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  • 1. Ahmad, Shafqat
    et al.
    Mora, Samia
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin. Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA; Department of Clinical Sciences, Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Clinical Research Centre, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Orho-Melander, Marju
    Ridker, Paul M.
    Hu, Frank B.
    Chasman, Daniel I.
    Adiposity and Genetic Factors in Relation to Triglycerides and Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins in the Women's Genome Health Study2018Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry, ISSN 0009-9147, E-ISSN 1530-8561, Vol. 64, nr 1, s. 231-241Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Previous results from Scandinavian cohorts have shown that obesity accentuates the effects of common genetic susceptibility variants on increased triglycerides (TG). Whether such interactions are present in the US population and further selective for particular TG-rich lipoprotein subfractions is unknown.

    METHODS: We examined these questions using body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) among women of European ancestry from the Women's Genome Health Study (WGHS) (n = 21840 for BMI; n = 19313 for WC). A weighted genetic risk score (TG-wGRS) based on 40 published TG-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms was calculated using published effect estimates.

    RESULTS: Comparing overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2) WGHS women, each unit increase of TG-wGRS was associated with TG increases of 1.013% and 1.011%, respectively, and this differential association was significant (Pinteraction = 0.014). Metaanalyses combining results for WGHS BMI with the 4 Scandinavian cohorts (INTER99, HEALTH2006, GLACIER, MDC) (total n = 40026) yielded a more significant interaction (Pinteraction = 0.001). Similarly, we observed differential association of the TG-wGRS with TG (Pinteraction = 0.006) in strata of WC (<80 cm vs ≥80 cm). Metaanalysis with 2 additional cohorts reporting WC (INTER99 and HEALTH2006) (total n = 27834) was significant with consistent effects (Pinteraction = 0.006). We also observed highly significant interactions of the TG-wGRS across the strata of BMI with very large, medium, and small TG-rich lipoprotein subfractions measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (all Pinteractions < 0.0001). The differential effects were strongest for very large TG-rich lipoprotein.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the original findings and suggest that obese individuals may be more susceptible to aggregated genetic risk associated with common TG-raising alleles, with effects accentuated in the large TG-rich lipoprotein subfraction.

  • 2. Ahmad, Shafqat
    et al.
    Mora, Samia
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin. Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA; Department of Clinical Sciences, Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Clinical Research Centre, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Orho-Melander, Marju
    Ridker, Paul M.
    Hu, Frank B.
    Chasman, Daniel I.
    Adiposity and Genetic Factors in Relation to Triglycerides and Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins in the Women's Genome Health Study2018Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry, ISSN 0009-9147, E-ISSN 1530-8561, Vol. 64, nr 1, s. 231-241Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Previous results from Scandinavian cohorts have shown that obesity accentuates the effects of common genetic susceptibility variants on increased triglycerides (TG). Whether such interactions are present in the US population and further selective for particular TG-rich lipoprotein subfractions is unknown.

    METHODS: We examined these questions using body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) among women of European ancestry from the Women's Genome Health Study (WGHS) (n = 21840 for BMI; n = 19313 for WC). A weighted genetic risk score (TG-wGRS) based on 40 published TG-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms was calculated using published effect estimates.

    RESULTS: Comparing overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2) WGHS women, each unit increase of TG-wGRS was associated with TG increases of 1.013% and 1.011%, respectively, and this differential association was significant (Pinteraction = 0.014). Metaanalyses combining results for WGHS BMI with the 4 Scandinavian cohorts (INTER99, HEALTH2006, GLACIER, MDC) (total n = 40026) yielded a more significant interaction (Pinteraction = 0.001). Similarly, we observed differential association of the TG-wGRS with TG (Pinteraction = 0.006) in strata of WC (<80 cm vs ≥80 cm). Metaanalysis with 2 additional cohorts reporting WC (INTER99 and HEALTH2006) (total n = 27834) was significant with consistent effects (Pinteraction = 0.006). We also observed highly significant interactions of the TG-wGRS across the strata of BMI with very large, medium, and small TG-rich lipoprotein subfractions measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (all Pinteractions < 0.0001). The differential effects were strongest for very large TG-rich lipoprotein.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the original findings and suggest that obese individuals may be more susceptible to aggregated genetic risk associated with common TG-raising alleles, with effects accentuated in the large TG-rich lipoprotein subfraction.

  • 3. Ahmad, Shafqat
    et al.
    Mora, Samia
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin. Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA; Department of Clinical Sciences, Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Clinical Research Centre, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Orho-Melander, Marju
    Ridker, Paul M.
    Hu, Frank B.
    Chasman, Daniel I.
    Adiposity and Genetic Factors in Relation to Triglycerides and Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins in the Women's Genome Health Study2018Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry, ISSN 0009-9147, E-ISSN 1530-8561, Vol. 64, nr 1, s. 231-241Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Previous results from Scandinavian cohorts have shown that obesity accentuates the effects of common genetic susceptibility variants on increased triglycerides (TG). Whether such interactions are present in the US population and further selective for particular TG-rich lipoprotein subfractions is unknown.

    METHODS: We examined these questions using body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) among women of European ancestry from the Women's Genome Health Study (WGHS) (n = 21840 for BMI; n = 19313 for WC). A weighted genetic risk score (TG-wGRS) based on 40 published TG-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms was calculated using published effect estimates.

    RESULTS: Comparing overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2) WGHS women, each unit increase of TG-wGRS was associated with TG increases of 1.013% and 1.011%, respectively, and this differential association was significant (Pinteraction = 0.014). Metaanalyses combining results for WGHS BMI with the 4 Scandinavian cohorts (INTER99, HEALTH2006, GLACIER, MDC) (total n = 40026) yielded a more significant interaction (Pinteraction = 0.001). Similarly, we observed differential association of the TG-wGRS with TG (Pinteraction = 0.006) in strata of WC (<80 cm vs ≥80 cm). Metaanalysis with 2 additional cohorts reporting WC (INTER99 and HEALTH2006) (total n = 27834) was significant with consistent effects (Pinteraction = 0.006). We also observed highly significant interactions of the TG-wGRS across the strata of BMI with very large, medium, and small TG-rich lipoprotein subfractions measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (all Pinteractions < 0.0001). The differential effects were strongest for very large TG-rich lipoprotein.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the original findings and suggest that obese individuals may be more susceptible to aggregated genetic risk associated with common TG-raising alleles, with effects accentuated in the large TG-rich lipoprotein subfraction.

  • 4. Breimer, Lars H
    et al.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn K
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Klinisk kemi.
    Is ferrotoxicity a new great public health challenge?2015Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry, ISSN 0009-9147, E-ISSN 1530-8561, Vol. 61, nr 4, s. 667-668Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 5. Clarke, Robert
    et al.
    Sherliker, Paul
    Hin, Harold
    Nexo, Ebba
    Hvas, Anne Mette
    Schneede, Joern
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Medicinsk biovetenskap, Klinisk kemi.
    Birks, Jacqueline
    Ueland, Per M
    Emmens, Kathleen
    Scott, John M
    Molloy, Anne M
    Evans, John Grimley
    Detection of vitamin B12 deficiency in older people by measuring vitamin B12 or the active fraction of vitamin B12, holotranscobalamin.2007Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry, ISSN 0009-9147, E-ISSN 1530-8561, Vol. 53, nr 5, s. 963-970Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Impaired vitamin B(12) function and decreased vitamin B(12) status have been associated with neurological and cognitive impairment. Current assays analyze total vitamin B(12) concentration, only a small percentage of which is metabolically active. Concentrations of this active component, carried on holotranscobalamin (holoTC), may be of greater relevance than total vitamin B(12). METHODS: We compared the utility of serum holoTC with conventional vitamin B(12) for detection of vitamin B(12) deficiency in a population-based study of older people, using increased methylmalonic acid (MMA) concentrations as a marker of metabolic vitamin B(12) deficiency in the overall population (n = 2403) and in subsets with normal (n = 1651) and abnormal (n = 752) renal function. RESULTS: Among all participants, 6% had definite (MMA >0.75 micromol/L) and 16% had probable (MMA >0.45 micromol/L) metabolic vitamin B(12) deficiency. In receiver operating characteristic curves for detection of definite vitamin B(12) deficiency, holoTC had a greater area under the curve (AUC) compared with vitamin B(12) in all participants (0.85 vs 0.76; P <0.001) and in subsets with normal (AUC: 0.87 vs 0.79; P <0.001) and abnormal (AUC: 0.85 vs 0.74; P = 0.002) renal function. Similar findings were observed for detection of moderate vitamin B(12) deficiency. Whereas the positive predictive value for both holoTC and vitamin B(12) was greater for detection of probable than definite vitamin B(12) deficiency, both tests were associated with more false-positive than true-positive test results. CONCLUSIONS: HoloTC has a modestly superior diagnostic accuracy compared with conventional vitamin B(12) for the detection of vitamin B(12) deficiency, but neither test can be recommended to screen asymptomatic populations.

  • 6. Drogan, Dagmar
    et al.
    Dunn, Warwick B.
    Lin, Wanchang
    Buijsse, Brian
    Schulze, Matthias B.
    Langenberg, Claudia
    Brown, Marie
    Floegel, Anna
    Dietrich, Stefan
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Wedge, David C.
    Goodacre, Royston
    Forouhi, Nita G.
    Sharp, Stephen J.
    Spranger, Joachim
    Wareham, Nick J.
    Boeing, Heiner
    Untargeted Metabolic Profiling Identifies Altered Serum Metabolites of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Prospective, Nested Case Control Study2015Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry, ISSN 0009-9147, E-ISSN 1530-8561, Vol. 61, nr 3, s. 487-497Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Application of metabolite profiling could expand the etiological knowledge of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). However, few prospective studies apply broad untargeted metabolite profiling to reveal the comprehensive metabolic alterations preceding the onset of T2D. METHODS: We applied untargeted metabolite profiling in serum samples obtained from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam cohort comprising 300 individuals who developed T2D after a median follow-up time of 6 years and 300 matched controls. For that purpose, we used ultraperformance LC-MS with a protocol specifically designed for large-scale metabolomics studies with regard to robustness and repeatability. After multivariate classification to select metabolites with the strongest contribution to disease classification, we applied multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression to assess the association of these metabolites with T2D.

    RESULTS: Among several alterations in lipid metabolism, there was an inverse association with T2D for metabolites chemically annotated as lysophosphatidylcholine(dm16:0) and phosphatidylcholine(O-20:0/O-20:0). Hexose sugars were positively associated with T2D, whereas higher concentrations of a sugar alcohol and a deoxyhexose sugar reduced the odds of diabetes by approximately 60% and 70%, respectively. Furthermore, there was suggestive evidence for a positive association of the circulating purine nucleotide isopentenyladenosine-5' -monophosphate with incident T2D.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study constitutes one of the largest metabolite profiling approaches of T2D biomarkers in a prospective study population. The findings might help generate new hypotheses about diabetes etiology and develop further targeted studies of a smaller number of potentially important metabolites. (C) 2014 American Association for Clinical Chemistry

  • 7. Estampador, Angela C.
    et al.
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för medicin. Department of Clinical Sciences, Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital Malmö, Malmö, Sweden; Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA; Oxford Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, Radcliff Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
    Precision Medicine in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: The Relevance of Early-Life Exposures2018Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry, ISSN 0009-9147, E-ISSN 1530-8561, Vol. 64, nr 1, s. 130-141Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is highly prevalent and devastating. Obesity is a diabetogenic factor, driving insulin resistance and a compensatory demand for increased insulin secretion from the pancreatic β cells; a failure to address this demand results in diabetes. Accordingly, primary and secondary prevention of obesity are at the core of diabetes prevention programs. The development of obesity and declining β-cell function often span many years or decades before diabetes is clinically manifest. Thus, characterizing the early-life process and risk factors that set disease trajectories may yield novel targets for early intervention and help improve the accuracy of prediction algorithms, factors germane to the emerging field of precision medicine.

    CONTENT: Here, we overview the concepts of precision medicine and fetal programming. We discuss the barriers to preventing obesity and type 2 diabetes in adulthood and present the rationale for considering early-life events in this context. In so doing, we discuss proof-of-concept studies and cutting-edge technological developments that are likely to transform current thinking on the etiology and pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes. We also review the factors hampering progress, including the success and failures of pregnancy intervention trials.

    SUMMARY: Obesity and type 2 diabetes are among the major health and economic burdens of our time. Defeating these diseases is likely to require life-course approaches, which may include aggressive interventions informed by biomarker profiling undertaken during early life.

  • 8. Huang, Tao
    et al.
    Ding, Ming
    Bergholdt, Helle K. M.
    Wang, Tiange
    Heianza, Yoriko
    Sun, Dian-jianyi
    Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.
    Aslibekyan, Stella
    North, Kari E.
    Voortman, Trudy
    Graff, Mariaelisa
    Smith, Caren E.
    Lai, Chao-Qiang
    Varbo, Anette
    Lemaitre, Rozenn N.
    de Jonge, M. Ester A. L.
    Fumeron, Fredric
    Corella, Dolores
    Wang, Carol A.
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Overvad, Kim
    Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.
    Feitosa, Mary F.
    Wojczynski, Mary K.
    Kahonen, Mika
    Renström, Frida
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Enheten för biobanksforskning. Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Psaty, Bruce M.
    Siscovick, David S.
    Barroso, Ines
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Hernandez, Dena
    Ferrucci, Luigi
    Bandinelli, Stefania
    Linneberg, Allan
    Zillikens, M. Carola
    Sandholt, Camilla Helene
    Pedersen, Oluf
    Hansen, Torben
    Schulz, Christina-Alexandra
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Orho-Melander, Marju
    Chen, Tzu-An
    Rotter, Jerome I.
    Allison, Mathew A.
    Rich, Stephen S.
    Sorli, Jose V.
    Coltell, Oscar
    Pennell, Craig E.
    Eastwood, Peter
    Hofman, Albert
    Uitterlinden, Andre G.
    van Rooij, Frank J. A.
    Chu, Audrey Y.
    Rose, Lynda M.
    Ridker, Paul M.
    Viikari, Jorma
    Raitakari, Olli
    Lehtimaki, Terho
    Mikkila, Vera
    Willett, Walter C.
    Wang, Yujie
    Tucker, Katherine L.
    Ordovas, Jose M.
    Kilpelainen, Tuomas O.
    Province, Michael A.
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin. Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA; Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Arnett, Donna K.
    Tanaka, Toshiko
    Toft, Ulla
    Ericson, Ulrika
    Franco, Oscar H.
    Mozaffarian, Dariush
    Hu, Frank B.
    Chasman, Daniel I.
    Nordestgaard, Borge G.
    Ellervik, Christina
    Qi, Lu
    Dairy Consumption and Body Mass Index Among Adults: Mendelian Randomization Analysis of 184802 Individuals from 25 Studies2018Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry, ISSN 0009-9147, E-ISSN 1530-8561, Vol. 64, nr 1, s. 183-191Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Associations between dairy intake and body mass index (BMI) have been inconsistently observed in epidemiological studies, and the causal relationship remains ill defined.

    METHODS: We performed Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis using an established dairy intake-associated genetic polymorphism located upstream of the lactase gene (LCT-13910 C/T, rs4988235) as an instrumental variable (IV). Linear regression models were fitted to analyze associations between (a) dairy intake and BMI, (b) rs4988235 and dairy intake, and (c) rs4988235 and BMI in each study. The causal effect of dairy intake on BMI was quantified by IV estimators among 184802 participants from 25 studies.

    RESULTS: Higher dairy intake was associated with higher BMI (β = 0.03 kg/m2 per serving/day; 95% CI, 0.00–0.06; P = 0.04), whereas the LCT genotype with 1 or 2 T allele was significantly associated with 0.20 (95% CI, 0.14–0.25) serving/day higher dairy intake (P = 3.15 × 10−12) and 0.12 (95% CI, 0.06–0.17) kg/m2 higher BMI (P = 2.11 × 10−5). MR analysis showed that the genetically determined higher dairy intake was significantly associated with higher BMI (β = 0.60 kg/m2 per serving/day; 95% CI, 0.27–0.92; P = 3.0 × 10−4).

    CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides strong evidence to support a causal effect of higher dairy intake on increased BMI among adults.

  • 9.
    Lakso, Hans-Ake
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk farmakologi.
    Appelblad, Patrik
    Schneede, Jörn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Klinisk kemi.
    Quantification of methylmalonic acid in human plasma with hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography separation and mass spectrometric detection2008Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry, ISSN 0009-9147, E-ISSN 1530-8561, Vol. 54, nr 12, s. 2028-2035Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Measurement of methylmalonic acid (MMA) in serum or plasma is useful for diagnosing cobalamin deficiency. We developed a method for quantifying MMA in plasma based on hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and single-stage negative electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry.

    Methods: We deproteinized plasma samples (200 microL) with 800 microL acidified acetonitrile containing 0.17 micromol/L deuterated MMA (D(3)-MMA) internal standard, centrifuged the samples, and injected 4 microL of the supernatant into the LC-MS instrument. Separation was achieved within 3 min on a Merck SeQuant ZIC-HILIC column with a mobile phase consisting of 4 volumes acetonitrile plus 1 volume 100 mmol/L ammonium acetate buffer, pH 4.5, at a flow rate of 400 microL/min. Subsequent column washing and reconditioning contributed to a total run time of 10 min. MMA and D(3)-MMA were quantified by single-ion monitoring (m/z 117.2 and 120.2, respectively) in negative ESI mode at a drying-gas flow rate of 10 L/min, 300 degrees C, and a capillary voltage of 3.0 kV.

    Results: The estimated limits of MMA quantification and detection were 0.09 micromol/L and 0.03 micromol/L, respectively, in plasma. The assay was linear to 200 micromol/L. Interassay and intraassay CVs were < or = 5% at all tested concentrations. Recoveries were 90%-93%.

    Conclusions: This robust assay allows analysis of MMA in human plasma without derivatization. Sample preparation is simple and suitable for automation.

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