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  • 1.
    Goossen, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    The gender gap in welfare state attitudes in Europe: the role of unpaid labour and family policy2020Ingår i: Journal of European Social Policy, ISSN 0958-9287, E-ISSN 1461-7269Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown a prevailing 'modern gender gap' in socio-political attitudes in advanced capitalist economies. While numerous studies have confirmed gender differences in attitudes toward the welfare state in Europe, few have addressed the reason for this rift in men's and women's views about the role of government in ensuring the general welfare of citizens. In this paper, I examine the relationship between gender equality in unpaid labour, family policy and the gender gap in welfare state attitudes. Based on data from 21 countries participating in the European Social Survey (ESS) round 4, and using a mix of country- and individual-level regression models and multilevel models, I find that there is a clear relationship between country-level gender equality in unpaid labour and gender differences in support of an encompassing welfare state. A more equal distribution of unpaid care and domestic work correlates with women being increasingly supportive of a large and encompassing welfare state, in comparison with men. This pattern holds when controlling for individual-level economic risk and resources, cultural factors such as trust and social values traditionally related to support of an encompassing welfare state, and beliefs about welfare state efficiency and consequences for society in general. This pattern is evident for countries with a low level of familistic policies, while no distinguishable pattern is discernible for highly familistic countries. These findings have implications for the perception of gender as an emergent social cleavage with respect to welfare state attitudes. The results are discussed in the light of institutional theories on policy feedback, familism, social role theory and previous findings relating to modernization theory and 'gender realignment'.

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  • 2.
    Grönlund, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Öun, Ida
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Rethinking work-family conflict: dual-earner policies, role conflict and role expansion in Western Europe2010Ingår i: Journal of European Social Policy, ISSN 0958-9287, E-ISSN 1461-7269, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 179-195Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to deepen the understanding of work-family conflict and the impact of social policies by integrating the theoretical perspectives of role conflict and role expansion. First, we present a theoretical model identifying different mechanisms through which policy may affect both role conflict and role expansion, with a particular focus on dual-earner policies. Second, we examine some of its implications, using data from the European Social Survey comprising 10,950 employees in 15 countries. In contrast to traditional theories presenting conflict and expansion as mutually exclusive, we find that work—family conflict and experiences of role expansion, measured with indicators of life satisfaction and psychological well being, may go hand in hand. The results also indicate that such a balance is more common in countries with dual-earner policies than in other countries. Women committing as strongly to work as men experience more work-family conflict, but also high levels of well being and satisfaction. The findings largely support our theoretical arguments and imply that future research should examine the conflict-expansion nexus rather than focussing on either of the two. In this context, both gender and policy need to be considered.

  • 3.
    Halleröd, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Larsson, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Gordon, David
    Ritakallio, Veli-Matti
    Relative deprivation: a comparative analysis of Britain, Finland and Sweden2006Ingår i: Journal of European Social Policy, ISSN 0958-9287, E-ISSN 1461-7269, Vol. 16, nr 4, s. 328-345Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Högberg, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Ageing, health inequalities and the welfare state: a multilevel analysis2018Ingår i: Journal of European Social Policy, ISSN 0958-9287, E-ISSN 1461-7269, Vol. 28, nr 4, s. 311-325Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Comparative studies of health inequalities have largely neglected age and ageing aspects, while ageing research has often paid little attention to questions of social inequalities. This article investigates cross-country differences in gradients in self-rated health and limiting long-standing illness (LLSI) in middle-aged and in older people (aged 50–64 and 65–80 years) linked to social class, and degrees to which the social health gradients are associated with minimum pension levels and expenditure on elderly care. For these purposes, data from the European Social Survey (2002–2010) are analysed using multilevel regression techniques. We find significant cross-level interaction effects between class and welfare policies: higher expenditure on elderly care and particularly more generous minimum pensions are associated with smaller health inequalities in the older age group (65–80 years). It is concluded that welfare policies moderate the association between social class and health, highlighting the importance of welfare state efforts for older persons, who are strongly reliant on the welfare state and welfare state arrangements such as pensions and care policies.

  • 5.
    Javornik, Jana
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. University of Leeds, UK.
    Measuring state de-familialism: contesting post-socialist exceptionalism2014Ingår i: Journal of European Social Policy, ISSN 0958-9287, E-ISSN 1461-7269, Vol. 24, nr 3, s. 240-257Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article offers a methodology to reveal the latent constructs that underlie policies on parental leave and childcare services. It is constructed to uncover state assumptions about the social organization of childcare and gender roles in a country-comparative perspective. Legislation is central to this analysis, and combinations of policy components take centre stage. An index of state de-familialism is proposed and its analytical potential tested on eight post-socialist European Union (EU) states. Grounded in Leitner's conceptualization of "varieties of familialism", it gauges three policy types: (1) Slovenian and Lithuanian supported de-familialism incentivizes women's continuous employment and active fatherhood; (2) explicit familialism in Hungary, the Czech Republic and Estonia supports familial childcare and reinforces gendered parenting; and (3) implicit familialism in Poland, Slovakia and Latvia leaves parents without public support. These groups share core characteristics with developed welfare state regimes. This methodology has the potential to discredit claims of post-socialist exceptionalism and allows researchers to test new hypotheses.

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