location: Seventeen grassland locations across the Western Palaearctic.

    Methods: We used a randomized block design with different exclosure types to control the dung and seed removing activities of individual functional groups of the local dung beetle assemblage. We classified dung beetle species according to resource specialization and into functional groups based on dung processing behaviour (dwellers, tunnellers, rollers) and body size (small, large). Additionally, we assessed the role of other soil macro-invertebrates. By sampling the dung beetle community and measuring the remaining dung and seeds after the experiment, the impact of each functional group was estimated.

    Results: Dung beetle assemblages differed along a north-south and east-west gradient. Dwellers dominated northernmost sites, whereas at lower latitudes we observed more tunnellers and rollers indicating a functional shift. Resource specialists were more abundant in southern and eastern areas. Overall, functional group diversity enhanced dung removal. More dung (+46.9%) and seeds (+32.1%) were removed in the southern sites and tunnellers and rollers were more effective. At the northernmost sites, where tunnellers were scarce or absent, other soil macro-invertebrates removed the majority of dung.

    Main conclusions: The conservation of functionally complete dung beetle assemblages is crucial to maintain the ecosystem functions provided by dung beetles. Given the latitudinal variation in functional group diversity, it is reasonable to expect compositional changes due to climate change. These changes could lead to increased dung removal and a higher secondary seed dispersal rate in northern regions.

  • 5.
    Mobley, Kenyon B
    et al.
    Department of Biology, Texas A&M University, USA.
    Small, Clayton M
    Jue, Nathaniel K
    Jones, Adam G
    Population structure of the dusky pipefish (Syngnathus floridae) from the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico, as revealed by mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite analyses2010Inngår i: Journal of Biogeography, ISSN 0305-0270, E-ISSN 1365-2699, Vol. 37, nr 7, s. 1363-1377Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim  To elucidate the historical phylogeography of the dusky pipefish (Syngnathus floridae) in the North American Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico ocean basins.

    Location  Southern Atlantic Ocean and northern Gulf of Mexico within the continental United States.

    Methods  A 394-bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and a 235-bp fragment of the mitochondrial control region were analysed from individuals from 10 locations. Phylogenetic reconstruction, haplotype network, mismatch distributions and analysis of molecular variance were used to infer population structure between ocean basins and time from population expansion within ocean basins. Six microsatellite loci were also analysed to estimate population structure and gene flow among five populations using genetic distance methods (FST, Nei’s genetic distance), isolation by distance (Mantel’s test), coalescent-based estimates of genetic diversity and migration patterns, Bayesian cluster analysis and bottleneck simulations.

    Results  Mitochondrial analyses revealed significant structuring between ocean basins in both cytochrome b (ΦST = 0.361, < 0.0001; ΦCT = 0.312, < 0.02) and control region (ΦST = 0.166, < 0.0001; ΦCT = 0.128, < 0.03) sequences. However, phylogenetic reconstructions failed to show reciprocal monophyly in populations between ocean basins. Microsatellite analyses revealed significant population substructuring between all locations sampled except for the two locations that were in closest proximity to each other (global FST value = 0.026). Bayesian analysis of microsatellite data also revealed significant population structuring between ocean basins. Coalescent-based analyses of microsatellite data revealed low migration rates among all sites. Mismatch distribution analysis of mitochondrial loci supports a sudden population expansion in both ocean basins in the late Pleistocene, with the expansion of Atlantic populations occurring more recently.

    Main conclusions  Present-day populations of S. floridae do not bear the mitochondrial DNA signature of the strong phylogenetic discontinuity between the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of North America commonly observed in other species. Rather, our results suggest that Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico populations of S. floridae are closely related but nevertheless exhibit local and regional population structure. We conclude that the present-day phylogeographic pattern is the result of a recent population expansion into the Atlantic in the late Pleistocene, and that life-history traits and ecology may play a pivotal role in shaping the realized geographical distribution pattern of this species.

  • 6.
    Renöfält, B
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Nilsson, C
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jansson, R
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Spatial and temporal patterns of species richness in a riparian landscape2005Inngår i: Journal of Biogeography, ISSN 0305-0270, E-ISSN 1365-2699, Vol. 32, s. 2025-2037Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Vickers, Kim
    et al.
    Department of Archaeology, University of Sheffield, UK.
    Buckland, Philip I
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Predicting island beetle faunas by their climate ranges: the tabula rasa/refugia theory in the North Atlantic2015Inngår i: Journal of Biogeography, ISSN 0305-0270, E-ISSN 1365-2699, Vol. 42, nr 11, s. 2031-2048Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This paper addresses two opposing theories put forward for the origins of the beetle fauna of the North Atlantic islands. The first is that the biota of the isolated oceanic islands of the Faroes, Iceland and Greenland immigrated across a Palaeogene–Neogene land bridge from Europe, and survived Pleistocene glaciations in ameliorated refugia. The second argues for a tabula rasa in which the biota of the islands was exterminated during glaciations and is Holocene in origin. The crux of these theories lies in the ability of the flora and fauna to survive in a range of environmental extremes. This paper sets out to assess the viability of the refugia hypothesis using the climatic tolerances of one aspect of the biota: the beetle fauna. Location: The paper focuses on Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Methods: The known temperature requirements of the recorded beetle faunas of the North Atlantic islands were compared with published proxy climate reconstructions for successive climate periods since the severing of a North Atlantic land bridge. We used the MCR (mutual climatic range) method available in the open access BugsCEP database software. Results: We show that most of the MCR faunas of the North Atlantic islands could not have survived in situ since the Palaeogene–Neogene, and are likely to have been exterminated by the Pleistocene glaciations. Main conclusions: The discrepancy between the climatic tolerances of the North Atlantic beetle fauna and the estimated climatic regimes since the severing of a land bridge strongly support the tabula rasa theory and suggests that the North Atlantic coleopteran fauna is Holocene in origin.

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