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  • 1. Chikovore, Jeremiah
    et al.
    Nyström, Lennarth
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Lindmark, Gunilla
    Ahlberg, Beth Maina
    HIV/AIDS and sexuality: concerns of youths in rural Zimbabwe2009Ingår i: African Journal of AIDS Research, ISSN 1608-5906, E-ISSN 1727-9445, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. 503-513Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerns regarding HIV and AIDS were elicited from 546 school youths (51% female, age range 9-25 years) in a Zimbabwean rural district, through a self-generated question-writing process. Concerns emerged around how to avoid HIV infection at a time when they were undergoing secondary sexual development, had growing feelings of love, and were even engaging in sexual activity, while they had limited access to preventive methods due to denial by the adult world. Fears were expressed in regard to how to tell one's HIV status, even just after sex. HIV and AIDS were visualised in terms of suffering, loneliness, quarantine and death. The youths stressed they would have difficulties communicating with other people should they suspect or find they were infected with HIV, as this would imply they had been sexually active. They seemed to have knowledge about HIV and AIDS which either was incomplete or they could not apply, given a context of silence and denial about their sexuality. Some of their knowledge was coloured with misconceptions, suggesting contradictory information from multiple sources. After more than two decades of the epidemic in Zimbabwe, the scenario portrayed raises questions about HIV/AIDS interventions targeting young people. The question posed is why is the situation of these youths in this state when several stakeholders are actively participating in debates and interventions for the sake of their wellbeing? HIV/AIDS campaigns and interventions may need to consider young people's complex social contexts, the factors generating and sustaining their situation, and what role diverse actors and social-change processes play in this.

  • 2.
    Frumence, Gasto
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Nyström, Lennarth
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Killewo, Japhet
    Emmelin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Exploring the role of cognitive and structural social capital in the declining trends of HIV/AIDS in the Kagera region of Tanzania: A grounded theory study2011Ingår i: African Journal of AIDS Research, ISSN 1608-5906, E-ISSN 1727-9445, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 1-13Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The article presents a synthesis of data from three village case studies focusing on how structural and cognitivesocial capital may have influenced the progression of the HIV epidemic in the Kagera region of Tanzania. Groundedtheory was used to develop a theoretical model describing the possible links between structural and cognitivesocial capital and the impact on sexual health behaviours. Focus group discussions and key informant interviewswere carried out to represent the range of experiences of existing social capital. Both structural and cognitive socialcapital were active avenues for community members to come together, empower each other, and develop norms,values, trust and reciprocal relations. This empowerment created an enabling environment in which members couldadopt protective behaviours against HIV infection. On the one hand, we observed that involvement in formal andinformal organisations resulted in a reduction of numbers of sexual partners, led people to demand abstinencefrom sexual relations until marriage, caused fewer opportunities for casual sex, and gave individuals the agency todemand the use of condoms. On the other hand, strict membership rules and regulations excluded some members,particularly excessive alcohol drinkers and debtors, from becoming members of the social groups, which increasedtheir vulnerability in terms of exposure to HIV. Social gatherings (especially those organised during the night) werealso found to increase youths’ risk of HIV infection through instances of unsafe sex. We conclude that even thoughsocial capital may at times have negative effects on individuals’ HIV-prevention efforts, this study provides initialevidence that social capital is largely protective through empowering vulnerable groups such as women and thepoor to protect against HIV infection and by promoting protective sexual behaviours.

  • 3.
    Lusey, Hendrew G.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. World Council of Churches, The Ecumenical HIV and AIDS Initiative in Africa, Regional Coordination Office for Central Africa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.
    Christianson, Monica
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Edin, Kerstin E.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Church representatives' perspectives on masculinities in the context of HIV: the case of the Ecumenical HIV and AIDS Initiative in Africa2016Ingår i: African Journal of AIDS Research, ISSN 1608-5906, E-ISSN 1727-9445, Vol. 15, nr 3, s. 273-281Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a growing body of literature related to church leaders challenging dominant norms of masculinities that may enable the spread of HIV, research on masculinity issues among African church representatives who are policy makers is scarce. The objectives of this study were to explore the perspectives on masculinities held by church representatives within the Ecumenical HIV and AIDS Initiative in Africa (EHAIA) and to identify strategies they used to transform masculinities in their respective churches. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 14 church representatives belonging to the EHAIA International Reference Group. These interviews were analysed using thematic analysis and four themes were identified: "barriers to challenge masculinities" may contribute to the spread of HIV; "counterproductive conservative church leadership" fails to challenge dominant forms of masculinities; "facilitators to challenge masculinities" perceived as slowly changing men and "an evolving hope for gender equality" would be perceived in certain marital relationships. The latter two were viewed as positive approaches resulting from masculinity workshops and male priests disclosing their HIV-positive status. This research highlights strategies that may help male church-goers challenge masculinities, support gender equality and, improve the lives of men and women in the context of HIV.

  • 4. Maredza, Mandy
    et al.
    Bertram, Melanie Y.
    Saloojee, Haroon
    Chersich, Matthew F.
    Tollman, Stephen M.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Hofman, Karen J.
    Cost-effectiveness analysis of infant feeding strategies to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV in South Africa2013Ingår i: African Journal of AIDS Research, ISSN 1608-5906, E-ISSN 1727-9445, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 151-160Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite increasing availability of perinatal interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV in South Africa, MTCT remains high due to breastfeeding. To inform policy decisions in the country, cost-effectiveness of alternative infant-feeding interventions was conducted. Mathematical modelling was used to simulate post-natal transmission and mortality due to infant feeding in a hypothetical cohort of 1 000 HIV-exposed infants. Lifetime costs to the health system were calculated for each strategy. Interventions compared with current practice were: increasing coverage of extended nevirapine prophylaxis (ENP) to infants from 30% (base case) to 60% without changing current feeding practices; actively supporting breastfeeding with ENP to infants for 12 months; and actively supporting exclusive formula (replacement) feeding for 6 months. HIV-free survival at 24 months and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted were estimated for typical rural and certain urban settings. Base-case analysis revealed that expanding coverage of nevirapine prophylaxis with breastfeeding is cost-saving and improves HIV-free survival. Changing feeding practices is beneficial, depending on context. Breastfeeding is dominant (less costly, more effective) in rural settings, whilst formula feeding is a dominant strategy in urban settings. Cost-effectiveness was most sensitive to proportion of women on lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) and infant mortality rate (IMR). When >55% of women are on ART, breastfeeding dominates in the urban settings modelled, whilst formula feeding is cost-effective in rural settings when IMR <= 45/1000. The study concludes that strategies to support breastfeeding are essential. Strengthening health systems is critical to ensure optimal nevirapine delivery during breastfeeding. A case can be made for formula feeding or breastfeeding in HIV-infected women in specific contexts.

  • 5. Molla, Mitike
    et al.
    Emmelin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Berhane, Yemane
    Lindtjørn, Bernt
    Readiness of youth in rural Ethiopia to seek health services for sexually transmitted infections2009Ingår i: African Journal of AIDS Research, ISSN 1608-5906, E-ISSN 1727-9445, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 135-146Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies pertaining to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among rural young adults in Ethiopia are limited. This study provides information on knowledge about common STIs, and the perceptions, preferences and use of health services for STIs, among youths and healthcare providers in predominately rural Butajira, a town in south-central Ethiopia. We performed mixed-method research, using a cross-sectional survey among 3 743 randomly selected youths aged 15-24 years, in 2004, and in-depth interviews with ten healthcare providers, in 2006. Less than 38% of the youths knew the common STIs. Among the sexually active youths (n = 802), 3.9% reported having at least one STI symptom in the past 12 months, and one-half of those who had had an STI symptom did not seek care from any source. The healthcare providers reported that the stigma associated with premarital sexual activity, the shamefulness of having an STI, and a perceived lack of confidentiality and uneasiness with the public health services were impediments to treatment-seeking in the study area. The youths in this study preferred to consult with healthcare providers of the same gender who were young, friendly and had a reputation for being empathetic. Embarrassment about having an STI and fear of being noticed by a familiar individual were perceived barriers to healthcare-seeking among the youths. The results suggest that young people are vulnerable to HIV exposure due to lack of knowledge about STIs and especially as a result of having an untreated STI. Health services that are uncoordinated and unable to handle youths' sexual and reproductive health problems, as well as judgemental health professionals and prevailing sexual taboos, were also reported as impediments to youths seeking healthcare. Reorientation of the public health services and healthcare providers could improve youths' healthcare-seeking for STIs.

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