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  • 1.
    Aegerter Alvarez, Juan Felipe
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Pustina, Aferdita
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Hällgren, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Escalating commitment in the death zone: new insights from the 1996 Mount Everest disaster2011Inngår i: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 29, nr 8, s. 971-985Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The procession of people and organisations that pour resources into evidently failing causes is surprising and seemingly never-ending. This phenomenon, which is called “escalating commitment” (Staw, 1976), refers to situations in which people are incapable of turning future disasters into sound current decisions. The purpose of this paper is to use the, in project management literature (Kloppenborg and Opfer, 2002), non-traditional case of the 1996 Mt Everest disaster to explain and analyse escalating commitment determinants and processes. Not only does the paper identify and add a determinant to escalation but it also treats determinants and processes in a novel and intertwined fashion. The conceptual developments and findings suggest that escalating commitment strives on conditions that are inherent to any project, which consequently project managers should be aware of. Based on the results project failures could be better explained and understood by examining several explanatory levels simultaneously.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Anell, Barbro
    Blomquist, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Hällgren, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Wilson, Timothy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Zackariasson, Peter
    Challenges in project management: Grabbing the elephant2007Inngår i: Projects & Profits, Vol. 7, nr 12, s. 33-37Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Projects and project management tend to have special meanings to the individuals involved in a specific line of research. This article reports on some topics covered in an informal Swedish network devoted to study project management. Ten topics are selected for discussion that fall into three broad categories—projects as practice, productivity in projects and education in a PM curriculum.

  • 3.
    Blomquist, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Gällstedt, Margareta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Hällgren, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Söderholm, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Project as practice: making project research matter2006Inngår i: Proceedings of IRNOP VII Project Research Conference, Beijing: Publishing house electronics industry , 2006, s. 540-549Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Project theory is not only an immature field of research, it is insubstantial when it comes to understanding what is really going on in projects. This paper contributes to making project research matter to the academic as well as the practitioner through the theoretical development of a project-as-practice approach, aligned with an ongoing debate in social science research. We outline the framework of project-as-practice and argue that there are two major challenges to the researcher: the relevance challenge and the pattern challenge. We suggest how these challenges can be met and give some examples of earlier studies that have done so. The practice approach is not a substitute to present theorizing but rather a complement that brings substance. Finally, underlying notions of the practice approach are outlined in order to have a fruitful future development of a project-as-practice approach that makes project theory matter!

  • 4.
    Blomquist, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Hällgren, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Development of virtual teams and learning communities2006Inngår i: Collaborating virtually: concepts and applications, Punjagutta, India: ICFAI University Press , 2006, s. 121-131Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Students of an Internet based course in project management worked during a 20 week period worked in teams of 4-6 persons. The course consisted of Swedish students living in Sweden or abroad, which made it impossible for many of the teams to have any face-to-face interaction. During the course, the teams were assigned a series of discussion questions and cases. The study, based on a survey of 287 students who participated in the course, examined their experience of teamwork and showed that many of the classical team development issues also evolve in a virtual team. Furthermore, the study showed that students considered their teamwork was efficient and that being able to communicate, discuss and share experiences was essential for developing a positive learning community.

  • 5.
    Blomquist, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Hällgren, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Söderholm, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Project-as-practice: in search of project management research that matters2012Inngår i: IEEE Engineering Management Review, ISSN 0360-8581, E-ISSN 1937-4178, Vol. 40, nr 3, s. 88-103Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 6.
    Blomquist, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Hällgren, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Söderholm, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Sundsvall.
    Project-as-practice: in search of project management research that matters2010Inngår i: Project Management Journal, ISSN 8756-9728, E-ISSN 1938-9507, Vol. 41, nr 1, s. 5-16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on projects is not only an immaturefield of research, but it is also insubstantial whenit comes to understanding what occurs in projects.This article contributes to making projectmanagement research matter to the academic aswell as to the practitioner by developing a projectas-practice approach, in alignment with theongoing debate in social science research.The article outlines a framework and argues thatthere are two major challenges to the researcherand also suggests how these challenges can bemet. Underlying notions of the practice approachare outlined to ensure a development of theproject-as-practice approach that makes projectmanagement research matter!

  • 7. Buchanan, David A.
    et al.
    Hällgren, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Surviving a zombie apocalypse: Leadership configurations in extreme contexts2019Inngår i: Management Learning, ISSN 1350-5076, E-ISSN 1461-7307, Vol. 50, nr 2, s. 152-170Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    What can the classic zombie movie, Day of the Dead, tell us about leadership? In our analysis of this film, we explore leadership behaviours in an extreme context - a zombie apocalypse where survivors face persistent existential threat. Extreme context research presents methodological challenges, particularly with regard to fieldwork. The use of films as proxy case studies is one way in which to overcome these problems, and for researchers working in an interpretivist perspective, 'social science fiction' is increasingly used as a source of inspiration and ideas. The contribution of our analysis concerns highlighting the role of leadership configurations in extreme contexts, an approach not previously addressed in this field, but one that has greater explanatory power than current perspectives. In Day of the Dead, we observe several different configurations - patterns of leadership styles and behaviours - emerging, shifting and overlapping across the phases of the narrative, each with radically different consequences for the group of survivors. These observations suggest a speculative theory of leadership configurations and their implications in extreme contexts, for exploring further, with other methods.

  • 8. Elsbach, Kimberley D
    et al.
    Hällgren, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    How temporary organizations promote dysfunctional goal pursuit: the case of the 1996 Mt. Everest disaster2016Inngår i: Contemporary organizational behavior: from ideas to action / [ed] Kimberley D Elsbach, Anna B Kayes, D Christopher Kayes, Pearson Education Academic Publisher, 2016, s. 300-306Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 9.
    Hällgren, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Among deviations and their remedies: managing the unexpected in e-voting projects2011Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10.
    Hällgren, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Företagsekonomi.
    Avvikelsens mekanismer: Observationer av projekt i praktiken2009Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund I det närmaste alla organisationer strävar efter att använda sina resurser så effektivt som möjligt. Vad som dock inte diskuterats i någon större utsträckning är att den starkt kopplade komplexa organisationen inte klarar av att bemöta ens den minsta avvikelsen utan att ägna den direkt uppmärksamhet. Den övergripande frågan är därför Hur hanteras avvikelser i starkt kopplade projekt? Det teoretiska ramverket är först och främst projektlitteratur men ramverket vidgas sedermera till att omfatta praktikansatslitteratur samt Weicks (1976) ”Loosely coupled systems”.

    Metod Givet ansatsen faller det sig naturligt att göra en fallstudie med observationer som huvudsaklig metod. Utöver tolv veckors observationer förlitar jag mig på 57 intervjuer och mängder av dokument. En organisation, två projektgrupper och 118 avvikelser observerades totalt under perioden. De data som samlades in analyserades med hjälp av dataprogrammet Nvivo.

    Resultat Analysen är uppdelad i tre integrerade kapitel. Det första kapitlet diskuterar avvikelser som företeelse och definierar begreppet närmare. En avvikelse definieras som en händelse som kräver såväl identitet som handlingskraft. Det andra analyskapitlet analyserar praktiken närmare. Allt som allt observerades 29 praktiker vilka kunde grupperas i åtta praktikmönster. Praktikmönstren kunde sedermera inordnas i två distinkta löskopplingsmönster i en teoretiskt underbyggd och empiriskt styrkt figur. Figuren och följaktligen praktikmönstren beskriver hur avvikelsen görs löst kopplad. Det tredje analyskapitlet diskuterar fem mekanismer som följer av med de löst kopplade avvikelserna. Dessa fem mekanismer kan sedermera betonas och utnyttjas av projektledaren.

    Slutsatser Slutsatserna följer två spår. Det ena spåret fokuserar på projekt i allmänhet och projektledning i synnerhet. Slutsatsen som kan dras där är att det finns en inneboende osäkerhet i projekt som kan utnyttjas för att hantera avvikelser. Alla avvikelser har inte stora konsekvenser men de besitter vissa gemensamma egenskaper. Det andra spåret är ett bidrag till teorin om löst kopplade system. Länge har en processuell och praktikbaserad studie saknats. Genom att undersöka löskopplingsprocesser i ljuset av en praktikansats har jag visat hur löskopplingsprocesser ser ut.

  • 11.
    Hällgren, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Beyond the point of no return: On the management of deviations2007Inngår i: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, Vol. 25, nr 8, s. 773-780Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores how deviations are managed in practice in a diesel power plant project. The article builds upon an analysis of a case study of a power plant project and a true story of mountaineering. Metaphorically the paper uses mountaineering to shed light onto the management of deviations and the decisions that follow. At first sight the comparison is farfetched, but once the picture is painted there are similarities that make it worthwhile. The analysis demonstrates the impact of the point of no return on formal procedures when the actions associated with deviations are forced and how these actions are by necessity sanctioned after the solutions are found.

  • 12.
    Hällgren, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Coupling mechanisms in the management of deviations: Project-as-Practice observations2009Inngår i: Progress in Management Engineering:   / [ed] Jan M. Cassell & Lucas P. Gragg, Nova Science Publishers Inc , 2009Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 13.
    Hällgren, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Dealing with deviations: Investigating coupling mechanisms in project management2007Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Projects are often run concurrently, with tight deadlines, and no slack available to absorb delays. Consequently, projects are vulnerable for disturbances and dealing with project deviations are thus a daily practice within complex and tightly coupled projects. This paper aims at an understanding of how deviations are dealt with in practice when regular best practice and project execution models are less appropriate. A coupling perspective is used to analyze data from an extensive case study. We present different de-coupling and re-coupling mechanisms. De-coupling are activities to define and understand deviation while re-coupling represent mechanisms to mitigate consequences of the deviation. Two broad categories of management action patterns are finally discussed: Autopilot management when management is mostly to monitor and ensure smooth project execution and manual override management when immediate and precise management action is required to deal with the unexpected.

  • 14.
    Hällgren, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Dropping the tools: team formation on Everest in 19962009Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 15.
    Hällgren, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Groupthink in temporary organizations2010Inngår i: International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, ISSN 1753-8378, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 94-110Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of groupthink in temporary organizations. Only anecdotally has the literature touched upon how the temporary organization's structure may foster groupthink. Studies of faulty group processes are imperative since temporary organizations are becoming more common. Design/methodology/approach – Following the design used by several authors who analyzed the Everest events, this paper is an historic in-depth case study based on accounts of several survivors. Findings – Three out of four features of groupthink are found and analyzing the Everest events there are several symptoms to groupthink that may be present in any temporary organization. Research limitations/implications – Groupthink as a theoretical idea is well developed but has received limited attention in a temporary organization (project) setting. More attention should be given to group dynamics in general and groupthink in particular. Practical implications – Some practices are suggested to avoid groupthink. Furthermore, project managers find themselves in a balancing act between freedom, efficiency, and fast decisions. The context should be allowed to decide which the correct approach is. Finally, blowing the whistle should never be a problem and never be punished. Originality/value – The setting of this paper is original although it is to the structure a common project. When life is at stake, features and symptoms of groupthink become more evident. The theoretical field is almost non-existent in a temporary organization setting hence there is a considerable value to the theoretical development of temporary organizations and groupthink.

  • 16.
    Hällgren, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Groupthink in the death zone: failure of a temporary organizationManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Fourteen years ago the concept and structure of “temporary organizations” was demonstrated. The purpose of this article is to examine whether temporary organizations promote groupthink and to assess whether and impedes progress. to assess whether groupthink contributes to uncriticised behaviour that impedes progress. The case of the 1996 Mount Everest tragedy, in which 15 people died, was scrutinized using the published personal accounts of survivors and subsequent research. An argument is developed to show that temporary organizations carry features that induce groupthink. Some remedies are suggested and the importance of the phenomenon is highlighted by the fact that mountaineering deaths and failing projects which are still happening may be caused by it.

  • 17.
    Hällgren, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Grupptänkande i projekt2009Inngår i: Projektvärlden : en tidning från svenskt projektforum, ISSN 1652-3016, nr 4, s. 20-23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 18.
    Hällgren, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Karl E. Weick: On organizing2011Inngår i: On the shoulders of giants / [ed] Tommy Jensen, Timothy L. Wilson, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2011, s. 267-280Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 19.
    Hällgren, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Managing deviations in projects2010Inngår i: Projects & Profits, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 31-36Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Deviations or unexpected events are especially common and hard to manage in complex, tightly coupled projects. In such projects, the margins for error are low and project activities demand a high level of integration and interdependence among the resources.

  • 20.
    Hällgren, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Mechanisms of deviations: Observations of projects in practice2009Inngår i: International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, ISSN 1753-8378, Vol. 2, nr 4, s. 611-625Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe and summarise a PhD thesis that contributes to the understanding of how unexpected events (deviations) are handled. It explores the reality of project manager’s attempts to address loosely coupled components of tightly coupled projects from a projects-as-practice approach.

     

    Design/method/approach – Research reported up here is based upon a qualitative data gathering approach adopting an ethnographic research approach, gathering data from 12 weeks of participant observations, fifty nine interviews and studying supporting documentation with the offices under study. This approach is warranted by the projects-as-practice approach which puts emphasis on the situated actions.

     

    Findings: Rather than reducing uncertainty, project management action through coping with deviations to expectations provides mechanisms that thrive on the uncertainty of the situation. Project managers can cope with unexpected deviations to plan in a logical and rigorous way that is currently poorly recognized as an official project management ‘skill’.

     

    Practical Implications: More space for action is created to solve the specific deviation by enhancing the seriousness of the deviation .The longer the project manager is able to emphasize the structures of a deviation the more time the project manager has to find a suitable solution.

     

    Originality/value: There are two main areas of conclusion that are given attention. First, uncertainty is inherent in projects which can be used when dealing with deviations in projects because while all deviations do not have great consequences, they follow the same basic pattern when managed. Project management in this sense becomes the management of deviations. Second, in terms of the theory of loosely coupled systems, a practice based analysis has been largely missing in the project management literature. The study reported upon investigates and explains this inner life of loose coupling mechanisms.

  • 21.
    Hällgren, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Mellan plan och kaos: En studie av avvikelser i projektintensiva organisationer2004Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 22.
    Hällgren, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Novel or incremental?: Developing theories for temporary organizing and projects through the construction of the research question2014Inngår i: Methods, designs and practices for research into project management: Methods, designs and practices for research into project management / [ed] Beverly Pasian, Gower Publishing Ltd., 2014Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 23.
    Hällgren, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    On managing the uncertain: Observations of project management2009Inngår i: Journal of current issues in Finance, Business and Economics, Vol. 2, nr 2/3, s. 95-112Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 24.
    Hällgren, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    On the management of deviations2007Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally projects are considered means for getting things done simultaneously striving for efficient and accurate methods – meaning, doing more in less time. A consequence, not often discussed, is that doing more things in less time with a closer focus on cost, will inevitably lead to a more complex and tightly connected project execution system which is more sensitive to deviations. Following a “project-as-practice” perspective this paper explores and analysis how deviations are managed. The findings suggest that even though the company manages about 120 projects/year deviations cannot be avoided. The deviations were found to initially de-couple (process of creating loosely coupled activities) from the overall project process and later on re-couple (process of tight coupling activities) when the deviation were solved. The paper suggests that the management of deviations is dynamic and changing and that the concept of coupling is a fruitful way of exploring the dynamic process.

  • 25.
    Hällgren, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Projekt är farliga!2013Inngår i: Thule: Kungl. Skytteanska samfundets årsbok / [ed] Jacobsson R, Umeå: Kungl. Skytteanska samfundet , 2013Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 26.
    Hällgren, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Reflections on a Scientific Career: Behind the professor’s CV2014Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 27.
    Hällgren, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Situated teams: dropping the tools on Everest2011Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 28.
    Hällgren, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Situated teams: dropping tools on Mount Everest2017Inngår i: Project management in extreme situations: lessons from polar expeditions, military and rescue operations, and wilderness explorations / [ed] Monique Aubry, Pascal Lièvre, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2017, s. 171-196Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 29.
    Hällgren, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    The construction of research questions in project management2012Inngår i: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 30, nr 7, s. 804-816Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines how opportunities for contributions are created in project research. In the article the arguments that underlie research question constructions are analyzed and their role in theory construction is reflected upon. The analysis is based upon a review of 61 papers published between 2007 and 2011 in the four major project management outlets. The results show that questions identify gaps and extend literature rather than challenge the theoretical assumptions. It is argued that the dominance of “gap spotting” hampers the development of the project field by producing theories that do not challenge long-held, sometimes possibly false, assumptions. Researchers are therefore urged to become bolder in their claims, some suggestions on how to achieve this are offered.

  • 30.
    Hällgren, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Blomquist,, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Söderholm, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Project management practice: making project management research matter2006Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Project theory is not only an immature field of research, it is insubstantial when it comes to understanding what is really going on in projects. This paper contributes to making project research matter to the academic as well as the practitioner through the theoretical development of a project-as-practice approach, aligned with an ongoing debate in social science research. We outline the framework of project-as-practice and argue that there are two major challenges to the researcher: the relevance challenge and the pattern challenge. We suggest how these challenges can be met and give some examples of earlier studies that have done so. The practice approach is not a substitute to present theorizing but rather a complement that brings substance. Finally, underlying notions of the practice approach are outlined in order to have a fruitful future development of a project-as-practice approach that makes project theory matter!

  • 31.
    Hällgren, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    DeFillippi, Robert
    Suffolk University.
    Tensions of creativity in temporary organizing2014Inngår i: Advancing research on projects and temporary organizations / [ed] Lundin, R & Hällgren, M, Copenhagen Business School Press, 2014Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 32.
    Hällgren, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Grönlund, Å
    Internetval - succé eller fiasko?: Försöket vid Umeå studentkår2003Inngår i: HumanIT 2003 / [ed] John Sören Pettersson, Karlstad: Centre for HumanIT, Karlstad University , 2003, Vol. 6, nr 121-162, s. 121-162Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 33.
    Hällgren, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Jacobsson, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Using retrospective data to study extreme contexts: the case of impromptu teams2019Inngår i: SAGE research methods cases, London: Sage Publications, 2019, s. 1-9Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This teaching case focuses on challenges and opportunities of studying extreme contexts in general and the use of retrospective data in particular. The case takes its start in a retrospective case study of the fatal 1996 Mount Everest climbing incident. Based in the case description, the research design of the article, and the practical execution, a number of challenging areas and important lessons with respect to studying extreme contexts are outlined. By working with the method case, we expect students to further their ability to assess the main benefits and challenges when studying extreme contexts, discuss the appropriateness of possible methods when studying extreme contexts, analyze the use of method applied to a specific extreme context, and critically examine the use of method applied to this specific (extreme) case.

  • 34.
    Hällgren, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Jacobsson, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Söderholm, Anders
    Embracing the drifting environment: The legacy and impact of a Scandinavian Project literature classic2012Inngår i: International Journal of Managing Projects in Business/Emerald, ISSN 1753-8378, E-ISSN 1753-8386, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 695-713Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview and analysis of the legacy of Christensen and Kreiner's (1991) literally classic Projektledning: att leda och lära i en ofullständig värld (Project Management: to manage and learn in an incomplete world).

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a three-step theoretical analysis deduced from the mentioned classic. The first step provides an overview of the content where the core ideas of the book are derived. This is followed by an analysis of the legacy and impact on theory, empirical approaches, and education. Finally, three main takeaways from the book are discussed.

    Findings – In tracking the legacy, the paper analyses, discusses, and illustrates how the Scandinavian approach to projects has evolved. It pinpoints the two core insights of the book; the importance of understanding the impact of the institutional environment on operations, and embracing uncertainty as a natural part of everyday organizational reality. Based on these insights it is shown how the book has expanded the theoretical contributions towards a focus on temporary organisations and everyday practice, how it has helped to make situated empirical research matter, and how it has influenced education to deal with real-life project challenges.

    Research limitations/implications – This paper investigates a book available only in the Scandinavian language and thus only available for a Scandinavian research community. As such the review is written from a Scandinavian perspective, with the limitations in terms of objectivity to the book that follow from that.

    Practical implications – The main lessons discussed in relation to the heritage from the book are: an increased focus on the details of organizing, situated multi-level case-studies, and situation-sensitive teaching methodologies. The paper argues that an increased understanding of projects should start with a detailed multi-level analysis of temporary organizing to provide a sound foundation on which to base future research and teaching.

    Originality/value – The paper provides an understanding of the origins and diffusion of underpinning ideas of the Scandinavian approach to project management.

  • 35.
    Hällgren, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Lilliesköld, Joakim
    Industrial Information and Control Systems, School of Electrical Engineering, KTH - Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm .
    Three modes of deviation handling: coping with unexpected events in project management2006Inngår i: Technology management for the global future, 2006, s. 2236-2243Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the project management tools suggested in the literature are effective under perfect conditions with unlimited resources. However by definition, projects are neither unlimited in time nor resources, which creates a gap between the perfect conditions and the reality that most project managers and teams face. The case studies that this paper investigates are based on in-depth participative observations, interviews, emails and other written material. The results are rather surprising as project teams do not seem to use methods suggested in the literature when responding to the sudden appearance of unexpected situations, that is; deviations. The cases give an insight into the dynamics of project management and how informal teams are used to increase speed and flexibility. These informal teams could meet when needed in order to discuss and solve problems or changes. Further, in two of the cases, traditional project planning was not used at the top management level to plan and coordinate the projects. Thus, the cases show that the management of projects according to traditional plans is not the only means of making a project successful. Instead, the creation of a flexible organization that can identify, react, and act upon the changes that most likely will occur becomes more crucial in order to be able to successfully deliver the project

  • 36.
    Hällgren, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Lindahl, Marcus
    Coping with lack of authority Extending research on project governance with a practice approach2017Inngår i: International Journal of Managing Projects in Business/Emerald, ISSN 1753-8378, E-ISSN 1753-8386, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 244-262Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to identify and explore alternative coping strategies that may compensate for the limitations of weak governance structure in a product development project. Design/methodology/approach - The findings are based on a single case study, including interviews and documents, of a product development project that consists of two interlinked projects in a large multinational company. Findings - Two distinct procedures are identified to cope and manage effectively when there are weak project governance structures. The first procedure is a horizontal process of operational consensus-seeking where conflicts between projects are negotiated and resolved through communication between independent actors such as two project managers who are at the same hierarchical level within the same organization. The second process is a vertical process of strategic escalation where issues that have failed to be resolved are shifted upwards to a new hierarchical level where a new round of operational consensus-seeking is attempted. Research limitations/implications - This paper complements the existing understanding of project governance with a project-as-practice perspective. Based on the findings the authors suggest that project governance needs to be nuanced in its understanding since a too-structured approach may in fact increase tensions in an organization. Practical implications - Practical insights include how organizations may work with its project governance structures in order to avoid tensions. The authors suggest that, in particular, politically sensitive situations may be avoided by weak rather than strong governance structures. Social implications - The authors find that weak governance structures may be efficient for the organization, but harmful to personnel, who become too focused on the task at hand. Originality/value - To the best of the authors' knowledge very little research has been attributed to project governance from a practice approach. Moreover, most attention has been given to strong structures, thereby not examining the positive implications of weak structures.

  • 37.
    Hällgren, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Lindahl, Marcus
    Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    How do you do?: On situating old project sites through practice-based studies2012Inngår i: International Journal of Managing Projects in Business/Emerald, ISSN 1753-8378, E-ISSN 1753-8386, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 335-344Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this editorial is to reflect on the growing interest of situated project research.

    Design/methodology/approach – The editorial is conceptual and relies on published work and the articles included in the special issue.

    Findings – With this special issue it is found that practice-based studies, also called Projects-as-Practice studies, interested in the everyday activities of project practitioners, are multi-faceted and rich. What may also be seen is that practice-based studies are not yet a coherent area. However, it is more important that practice-based studies allow researchers to understand the organization less as an entity and more as a socially-accomplished task.

    Research limitations/implications – Several implications for research are offered, including the need for studies that emphasize the small details of organizing, and that practice-based studies are not restricted to a certain methodology but depend on what a particular paper tries to accomplish.

    Practical implications – With an ever-growing stream of research focusing on projects the guest editors argue that it is about time to look into the details of organizing. This could be accomplished through a number of ways but in this special issue it is proposed that approaching traditional areas with a conscious naivety when asking the questions may do it. For the practitioner, the special issue offers important insights into how things are done in practice, which may be used as a mirror or reflection upon their own practice.

    Originality/value – This editorial and special issue offer insights for any academic interested in understanding projects differently.

  • 38.
    Hällgren, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Lindahl, Marcus
    Uppsala University.
    Rehn, Alf
    Åbo Akademi.
    The ghosts of shared leadership: on decision-making and subconscious followership in the death zone of K22013Inngår i: Extreme leadership: leaders, teams and situations outside the norm / [ed] Giannantonio, C & Hurley-Hanson, A.E, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 39.
    Hällgren, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Maaninen-Olsson, Eva
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Deviations, ambiguity and uncertainty in a project-intensive organization2005Inngår i: Project Management Journal, ISSN 8756-9728, E-ISSN 1938-9507, Vol. 36, nr 3, s. 17-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes deviations in an automation project. The article develops a more holistic view of the project organization, focusing on how deviations are managed. The case study demonstrates that the tools and methods suggested in the literature are rarely used, and shows the importance of the context of the project in terms of gathering information and sharing knowledge that is required to manage deviations. Furthermore, the case shows that there are a number of deviation-management tactics that are applied to different deviations, dependent on whether they are uncertain and/or ambiguous.

  • 40.
    Hällgren, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Maaninen-Olsson, Eva
    Tepper School of Business, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Deviations and the breakdown of project management principles2009Inngår i: International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, ISSN 1753-8378, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 53-69Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of how unexpected events (deviations) are handled and how the limited time available in a project affects the possibilities for reflection and knowledge creation. Since deviations will inevitably occur and they will substantially increase project costs, studies of them are imperative. When only a fraction of the project management literature has focused on the actuality of the project this study gives insights into the practice of project management. Design/methodology/approach – The study is based on an exploratory, in-depth case study of a power plant project found in an integrated provider of projects of this type. The projects were followed by participative observations during ten weeks of onsite visits. Findings – The results show that in contrast to contemporary project management theories, the management of deviations was found to be primarily informal. The reason for this was two-fold. First, there was not enough time to use formal procedures. Second, if the formal routines were to be followed, the window of opportunity would be lost, making the decisions that follow useless. Third, two types of reflection were noted: structured collective reflection and contextual reflection, the former corresponding to formal routines and the later to the solution of deviations which is seen as a trigger for spreading practices around the organization. Research limitations/implications – The research presented that projects should be studied from a practice point of view, where deviations might be a good starting point. Moreover, it is suggested that there is a need to broaden the studies of reflection to accommodate other organizational levels and time spans. Practical implications – The case has several suggestions for practitioners. First, small deviations should be paid attention to. Second, bureaucracy hampers flexibility and the organization should rather set up organizational structures, i.e. dual structures, to allow for a smoother process. Third, networks and confidence were found to be essential for the process. Finally, there is a need to pay attention to different time frames when managing deviations. Originality/value – The paper develops a more intricate view of project organizing coming from the new Project-as-Practice agenda. Rather than focusing on what should be done, it focuses on what is done, which is a research area that needs further attention.

  • 41.
    Hällgren, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Musca, Genevieve
    Universite Paris Ouest.
    Rouleau, Linda
    HEC Montreal.
    The elusive goal: negotiations and re-negotiations of success and failure in temporary organizations2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 42.
    Hällgren, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Project management practice: the activities of coordination in a meeting2006Inngår i: Proceedings of IRNOP VII project research conference, Beijing: China Publishing House of Electronics Industry, 2006, s. 526-539Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Is it really the case that more than half of a work day is lost to meetings? In this paper we have analyzed one meeting in a software company in terms of the activities of coordination. The framework of the paper relies firmly on a project-as-practice approach which focuses on practitioners, their actions and what shapes norms and beliefs. The findings suggest that there are above all two patterns of coordination present during the meeting; informal and formal coordination. These patterns in turn are continuously interacting - implying a constant exchange between local practice and accepted practices, here represented by the project plan. The implications of the paper are several both for researchers and project practitioners. Finally, is half the workday lost? Peter Drucker, we regret to say: No it is not!

  • 43.
    Hällgren, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Blomquist, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Söderholm, Anders
    Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Relevance Lost! : A Critical Review of Project Management Standardisation2012Inngår i: International Journal of Managing Projects in Business/Emerald, ISSN 1753-8378, E-ISSN 1753-8386, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 457-485Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to critically analyze the consequences of the diffusion of generic project management knowledge.

    Design/methodology/approach – This paper is conceptual in its nature, using short examples of four different areas (education, research, certification and practice) to show the diffusion of project management knowledge throughout these areas.

    Findings – In this paper the authors argue that relevance may be lost at two levels. The first loss occurs when the practice of project management is transferred, through generalisation and standardisation, into what is generally known as “Best Practice”. The second occurs when “Best Practice” is transferred back to where it is applied (education, research, certification and practice).

    Research limitations/implications – The risk of losing relevance has consequences for what one bases one's assumptions of the nature of projects upon. If the assumptions are based on standardized knowledge, without critically assessing its correctness, the likelihood of producing less relevant research is higher.

    Practical implications – With the risk of losing relevance the authors argue that anyone involved in the areas of education, research, certification and practice needs to be cautious of how they perceive and work with the standards. There is a risk that the knowledge becomes even less relevant and students and practitioners are therefore less prepared for reality.

    Originality/value – This paper is part of the literature critiquing the standardization of project management knowledge but it is distinct in terms of how the diffusion processes are perceived and utilized in a project setting.

  • 44.
    Hällgren, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Rouleau, Linda
    HEC Montreal.
    De Rond, Mark
    Cambridge University.
    A matter of life or death: how extreme context research matters for management and organization studies2018Inngår i: The Academy of Management Annals, ISSN 1941-6520, E-ISSN 1941-6067, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 111-153Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Organization scholarship has seen an escalation of interest in research into extremes. Comprising several interconnected domains, this growing body of research is decidedly fragmented. This fragmentation risks limiting its potential for advancing management and organization studies. Drawing on 138 articles published in top-tier journals between 1980 and 2015, the purpose of this review is to resolve some of this fragmentation by sharpening definitions and by developing a context-specific typology to help differentiate between contributions from research into risky contexts, emergency contexts, and disrupted contexts. Doing so allows us to let the various literatures speak to each other and to outline ways to enhance the cumulative potential of extreme context research.

  • 45.
    Hällgren, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Sträng, Fredrik
    Toppfeber: Om konsten att vända om2012Inngår i: Projektvärlden, ISSN 1652-3016, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 46.
    Hällgren, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Söderholm, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Moral?: I don't care, I just run a project!2009Inngår i: Feelings and business: Essays in honor of Claes Gustafsson, Stockholm: Santerus , 2009, s. 129-149Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 47.
    Hällgren, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Söderholm, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, 851 70 Sundsvall, Sweden..
    Orchestrating deviations in global projects: Projects-as-practice observations2010Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 36, nr 4, s. 352-367Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

     Contemporary projects in a global environment are challenging to manage on a daily basis because of the need for situation-specific attention, on one hand, and the desire for efficiency and standardisation on the other. On the basis of loosely coupled systems theory, this paper investigates how a project team responds to departures from the project plan, de-couples these deviations from other activities in the project, treats the deviations and re-couples them. Through participant observations, interviews, as well as vocabulary used by project managers, the paper identifies two general sequences of de-coupling and re-coupling in responding to deviations. In “good enough” practice flexibility initially dominates the sequence, postponing stabilization of the situation until later when the appropriateness of the previous actions is considered. “Carefully assessed” practice on the other hand is initially dominated by creating a stable situation, and secondly flexibility is required in the search for the solution. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

  • 48.
    Hällgren, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Söderholm, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Projects-as-practice: new approach, new insights2011Inngår i: The Oxford handbook of project management / [ed] Peter W.G. Morris, Jeffrey K. Pinto & Jonas Söderlund, Oxford University Press , 2011, s. 500-518Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 49.
    Hällgren, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Wilson, Timothy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Academic writing: getting published2010 (oppl. 1)Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 50.
    Hällgren, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Wilson, Timothy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Learning from crises in projects2010Inngår i: Euram 2010, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of permanent, project-intensive organizations to learn from projects has been questioned.  Clearly this topic is important because of the growing importance of projects in industrial activity.  In this paper concepts of learning are extended to the special case where individuals must deal with crises in projects.  An ethnographic study of field construction projects produced 13 examples of crises during a total of 10 weeks of onsite observations for each project in the sample.  From these examples, four of different types are described and the learning from them is discussed in this paper.

12 1 - 50 of 67
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