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  • 1.
    Baxter, Jacqueline
    et al.
    Oxford University.
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Different systems, different identities: the work of inspectors in Sweden and England2017Inngår i: School inspectors: policy implementers, policy shapers in national policy contexts / [ed] Jacqueline Baxter, Cham: Springer, 2017, s. 45-69Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    School inspection has formed part of both English and Swedish approaches to governing education for some time now. But latterly due to the neo liberal drive for educational excellence, both countries have remodelled their inspector workforce. Using Jacobsson's theory of governance as a regulative, meditative and inquisitive activity, this chapter investigates the effects that these shifts have had on the operational work of inspectors. Drawing upon interview data with inspectors and head teachers from both systems combined with documentary analysis we examine how the remodelling of the workforce in both countries has impacted on the ways in which inspectors carry out their work. The chapter concludes that inspection operating within a neo liberal framework of regulation must constantly shift and evolve in order to remain credible. It also points out that these shifts in themselves create tensions around the role and operational work of inspectors in both countries.

  • 2.
    Baxter, Jacqueline-Aundree
    et al.
    The Open University UK, United Kingdom.
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Different systems, different identities: school inspectors in England and Sweden a comparative study2013Inngår i: European Conference for Educational Research, Istanbul, September 9-13, 2013.: Educational Improvement and Quality Assurance, Network 11, 2013, s. 1-30Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    School inspection has formed part of both English and Swedish approaches to governing education for some time now (Maclure, 2000; Segerholm, 2009) But latterly both countries have begun to adopt different approaches to the process, reflected in in the recruitment, training and development of their inspectors. In Sweden the inception of a new inspectorate in 2008 introduced an intensified scheme and a sharper mission, but also a departure from the recruitment of teachers and those with an educational background in a move to recruit individuals with backgrounds in either law or investigation. In England the inception of a New Inspection Framework early in 2012 (Ofsted, 2012a, 2012b) was accompanied by a drive to re-model the inspectorate workforce in aiming to recruit in-service school leaders as part time inspectors (Baxter and Clarke, 2013;Baxter, 2012) Using Jacobsson's theory of governance as a regulative, meditative and inquisitive activity, this paper investigates the effects that these shifts have had on the recruitment and training of inspectors and the shifts have had on the inspection experience .(Hult & Segerholm, 2012; Lindgren et.al., 2012).  The research questions within the study are :  -Which competencies are required for school inspectors within both systems, and why? -How do changes in the both systems affect school leader perceptions of inspection as a governing tool? The paper concludes that in spite of the concerted efforts of both inspectorates to ensure that their systems combine regulatory rigour with developmental impact,  the changes are causing substantial tensions in the recruitment, training and operating capacity of inspectors

  • 3.
    Berge, Britt-Marie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Ett vetenskapligt förhållningssätt i uppsatser och examensarbeten1999Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    Carlbaum, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Novak, Judit
    Institutionen vid pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier, Uppsala universitet, Uppsala.
    Rönnberg, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Segerholm, Christina
    Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Mittuniversitetet, Härnösand.
    Skolinspektion som styrning2014Inngår i: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 5-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Governing by school inspection. In this article we argue that school inspection is an important and potentially influential way of governing education that deserves additional scholarly attention. This introductory article aims to situate and describe the origin, theoretical foundations and methods and materials gathered in the three research projects included in this special issue. We also briefly describe some important characteristics of the Swedish school inspection and finish off with short introductions to the six articles.

  • 5.
    Carlbaum, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå universitet.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Segerholm, Christina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Now I'm Offended! New Regulations and Practices Against Bullying and Degrading Behaviour in Swedish Schools2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 6.
    Dahlgren, Ethel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Hamilton, David
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Söderström, Tor
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Folkbildare om folkbildningssjälen - tidlös, samtidig och omskapad?2002Inngår i: Mimers forskarkonferens, 5-6 november, Tollare, 2002Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 7.
    Dahlgren, Ethel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Hamilton, David
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Söderström, Tor
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Folkbildare om folkbildningssjälen - tidlös men omskapad?2005Inngår i: Folkbildning - samtidig eller tidlös?: Om innebörder över tid, Mimer, Linköping , 2005, s. 115-132Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 8.
    Dahlgren, Ethel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Hamilton, David
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Söderström, Tor
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Samtal på distans - en möjlig väg för folkbildningen?2001Inngår i: Mimerkonferens, Härnösand, 6-7 november, 2001Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Dahlgren, Ethel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Söderström, Tor
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Hamilton, David
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Att fånga folkbildning på nätet2004Inngår i: Folkbildning och lärande med IKT-stöd : en antologi om flexibelt lärande i folkhögskolor och studieförbund: Delbetänkande / av Utredningen för statens utvärdering av folkbildningen 2004, Fritzes offentliga publikationer, Stockholm , 2004, s. 73-92Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10.
    Edström, Charlotta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Barn- och ungdomspedagogik, specialpedagogik och vägledning (BUSV).
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Teacher ambivalence to school evaluation in Sweden - promoting and ruining teacher professionalism2014Inngår i: European Conference for Educational Research (ECER), Network 23, in Porto, Portugal, September 2-5, 2014., 2014, s. 1-16Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 11.
    Hamilton, David
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Dahlgren, Ethel
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Roos, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Söderström, Tor
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    When performance is the product - problems in the analysis of on-line distance education2003Inngår i: The 2003 - NERA´s 31th Congress – Copenhagen, Denmark, 2003Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 12.
    Hamilton, David
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Dahlgren, Ethel
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Roos, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Söderström, Tor
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    When performance is the product - problems in the analysis of online distance education2004Inngår i: British Educational Research Journal, ISSN 0141-1926, E-ISSN 1469-3518, Vol. 30, nr 6, s. 841-854Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines two ideologies that have been prominent in recent, if not current, education thinking. The first is that means can be separated from ends (or processes from products); the second is that learning is merely a process of knowledge acquisition. Attention to these ideologies arises from two projects in the overlapping fields of information and communications technology (ICT) and instructional design. Both projects attend to conversation as an educational resource. They are animated by the questions: should a conversation be regarded as an activity in context or can it be decoupled from the circumstances that define it as a conversation? In other words, does a conversation take place within an environment, or by means of the environment? Relating these questions to the changing view of ICT held within the European Community, the article uses a bricolage of ideas from economic history, communication theory and discourse analysis to summarise how such inherited ideologies might be realigned in the analysis of online conversation.

  • 13.
    Hamilton, David
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Dahlgren, Ethel
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Söderström, Tor
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Folkbildning på distans. Om samtal, kommunikation och diskurs2001Inngår i: Mimerkonferens, Härnösand, 6-7 november, 2001Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 14.
    Hamilton, David
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Dahlgren, Ethel
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Söderström, Tor
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    From message posting to dialogue?2002Inngår i: The Annual Conference of the European Educational Research Association”, Lisbon, 2002Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 15.
    Hamilton, David
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Dahlgren, Ethel
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Söderström, Tor
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Message posting Or dialogue? On the dialectics of on-line practice in adult education2005Inngår i: Seminar.net: International journal of media, technology and lifelong learning, ISSN 1504-4831, Vol. 1, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 16.
    Hamilton, David
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Dahlgren, Ethel
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Söderström, Tor
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Samtal över nätet - ett verktyg för demokrati?2002Inngår i: Konferensen om Folkbildning, IT och lärande - tema demokrati, 17-19 april, Sigtuna, 2002Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 17.
    Hanberger, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Centrum för utvärderingsforskning (UCER).
    Carlbaum, Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Lindgren, Lena
    Förvaltningshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Lundström, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Centrum för utvärderingsforskning (UCER).
    School evaluation  in Sweden: a local perspective2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation has expanded at all levels of governance as part of the broad doctrine of New Public Management (NPM) (Hood 1991; Pollitt and Bouckaert 2011). According to this doctrine, market mechanisms should be introduced to enhance efficiency and, in the context of school governance, to support competition between schools, free school choice, improved educational quality, and school effectiveness (Lubienski 2009; Lundahl 2013 et al; Merki 2011). Education systems guided by NPM and characterized by results-based management and local autonomy increasingly rely on evaluation at all levels (Mintrop and Trujillo 2007; OECD 2013). Strengthened accountability is assumed to enhance education quality and promote school development (OECD 2015; SOU 2015:22), and a combination of control- and improvement-oriented evaluation systems has been institutionalized at various levels of the school system to promote school development and enhance education quality. However, this development is contested by research claiming that the consequences of growing accountability pressure are problematic for school practice (Hoyle and Wallace 2009; Ravitch 2010). It may create multiple accountability problems, i.e. uncertainty among target groups as to which evaluation system is supposed to do what and for whom and with what authority (Schillemans and Bovens, 2011). Teachers are subjected to too much accountability that can have negative effects on professionals and education (Green 2011; Koretz 2009; Lingard and Sellar, 2013; Hargreaves 1994, Day 2002, Ball 2003, Mausethagen 2013a, 2013b).

    Although evaluation is a cornerstone in local school governance it has not been studied much in this context. Local school governance refers to all the public and private school actors’ and institutions’ (e.g. education committees, opposition parties, school principals, teachers and parents) steering of local schools and education. We need more knowledge of the role and consequences of evaluation systems at the local governance level, and into how local school actors respond to these systems. What local decision makers, school providers, principals, and teachers consider relevant, useful, and actionable knowledge (Stehr & Grundmann 2012) is crucial in understanding the role of evaluation in local school governance.

    This paper explores how local school actors in Swedish compulsory education have responded to prevailing evaluation systems and the growing accountability pressure emerging from the recentralization, marketization, and globalization of education governance. It synthesizes results from a Swedish research project (see method) and aims to improve our understanding of the role and consequences of evaluation in local school governance. It contributes with knowledge of the role and consequences of evaluation at the municipal, school, classroom, and parent/citizen levels. Special attention is paid to the value and consequences of various evaluations for local school development. A close look at evaluation in Sweden is an illustrative case as the education evaluation arena is overcrowded and the decentralised education system provides freedom of choice that actors operating in other education systems in Europe (OECD, 2015; Lawn, 2011) and elsewhere can learn from.

    The paper is developed as part of a larger research project; Consequences of evaluation for school praxis –steering, accountability and school development, financed by the Swedish Research Council (2012-2015). The project explores evaluation in compulsory schools (age 13-15) in four municipalities, and this paper synthesises and discusses the results presented in detail five separate papers.

    Methods

    The conceptual framework, developed in a separate article (Hanberger, manuscript), pays attention to the role of evaluation in three models of decentralised governance, the state model, the local government and the multi-actor model. It focuses on three main possible functions that evaluation can have in local school governance, steering, accountability and school development. It presumes that a governance model intends to steer evaluation to meet the governance models’ and governing actors’ evaluation needs, and that evaluations (performance measurements, stand-alone evaluations, synthesis reports and informal/concrete evaluations) can contribute to these functions. Evaluations may also affect governance in unintended and unexpected ways (Hanberger, 2012). Hence, the framework also accounts for constitutive effects (Dahler-Larsen, 2013) of evaluation systems, that is, to tacit or indirect effects, for example, how evaluation (systems) can shape discourses, defining what is important in education and school systems.

    Four medium-sized municipalities with populations of 75,000–100,000 were selected strategically to reflect differing local conditions and contextual factors that may affect education and the role of evaluation in local school governance. The municipalities differ in political majority, school performance, and share of independent schools, and eight schools were selected for in-depth interviews. The municipalities are anonymized, being referred to as “North”, “West”, “East”, and “South”.

    The paper is based on the analysis of documents, reports, and studies treating global and national evaluation systems, national and municipal policy documents treating school governance and evaluation, minutes from municipal education committee meetings (2011–2013), municipal websites, and 76 interviews. Four politicians from majority parties and three from opposition parties, 10 administrators (i.e. Head of the Education Department, senior administrators, and evaluation experts), five politically elected local auditors, three representatives of independent schools, eight school principals, and 43 teachers were interviewed in person or, in a few cases, by phone. In addition, an electronic questionnaire sent to teachers was used to complement the interviews with them, to obtain an overview of teachers’ experiences of evaluation in the studied municipalities. Conclusions about the functions, effects, and consequences of evaluation were generated by interpreting interviewees’ responses and various texts (e.g. policy documents, minutes, and websites).

    Expected outcomes

    This study shows that multiple accountability problems emerge as a result of overlapping evaluation systems and that local decision makers set up their own evaluation systems to meet the needs of municipal school governance.

    Most of the evaluation systems identified in Swedish compulsory education (for students aged 13–15 years) produce quantitative data capturing measurable aspects of education, whereas data capturing other parts of the curriculum, more difficult or impossible to measure (e.g. how schools have succeeded in achieving democracy, sustainability, and solidarity objectives), are lacking. A few key performance measures are used in several systems.

    The identified evaluation systems induce local school actors and institutions to think and act according to the principles of NPM; these are aligned with most decision makers’ and managerial-oriented principals’ endeavours but not with those of all local school actors. This indicates that evaluations in local school governance serve to support and legitimize the applied governance model and current education policy. Stakeholder evaluations that can provide a more multifaceted understanding, including critical accounts that school actors can use for informed deliberation about the status of schools, consequences of current school policy, and where to go in the future, are not found in our case communities.

    The workload and accountability pressure have increased for both principals and teachers. The consequences have been the most negative for teachers, however, as external evaluations have questioned their professional competence and authority, unintentionally damaging teacher motivation. The external evaluation systems had little or no value in terms of helping teachers improve their teaching practice. Instead, teachers used their own evaluations regarding what works for various groups and students to continuously improve teaching and schools. A few school providers and principals succeeded in developing evaluations addressing the needs of teachers and were used in developing teaching and daily practices.

  • 18.
    Hanberger, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Centrum för utvärderingsforskning (UCER).
    Carlbaum, Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Lindgren, Lena
    Förvaltningshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Lundström, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Centrum för utvärderingsforskning (UCER).
    School evaluation in Sweden in a local perspective: a synthesis2016Inngår i: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 349-371Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article synthesises the role of evaluation at the municipal, school, classroom and parental levels of governance, and discusses the results of the articles appearing in this special issue. The discussion concerns the role of evaluation in school governance, the value of evaluation for local school development, the constitutive effects of evaluation, what explains the present results, how knowledge produced by evaluation can be used, and methodological issues. The results indicate that evaluation systems legitimise and support governance by objectives and results, parental school choice, and accountability for fairness and performance. Evaluation systems emphasise measurable aspects of curricula and foster a performance-oriented school culture. The most important evaluations for improving teaching and schools are teachers' own evaluations. The article suggests two explanations for the actual roles of evaluation in local school governance. First, both the governance structure and applied governance model delimit and partly shape the role of evaluation at local governance levels. Second, how local school actors use their discretion and interpret their role in the education system, including how they respond to accountability pressure, explains how their roles are realised and the fact that actors at the same level of governance can develop partly different roles.

  • 19.
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Examination över nätet: En studie av 10 nätuniversitetskurser2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 20.
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Examinationen är kursen: En analys av examination i kurser över nätet2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 21.
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Examinera mera?: En analys av examination i nätkurser2008Inngår i: Nätverk och utveckling 2008: Lärande i en ny tid - samtal om undervisning i högre utbildning, 2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 22.
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Granskningens verkningar - inspektörer om inspektion2014Inngår i: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 107-126Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Inspection effects according to the inspectors. The main motives when Swedish school inspection was reinstalled in 2003 and reinforced in 2008 were the need for raising academic performance and for improving educational equivalence (Rönnberg 2012a, b). Annually, a cadre of school inspectors visit more than a thousand schools in Sweden. Do they believe that they ‘make a difference’? This paper analyses the ‘assumptive worlds’ (Marshall et al. 1985) of inspectors and inspection managers at the Swedish Schools Inspectorate as expressed in interviews. Their notions about what is affected and in what ways are brought forward, illuminating possible relationships between the inspection process and the national, municipal and school arena. The effects of school inspection through the eyes of the inspectors and managers are discussed in relation to joint assumptive worlds among them, and to constitutive effects (Dahler-Larsen 2012).

  • 23.
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    The examination game revisited: An analysis of assessment practices in online courses2008Inngår i: Proceedings of ICICTE 2008: Readings in Technology and Education, 2008, s. 546-556Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 24.
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Yrket som föreställning: en analys av föreställningar hos studerande inom fyra högskoleutbildningar1990Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with students' notions of the function in society of their future professions. The overall aim is to study what notions are actually represented by the students and to describe the content of these notions. Another aim is to study how the students' notions change during their period of training. Slightly more than 100 students, distributed equally among the higher education programmes of economics, medicine, psychology and engineering, were interviewed when entering these programmes and after a period of approximately three years. The result of the analysis of notions was that five qualitatively different categories of notions could be discerned among students of economics, psychology and engineering, whereas three could be found among students of medicine. The categories run on a dimension from the profession being regarded as manifestations of and subordinate to an economic-political system, to the profession being regarded as manifestations of and subordinate to individual differences. The various categories of notions have been given names intended to, somewhat incisively, summarize their content. The students of economics and engineering changed during their period of training so that a larger number of them conceptualized the profession as a manifestation of individual differences. The students of psychology changed in the opposite direction and the students of medicine remained in the middle position. An analysis of the students' reflections on notions and the conceptualization per se, has also been carried out. This analysis is an attempt at problemizing the relation between notions and actions. It showed that, at the end of their training period, the students of psychology and, to a certain extent, the students of engineering more often than students of economics and medicine, considered the possibilities of acting in accordance to their notions of the ideal function of the professions. Attempts are also made at relating certain changes of the students' notions to specific characteristics of the educational programmes. The importance of students' initial notions for how they change is, however, also analysed and emphasized. The answer to the question of students' change of notions during their period of training can, in other words, be found in the dynamics and in the opposition between students' initial notions and the notions of the professions conveyed by the education. In relation to the goal of higher education to encourage critical thinking in students, the results of this study indicate that the educational programmes, rather than conveying one specific critical notion, should convey an awareness of the fact that there are different notions of the function of the profession. The students would then be stimulated, on the basis of their own initial notions of the profession, to make critical examinations of, to decide on, and to make their own choices of alternative notions.

  • 25.
    Hult, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Dahlgren, Ethel
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Hamilton, David
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Söderström, Tor
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Tangling teachers on the net. The synchronicity of teaching in an asynchronous on-line community?2004Inngår i: The NERA´S 32th congress - Reykavik, Island, 2004Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 26.
    Hult, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Dahlgren, Ethel
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Hamilton, David
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Söderström, Tor
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Teachers' invisible presence in net-based distance education2005Inngår i: International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, ISSN 1492-3831, E-ISSN 1492-3831, Vol. 6, nr 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Conferencing – or dialogue – has always been a core activity in liberal adult education. More recently, attempts have been made to transfer such conversations online in the form of computer-mediated conferencing. This transfer has raised a range of pedagogical questions, most notably “Can established practices be continued? Or must new forms of participation and group management be established? This paper addresses these questions. It is based on two sources: (1) 3,700 online postings from a variety of Net-based adult education courses in Sweden; and (2) interviews with participants and course-leaders. It comprises a discussion of online conversational activity and, in particular, the absent presence and pedagogic orientation of teachers who steer learners towards explicit and implicit course goals. In other words, it is a reminder that adult education is not a free-floating form of self instruction but, rather, operates within boundaries created and managed by other human beings.

  • 27.
    Hult, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Edström, Charlotta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Teacher ambivalence towards school evaluation: promoting and ruining teacher professionalism2016Inngår i: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 305-325Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s evaluation society makes teachers participate in a stream of external evaluations. How teachers experience evaluation in school and how this affects their work and professionalism is the focus of this article. Teachers’ views of external and internal evaluations and of the consequences for school practice are described and analysed. The interviewed teachers emphasised the importance of internal evaluations performed close to daily teaching practice and jointly with students and colleagues. These evaluations are generally overlooked in evaluation and school-policy research and seldom attended to or appreciated by school providers. Further, teachers were critical of and reported several negative consequences of accountability and external evaluations, but still generally complied by participating in them. The present results are discussed in relation to professional responsibility and accountability as well as to possible constitutive effects. By emphasising that their daily informal evaluations represent their efforts to improve teaching, teachers are describing parts of their professional responsibility. However, the negative consequences of external evaluations signal constitutive effects on teachers’ work, described as making it less creative, discretionary and autonomous as well as increasing mistrust, meaning that more tests are required in order to legitimate student grades.

  • 28.
    Hult, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Edström, Charlotta
    Umeå universitet. Umeå universitet.
    Lundström, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Balancing external and internal demands: School principals as evaluation agents2015Inngår i: Abstract Book, NERA 4-6 March 2015: Marketisation and Differentiation in Education, 2015, s. -174Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    School principals have increasingly become key-actors in the school systems, their responsibilities are extended and ‘effective school leadership’ is demanded. Educational management in Sweden has been professionalized, promoted by state policies, underpinned by NPM and inspired by managerial moods, which has led to an institutional separation between teachers and school principals (Jarl, et al. 2012). The responsibility for evaluation is a core component in this development, which in official statements often is expressed in discourses of school development and/or systematic quality work (Lundström 2014).

    The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse school principals’ responses to and use of internal and external evaluations. Their experiences of being governed and of governing teachers will be highlighted as well as their work as evaluation agents in terms of pedagogical and/or administrative leadership.

    Broadly drawing on a governance perspective changes from more traditional government to governance, involving a wider number of actors and institutions (Pierre and Peters 2000) is taken into consideration. These changes comprise the rescaling and reconstruction of a “competition state”(Lingard 2011) including new NPM influenced mechanisms. In short, Swedish school principals work in a quasi-market where evaluations are considered central for improving results, which might influence their responses to and use of different evaluations.

    Based on Evetts’ (2011) concepts occupational and organizational professionalism in depth interviews with school principals at eight schools in four municipalities are analysed. The interviews are complemented with results from a questionnaire to all principals in the four municipalities.

    Preliminary results indicate a variation among school principals in their responses to external evaluations ­– from trying hard to live up to external demands to a more autonomous stance seeking to unburden the teachers of at least some of these demands. There is also variation as to what degree the school principals emphasise the use of evaluations for developing pedagogy and broad goals of schooling vis-a-vis for control and managerial purposes.  Many of the external evaluations, other than the ones from the governing bodies (municipalities/ independent school owners), often seems to be of less importance for principal work.

  • 29.
    Hult, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Karlsson Lohmander, Maelis
    Analysera mera - handledare om handledningsprocessen2007Inngår i: Från syfte till gestaltning: På väg mot vetenskaplighet i examensarbetet inom Särskild lärarutbildning, LHS förlag, Lärarhögskolan i Stockholm , 2007, s. 7-23Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 30.
    Hult, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Liljeström, Monica
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Formative assessment in peer review settings online2011Inngår i: The University of the Fraser Valley Research Review, ISSN 1715-9849, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 53-64Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper draws upon findings from an analysis of the written feedback a group of Swedish University students produced as peer reviewers. The study aims at identifying what type of feedback the students provided each other with in order to gain some preliminary insights into if and how peer review preceded by collaborative criteria processing could contribute to learning. The students’ peer assessments were analysed according to current research on formative feedback. The results indicate that the peer review activities online supported student learning.

  • 31.
    Hult, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Liljeström, Monica
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    I expected useful knowledge not just to socialise: An analysis of students´views on online collaborative learning2005Inngår i: European Conference on Educational Research, Dublin, Ireland, 2005Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 32.
    Hult, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Liljeström, Monica
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Kamratgranskning:  att orientera mot lärande2011Inngår i: Mer om nätbaserad utbildning: fördjupning och exempel / [ed] Stefan Hrastinski, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2011, 1, s. 177-194Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 33.
    Hult, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Judging by the (law)book: incident reports and teachers’ professional knowledge in times of accountability2015Inngår i: Abstract book, NERA 4-6 March 2015: marketisation and differentiation in education, 2015, s. 136-137Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decades schools’ documentation and administration have increased. In addition, schools have become increasingly governed by texts in the form of laws, curricula, goals and plans. Thus interpreting and producing text has become a new and important dimension in teacher professionalism. One new feature in this context is the obligation to report incidents concerning abusive treatment to the head teacher/preschool head and the governing body. Introduced in the new school act in 2011, this duty has produced new forms of work and considerations.

    The aim of this paper is to analyse consequences of accountability-driven text based teacher duties, for changes in teachers’ professional knowledge.

    - What forms of professional knowledge are involved in practices of incident reporting?

    The concept of jurdification (Teubner 1987, Brännström 2009) is framing our understanding of this process. The paper draws on Freeman and Sturdy’s (2014) phenomenology of knowledge in policy and the forms or phases that such knowledge may take, namely as embodied, inscribed and enacted. We thus see teachers’ work and professionalism as a way of doing policy. Inspired by Freeman and Sturdy we employ the above scheme as an “observational language” for empirical research and reflection. The paper is based on a case study involving interviews with teachers, head teachers and staff working with students’ social and physical health.

    The preliminary findings suggest that the new framing of incidents and the obligation to write incident reports have produced new forms of teacher knowledge. Historically, teachers have, relying on their tacit knowledge, sought to resolve conflicts by oral dialogues with pupils and parents. Today teachers must increasingly produce and adhere to formal plans on what counts as incidents and eventually transform this into yet another written text – an incident report – where each and every word is to be balanced in order not to be misunderstood or cause future problems for individuals or organisations (schools or governing bodies). Traditional embodied knowledge about how to handle and foster students in conflict is being replaced by new competencies and sensitivities related to formal definitions, strategic language use and behaviour.

  • 34.
    Hult, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Med lagen som rättesnöre: kunskapsformer i lärares arbete mot kränkande behandling2016Inngår i: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 73-93Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Judging by the (law)book: Knowledge forms in teachers’ work against degrading behavior. Interpreting and producing text has become a new and important dimension in teacher professionalism in an increasingly juridified school. In a case study, we analyse consequences of textbased teacher duties, for changes in teachers’ professional knowl-edge. Interviews were performed with teachers, head teachers and staff working with students’ social and physical health in one school after several complaints by parents followed by criticism from the Swedish Schools Inspectorate. As a consequence teachers increasingly had to adhere to formal plans and in text report student incidents to the head teacher. Traditional embodied knowledge about how to handle and foster students in conflict was being replaced by new competencies and sensitivi-ties related to formal definitions, strategic language use and behaviour. Preliminary findings suggest that complaints and the obligation to write incident reports involve a process of re-creating teacher professionalism and the development of new forms of teacher knowledge in a context characterized by risk.

  • 35.
    Hult, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Lundström, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Edström, Charlotta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap. Umeå universitet.
    Balancing managerial and professional demands: school principals as evaluation brokers2016Inngår i: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 283-304Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The evaluation trend in the global education field implies new professional challenges for school principals. The purpose of this article is to describe and analyse Swedish school principals’ experiences of prevailing evaluations and the implications for the profession. Specifically, we examine: a) how principals respond to evaluations and their consequences in their schools; and b) the implications of the evaluations for the profession in light of professional responsibility and accountability. The interviewed principals are ascribed huge evaluation responsibilities and are in this respect key actors but to some extent are also ‘victims’ of external pressures. All schools are embedded in a web of evaluation systems. They share the view that evaluations that are useful for improving teaching, student achievement and everyday school life are those conducted close to practice, and involve teachers. Most of them are also aware of the risks for the reduction of the broad goals of schooling and for work overload. The principals express a desire to protect the fundamental values of professional responsibility but the total demands of the local evaluation web have involved.a shift in their professional role towards professional accountability.

  • 36.
    Hult, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Olofsson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Assessment in Paramedical Training: A Question of Nursing and Caring?2000Inngår i: European Educational Research Association, ECEER, Edinburgh, 2000Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 37.
    Hult, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Olofsson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Examining examination: What images of the teacher do assessment documents reflect?1999Inngår i: Thematic Network of Teacher Education in Europe, Lissabon, 1999Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 38.
    Hult, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Olofsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Introduktion: att utvärdera verksamheter och bedöma individer2011Inngår i: Utvärdering och bedömning i skolan: för vem och varför? / [ed] Agneta Hult & Anders Olofsson, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2011, 1, s. 13-26Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 39.
    Hult, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Olofsson, AndersMittuniversitetet.
    Utvärdering och bedömning i skolan: för vem och varför?2011Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 40.
    Hult, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Olofsson, AndersMittuniversitetet.
    Utvärdering och bedömning i skolan: för vem och varför?2017Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 41.
    Hult, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Olofsson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Vad är en lärare?: Analys av examinationsdokument från LHS, grundskollärarprogrammet 1-71999Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 42.
    Hult, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Olofsson, Anders
    Rönnerman, Karin
    Ten years later: Teachers' views of their profession2005Inngår i: Wingspan, Vol. 1, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 43.
    Hult, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Olofsson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Pedagogik.
    Rönnerman, Karin
    Tio år senare: Lärares syn på yrket i en skola under förändring2006Inngår i: Lärarrollen i ett föränderligt samhälle, Länsförsäkringar, Stockholm , 2006Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 44.
    Hult, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Olofsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Segerholm, Christina
    Umeå universitet.
    Quality in Higher Education and the Idea of a University - Swedish vice chancellors’ views2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 45.
    Hult, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Segerholm, Christina
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Inspection effects through the eyes of the inspectors: Swedish notions2012Inngår i: ECER 2012, European Conference of Educational Research, Cádiz, Spain, September 17-21, 2012: NW23: Policy Studies and Politics of Education, ECER , 2012, s. 1-14Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A cadre of school inspectors with different backgrounds visit around a thousands schools annually in Sweden. Do they believe that they ‘make a difference?’ This paper analyses the ‘assumptive worlds’ (Marshall et.al. 1885) of inspectors and inspection managers at the Swedish Schools Inspectorate as expressed in interviews. The inspectors’ notions about what is affected and in what ways are brought forward, illuminating the relation between the national, the municipal and school, and the inspection process. The effects through the eyes of the inspectors, their assumptive worlds, are discussed in terms of constitutive effects (Dahler-Larsen 2011a, b) and ‘doing governing’ (Ozga & Segerholm 2011).

  • 46.
    Hult, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Segerholm, Christina
    Mid Sweden university, Härnösand, Sweden.
    Juridification As Governing In Education: The Swedish SchoolsInspectorate As An Example2014Inngår i: European Conference for Educational Research (ECER), Network 23, in Porto, Portugal, September 2-5, 2014., 2014, s. 1-3Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 47.
    Hult, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Segerholm, Christina
    Mittuniversitetet, Härnösand.
    Learning education policy and inspection: two Swedish case narratives2013Inngår i: European Conference for Educational Research, Istanbul, September 9-13, 2013: Governing by inspection: school inspection as brokering and mediating work, Network 23, 2013, s. 1-17Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout Europe and with the support of the Standing International Conference of Inspectorates (SICI), school inspection has become one of the more visible means to govern education (Lawn & Grek 2012). This education and inspection policy is mediated, brokered, translated and learned through networked activities where the global/European meet the national/local, giving national and local ‘uptake’ a variety of characteristics (Grek & Ozga 2012, Sassen 2007). In this paper we explore the local features of this ‘uptake’ as processes of policy learning in the interaction between schools and inspectors. Drawing theoretically on Jacobsson’s notion of governing as increasingly done through meditative activities (Jacobsson 2006, 2010), we suggest that school actors learn education policy in the inspection process. Based on a rich and diverse material of observations of inspection visits, interviews with teachers, head teachers and inspectors, and school documents, inspection reports and decisions, we portray how governing education is done through inspection processes in two Swedish schools. The case narratives underscore the importance of local context in these governing and learning processes.

  • 48.
    Hult, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Segerholm, Christina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Making a difference?: The voices of school inspectors and managers in Sweden2017Inngår i: School inspectors: policy implementers, policy shapers in national policy contexts / [ed] Jacqueline Baxter, Cham: Springer, 2017, s. 121-135Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A cadre of school inspectors with different backgrounds visit thousands of schools annually in Sweden as is also the case in several other European and other nations. Do these inspectors believe that they 'make a difference'? In this chapter we elaborate on inspection effects as they are perceived by Swedish inspectors and inspection managers at different levels of the Inspectorate, and on the policy problems the creation of the Swedish Schools Inspectorate (SI) was intended to solve according to, on the one hand policy documents and on the other hand problems reported in interviews with inspectors and inspection managers. Central to inspection practice are the 'assumptive worlds' of the inspectors and managers at the Inspectorate, i.e. their notions of school inspection. Both groups' notions of the policy problem inspection is to solve, agree with national intentions and motivations the managers stressing the declining school performance, and the inspectors emphasising the lack of equivalence between schools and municipalities. Analysis of interviewees' notions of what problems are indeed solved, points foremost to different types of implementation problems at all levels in a top-down 'chain of governing', also noting problems within the national level.

  • 49.
    Hult, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Segerholm, Christina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    The process of juridification of school inspection in Sweden2016Inngår i: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 95-118Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2008, Swedish school inspection has leaned heavily on the Education Act and Ordinance. The increasing importance of the legal framework is in this study understood as a juridification process. This study explores the shift to a more legally oriented inspection and governing and highlights the inspectorate's processes leading up to new assessment areas closely related to the Education Act, how these areas are practiced by the inspectors and how head teachers may react to them. Interviews with legal experts, managers, inspectors and head teachers as well as observations of the inspectors' school visits are used. The results indicate that within the new inspection agency in 2008, the process started with a review of research on successful schools before turning to the Education Act, and that the inspection process is sometimes perceived as more legalistic than pedagogic by head teachers. The consequences of the juridification of Swedish school inspection is discussed in relation to constitutive effects.

  • 50.
    Hult, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Segerholm, Christina
    Mittuniversitetet, Härnösand.
    What is school inspection for?: The assumptive worlds of the Swedish Schools Inspectorate2013Inngår i: NERA 41st Congress, 7-9 March 2013, Reykjavik, Iceland, Reykjavik: University of Iceland , 2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Europe and some of the Nordic countries school inspection is now a policy and practice governing education in one way or another. Central to inspection practice are the inspectors and managers at different levels of the Inspectorate and their 'assumptive worlds' (Marshall, Mitchell & Wirt 1985), i.e. their notions of the purpose of inspection, of how inspection should be and is carried out, and of the effect/influence of school inspection. This paper concentrates on notions of the policy problem the creation of the Swedish Schools Inspectorate (SI) was intended to solve, compared to notions of the effects/influence of inspection. The empirical material consists of interviews with inspectors and inspection management at national and regional levels at the SI. Inspired by Bacchi (2009) a two-step analysis was performed. In the first step interview statements about inspection effects were categorised and then deductively analysed to find out what policy problem(s) the effects reported by the inspectors and inspection management correspond to. In the second step of the analysis, the deduced problems were compared to the interviewees’ notions of the policy problem(s) the SI was created to solve. The interviews show differences between the inspectors and inspection managers, especially when it comes to policy problems to be solved by the SI. The inspectors referred to the lack of educational equity for students in different schools and to municipalities and schools failure to comply with the steering documents. The inspection managers foremost referred to the lowered academic school performances in Swedish schools. The comparative analysis of the notions of policy problems and the deduced problems shows that there are both discrepancies and correspondence in this respect. One discrepancy relates to the problem of raising school performance perceived by the inspection managers to be a problem to be solved by SI. However no informant mentioned this as an impact from school inspection. Furthermore, the comparative analysis shows that there is correspondence between the policy problems most often referred to by the inspectors (i.e. educational equity and failure to comply with steering documents) and inspection impact, and hence the deduced problem of guarding individual students’ rights.

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