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  • 1.
    Abdul Kader, Hale
    et al.
    Centre for Risk and Insurance Studies, University of Nottingham, Nottingham,.
    Adams, Michael
    Swansea University, UK.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    The determinants of reinsurance in the Swedish property fire insurance market during the interwar years, 1919–392010Inngår i: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 52, nr 2, s. 268-284Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing a framework from agency theory, we use a panel data design to examine the factors motivating the level of demand for reinsurance in the rapidly developing Swedish property fire insurance market during the interwar period 1919–39. We find that as hypothesised, reinsurance enabled Swedish fire insurers to mitigate underwriting and solvency risks and thus increased their capacity to underwrite new business in uncertain economic times. This in turn helped to increase the supply of indemnity coverage for property (buildings) fire risks in the Swedish insurance market. We also find that as expected, investment earnings are inversely related to reinsurance purchases. However, contrary to what was hypothesised, reinsurance appears to be positively related to liquidity levels, suggesting that over our period of analysis, fire insurers could have been reinsuring to ‘protect’ earnings and accumulated cash reserves therefore enabling investment opportunities to be realised. Analysis of the sub-period 1919–28 further supports this contention, while our results for the economic depression years after 1929 show that reinsurance helped mitigate underwriting and insolvency risks, suggesting that the reinsurance decision of fire insurance companies could be motivated by macroeconomic factors.

  • 2. Adams, M.
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Veprauskaite, E.
    Competing models of organizational form: Risk management strategies and underwriting profitability in the Swedish fire insurance market between 1903 and 19392012Inngår i: Journal of Economic History, ISSN 0022-0507, E-ISSN 1471-6372, Vol. 72, nr 4, s. 990-1014Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mutual and stock insurers have coexisted and competed against each other in insurance markets for centuries. In this article, we examine the risk management strategies and underwriting profitability of the different organizational forms in Sweden's property fire insurance market between 1903 and 1939. We demonstrate that stock insurers acted as intermediaries between policyholders and reinsurers to operate effectively in the potentially high-risk segments of the fire insurance market. In contrast, nationwide mutual insurers kept larger reserves to balance fluctuations in claims experiences, while local insurance pools relied on social obligation and trust to mobilize capital after adverse fire events.

  • 3.
    Adams, Mike
    et al.
    Swansea University, UK.
    Andersson, Jonas
    Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration, Norway.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Commercial banking, insurance and economic growth in Sweden between 1830 and 19982009Inngår i: Accounting Business and Financial History, ISSN 0958-5206, E-ISSN 1466-4275, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 21-39Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine empirically the dynamic historical relation between commercial bank lending, insurance and economic (income) growth in Sweden using time-series data from 1830 to 1998 and performing tests for Granger causality. Because of the non-stationary nature of the time series examined the procedure of Toda andYamamoto (1995) is used. Our results, which have accounted for possible regime changes due to different exchange rate mechanisms over time, indicate that insurance has Granger-caused economic growth and bank lending. Therefore, we conclude that insurance is an important prerequisite for stimulating economic growth and that this could have important implications for contemporary developing economies.

  • 4. Adams, Mike
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Veprauskaite, Elena
    Managing policy lapse risk in Sweden’s life insurance market between 1915 and 19472018Inngår i: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the challenges that Swedish life insurers faced in managing the lapse risk of policies written on the lives of the industrial urban working class between 1915 and 1947. We observe that with the threat of State socialisation of insurance in the 1930s, industrial life insurers modified their business practices to better control policy lapses. Using firm-level data, we also analyse the effect of socio-economic changes, such as rising real wages, interest rate fluctuations and unemployment on life insurance policy lapses. Our results support contemporary tests of the emergency fund and interest rate explanations for the voluntary premature termination of life insurance policies.

  • 5. Adams, Mike
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Yihui Jia, Joy
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Mutuality as a control for information asymmetry: a historical analysis of the claims experience of mutual and stock fire insur ance companies in Sweden, 1889 to 19392011Inngår i: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 53, nr 7, s. 1074-1091Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We test two competing arguments regarding the influence of organisational form onunderwritingperformance usingdatafromtheSwedish fireinsuranceindustry for the years 1889 to 1939 – a period of both economic growth and stagnation. Since mutuality is a response to information asymmetry problems, mutual insurers are expected to report lower annual claims relative to premiums than stock insurance companies. However, an alternative view is that stock insurers seek to reduce information asymmetry problems by issuing non-participatory rights insurance contracts with high deductibles that induce risk-sharing between the insurer’s shareholders and policyholders. This implies that stock insurers are likely to report lower annual claims than mutual insurers. Our results show that organisational form is an important determinant of the claims experience of Swedish fire insurers, suggesting that mutuality acts as an effective control for information asymmetries in the market.

  • 6. Adams, Mike
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Hardwick, Philip
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Firm size and growth in Sweden's life insurance market between 1855 and 1947: A test of Gibrat's law2014Inngår i: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 56, nr 6, s. 956-974Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data for the period from 1855 to 1947 and the two sub-periods, 1855-1902 and 1903-47, the article examines whether the organic growth rates of 38 Swedish life insurance firms are independent of size, as predicted by Gibrat's (1931) Law of Proportionate Effects. Using panel unit root tests and panel Generalised Method of Moments (GMM) regression, the article finds a significant difference between the growth rates of small and large Swedish life insurance firms (with smaller firms tending to grow faster than larger firms), a result that clearly contradicts Gibrat's Law as a long-run tendency in the Swedish life insurance sector. significant influences were also found on firm growth from profitability, organisational form, reinsurance, the real rate of interest and the Swedish regulatory environment.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Bilateral shipping and trade: Swedish-Finnish experiences in the post-war period2005Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the bilateral shipping and trade between Finland and Sweden during the post-war period. It comprises five articles and one introductory chapter for which the common point of departure is the growth and transformation of bilateral trade and shipping. The first two articles analyse the structural change of bilateral trade from a national and regional perspective. The three following articles provide an overview and analysis of the ferry shipping. By integrating the perspective in these articles in the introductory chapter and by providing a long historical record, the change of economic relations between Finland and Sweden in the post-war period is discerned. This thesis applies an economic historical approach and is founded on various fields of social science. The issue of trade is analysed within the framework of conventional and new trade theory, and the analysis of ferry shipping is governed by economic and geographic theories. The studies on trade shows that the transformation of production seen in Finland and Sweden meant that the trade increasingly became dependent on an exchange of products arising from matching industries. In turn the foreign trade arising from the Northern part of Finland and Sweden was still dominated by so called inter-industry trade. In addition to these results, the studies of ferry services shows that the growth of vehicles and passengers conveyance, together with the expanded onboard services, also intensified the commercial exchange. Due of the multi-output structure, the ferry service efficiently met the growing demand of travel and trade. The main conclusion of this thesis is that the convergence of incomes and economic structure had a significant impact on bilateral trade and ferry shipping. In addition the process of economic integration, technological advances together with specific policies issued on shipping also contributed to strengthen the economic ties between Finland and Sweden.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Convergence and structure of trade: The Swedish-Finnish case2004Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 27-51Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 9.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Economic efficiency of multiproduct structure: Evidence from the Baltic ferry industryManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Institutet för tillväxtpolitiska studier, Östersund.
    Företagsdynamik och tillväxt: En kartläggning och analys av företagsdynamikoch arbetsproduktivitetstillväxt i Sverige2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This book examines the dynamic relation between firm demography and aggregate productivity growth in Sweden during the period 1997-2003. By using enterprise demography data, the interaction between micro dynamics and aggregate productivity growth is discerned. The result shows that the contribution of entry and exit of firms on aggregate productivity growth is small but still positive for the total economy, suggesting that entering firms are more productive than exiting firms. The book shows that the productivity growth within the continuing firms is the key factor of the aggregated productivity growth.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Järnvägen omistlig del av Umeåregionens utveckling2013Inngår i: Umeå 1314-2014: 100 berättelser om 700 år / [ed] Lars-Gunnar Olsson, Susanne Haugen; Lars-Erik Edlund och Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Skellefteå: Artos & Norma bokförlag, 2013, s. 142-143Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 12.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Mutual insurance 1550-2015: from guild welfare and friendly societies to contemporary micro-insurers2018Inngår i: Continuity and Change, ISSN 0268-4160, E-ISSN 1469-218X, Vol. 33, nr 3, s. 447-449Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 13.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Institutet för tillväxtpolitiska studier, Östersund.
    Näringslivets tillstånd 2007: Företagsstrukturen och dess betydelse för produktivitet och tillväxt2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    ITPS kartläggning och analys visar att det från den ökning av andelen småföretag som skett sedan 1970-talet kommit ett ganska blygsamt bidrag till tillväxten. Det är i stället de stora företagen som fortsatt står för det största bidraget till tillväxten i BNP och den största andelen av sysselsättningen. En kategori företag som under perioden 2002–2004 haft stor betydelse för tillväxt i både förädlingsvärde och sysselsättning är de snabbväxande företagen. De mest snabbväxande företagen har mellan 2002 och 2004 bidragit med en ökning av förädlingsvärdet på cirka 160 miljarder kronor och en sysselsättningsökning på mer än 120 000 personer samtidigt som övriga företags bidrag varit negativt. En studie av huruvida en del av förklaringen till de små företagens låga bidrag till produktivitetstillväxten beror på att det i stället är de stora företagen som exploaterar de små företagens idéer och innovationer ger inte stöd för denna hypotes. Denna studie pekar liksom tidigare studier på att det oavsett företagsstorlek, är det ambitiösa entreprenörskapet som är av avgörande betydelse för den långsiktiga tillväxten.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Institutet för tillväxtpolitiska studier, Östersund.
    Näringslivets tillstånd 2008: Tjänsteparadox skapar tillväxt2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    ITPS identifierar en tjänsteparadox som innebär att samhället utifrån ett arbetsmarknadsperspektiv förvisso är ett tjänstesamhälle, men utifrån  ett konsumtionsperspektiv fortfarande är ett prylsamhälle, det vill säga ett samhälle som i allt högre grad präglas av materiell konsumtion. Analysen visar på de underliggande drivkrafterna bakom denna ekonomiska utveckling och att det som vid en första anblick kan tyckas vara paradoxalt är konsistent och logiskt. Huvudförklaringen är grundläggande skillnader mellan olika typer av tjänster och snabbt fallande priser på varor. De personliga tjänsterna är en knapp och dyr resurs, vilket korrekt återspeglas på marknaden. De icke personliga tjänsterna däremot har stor ekonomisk potential och det är också dessa som växer. ITPS analys visar att ”tjänstesamhället”, rätt hanterat, inte är ett hot mot tillväxten. Tvärtom visar analysen att de som förutspådde att den ökade sysselsättningen inom tjänstesektorn skulle leda till avtagande tillväxt har haft fel.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Samma skatt – samma välfärd?: Effektivitet, service och skatter i kommuner och landsting2011Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 16.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    The determinats of ferry traffic flows: A gravity equation approachManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 17.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    The Swedish-Finnish ferry shipping market: An economic historical perspectiveManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 18.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Utrikeshandeln i norra Sverige och Finland2003Inngår i: Ekonomiska samfundets tidskrift, ISSN 0013-3183, E-ISSN 2323-1378, Vol. 56, nr 2, s. 69-80Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    I artikeln studeras sammansättningen av utrikeshandel i Botniaområdet, de svenska länen Västerbotten och Västernorrland och de finländska f.d. Vasa län. I studien används Heckscher-Ohlinteorin för att analysera förhållandet mellan utrikeshandels sammansättning, faktorintensitet och faktortillgångar. Den empiriska analysen stödjer teorin. Botniaområdet har en omfattande nettoexport av produkter från industrier som har hög naturintensitet och energiintensitet. Slutsatsen är att de komparativa fördelarna baseras på de i området relativt rika faktortillgångarna.

  • 19.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Life insurance and income growth: the case of Sweden 1830-19502010Inngår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 58, nr 3, s. 203-219Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we provide an analysis of the life insurance market in Sweden from the early 19th century to the mid 20th century. We consider determinants put forward in the financial history literature to explain the growth of life insurance. The paper shows that income elasticity of demand gives a fairly good approximation of the development in the twentieth century, while the development of risk and insurance innovation among other things need to be taken into account to explain the growth of life insurance in nineteenth century. The price of life insurance, measured as the overhead-to-premium-income-ratio, remained fairly constant during the second half of the 19th century, while the risk, as indicated in terms of crude mortality rates and its volatility did decline.  This probably improved the return on life-insurance savings and further helped the entry of new firms. The average premium size was reduced to enable the diffusion of life insurance to workers.

  • 20.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för ekonomisk historia.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Scocco, Sandro
    Arenagruppen, Arenaide, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Refugee immigration and the growth of low-wage work in the EU152019Inngår i: Comparative Migration Studies, ISSN 2214-8590, E-ISSN 2214-594X, Vol. 7, nr 39, s. 1-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Our paper focuses on current trends in refugee migration and job polarization. In so doing, we assess the role of refugee migration in relation to institutional, technological and globalization factors in an effort to trace the factors underlying the growth of low-paying occupations in EU 15 between 1995 and 2017. Our empirical findings suggest that refugee migration has a small but positive and statistically significant impact on the growth of low-wage occupations in the EU 15 as a whole. However, the effect is attributed to Southern Europe and the UK and Irish economies. Despite hosting relatively large numbers of refugee migrants, the effects in the Nordic countries and Continental Europe are negligible, if present, and non-existent in the long run (5 years). When including all migrant workers, we find a limited impact on the growth of low-wage work in general, while the impact of immigrant workers from low-income third party countries becomes positive for the UK and Irish economy, but less for other European macro-regions. This suggests that institutional settings can play an important role in how the economy adjusts to migration. It also suggests that traditional fiscal cost calculations in relation to migration are often overestimated, as they implicitly build on the assumption that refugees and general immigration have great impacts on the growth of low-wage occupations.

  • 21.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Keskitalo, Carina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Insurance models and climate risk assessments in a historical context2016Inngår i: Financial History Review, ISSN 0968-5650, E-ISSN 1474-0052, Vol. 23, nr 2, s. 219-243Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptation to the consequences of climate change has developed as a growing field of concern in the insurance business. However, climate related risks is not entirely a new field in insurance. Historically, a large number of insurance organizational choices and strategies have been used to mitigate the financial impacts of extreme events and uncertainties associated with climate change. Taking the case of forest in Sweden, this paper reviews the ways in which climate related risks such as storm/wind and fire risks have been assured. The study shows that climate related risks generally has increased over time and that major hazard events have been decisive for the strategy and organization choices. The 20th century development shows that corporate insurance coverage increased by higher anticipated risk, while self-insurance and public insurance was reduced. However, in more recent time the expansion of corporate insurance has stagnated. Raised premiums and tighten terms following historically extreme weather events has led government and forest owners to assume more climate risks.

  • 22.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Is Structural Change Speeding Up? The Case of Sweden, 1850-20002008Inngår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 1750-2837 (electronic) 0358-5522 (paper), Vol. 56, nr 3, s. 192-208Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the importance of structural change on productivity growth and conditions in the labour market. From a productivity perspective, a positive relation is found between structural change and productivity growth from the industrial breakthrough until the first oil crisis. From the early 1970s, this positive relation weakened and eventually became negative as labour moved from high to low productive industries. From a labour market perspective, it is found that extent of sectoral reallocation of labour has become more intense over the twentieth century. The extent of job gains and losses seems to have been more intense during the postwar period than during the industrialization phase.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Unintentional climate policy: Swedish experiences of carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth 1950-20052010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the development of carbon dioxide emissions in Sweden, especially with a focus on the absolute reductions during the post-war period, during the 1970s and 1980s. The paper shows that the largest reductions were achieved before the introduction of an active climate policy in 1991. This was in turn the result of significant improvements in energy efficiency and energy conversion, while structural changes were considerably less important. One reason behind this decoupling process may be that the active energy policy put pressure on households and industries to conserve energy and to substitute from oil to electricity and biofuels. The process was substantially reinforced by the development of world oil prices in combination with the development of domestic electricity prices, where nuclear power seems to have played an important role.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för ekonomisk historia.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för ekonomisk historia.
    Välfärden, skatterna, baumoleffekten och högerpopulismens framväxt2018Inngår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 46, nr 7, s. 33-44Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi ser i dag en förtroendekris för de politiska krafter som under hela efterkrigstiden har fört en kamp kring avvägningen mellan skatter och offentligt finansierad välfärd under förutsättning att den makroekonomiska jämvikten inteäventyras. Utmanare är högerpopulismen som vunnit mark genom utpekandetav invandring som en allmän förklaring till höga skatter och upplevda brister ivälfärden. Men lika lite som invandringen egentligen kan förklara långsiktigtstigande skatter, lika bortglömd tycks Baumoleffekten vara. Bristen på strukturellekonomisk-historisk analys för att förstå utmaningarna för välfärdsfinansieringär uppenbara

  • 25.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Mike B., Adams
    Jonas, Andersson
    The Historical Relation between Banking, Insurance and Economic Growth in Sweden: 1830 to 19982005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 26.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Sickness absence in compulsory and voluntary health insurance: the case of Sweden at the turn of the twentieth century2017Inngår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 65, nr 1, s. 6-27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    At the turn of the twentieth century, Swedish health insurance was organised according to the Western European models of both voluntary, `fraternal´ principles and compulsory, `factory scheme´ principles. In this paper, we trace the characteristics of both organisational forms, and compare the sickness absence by considering the role of risk selection and mitigation across a large panel of voluntary and compulsory health insurance societies operating in Sweden between 1900 and 1910. We find that voluntary societies used a wide set of rules and practices in order to select and monitor members in order to keep down the number of sick cases. Compulsory societies applied shorter waiting periods and offered more medical treatment, leading to more frequent but shorter sickness absences.

  • 27.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Profits, dividends and industry restructuring: the Swedish paper and pulp industry between 1945 and 19772016Inngår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 64, nr 3, s. 278-296Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the role of profit distribution in the restructuring of the Swedish paper and pulp industry between 1945 and 1977. In addressing this issue, we will draw on the life-cycle theory and market imperfection arguments to examine whether the less profitable firms shared more of their profits as dividends, or remained on the market longer by reinvesting the majority of the profits. Our study shows that an increasing share of the profits was distributed to owners over time, and thus less profit was reinvested in industrial renewal. We find that the observed general upward trend in dividends can be attributed to the decline in profit and firm legacy, as firms in the Swedish pulp and paper industry kept dividends up while reducing reinvestment as their profit margins decreased over time. Our study shows that the market imperfections related to capital taxation and investment funds increased rather than decreased dividends.

  • 28.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Danley, Therese
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Henning, Martin
    Handelshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Workers’ participation in regional economic change following establishment closure2018Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses if and when workers affected by economic destruction in the form of establishment closures move to more productive or newly started establishments in the region, become self-employed, leave the region or become displaced. Results from multinominal probit models show that the majority of these workers face destructive employment outcomes from a Schumpeterian point of view compared to a matched sample of workers not subject to a closure. However, we do find indications of a creative destruction as a small, albeit significant, share become employed in young establishments. Different types of human capital influence the likelihood of triggering positive or negative regional outcomes. While higher education significantly decreases the risk for unemployment, high-income earners more often become engaged in creative outcomes. Firm tenure increases the likelihood of becoming employed in younger establishments. There are significant spatial differences where metropolitan regions excel as loci of creative change, whereas smaller and peripheral regions face far less creative outcomes of economic transformation.

  • 29.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Exclusion of women and organizational characteristics: Swedish mutual health insurance 1901-19102019Inngår i: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 61, nr 8, s. 1352-1378Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mutual societies have been recognised for their ability to mitigate information asymmetry. Although successful in reducing sickness claims, the exclusion of women was common. Health insurance societies argued the exclusion was a means to reduce adverse selection and moral hazard since women were regarded as higher risk. In this paper, we explore differences in organisational characteristics between societies that excluded and societies that did not exclude women as members between 1901 to 1910. Based on panel data, the study shows that societies that excluded women were less successful in keeping down sickness claims, in relation to benefits, than gendermixed societies

  • 30.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    The compulsory public pension and the demand for life insurance: the case of Sweden, 1884–191412015Inngår i: Economic history review, ISSN 0013-0117, E-ISSN 1468-0289, Vol. 68, nr 1, s. 244-263Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We employ cost-of-living surveys, business archives, and firm data to examine the impact of the compulsory pension on the demand for life insurance in Sweden from 1884 to 1914—a period that covers the implementation of the first public compulsory old-age pension reform and the take-off of industry life insurance. As predicted on the basis of the contemporary literature on crowding-out effects, we find that the compulsory pension reduced the demand for life insurance. Our panel-data analysis of lapse rates on insurance policies shows a significant crowding-out effect of pension payments. We conclude that the introduction of the general compulsory pension had a crowding-out effect on households’ holdings of insurance policies.

  • 31.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Adams, Mike
    School of Management, University of Bath.
    Upreti, Vineet
    School of Management, University of Bath.
    The determinants of investment returns in the fire insurance industry: the case of Sweden, 1903-19392013Inngår i: Financial History Review, ISSN 0968-5650, E-ISSN 1474-0052, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 73-89Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Weemploy a panel data research design to examine the determinants of investmentreturns in the Swedish property fire insurance industry from 1903 to 1939 – aperiod of great economic and political uncertainty. Contrary to expectations,we find that mutual fire insurers generated systematically higher investmentreturns than stock fire insurers. Investment returns are inversely related toleverage but positively related to liquidity, showing that firms adopting amore precautionary investment strategy attain higher returns.

  • 32. Gutiérrez González, Pablo
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Managing financial constraints: undercapitalization and underwriting capacity in Spanish fire insurance2018Inngår i: Economic history review, ISSN 0013-0117, E-ISSN 1468-0289, Vol. 71, nr 2, s. 567-592Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Reinsurance is a vital financial device for enhancing underwriting capacity, ceding risks, and mitigating financial distress. By supplying financial resources and services, reinsurance can facilitate growth and expansion in the insurance business. Focusing on the insurance sector in the emerging Spanish economy and using a novel dataset on fire insurance companies, this article examines the role of fire insurance in the national capital formation, the importance of reinsurance as a vehicle for expanding the country's domestic underwriting capacity, and how the import of capital impacted on the balance of payment, from the introduction of the first comprehensive legislation regarding insurance in 1908 to the outbreak of the Civil War in 1936. Considering the situation of undercapitalization, the singularities of the insurance market, and the changes in regulatory schemes, we find that foreign reinsurance became a key financial vehicle for increasing underwriting capacity in Spain. We also show the struggle of an emerging market to find ways to keep the balance of current accounts and raise capital when financial infrastructure was underdeveloped. The diffusion of reinsurance networks from the core of industrial western countries towards emerging economies was one of the mechanisms for financial modernization on a global scale.

  • 33.
    Krantz, Olle
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Tillväxt och konvergens. En jämförelse av den ekonomiska utvecklingen i Finland och Sverige under 1800- och 1900-talen: (Growth and Convergence. A Comparison between the Economic Performance in Finland and Sweden in the 19th and 20th Centuries)2006Inngår i: Från olika till jämlika : Finlands och Sveriges ekonomier på 1900-talet, Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland, Helsingfors , 2006Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 34.
    Levin, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Determinants of energy consumption: the Swedish residential sector 1920-2010Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Household energy consumption is an important aspect of mitigating climate change and the overall use of energy on a global scale. Energy consumed by households, excluding transportation uses, accounted for about 14% of delivered world energy consumption in 2008. In this paper, we examine the development of energy consumption in the Swedish residential sector during the period 1920 to 2010. We show that the growing residential building stock has contributed to higher energy consumption per household over time. Since the 1970s, however, higher real energy prices have put pressure on households to reduce their energy consumption. We find that a combination of higher market prices and taxes on energy contributed to the reduction of energy per household, causing a 10% reduction in aggregated final energy consumption.

  • 35.
    Lilljegren, Josef
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Variation in organizational form across lines of property insurance: Sweden, 1913-19392014Inngår i: Financial History Review, ISSN 0968-5650, E-ISSN 1474-0052, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 77-101Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the impact of organizational structure on risk taking across different lines of property insurance (fire, marine, vehicle and specialized property insurance) in Sweden from 1913 to 1939. Based on the theoretical arguments whereby the mutual organizational form has a competitive advantage in underwriting homogeneous but unknown risk distribution, while the stock organizational form is more likely to underwrite more volatile and heterogeneous risk categories, we conclude that organizational form has a significant impact on risk taking. Our empirical analysis shows that the risk taking, measured as incurred claims to anticipated losses, was on average lower among mutual insurers. When comparing across lines of insurance, the analysis shows that the mutual form was more successful in keeping down risks in fire and marine, while less so in vehicle and specialized property insurance. Stock companies mitigated the higher risk by ceding more premiums to reinsurers and by diversifying more across different lines of insurance.

  • 36.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Politiker blundar för orsaken till välfärdens ökade kostnader2018Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Förtroendekrisen för de etablerade partierna bottnar i att långsiktigt stigande kostnader för välfärden ignorerats. Talet om höga skatter för att förbättra välfärden är en skönmålning då de höga skatterna täckt upp för stigande kostnader. Och produktiviteten i välfärden har inte kunnat höjas med marknads­reformer.

  • 37.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    All fired up: the growth of fire insurance in Sweden, 1830-19502010Inngår i: Financial History Review, ISSN 0968-5650, E-ISSN 1474-0052, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 99-117Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we investigate supply and demand factors that have been put forward to explain the growth of fire insurance markets in Sweden during the financial revolution. We show that income growth and urbanisation fostered the demand for fire insurance. The supply of fire insurance, on the other hand, helps explain financial market development. Fire insurance assisted in mortgaging fixed assets, such as houses, through guaranteeing them as collateral. On both the upply side and the demand side, fire insurance was a key factor of the financial revolution in Sweden.

  • 38.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    An historical wealth assessment – measuring the Swedish national wealth for the nineteenth and twentieth centuries2016Inngår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 64, nr 2, s. 122-137Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides historical account of wealth accumulation and composition in Sweden during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. A detailed account on capital formation during the industrialisation process shows that produced capital grew faster than natural capital from the 1850s. Natural capital was changing from a predominance of forest towards crop land as the main asset in the early twentieth century. Produced capital was largely bounded in the agriculture sector up till the second half of the nineteenth century. Heavy investments in the infrastructure sector and later in the manufacturing section changed the produced capital structure and thereby lowered transport costs and return of investment in manufacturing and services; providing incentives for accumulating the stock of produced capital and enhance consumption and living standard. The return on capital was dispersed from the outset of the period but has converged over time.

  • 39.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Growth Performance and Organizational Forms: The Case of Swedish Life Insurance, 1890 to 19502015Inngår i: Corporate Forms and Organizational Choice in International Insurance / [ed] Robin Pearson and Takau Yoneyama, Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2015, 1, s. 244-260Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Swedish life insurance, mutual and stock insurers have competed since the late nineteenth century. Stock insurers were prime movers controlling the early market. After the establishment of the first mutual insurer in 1887, however, stock insurers lost substantial market share. By themid-twentieth century, mutual insurers controlled 70 per cent of the life insurance market. In this chapter we explain how and why the mutual form was more successful than the stock organizational form in Swedish life insurance from the late nineteenth century to the midtwentieth century. Our preliminary results show that mutuals were more successful than stock companies in attracting demand from the growing wage-labour population. By introducing the concept of industrial insurance and by keeping claims experiences low, mutual companies were able to efficiently expand their businesses and their market share.

  • 40.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Household firewood consumption in Sweden during the nineteenth century2010Inngår i: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, nr 2, s. 55-78Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Household firewood consumption underwent significant changes during the industrial breakthrough. Recent literature on Sweden makes thecase that greater energy efficiency drastically reduced rural household fuel consumption, while coal substituted for firewood in cities. This article shows that although coal substituted for wood in some urban areas, rural firewood consumption was not reduced. Higher standards of living indicate contrary to previous results that fuel consumption increased during the industrialisation process. The study shows that households with higher standard of living consumed more fuel and that rural households, due to lower fuel prices, consumed relatively more fuel than urban households. The result shows contrary to previous research that the total energy intensity decreased more rapidly after and no tbefore the industrial breakthrough.

  • 41.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Replik: Inte självklart att slopad löneavgift ger högre lönsamhet2018Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Minskas de delar av arbetsgivaravgiften som egentligen är försäkringspremier dyker premierna i stället upp som fönsterkuvert hos arbetstagarna i stället, som hade krävt motsvarande löneökningar för att ha råd att betala dom. Det skriver två forskare i en replik till Svenskt näringsliv.

  • 42.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för ekonomisk historia.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för ekonomisk historia.
    Tillväxten och de stigande förväntningarnas missnöje2019Inngår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 47, nr 2, s. 75-76Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 43.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Where Was the Wealth of the Nation?: Measuring Swedish Capital for the 19th and 20th Centuries2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents estimates of the Swedish national wealth from 1830 to 2010. This contributes to economic historical research on structural change and growth, while it also supplements debates on the composition of wealth and incomes across countries. The report also includes for the first time a historical estimate of the Consumer Rate Interest CRI and an estimate of wealth based on surveys and insurance data. The report includes an extensive description and documentation of the historical estimates. The main findings are that the proportion of intangible capital grew before modern economic growth was achieved in Sweden during the 1890’s. Secondly, we show that the proportion of natural assets fell prior to and during the industrialization, while the share of produced capital has fluctuated, but has remained fairly stable over the period as a whole.

  • 44.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Technical change, carbon dioxide reduction and energyconsumption in the Swedish pulp and paper industry 1973-20062010Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the historical relation between carbon dioxide emission and output growth in the Swedish pulp and paperindustry 1973-2006. We find that the industry achieved an 80 per cent reduction in CO2 emission. Foremost energy substitution but also efficiently improvement contributed to the reduction. Growing prices of fossil fuel due to market price change and taxes and subvention, explains most of the efficiency improvements and substitution. Taxes on energy explain 40 per cent of the total reduction in CO2 active climate policy in 1991. Co2 intensity. Most of the reduction took place before the implementation of

  • 45.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    Energy transition, carbon dioxide reduction and output growth in the Swedish pulp and paper industry: 1973-20062011Inngår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, nr 9, s. 5449-5456Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the historical relation between carbon dioxide emission and output growth in the Swedish pulp and paper industry from 1973 to 2006. We find that the industry achieved an 80 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emission, where most of the reduction took place before the implementation of active climate policy in 1991. Foremost energy substitution and also efficiency improvements contributed to the reduction. Growing prices of fossil fuel due to market price change and taxes and subsidies, explains most of the efficiency improvements and substitution. The study finds that energy transformation was coinciding with ongoing structural change in the industry during the 1970s and 1980s as well as a strong period of environmental adaption. We therefore suggest that the oil reduction was reinforced through the dynamics between the energy issue and an overall renewing process of the industry. This suggests a need to coordinate climate and environmental policy measures with the long-term industrial dynamics of structural change. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 46.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Lars Fredrik, Andersson
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Mike B., Adams
    The Evolution and Development of the Swedish Insurance Market2006Inngår i: Accounting, Business and Financial History, ISSN 0958-5206, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 341-370Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we provide an overview of the historical development of the insurance market in Sweden from the eighteenth century up to modern times. We consider theoretical perspectives drawn from the economics and political regulation literature that might help to explain important institutional features of the market- in particular, its oligopoly structure, the lack of foreign participation and the significant presence of mutual forms of organisation. We also offer a prognosis as to the current challenges and prospects of the Swedish insurance market in an increasingly competitive and global market.

  • 47. Scocco, Sandro
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Hur väl bedömer vi effekterna av invandringen på offentliga finanser?2016Inngår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, nr 6, s. 52-62Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tvärsnittskalkyler används ofta för att bedöma invandringens effekter på offentliga finanser, tex i en av bilagorna till finansdepartementets långtidsutredning. Att tolka statiska omfördelningseffekter mellan infödda och utrikesfödda svenskar som faktiska offentliga kostnader eller intäkter för invandring är dock problematiskt. Internationella longitudinella studier har pekat på en rad effekter som talar emot att tolka tvärsnittskalkyler annat än i finansiella flöden i offentlig sektor. Vi menar att metoden behöver utvecklas för att kunna tolka invandringens faktiska kostnader och intäkter

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