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  • 1. Appleby, Ralph
    et al.
    Davis, Louise
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gustafsson, Henrick
    Examining perceptions of teammates’ burnout and training hours in athlete burnout2018Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, ISSN 1932-9261, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 316-332Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Perceptions of teammates and training load have been shown to influence athletes' physical and psychological health; however, limited research has investigated these factors in relation to burnout. Athletes (N = 140) from a variety of competitive team sports, ranging in level from regional to professional, completed questionnaires measuring individual burnout, perceptions of teammates' burnout, and training hours perweek on two occasions separated by threemonths. After controlling for burnout at time one, training hours were associated with athletes' burnout and perceptions of teammates' burnout at time two. Multilevel modeling indicated actual team burnout (i.e., the average burnout score of the individual athletes in a team) and perceived team burnout were associated with individual's own burnout. The findings highlight that burnout is dynamic and relates to physiological stressors associated with training and psychological perceptions of teammates' burnout. Future research directions exploring potential social influences on athlete burnout are presented.

  • 2.
    Davis, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Appleby, Ralph
    Davis, Paul
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wetherell, Mark
    Gustafsson, Henrick
    The role of coach-athlete relationship quality in team sport athletes’ psychophysiological exhaustion: implications for physical and cognitive performance2018Inngår i: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 36, nr 17, s. 1985-1992Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed to examine associations between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athlete exhaustion by assessing physiological and cognitive consequences. Male and female athletes (N = 82) representing seven teams across four different sports, participated in a quasi-experi- mental study measuring physical performance on a 5-meter multiple shuttle test, followed by a Stroop test to assess cognitive performance. Participants provided saliva samples measuring cortisol as a biomarker of acute stress response and completed questionnaires measuring exhaustion, and coach- athlete relationship quality. Structural equation modelling revealed a positive relationship between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and Stroop performance, and negative relationships between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and cortisol responses to high-intensity exercise, cognitive testing, and exhaustion. The study supports previous research on socio-cognitive correlates of athlete exhaustion by highlighting associations with the quality of the coach-athlete relationship. 

  • 3.
    Davis, Louise
    et al.
    Northumbria University.
    Jowett, Sophia
    Attachment styles within the coach-athlete dyad: preliminary investigation and assessment development2013Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, ISSN 1932-9261, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 120-145Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present preliminary study aimed to develop and examine the psychometric properties of a new sport-specific self-report instrument designed to assess athletes’ and coaches’ attachment styles. The development and initial validation comprised three main phases. In Phase 1, a pool of items was generated based on pre-existing self-report attachment instruments, modified to reflect a coach and an athlete’s style of attachment. In Phase 2, the content validity of the items was assessed by a panel of experts. A final scale was developed and administered to 405 coaches and 298 athletes (N = 703 participants). In Phase 3, confirmatory factor analysis of the obtained data was conducted to determine the final items of the Coach-Athlete Attachment Scale (CAAS). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed acceptable goodness of ft indexes for a 3-first order factor model as well as a 2-first order factor model for both the athlete and the coach data, respectively. A secure attachment style positively predicted relationship satisfaction, while an insecure attachment style was a negative predictor of relationship satisfaction. The CAAS revealed initial psychometric properties of content, factorial, and predictive validity, as well as reliability.

  • 4.
    Davis, Louise
    et al.
    Department for Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK.
    Jowett, Sophia
    Coach-athlete attachment and the quality of the coach-athlete relationship: implications for athlete's well-being2014Inngår i: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 32, nr 15, s. 1454-1464Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined whether athletes’attachment styles with the coach were linked to aspects of the coach–athlete relationship quality and, in turn, whether relationship quality was linked to athletes’well-being. One hundred and ninety- two athletes completed a questionnaire measuring their attachment styles and relationship quality with the coach as well as their feelings of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA). Structural equation modelling (SEM) analysis found athletes’ avoidant and secure attachment styles to be associated with aspects of coach–athlete relationship quality such as social support, relationship depth, and interpersonal conflict. Interpersonal conflict appeared to play a key role in athletes’PA and NA. From a practical perspective, an understanding of conflict management could provide a resource that allows athletes (and coaches) to enhance the quality of their sporting relationships. Specifically, an awareness of proactive strategies (e.g., steps to clarify expectations) and reactive strategies (e.g., cooperation during the discussion of disagreements) could potentially lead both coaches and athletes to "broaden" their viewpoints and in turn "build" connections that are capable of generating positive emotions including interest, excitement, happiness, and zeal.

  • 5.
    Davis, Louise
    et al.
    School of Sport, Exercise, and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK.
    Jowett, Sophia
    School of Sport, Exercise, and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK.
    Investigating the interpersonal dynamics between coaches and athletes based on fundamental principles of attachment theory2010Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, ISSN 1932-927X, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 112-132Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Grounded in Bowlby’s (1969/1982, 1988) attachment theory, this study aimed to explore (a) the pervasiveness of the three main functions of attachment within the context of the coach-athlete relationship, (b) the associations of athletes’ attachment styles with such important variables as satisfaction with the relationship and satisfaction with the sport, and (c) the process by which athletes’ attachment styles and satisfaction with sport are associated. Data were collected through self-report measures of attachment functions and styles as well as relationship satisfaction and sport satisfaction from 309 student athletes (males = 150, females = 159) whose age ranged from 18 to 28 years (Mage = 19.9, SD = 1.58 years). Athletes’ mean scores indicated that the coach was viewed as an attachment figure fulfilling all three functions of secure base, safe haven, and proximity maintenance. Bivariate correlations indicated that athletes’ avoidant and anxious styles of attachment with the coach were negatively correlated with both relationship satisfaction and sport satisfaction. Mediational regression analysis revealed that athletes’ satisfaction with the coach-athlete relationship may be a process that links athletes’ attachment styles with levels of satisfaction with sport. The findings from this study highlight the potential theoretical and practical utility of attachment theory in studying relationships within the sport context.

  • 6.
    Davis, Louise
    et al.
    Northumbria University.
    Jowett, Sophia
    Lafrenière, Mark-Andre
    An attachment theory perspective in the examination of relational processes associated with coach-athlete dyads2013Inngår i: Journal of sport and exercise psychology, ISSN 0895-2779, Vol. 35, nr 2, s. 156-167Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the current study was to examine actor and partner effects of (a) athletes’ and coaches’ attachment styles (avoidant and anxious) on the quality of the coach-athlete relationship, and (b) athletes’ and coaches’ quality of the coach-athlete relationship on relationship satisfaction employing the actor-partner interdependence model (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006). Coaches (N = 107) and athletes (N = 107) completed a questionnaire related to attachment styles, relationship quality, and relationship satisfaction. Structural equation model analyses revealed (a) actor effects for coaches’ and athletes’ avoidant attachment styles on their own perception of relationship quality and coaches’ and athletes’ perception of relationship quality on their own perception of relationship satisfaction, and (b) partner effects for athletes’ avoidant attachment style on coaches’ perceptions of relationship quality and for coaches’ perceptions of relationship quality on athletes’ perceptions of relationship satisfaction. The findings highlight that attachments styles can help us understand the processes involved in the formation and maintenance of quality relational bonds between coaches and athletes.

  • 7.
    Davis, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Jowett, Sophia
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Communication Strategies: The Fuel for Quality Coach-Athlete Relationships and Athlete Satisfaction2019Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, artikkel-id 2156Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present two-study paper examined the role of communication strategies that athletes use to develop their coach-athlete relationship. Study 1 examined the mediating role of motivation, support, and conflict management strategies between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athletes' perceptions of sport satisfaction. Study 2 examined the longitudinal and mediational associations of communication strategies and relationship quality across two time points, over a 6-week period. Within both studies, data were collected through multi-section questionnaires assessing the studies' variables. For study 1, structural equation modeling highlighted significant indirect effects for motivation and support strategies between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athletes' experiences of sport satisfaction. For study 2, significant indirect effects were found for the athletes' perceptions of the quality of the coach-athlete relationship at time 2 between athletes' use of communication strategies at time point 1 and time point 2. Together these findings provide support for the practical utility of communications strategies in enhancing the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athlete's experiences of sport satisfaction. In addition, the findings provide evidence to highlight the potential cyclical relationship between communication and relationship quality across time.

  • 8.
    Davis, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Appleby, Ralph
    Davis, Paul
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Reducing the risk of athlete burnout: Psychosocial, sociocultural, and individual considerations for coaches2019Inngår i: International journal of sports science & coaching, ISSN 1747-9541, E-ISSN 2048-397X, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 444-452Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Past research suggests that athletes' relationships with their coach can act as a risk factor in the development of burnout. Coaching practice may be enhanced through understanding the multidimensional factors that can augment the associations between coach-athlete relationship quality and athlete burnout. The present study explored both individual difference characteristics (gender, age, and sport level) and sociocultural factors (sport type) as moderators of this relationship. Our findings show statistically significant interaction effects for gender and age. Coaches and practitioners working with younger athletes and male performers in particular, are advised to work with strategies aiming to build relationships and reduce the risk of burnout.

  • 9.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Northumbria University, UK.
    Davis, Louise
    Northumbria University, UK.
    Emotions and emotion regulation in coaching2016Inngår i: The psychology of effective coaching and management / [ed] Paul A. Davis, New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2016, s. 285-306Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 10.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Davis, Louise
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wills, Samuel
    Appleby, Ralph
    Nieuwenhuys, Arnie
    Exploring "Sledging" and Interpersonal Emotion-Regulation Strategies in Professional Cricket2018Inngår i: The Sport psychologist, ISSN 0888-4781, E-ISSN 1543-2793, Vol. 32, nr 2, s. 136-145Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines cricketers’ perceptions of emotional interactions between competitors. Semistructured interviews with 12 male professional cricketers explored experiences (i.e., emotions, cognitions, behaviors) relating to incidents during competition where they or an opponent attempted to evoke an emotional reaction (e.g., sledging). Cricketers described their use of sledging as aggressive actions and verbal interactions with the aim of disrupting concentration and altering the emotional states of opponents. They described experiencing a variety of emotions (e.g., anxiety, anger) in response to opponents’ attempts at interpersonal emotion regulation; linguistic analyses indicated that both positive than negative emotions were experienced. A range of strategies in response to competitors’ deliberate attempts at interpersonal emotion regulation were outlined. The present study extends previous research investigating interpersonal emotion regulation within teams by indicating that professional cricketers are aware of the impact of cognitions and emotions on performance and attempt to negatively influence these factors in competitors

  • 11. McQuade, Sarah
    et al.
    Davis, Louise
    Department of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, Northumbria University, Newcastle, United Kingdom.
    Nash, Christine
    Positioning Mentoring as a Coach Development Tool: Recommendations for Future Practice and Research2015Inngår i: Quest (National Association for Physical Education in Higher Education), ISSN 0033-6297, E-ISSN 1543-2750, QUEST, Vol. 67, nr 3, s. 317-329Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Current thinking in coach education advocates mentoring as a development tool to connect theory and practice. However, little empirical evidence exists to evaluate the effectiveness of mentoring as a coach development tool. Business, education, and nursing precede the coaching industry in their mentoring practice, and research findings offered in these domains could be drawn upon to position mentoring as sports coaching development tool. Given the remote basis of some of mentor-coach relationships in sports coaching, additional learning can be drawn from mentoring conducted by virtual or electronic mediums. This article concludes with a series of reflective questions arising from research findings in other domains, designed to engage the potential coaching organization with the mentoring process.

  • 12. Rhind, Daniel
    et al.
    Davis, Louise
    Northumbria University, UK.
    Jowett, Sophia
    Questionnaires2014Inngår i: Research methods in sports coaching / [ed] Lee Nelson, Ryan Groom and Paul Potrac, Taylor & Francis, 2014, s. 111-122Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13. Roberts, Ross
    et al.
    Woodman, Tim
    Hardy, Lew
    Davis, Louise
    Northumbria University.
    Wallace, Harry
    Psychological skills do not always help performance: the moderating role of narcissism2013Inngår i: Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, ISSN 1041-3200, E-ISSN 1533-1571, Vol. 25, nr 3, s. 316-325Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychological skills are typically viewed as beneficial to performance in competition. Conversely, narcissists appear to thrive in competitive environments so should not need psychological skills to the same degree as less narcissistic individuals. To investigate this moderating hypothesis high-standard ice-skaters completed measures of narcissism, psychological skills, and anxiety before performing their competition routine during training. A week later, participants performed the same routine in competition. Performance was operationalized as the difference between competition and training scores. Moderated regression analyses revealed that narcissism moderated the relationship between psychological skills and performance. Psychological skill effectiveness depends on an individual's degree of narcissism.

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