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  • 1.
    Almstedt, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    The role of market measures in forest governance: the example of forest certification in boreal forests2017Inngår i: CAB Reviews, ISSN 1749-8848, Vol. 12, nr 11, s. 1-11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2. Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Adaptation to climate change?: Why business-as-usual remains the logical choice in Swedish forestry2018Inngår i: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 48, s. 76-85Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The two latest IPCC assessment reports have concluded that knowledge is not sufficient for inducing action on climate change. This study problematizes the issue of going beyond business-as-usual through a study of the forestry sector in Sweden, which is a large economic sector and could be expected to be an early adapter, given that newly planted forest may stand some 70-90 years into the future. Therefore resources, economic motivation in the longer term and environmental foundations for early adaptation action could be expected to exist. This study draws upon the Foucauldian conceptualization of governmentality to explain the particular institutional logics that nevertheless lead to business-as-usual arguments dominating discussion on adaptation in the case of Swedish forestry. The study emphasizes that adaptation must be seen as steered and limited by existing institutional, social system logics, rather than by externally defined "rational" motivations. Efforts on adaptation to climate change must thus be considered in relation to, and seek to change, existing institutionally based motivational and incentive structures, and must thus be conceived through social rather than environmental logics. In fact, social logics may even define the types of actions that may be regarded as adaptations.

  • 3. Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Keskitalo, E Carina H
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Service logics and strategies of Swedish forestry in the structural shifts of forest ownership: challenging the "old" and shaping the "new"2019Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is one of the most forested countries in Europe, and it has one of the highest shares of productive forest. Production in forestry is largely reliant on the private non-industrial forest owners, who own half of the forest land. As in many countries, however, forest ownership is changing towards a higher extent of urban, female or non-forestry-background owners. This poses a challenge for the forestry services sector, mainly forest owners' associations and companies, but also broadly the sector at large. By exploring the sales and marketing processes, this paper analyses the service logics and strategies of Swedish forestry under changing forest ownership, drawing on an interview study covering all the large actors in the Swedish forestry sector. The study illustrates an increased focus of forestry organizations on services from a strategic and managerial perspective, in customer-oriented relationship development and in value creation and sales processes, specifically in order to manage "new" forest owners and the demand of forest industries. The results highlight the domination of service logics associated with timber production and the challenges for the service market and the provision of diversified services to forest owners.

  • 4. Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Technology use in Swedish reindeer husbandry through a social lens2017Inngår i: Polar Geography, ISSN 1088-937X, E-ISSN 1939-0513, Vol. 40, nr 1, s. 19-34Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationalizing production more effectively, technological developments and innovations also have effects on, for example, skills, knowledge and social relations, that connect the specific technique to large processes and rationalities. In the conflict between user rights and ownership rights in northern Sweden, the introduction of new techniques within reindeer husbandry is studied on a local and embodied level. Through observations and interviews, the tension between empowerment and control in their implementation is further explored by utilizing a labor process theoretical framework. The results illustrate a shift in the definition of skills and knowledge, in relation to the use of GPS and GIS, that reshape, reorganize, restructure and embody the labor process of reindeer husbandry and spatial, temporal and ecological relations. Through its production of subjective conditions and dependence, the disciplinary logic of these techniques contributes to shape and enact governable spaces and subjects within the context. Operating as technologies of government, the techniques emphasize the responsibilities of the reindeer herding community and shape their participation, by reinforcing the demand for certain kind of subjectivities and accountability – governmental rationales that contribute to a technologicalization and depoliticizing of policy and conflict managing.

  • 5. Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Keskitalo, E Carina H
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Bergstén, Sabina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    In the eye of the storm: adaptation logics of forest owners in management and planning in Swedish areas2018Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 33, nr 8, s. 800-808Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With a changing climate, storm and wind throw is becoming an increasing risk to forest. However, Swedish forest management practices have so far involved relatively little consideration of adaptation to climate change. This study examined resistance and alternatives to business as usual forest management, drawing upon material obtained in interviews with individual forest owners who spontaneously identified and discussed storm and wind throw as a risk to their forest. They thereby expressed a logic differing from that of the forest industry in Sweden, which has largely normalised storm risk rather than considering it in climate change adaptation work. The present analysis illustrates the broad and largely concerned position of individual forest owners, in contrast with a more established industry position on storm as an accepted and existing risk. Overall, the study highlights the diversity, agency and power relations within Swedish forestry and the forested landscape - aspects that are vital to better understanding processes relevant to forest and climate change adaptation.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia. Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lawrence, Anna
    Adaptation to climate change in forestry: a perspective on forest ownership and adaptation responses2017Inngår i: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 8, nr 12, artikkel-id 493Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptation to climate change has often been discussed from the perspectives of social vulnerability and community vulnerability, recognising that characteristics at local level will influence the particular adaptations undertaken. However, the extent to which national-level systemic factors influence and shape measures defined as adaptations has seldom been recognised. Focusing on adaptation to climate change in forestry, this study uses the example of two countries in the northern hemisphere with different forest ownership structures, forestry industry and traditions: Sweden, with strong private, non-industrial ownership, dominant forest industry and long forestry traditions; and Scotland, with forest ownership dominated by large estates and investment forestry based on plantations of exotic conifer species. The study shows how adaptation to climate change is structurally embedded and conditioned, which has resulted in specific challenges and constraints for different groups of forest owners within these two different contexts. This produces a specific set of political spaces and policy tools by rendering climate change in relation to forestry manageable, negotiable and practical/logical in specific ways. It is recommended that the focus of future work on climate-related issues and development of adaptation measures and policy should not be primarily on climate-related factors, but on institutional analysis of structural factors and logics in target sectors, in order to critically explore concepts of agency and power within these processes.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Keskitalo, Carina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Insurance models and climate risk assessments in a historical context2016Inngår i: Financial History Review, ISSN 0968-5650, E-ISSN 1474-0052, Vol. 23, nr 2, s. 219-243Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptation to the consequences of climate change has developed as a growing field of concern in the insurance business. However, climate related risks is not entirely a new field in insurance. Historically, a large number of insurance organizational choices and strategies have been used to mitigate the financial impacts of extreme events and uncertainties associated with climate change. Taking the case of forest in Sweden, this paper reviews the ways in which climate related risks such as storm/wind and fire risks have been assured. The study shows that climate related risks generally has increased over time and that major hazard events have been decisive for the strategy and organization choices. The 20th century development shows that corporate insurance coverage increased by higher anticipated risk, while self-insurance and public insurance was reduced. However, in more recent time the expansion of corporate insurance has stagnated. Raised premiums and tighten terms following historically extreme weather events has led government and forest owners to assume more climate risks.

  • 8.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Regulation versus deregulation: Policy divergence between Swedish forestry and the Swedish pulp and paper industry after the 1990s2016Inngår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 73, s. 10-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reviews the divergence of environmental regulatory arrangements in the Swedish forestry sector in relation to the closely-linked Swedish pulp and paper industry. The study finds that while the Swedish forestry sector was deregulated in 1993, with decreased state intervention in forest management, the pulp and paper sector has remained controlled by strong national mandatory requirements which have been further strengthened by European Union Directives after the 1990s. We suggest that one reason for the persistent, strict mandatory regulation of the pulp and paper sector is that conflicting goals between environmental protection and production growth have been aligned through technological change, while such a strong alignment of conflicting interests has not been possible to achieve in the forestry sector. Thus, policy divergence between the forestry and the pulp and paper industries may be explained by the success of established regulatory paths in the case of the pulp and paper industry, while in forestry deregulation has instead been used to, at least formally, increase focus on protection of the environment while maintaining a high level of productivity. Further studies in other sectors and countrieswill be necessary to clarify the specific role of, for example, discourses of deregulation and concepts of competitive advantage concerning e.g. particular actor's roles in specific elements of regulative change.

  • 9.
    Bergstén, Sabina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Feeling at Home from A Distance?: How Geographical Distance and Non-Residency Shape Sense of Place among Private Forest Owners2019Inngår i: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723, Vol. 32, nr 2, s. 184-203Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Out-migration from rural areas and generational shifts create conditions whereby increasing numbers of private forest owners live at a distance from their forestland. Geographical distance and non-residency have been raised as issues that may possibly weaken these owners’ relationships with their properties. Drawing on the “sense of place” concept as a frame of analysis for 51 qualitative interviews with resident and nonresident private forest owners from two areas in Sweden, this study provides in-depth understanding of how geographical distance and place of residency shape owners’ feelings about their forest properties. The study shows that sense of place is constructed in complex and multifaceted ways over time and that social and historical contexts and processes beyond the forest environment can make owners feel closeness to their distant properties. Thus, geographical distance or residency alone does not explain variations in these forest owners’ feelings of distance or closeness to their properties.

  • 10.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Keskitalo, Carina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    How to Influence Forest-Related Issues in the European Union? Preferred Strategies among Swedish Forest Industry2013Inngår i: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 693-709Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although forestry is not a regulated area in the European Union (EU), numerous decisions in other policy areas are related to forestry. However, its position outside of formal policy-making can result in the fact that actors, such as those within the forest industry, may have a larger role when compared to other policy sectors where the state system has an integrated role. This explorative study reviews the ways in which the forest industry in Sweden, one of the EU states with the most forest land, tries to protect and promote its interests on an EU-level. It concludes that a main way to influence  decision-making in the EU is through lobbying, through its own organisations and through the transnational trade association, The Confederation of European Paper Industries (CEPI). The study shows that collectively conducted lobbying is largely preferred which means that internal communication is important since lobbying at the EU-level is potentially limited by the diverging positions of trade association members as well as among the different trade associations themselves.

  • 11. Bullock, Ryan C. L.
    et al.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Vuojala-Magga, Terhi
    Ambjornsson, Emmeline Laszlo
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Forestry administrator framings of responses to socioeconomic disturbance: Examples from northern regions in Canada, Sweden, and Finland2016Inngår i: Environment and Planning. C, Government and Policy, ISSN 0263-774X, E-ISSN 1472-3425, Vol. 34, nr 5, s. 945-962Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As the global forest sector endures rapid crises and more gradually evolving social, political, and environmental influences, little attention has been paid to how forest administrators view changing sectoral conditions and response measures. We analyze policy frames mobilized by 27 senior actors within major private and state-owned companies, and government agencies in northern forest regions of Canada, Sweden, and Finland. Results show that four intervening theme areas are engaged by forest administrators to frame sectoral changes and responses, namely, the role of international markets; timber pricing and supply; the role of the state; and environmental policies. However, perceived regional differences in the level of impact of the international market changes, public versus private wood supply dependence, and satisfaction with forestry institutions lead actors to frame problems and solutions differently. While forest policy discourse is relatively consistent across these regions, responses are specified to regional contexts.

  • 12. Carina, E.
    et al.
    Keskitalo, Carina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Liljenfeldt, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Implementation of forest certification in Sweden: an issue of organisation and communication2014Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 29, nr 5, s. 473-484Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of nature conservation is often implemented on productive forest land largely by means of forest certification a market-driven, voluntary system of third-party verification of the fulfilment of specific goals. This study assesses how certification requirements are being implemented in various organisations in the forest sector at various levels, and the problems and opportunities identified at each level in order to implement the requirements of the standard. Based on interviews with 34 stakeholders in Sweden, the study demonstrates that forest certification is a communication issue: it places great demands on communication or "information logistics" between different parts of the felling and forest management chain, from the top management to the contractor in the field. Integration with environmental performance systems, clarity in the division of responsibility, formalisation of requirements for forest planning and further integration of a culture of continuous improvement and internal reporting could support implementation of the certification system.

  • 13. Dannevig, Halvor
    et al.
    Bay-Larsen, Ingrid
    van Oort, Bob
    Keskitalo, Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Adaptive capacity to changes in terrestrial ecosystem services amongst primary small-scale resource users in northern Norway and Sweden2015Inngår i: Polar Geography, ISSN 1088-937X, E-ISSN 1939-0513, Vol. 38, nr 4, s. 271-288Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents results from case studies in which we investigate the interrelations between changes in ecosystem services (ESs) and adaptive capacity among small-scale users of multi-use forest or outfields resources in northern Sweden and Norway. The study presents a framework that utilizes scenarios for changes in ESs under climate change in combination with qualitative interviews with outfield resource users in order to assess their adaptive capacity to the projected changes. The study illustrates that ESs may change significantly under climate change, and in particular affect winter snow and ice conditions, for instance increasing the duration of the growing season but with consequences for pasture quality. We find that given structural constraints, the key factors that influence the selected resource users' adaptive capacity at an individual level include motivation and entrepreneurial inclinations, which are related to the lifestyle choice of making a livelihood based on small-scale and multi-use occupations.

  • 14.
    Felton, Adam
    et al.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Nilsson, Urban
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Sonesson, Johan
    Skogforsk.
    Felton, Annika M.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Ahlström, Martin
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Björkman, Christer
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Boberg, Johanna
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Drössler, Lars
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet (SLU).
    Fahlvik, Nils
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Gong, Peichen
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Holmström, Emma
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet (SLU).
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Klapwijk, Maartje
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet (SLU).
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Niklasson, Mats
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet (SLU)/Foundation Nordens Ark.
    Nordin, Annika
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Stenlid, Jan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Wallertz, Kristina
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Replacing monocultures with mixed-species stands: Ecosystem service implications of two production forest alternatives in Sweden2016Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, s. 124-139Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas there is evidence that mixed-species approaches to production forestry in general can provide positive outcomes relative to monocultures, it is less clear to what extent multiple benefits can be derived from specific mixed-species alternatives. To provide such insights requires evaluations of an encompassing suite of ecosystem services, biodiversity, and forest management considerations provided by specific mixtures and monocultures within a region. Here, we conduct such an assessment in Sweden by contrasting even-aged Norway spruce (Picea abies)-dominated stands, with mixed-species stands of spruce and birch (Betula pendula or B. pubescens), or spruce and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). By synthesizing the available evidence, we identify positive outcomes from mixtures including increased biodiversity, water quality, esthetic and recreational values, as well as reduced stand vulnerability to pest and pathogen damage. However, some uncertainties and risks were projected to increase, highlighting the importance of conducting comprehensive interdisciplinary evaluations when assessing the pros and cons of mixtures.

  • 15. Futter, Martyn N.
    et al.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Ellison, David
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Strom, Anna
    Andersson, Elisabet
    Nordin, Jessica
    Lofgren, Stefan
    Bishop, Kevin
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Forests, Forestry and the Water Framework Directive in Sweden: A Trans-Disciplinary Commentary2011Inngår i: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 261-282Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) is an ambitious piece of legislation designed to protect and improve water quality throughout Europe. However, forests are only mentioned once in the WFD, and forestry is not mentioned at all, despite its potential implications for streams, rivers and lakes. Here we present a transdisciplinary commentary on the WFD and its implications for forests and forestry in Sweden. This commentary has been prepared by forestry stakeholders, biophysical and social scientists. While we were cognizant of a large body of discipline-specific research, there are very few inter-or trans-disciplinary commentaries which link academic and stakeholder perspectives on the WFD. We had originally felt that there would be little commonality in our concerns. However, we found significant areas of agreement. Our key areas of concern about the implications of the WFD for forestry in Sweden included: (i) concerns about what is meant by good ecological status and how it is assessed; (ii) a perceived lack of clarity in the legal framework; (iii) an inadequate environmental impact assessment process; and (iv) uncertainties about appropriate programs of measures for improving water quality. We were also concerned that ecosystem services provided by forests and the positive effects of forestry on water quality are inadequately recognized in the WFD.

  • 16. Glaas, Erik
    et al.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Insurance sector management of climate change adaptation in three Nordic countries: the influence of policy and market factors2017Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 60, nr 9, s. 1601-1621Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The insurance industry is important for facilitating climate change adaptation. Insurance companies' involvement is, however, influenced by national adaptation policy. The literature suggests that especially policy factors - government interventions, political priorities and public-private cooperation - and market factors - cost offset, cost mitigation, planning flexibility and business opportunities - shape private actor approaches. To increase the understanding of insurance company involvement in adaptation, this study examines how insurance companies' approaches are influenced by policy and market factors in three countries: Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The study found that the policy factors tested significantly shaped the approaches of the companies assessed, while market factors currently appear less influential. This is likely due to the absence of climate risk and adaptation in political debates and among insurance policyholders. The study discusses the potential role of the insurance industry in adaptation governance and suggests how barriers facing insurance companies could be overcome.

  • 17. Holmes, Thomas P.
    et al.
    Allen, Will
    Haight, Robert G.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Marzano, Mariella
    Pettersson, Maria
    Quine, Christopher P.
    Langer, E.R.
    Fundamental economic irreversibilities influence policies for enhancing international forest phytosanitary security2017Inngår i: Current Forestry Reports, ISSN 2198-6436, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 244-254Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    National and international efforts to manage forest biosecurity create tension between opposing sources of ecological and economic irreversibility. Phytosanitary policies designed to protect national borders from biological invasions incur sunk costs deriving from economic and political irreversibilities that incentivizes wait-and-see decision-making. However, the potential for irreversible ecological and economic damages resulting from failed phytosanitary policies argues for precautionary measures, creating sunk benefits while increasing the risk of over-investment in phytosanitary security. Here, we describe the inherent tension between these sources of irreversibility in economic terms, relate these forces to type I and type II errors, and use this framework to review national and international efforts to protect forests from biological invasions. Available historical evidence suggests that wait-and-see phytosanitary decision-making has dominated the adoption of precautionary measures in most regions and that willingness to under-regulate may sometimes be orders of magnitude greater than willingness to over-regulate. Reducing scientific uncertainty about threats to biosecurity may help mitigate the tendency to under-regulate, and phytosanitary security measures with relatively modest sunk costs could help protect forests as scientific learning advances. A fuller accounting of the costs associated with type II errors, particularly regarding the suite of non-market ecosystem services at risk, would help decision-makers better understand the trade-offs between the sunk costs of policies and long-term economic losses to stakeholders.

  • 18.
    Holmgren, Eva
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Lidestav, Gun
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Swedish forest commons: A matter of governance?2010Inngår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 12, nr 6, s. 423-431Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Around 100 years ago, when Crown land in the interior of northern Sweden was privatized, part of the forest land was set aside as forest commons. Today, there are 33 such forest commons jointly managed and owned in common mainly by private forest owners. The forest commons may be looked upon as a means by which the state controls the production of and returns from the forests belonging to small and less affluent forest owners. Further, an attempt has been made to use the forests as a tool to move the self-interests of these small forest owners closer to providing public goods. Forest commons thus hold a contested status, as private lands under public control and as a partly de-regulated form of ownership. This paper examines the extent to which forest commons are currently managed directly by the government, comparing this with the general trend in forest policy towards governance and less prescriptive measures, which often take account of market and participative goals. Building upon Appelstrand (2007), this paper describes the major policy instruments relevant for forest commons from 1861 to 2005. We conclude that direct government management remains dominant, with the major legislation pertaining to forest commons dating back to the 1950s. While governance may seem to be inherent in the forest commons concept, the development of governance has not been fully realised given the relatively strict government-steered framework.

  • 19.
    Hägglund, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Schilar, Hannelene
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Keskitalo, E Carina H
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    How is 'Sami tourism' represented in the English-language scholar literature?2019Inngår i: Polar Geography, ISSN 1088-937X, E-ISSN 1939-0513, Vol. 42, nr 1, s. 58-68Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    'Sami tourism' seems to be increasing, both as a practice as well as a focus of research attention. The present study illustrates a review of English language literature concerning Sami tourism and discusses the specific perspectives in this. The study uses a systematic literature review approach to grasp these perspectives and summarize the findings of pertinent English-language publications. In total 37 relevant publications were found that focus clearly on both 'tourism' and 'Sami' (28 articles and 9 book chapters, all published between the years 1998-2017). Our analysis identifies three central themes in the literature so far: (1) the roles and limitations of Sami tourism, (2) conflicts regarding tourism development, and (3) the representation of Sami in relation to tourism. Finally, these findings are discussed in relation to broader literature including literature published in regional languages.

  • 20.
    Jansson, Roland
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Keskitalo, E Carina H
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Vlasova, Tatiana
    Sutinen, Marja-Liisa
    Moen, Jon
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Chapin, F Stuart, III
    Bråthen, Kari Anne
    Cabeza, Mar
    Callaghan, Terry V
    van Oort, Bob
    Dannevig, Halvor
    Bay-larsen, Ingrid A
    Ims, Rolf A
    Aspholm, Paul Eric
    Future changes in the supply of goods and services from natural ecosystems: prospects for the European north2015Inngår i: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 20, nr 3, artikkel-id 32Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans depend on services provided by ecosystems, and how services are affected by climate change is increasingly studied. Few studies, however, address changes likely to affect services from seminatural ecosystems. We analyzed ecosystem goods and services in natural and seminatural systems, specifically how they are expected to change as a result of projected climate change during the 21st century. We selected terrestrial and freshwater systems in northernmost Europe, where climate is anticipated to change more than the global average, and identified likely changes in ecosystem services and their societal consequences. We did this by assembling experts from ecology, social science, and cultural geography in workshops, and we also performed a literature review. Results show that most ecosystem services are affected by multiple factors, often acting in opposite directions. Out of 14 services considered, 8 are expected to increase or remain relatively unchanged in supply, and 6 are expected to decrease. Although we do not predict collapse or disappearance of any of the investigated services, the effects of climate change in conjunction with potential economical and societal changes may exceed the adaptive capacity of societies. This may result in societal reorganization and changes in ways that ecosystems are used. Significant uncertainties and knowledge gaps in the forecast make specific conclusions about societal responses to safeguard human well-being questionable. Adapting to changes in ecosystem services will therefore require consideration of uncertainties and complexities in both social and ecological responses. The scenarios presented here provide a framework for future studies exploring such issues.

  • 21.
    Johansson, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Coordinating and implementing multiple systems for forest management: implications of the regulatory framework for sustainable forestry in Sweden2014Inngår i: Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research, ISSN 1939-0459, E-ISSN 1939-0467, Vol. 6, nr 2-3, s. 117-133Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexity of multi-level governance is well illustrated by forest management in one of Europe’s large forested states, Sweden. Deregulated government policies emphasise “freedom with responsibility,” largely expecting the forest sector to determine ways in which policy goals and legal requirements are reached. In relation to this, Sweden has become one of the countries with the largest share of forests certified by third-party organisations, such as the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), in accordance with specific environmental and social criteria. This multi-level case study draws on official documents and semi-structured interviews to analyse Swedish forest governance; specifically, the impact of multiplicity and complexity of environmental considerations on agreement over goal coordination, implementation, and evaluation for feedback and accountability. This contributes to previous research by analysing interactions between state regulation and certification at multiple levels.

  • 22.
    Juhola, Sirkku
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Westerhoff, Lisa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Understanding the framings of climate change adaptation across multiple scales of governance in Europe2011Inngår i: Environmental Politics, ISSN 0964-4016, E-ISSN 1743-8934, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 445-463Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change adaptation strategies are emerging across Europe as societies attempt to adapt to the challenges of a changing environment. Social constructivist analyses of environmental policy-especially those emphasising 'framing' - can be very useful in teasing out the framings of policy problems such as adaptation. They can also shed light on the underlying assumptions that steer and guide public and environmental policy. Using the theoretical concept of framing to analyse adaptation policies across different scales of governance in four European countries - Sweden, Finland, the United Kingdom and Italy-and drawing on policy documents from those countries, as well as semi-structured interviews with practitioners, the development of adaptation policy processes and especially how adaptation has been defined within these processes are examined. Four major framings of adaptation are identified: 'planning', 'economic risk', 'vulnerability' and 'existing measures'. These frames affect how adaptation is conceptualised, policy problems defined and, ultimately how policy develops.

  • 23.
    Keskitalo, Carina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Sweden and the Arctic Policy Context: Possibilities for new wine in old bottles?2014Inngår i: International Relations and the Arctic: Understanding Policy and Governance / [ed] Robert Murray, Anita Dey Nuttall, Amherst: Cambria Press, 2014, s. 291-319Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 24.
    Keskitalo, Carina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Eklöf, Jenny
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation in Swedish Forests: Promoting Forestry, Capturing Carbon and Fuelling Transports2011Inngår i: Energy, Policy, and the Environment: Modeling Sustainable Development for the North / [ed] Marja Järvelä & Sirkku Juhola, New York: Springer , 2011, s. 133-153Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 25.
    Keskitalo, Carina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Horstkotte, Tim
    Kivinen, Sonja
    Forbes, Bruce
    Kayhko, Jukka
    "Generality of mis-fit"?: The real-life difficulty of matching scales in an interconnected world2016Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, nr 6, s. 742-752Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A clear understanding of processes at multiple scales and levels is of special significance when conceiving strategies for human-environment interactions. However, understanding and application of the scale concept often differ between administrative-political and ecological disciplines. These mirror major differences in potential solutions whether and how scales can, at all, be made congruent. As a result, opportunities of seeking "goodness-of-fit" between different concepts of governance should perhaps be reconsidered in the light of a potential "generality of mis-fit." This article reviews the interdisciplinary considerations inherent in the concept of scale in its ecological, as well as administrative-political, significance and argues that issues of how to manage "mis-fit" should be awarded more emphasis in social-ecological research and management practices. These considerations are exemplified by the case of reindeer husbandry in Fennoscandia. Whilst an indigenous small-scale practice, reindeer husbandry involves multi-level ecological and administrative-political complexities-complexities that we argue may arise in any multi-level system.

  • 26.
    Keskitalo, Carina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten.
    Att skapa grunden för beslut i kärnavfallsfrågan2009Inngår i: Samhällsforskning 2009: Betydelsen för människorna, hembygden och regionen av ett slutförvar för använt kärnbränsle, Stockholm: SKB , 2009, s. 96-120Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 27.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    A framework for multi-level stakeholder studies in response to global change2004Inngår i: Local Envrionment (Special Issue on Multi-Level Governance), Vol. 9, nr 5, s. 425-435Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 28.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    A methodology for stakeholder-based vulnerability assessment of global change: 2007 Amsterdam Conference on the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change, Amsterdam 24-25 May 2007.2007Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 29.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Actors' Perceptions of Issues in the Implementation of the First Round of the Water Framework Directive: Examples from the Water Management and Forestry Sectors in Southern Sweden2015Inngår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 7, nr 5, s. 2202-2213Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU Water Framework Directive exerts a major impact on water management structure and aims, and water use activities in the member states. This paper reviews the perceptions of the early WFD implementation in a case study area in southern Sweden. The focus is on the perceptions of both water management and forestry actors, the latter as a potential diffuse source impact on water quality. This study highlights the considerable complexity of reorienting or rescaling governance given the complex existing systems particular to the area, the multi-interpretable early policies on implementation and the complexity of interpreting the regionally-focused WFD approach in the largely locally-focused Swedish system. While the first phase of implementation is now long past, conclusions on the complexity of reorienting systems remain relevant, particularly with regard to non-point sources.

  • 30.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Adapting to climate change in Sweden: national policy development and adaptation measures in Västra Götaland2010Inngår i: Developing Adaptation Policy and Pracitce in Europe: Multi-level Governance of Climate Change / [ed] Keskitalo E.C.H., Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2010, s. 189-232Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Located in south-western Sweden, the Vastra Gotaland region is often seen as one of the areas of the country most vulnerable to flooding and erosion, and will be highly impacted by flooding and sea level rise as a result of climate change Drawing upon a literature study and semi-structured interviews with actors in climate policy, this chapter reviews the development of adaptation policy in Sweden The chapter focuses particularly on the Commission on Climate and Vulnerability (2007) and a government bill An Integrated Climate and Energy Policy Climate (2009) in which suggestions by the Commission were included The chapter describes the development of adaptation policy and measures on the regional and local levels in Vastra Gotaland and within select municipalities The study illustrates the national distribution of responsibility through which municipalities are given a large role in integrating adaptation measures, and describes some of the differentiated responses such responsibilities may elicit on the local level.

  • 31.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Adaptive capacity and adaptation in Swedish multi-use boreal forests: sites of interaction between different land uses2010Inngår i: Adaptive capacity and environmental governance / [ed] Derek Armitage, Ryan Plummer, Heidelberg: Springer , 2010, s. 89-106Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Governance and conflict resolution in multi-use forests require the integration of stakeholders and decision-makers in multiple sectors: forestry, reindeer husbandry, conservation, tourism and local use. To a large extent, these sectors are characterised by divergent interests and considerable power discrepancies. Drawing upon semi-structured interviews in Gällivare, a municipality in northernmost Sweden, this paper discusses adaptive capacity with regard to interaction between sectors. The chapter examines impacts of the different land uses on each other, identifies adaptation options, and describes existing interaction measures. The chapter concludes that adaptive capacity at the local level is constrained by a number of factors, one example being the institutionalised character of reindeer herding–forestry relations that may limit adaptation at the local level.

  • 32.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Arktis är inget undantag2009Inngår i: Polarår: Svenska sällskapet för antropologi och geografi / [ed] Gunhild Rosqvist och Sverker Sörlin, Stockholm: Svenska sällskapet för antropologi och geografi , 2009, s. 219-234Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 33.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Can Arctic governance support regional climate change adaptation?: 2007 Amsterdam Conference on the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change, Amsterdam 24-26 May 2007.2007Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 34.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Climate change adaptation as governmentality: Cases from the UK and Sweden2009Inngår i: The 7th International Science Conference on the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change, 2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 35.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Climate change adaptation in the United Kingdom: England and South-East England2010Inngår i: Developing Adaptation Policy and Practice in Europe: Multi-level Governance of Climate Change / [ed] Keskitalo E.C.H., Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2010, s. 97-147Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The UK has been one of the early actors in developing adaptation to climate change, and today has a comprehensive legislative and regulative framework for including climate change effects in planning This chapter reviews the development of the UK approach, drawing on a literature study and semi-structured interviews conducted with several actors, the majority of whom are from public administration at the national, regional and local levels The study focuses on England and the South-East England region in particular, one of the areas most at risk of flooding and sea level rise in the UK In addition to discussing the national and regional levels, the chapter describes how adaptation has been integrated in a number of counties, cities and boroughs in the area All in all, the study reveals a relatively developed approach to adaptation, made possible in part as a result of both the recognised sensitivity of selected areas to climate change and the centralised nature of the political system Centralised as well as network capacities of the central government have made it possible for the national level to both include adaptation criteria in the performance assessment framework for local authorities, and for these to be broadly accepted among affected actors.

  • 36.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Climate Change and Flood Risk Management: Adaptation and Extreme Events at Local Level2013Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate Change and Flood Risk Management discusses and problematises the integration of adaptation to climate change in flood risk management.

    The book explores adaptation to climate change in relation to flood risk events in advanced industrial states. It provides examples of how flood risk management, disaster and emergency management, and adaptation to climate change may intersect in a number of European and Canadian cases.

    Taken together, the studies show that integration of adaptation in flood risk and emergency management may differ strongly – not only with risk, but with a number of institutional and contextual factors, including capacities and priorities in the specific municipal cases and within a national and wider context.

    The book will be relevant to researchers involved with adaptation to climate change and those involved with comprehensive planning in relation to it. It will also be of interest to academics within the fields of environmental studies and the environmentally-oriented social sciences.

  • 37.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Climate change and globalization in the Arctic: An integrated approach to vulnerability assessment2008Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 38.
    Keskitalo, E Carina H
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Climate change, vulnerability and adaptive capacity in a multi-use forest municipality in Northern Sweden2010Inngår i: Community adaptation and vulnerability in arctic regions / [ed] Grete K. Hovelsrud, Barry Smit, Springer Netherlands, 2010, s. 285-311Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The impacts of climate change may be especially large on areas where conflicts regarding renewable resources such as multi-use forests already exist, and may increasingly impact sectors where access to resources is already limited. Drawing upon the CAVIAR framework for analysing current and future exposure-sensitivity and adaptive capacity in Gallivare municipality, northern Sweden, this chapter describes the socio-economic and environmental context of, and current and potential adaptations to, changes in forestry, reindeer husbandry, and winter tourism. The chapter concludes that these land use sectors are impacted by considerable economic and market pressures, with the result that conflicts between sectors have become increasingly pronounced. While climate change will eventually affect all land use sectors, impacts may be felt most immediately by those with the smallest existing margins for their activities, such as reindeer husbandry.

  • 39.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Conclusion: flood management and adaptation – viewing flood events in context2013Inngår i: Climate Change and Flood Risk Management: Adaptation and Extreme Events at Local Level / [ed] E. Carina H. Keskitalo, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013, s. 290-308Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 40.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Conclusion: new forest owners under globalised, rural-urban relations2017Inngår i: Globalisation and change in forest ownership and forest use: natural resource management in transitio / [ed] E. Carina H. Keskitalo, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, s. 303-314Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter summarises the trends and changes affecting rural development, in general, and forest ownership as a phenomenon, in particular, as they have been outlined in this volume. The chapter, and the book at large, illustrates that the extensive variations in forest owner characteristics may best be comprehended through complex conceptions, of not only rural but also urban populations and the intersections existing between them. The cases highlighted in this book thus in particular show upon the large but also changing role of forest ownership in Europe.

  • 41.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Conclusion: the development of adaptive capacity and adaptation measures in European countries2010Inngår i: Developing Adaptation Policy and Pracitce in Europe: Multi-level Governance of Climate Change / [ed] Keskitalo E. Carina H., Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2010, s. 339-366Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume has related the development of adaptation policy and practice to a number of structural, context-based or procedural capacities, these include the extent of decentralisation, the type of planning systems, the institutionalization of environmental policy, and the occurrence of focusing events across multi-level governance systems The case study material has consisted of nested case studies on national, regional and local levels in the UK, Finland, Sweden and Italy, supplemented by comparative cases viewed mainly within the context of the European Union This chapter summarizes the results of the study with a focus on the parameters defined in the introduction and describes the significant variety in outcomes across the case study countries Differences range from a comprehensive multi-level framework for adaptation in the centralised unitary UK state, to more limited approaches in Sweden and Finland, to the failure to thus far institutionalise adaptation policy in Italy The case studies support identifying the parameters affecting adaptive capacity and the development of adaptation responses However, no single factor in itself can readily explain the variety of responses to adaptation.

  • 42.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Developing adaptation policy and practice in Europe: Multi-level governance of climate change2010Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 43.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Forestry and reindeer herding in northern Sweden and Finland: Presentation at the CAVIAR official side event, UNFCCC COP 13, Bali, December 20072007Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 44.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Globalisation and change in forest ownership and forest use: natural resource management in transition2017Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This book describes the changing landscape of European forest ownership and explores the impact a new, often urban, generation of forest owners may have on the future of one of our most basic resources – forests. Forests have not played a major role in rural studies thus far, however they constitute an important part of many rural areas. Drawing on Swedish cases and comparison cases from various other areas of Europe, the authors present these 'new forest owners' as a pivotal factor in the changing relationships between urban and rural life. The chapters explore how forest production, the relationship to the environment, urban-rural relations and local communities have already changed. The authors also discuss what might be expected for the future.

    A result of work in the Swedish research programme PLURAL and related projects, such as the EU Cost Action FACESMAP, this volume will be of interest to scholars of forestry and rural studies, as well as to researchers in environmental, population and globalization studies more broadly.

  • 45.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Governance in vulnerability assessment: the role of decision-making networks in determining local vulnerability and adaptive capacity2009Inngår i: Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, ISSN 1381-2386, E-ISSN 1573-1596, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 185-201Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Community-based vulnerability assessment has often assumed that the local is the relevant level of adaptation to climate change. This paper suggests that not only do a number of levels from the international to the regional influence which adaptations can take place locally, but the governance network that is made up by actors on different levels may to a large extent be formed in responses to globalising factors, such as internationalisation of economies and the changing role of the state. The paper presents a study of adaptation in reindeer (Rangifier tarandus) herding, forestry and fishing communities in northern Norway, Sweden, and Finland, with a focus on assessing stakeholders’ own perceptions of environmental, socio-political and economic factors that affect them. In general, the paper illustrates the integration of non-subsistence economies into large and complex interactions where local adaptation is a result of the sum of stresses impacting individual entrepreneurs, and the potential they have to adapt their practices given governance (and their access to support) on different scales.

  • 46.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    How Can Forest Management Adapt to Climate Change?: Possibilities in Different Forestry Systems2011Inngår i: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 415-430Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is only relatively recently that national adaptation strategies have begun to develop measures by which forestry can adapt to climate change; often those measures opt to use a relatively general strategy for coping under conditions of disturbance. Particularly in states using intensive forest management, such as Sweden, this approach marks a departure from current strategies for achieving maximum yield. In other countries, however, where the economic output from forestry is less significant and interests such as biodiversity, local use and tourism, may figure more prominently, the conditions for developing risk-based forest management may be more manifest. This study reviews literature on adaptations in forest management, and analyzes country reports submitted as part of an EU27 project. The study concludes that the diverse prerequisites and policies of states have seldom been reflected in the design of adaptation management actions to date.

  • 47.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Hur påverkar globala miljöförändringar nordliga områden?2007Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 48.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Hur påverkas skogsbruk, fiske och rennäring i Barentsregionen av globalisering och klimatförändringar?2007Inngår i: Barents - ett gränsland i Norden / [ed] Hallberg, Torsten, Stockholm: Föreningen Norden , 2007Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 49.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Images of the northern and 'Arctic' in tourism and regional literature2017Inngår i: Tourism and indigeneity in the Arctic / [ed] Arvid Viken and Dieter K. Müller, Bristol: Channel View Publications, 2017, s. 33-49Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 50.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    International region-building: The development of the Arctic as an international region2007Inngår i: Cooperation and Conflict, ISSN 0010-8367, E-ISSN 1460-3691, Vol. 42, nr 2, s. 187-205Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Arctic has emerged as a region in international cooperation during the past 20—30 years, as manifest in the creation of the Arctic Council and its predecessor, the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy, and in the incidence of a host of scientific and political cooperation projects. The region now includes eight states over the circumpolar area; namely, the United States, Russia, Canada and the Nordic countries. How this international region has developed over time is investigated with reference to the conception of regions as understood in region-building discourse. Accordingly, the Arctic as a region that is not natural or given but as constructed by and for particular actors and interests is studied. It is concluded that the regional superstructure includes conceptions of the North that draw on images developed in historical exploration and research, shaped by a discourse of the Arctic representing North American more than Nordic understandings.

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