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  • 1.
    Amjadi, Golnaz
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    The Rebound Effect in Swedish Heavy Industry2018Ingår i: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 71, s. 140-148Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency improvement (EEI) benefits the climate and matters for energy security. The potential emission and energy savings due to EEI may however not fully materialize due to the rebound effect. In this study, we measure the size of the rebound effect for fuel and electricity within the four most energy intensive sectors in Sweden: pulp and paper, basic iron and steel, chemical, and mining. We use a detailed firm-level panel data set for 2000–2008 and apply Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) for measuring the rebound effect. We find that neither fuel nor electricity rebound effects fully offset the potential energy and emission savings. Among the determinants, we find CO2 intensity and fuel/electricity share to be useful indicators for identifying firms with higher or lower rebound effect within each sector.

  • 2. Amjadi, Golnaz
    et al.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Zhang, Shanshan
    The rebound effect in the Swedish heavy industry2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency improvement (EEI) benefits the climate and matters for energy security. The potential emission and energy savings due to EEI may however not fully materialize due to the rebound effect. In this study, we measure the size of rebound effect for the two energy types fuel and electricity within the four most energy intensive sectors in Sweden – pulp and paper, basic iron and steel, chemical, and mining. We use a detailed firm-level panel data set for the period 2000-2008 and apply Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) for measuring the rebound effect. We find that both fuel and electricity rebound effects do not fully offset the potential for energy and emission savings. Furthermore, we find CO2 intensity and fuel and electricity share as the two main determinants of rebound effect in Swedish heavy industry. Our results seems to imply that it matters both to what extent and where to promote EEI, as the rebound effect varies between sectors as well as between firms within sectors. 

  • 3.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Department of Forest Economics & Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, S-901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Department of Forest Economics & Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Accounting for cultural heritage: A theoretical and empirical exploration with focus on Swedish reindeer husbandry2010Ingår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 69, nr 3, s. 651-657Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to explore some of the theoretical and empirical aspects of an economy which includes cultural capital. We use a simple dynamic growth model and the concept of a social accounting matrix (SAM) to illustrate how the addition of income flows and net changes of various natural and cultural resources can be incorporated into a broader measure of welfare. The Swedish reindeer industry, managed by the indigenous Sami people, is used as an example since it is generally regarded to have significant cultural heritage value, beyond its contribution to conventional national accounts. We discuss a theoretically correct compensation to a cultural sector for preserving and maintaining a cultural heritage. Furthermore, we attempt to estimate the cultural value of the Sámi Reindeer sector in Sweden using a CVM survey. The results suggest that the willingness to pay (per year) to maintain cultural heritage at least at the current level may be quite substantive, estimates showing it can be several times the industry's turnover per year.

  • 4. Bostian, Moriah
    et al.
    Färe, Rolf
    Grosskopf, Shawna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Department of Economics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Environmental investment and firm performance: a network approach2016Ingår i: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 57, s. 243-255Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the role of investment in environmental production practices for both environmental performance and energy efficiency over time. We employ a network DEA approach that links successive production technologies through intertemporal investment decisions with a period by period estimation. This allows us to estimate energy efficiency and environmental performance separately, as well as productivity change and its associated decompositions into efficiency change and technology change. Incorporating a network model also allows us to account for both short-term environmental management practices and long-term environmental investments in each of our productivity measures. We apply this framework to a panel of detailed plant-level production data for Swedish manufacturing firms covering the years 2002-2008.

  • 5. Bostian, Moriah
    et al.
    Färe, Rolf
    Grosskopf, Shawna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Department of Economics, Oregon State University, USA.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Network Representations of Pollution-Generating Technologies2017Ingår i: International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 1932-1465, E-ISSN 1932-1473, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 193-231Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We update developments on modeling technology including unintended outputs and show how these can, at least to a large extent, be incorporated in a network model framework. Recently there have been efforts to specify more detailed models which include multiple functions to separately capture intended and unintended products. Yet another recent strand of the recent literature has also explicitly tried to include a material balance condition in the model. We see this general evolution as beginning with what might be called a black box technology, with inputs entering the box, and good and bad outputs exiting the box. The more sophisticated models can be thought of as filling in the black box with the more detailed processes involved with production, prevention and abatement, with production accompanied by undesirable byproducts subject to legal regulations and laws of nature. This can be modeled as a network within the black box.

  • 6.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Carlén, Ola
    SLU.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    The Costs and Benefits of Intensive Forest Management2012Ingår i: Journal of Benefit-Cost Analysis, ISSN 2152-2812, Vol. 3, nr 4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an approach for studying the socio-economic benefits and costs (CBA) of the introduction of intensified management measures in forestry. Besides from valuation of changes in timber production, assessments of different types of externalities are included in the assessment. The model is exemplified with the use of data from a Swedish governmental study undertaken in 2009 which present impacts on the Swedish forest sector if intensified management measures are applied on environmentally low-valued land and abandoned agricultural lands. The CBA shows that intensified management measures typically are private financially profitable. If these measures also become profitable from the society’s point of view depend on the size of the external effects including carbon balance.

  • 7.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Nationalekonomi.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    A Dynamic Analysis of Interfuel Substitution for Swedish Heating Plants2004Ingår i: Energy economics, Vol. 26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). wedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Effekter för den elintensiva industrin av att dessa branscher i olika grad omfattas av kvotplikt inom elcertifikatsystemet2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi. Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Environmental policy and profitability: Evidence from Swedish industry2010Ingår i: Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, ISSN 1432-847X, E-ISSN 1867-383X, Vol. 12, nr 1-2, s. 59-78Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the effect of a CO2 tax on profitability by using firm-level data on output and inputs from Swedish industry between 1990 and 2004. The purpose of this exercise is to investigate the validity of the so-called Porter hypothesis. By utilizing a factor-demand modeling approach, and specifying a profit function that has a technology component dependent upon firm-specific effective tax on CO2, we are able to separate out the effect of regulatory pressure on technological progress. The results indicate that there is evidence of a “reversed” Porter effect in most industrial sectors, especially in energy-intensive industries; that is, after controlling for the fuel price effect, technological progress and consequently profits are further negatively affected by the CO2 tax.

  • 10.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Environmental policy without costs?: A review of the Porter hypothesis2009Ingår i: International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 1932-1465, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 75-117Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature connected to the so-called Porter hypothesis; that is, it reviews the literature connected to the relation between environmental policy and competitiveness. According to the conventional wisdom environmental policy, aiming for improving the environment through, for example emission reductions, does imply costs since scarce resources must be diverted from somewhere else. However, this conventional wisdom has been challenged and questioned recently through what has been denoted the “Porter hypothesis”. Advocates of the Porter hypothesis challenge the conventional wisdom on the ground that resources are used inefficiently in the absence of the right kind of environmental regulations, and that the conventional neoclassical view is too static to take inefficiencies into account. The conclusions that can be drawn from this review are: (1) that the theoretical literature can identify the circumstances and mechanisms that must exist for a Porter effect to occur, (2) that these circumstances are rather non-general, hence rejecting the Porter hypothesis in general, and (3) that the empirical literature gives no general support for the Porter hypothesis. Furthermore, a closer look at the “Swedish case” reveals no support for the Porter hypothesis in spite of the fact that Swedish environmental policy the last 15–20 years seems to be in line the prerequisites stated by the Porter hypothesis concerning environmental policy.

  • 11.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Swedish industry and Kyoto:  An assessment of the effects of the European CO2emission permit trading system 2007Ingår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, nr 9, s. 4749-4762Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We assess the effects on Swedish industry input demands and output of different climate policy scenarios connected to energy policy induced by the Kyoto protocol. We use a unique dataset containing firm-level data on outputs and inputs between 1991 and 2001 to estimate a factor demand model, which we use to simulate different policy scenarios. Sector-specific estimation suggests that the proposed quadratic profit function specification exhibits properties and robustness that are consistent with economic theory; that is, all own-price elasticities are negative and all output elasticities are positive. Furthermore, the elasticities show that the input demands are, in most cases, relatively inelastic. Simulation of the model for six different policy scenarios reveal that effects on the Swedish base industry of a EU-level permit-trading system depends on (i) the removal or maintenance of the current CO2 tax, (ii) the price of permits, and (iii) the future price of electricity. Our analysis shows that changes in electricity price may be more important than the price of permits for some sectors.

  • 12.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Carbon intensity in production and the effects of climate policy – evidence from Swedish industry2014Ingår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 67, s. 844-857Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze carbon intensity performance at firm level and the effectiveness of the Swedish CO2 tax. Carbon intensity performance is derived from a production technology and measured as changes in the CO2 emission-output production ratio. As one of the first countries to introduce a CO2 tax in 1991, Sweden serves as an appropriate "test bench" for analyzing the effectiveness of climate policy in general. Firm level data from Swedish manufacturing spanning over the period 1990-2004 is used for the analysis. Results show that EP has improved in all the sectors and there is an evidence of decoupling of output production growth and CO2 emissions. Firms' carbon intensity performance responds both to changes in the CO2 tax and fossil fuel price, but is more sensitive to the tax.

  • 13.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Patrik, Söderholm
    Luleå technical university.
    Convergence of carbon dioxide performance across Swedish industrial sectors: An environmental index approach2015Ingår i: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 51, s. 227-235Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall objective of the paper is to analyze convergence of CO2 emission intensity across manufacturing sectors in Sweden. Our approach differs from previous work on carbon convergence in that it employs a theoretical framework to construct a COperformance index, which explicitly takes into account that industrial firms produce good as well as bad outputs. This index is then used as the dependent variable in a growth-type regression equation. We employ a data set covering 14 industrial sectors over the time period 1990–2008. The results suggest the presence of conditional β-convergence in CO2 performance among the industrial sectors in Sweden. Moreover, the speed of convergence varies significantly in the sense that the higher the capital intensity is, the lower is the convergence rate to the different steady states. This is likely to reflect the importance of – and in part the costs associated with – capital turnover to achieve a transition towards lower CO2 emission paths.

  • 14.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Convergence of carbon dioxide performance across Swedish industrial sectors: an environmental index approach2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall objective of the paper is to analyze convergence of CO2 emission intensity across manufacturing sectors in Sweden. Our approach differs from previous work on carbon convergence in that it employs a theoretical framework to construct a CO2 performance index, which explicitly takes into account that industrial firms produce good as well as bad outputs. This index is then used as the dependent variable in a growth-type regression equation. We employ a data set covering 14 industrial sectors over the time period 1990-2008. The results suggest the presence of conditional β-convergence in CO2 performance among the industrial sectors in Sweden. Moreover, the speed of convergence varies significantly in the sense that the higher the capital intensity is, the lower is the convergence rate to the different steady states. This reflects the importance of – and in part the costs associated with – capital turnover to achieve a transition towards lower CO2 emission paths.

  • 15.
    Eriksson, Mathilda
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Pricing forest carbon: implications of asymmetry in climate policy2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we use an integrated assessment model to examine the implications of not recognizing, and partially recognizing forest carbon in climate policy. Specifically, we investigate the impact of an asymmetric carbon policy that recognizes emissions from fossil fuels while ignoring emissions from forests. We additionally investigate the relative importance of not recognizing positive emissions from a reduction in the stock of forest biomass, or of not recognizing negative emissions from the growth of forest biomass. We show that asymmetric carbon policies lead to lower levels of welfare, as well as higher emissions and carbon prices. This occurs because the forest resource will be allocated inefficiently under these carbon policies. Broadly, we find that when the social planner does not account for neither positive or negative forest emissions, the planner will set bioenergy levels that are too high and afforestation and avoided deforestation levels that are too low. Our results further reveal that not recognizing forest emissions leads to larger welfare losses than not recognizing sequestration.

  • 16. Eriksson, Mathilda
    et al.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Pricing forest carbon: implications of asymmetry in climate policy2018Ingår i: Journal of Forest Economics, ISSN 1104-6899, E-ISSN 1618-1530, Vol. 32, s. 84-93Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using an integrated assessment model, we examine the implications of climate policies that do not fully recognize forest carbon. Specifically, we first investigate the impact of an asymmetric policy that recognizes carbon emissions from fossil fuels while fully ignoring forest carbon. Next, we investigate the relative importance of not recognizing emissions from a reduction in the stock of forest biomass compared to not recognizing sequestration from the growth of forest biomass. We show that asymmetric carbon policies lead to lower levels of welfare, as well as higher emissions and carbon prices. This occurs because the forest resource will be allocated inefficiently under these carbon policies. Broadly, we find that when the social planner does not account for emissions or sequestration from the forest, the planner will set bioenergy levels that are too high and afforestation and avoided deforestation levels that are too low. Our results further reveal that not recognizing forest emissions leads to larger welfare losses than not recognizing sequestration.

  • 17. Färe, Rolf
    et al.
    Grosskopf, Shawna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Department of Economics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Wechao, Zhou
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Pollution-generating technologies and environmental efficiency2014Ingår i: Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies, ISSN 1476-5284, E-ISSN 1476-5292, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 233-251Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study environmental efficiency (EE) within a pollution-generating technology. Good output and bad output (pollution) are explicitly modeled by imposing technology properties of disposability and null-jointness. With data on firms from Swedish manufacturing, we investigate the potential to reduce emissions, and we take a closer look at the pulp and paper sector. Dividing the firms into ‘brown’ and ‘green’ firms, we find that there is significant potential, in both categories, to improve EE, and hence lower emissions, of three air pollutants (CO2, SO2, NOx). Generally, the methods and results encourage similar and comparative studies on the manufacturing sector in other countries. If there is a comparable potential elsewhere, such as in major polluting countries like China, there is potential to promote a sustainable society by conducting effective energy and climate policies. We also suggest that treating biofuels as completely carbon neutral, as is common practice when constructing emission data in Sweden (Statistics Sweden), may lead to incorrect EE scores and consequently misleading policy implications.

  • 18.
    Färe, Rolf
    et al.
    Dept. of Agriculture and Resource Economics, Dept. of Economics, Oregon State University.
    Grosskopf, Shawna
    Dept. of Economics, Oregon State University.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). SLU.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Wenchao, Zhou
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Productivity: should we include bads?2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the interaction between economic and environmental performance. Applying the directional output distance function approach, the purpose is to compare estimates of Luenberger total factor productivity indicators, including and excluding bad outputs. Specifically, based on unique firm level data from Swedish manufacturing covering the period 1990 to 2008, we explore to what extent excluding bad outputs leads to erroneous productivity measurement. The main conclusion is that bad outputs should not only be included in the estimations, but also reduction in bad outputs should be credited. From this point of view the directional output distance function approach and the Luenberger indicator serves as an appropriate basis of productivity measurement.

  • 19.
    Färe, Rolf
    et al.
    Oregon State University.
    Grosskopf, Shawna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Oregon State University and SLU.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). SLU.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM). SLU.
    Wenchao, Zhou
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Which bad is worst?: An application of Johansen's capacity model2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of desirable (good) outputs is frequently accompanied by unintended production of undesirable (bad) outputs. If two or more of these undesirable outputs are produced as byproducts, one may ask: ‘Which bad is worst?’ By worst we mean which bad inhibits the production of desirable outputs the most if it is regulated. We develop a model based on Leif Johansen’s capacity framework by estimating the capacity limiting effect of the bads. Our model resembles what is referred to as the von Liebig Law of the Minimum, familiar from the agricultural economics literature. To illustrate our model we apply our approach to a firm level data set from the Swedish paper and pulp industry.

  • 20. Hammar, Henrik
    et al.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Sjöström, Magnus
    The significance of road transport costs in the Swedish forest industry2008Ingår i: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, Vol. 42, nr 1, s. 83-104Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental and transport policies based on marginal external costs, such as a kilometre tax for heavy goods vehicles, can be constrained by the risk of industries incurring higher production costs than competitors in other countries. We estimate factor demand elasticities in the wood and the pulp and paper industries using firm level data for the 1990-2001 period on input prices and quantities. The results show that the introduction of a kilometre tax for heavy goods vehicles affects transport demand as well as other factor demands, but that the effects are less pronounced in terms of changes in output.

  • 21.
    Hammar, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Gteborg University, Gteborg, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Sjöström, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Andersson, Matts
    WSP Analysis & Strategy, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The kilometer tax and Swedish industry-effects on sectors and regions2011Ingår i: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 43, nr 22, s. 2907-2917Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An introduction of a kilometer tax for heavy goods vehicles can be constrained by the risk of that higher production costs than competitors in other countries will negatively affect regions and industries of policy concern. We estimate factor demand elasticities in the Swedish manufacturing industry using firm level data for the 1990 to 2001 period on input prices and quantities. The results show that the introduction of a kilometer tax for heavy goods vehicles decreases transport demand and increases labour demand. The effects are less pronounced in terms of changes in output, though some industries (e.g. wood, pulp and paper) can be expected to be affected more than others due to their dependence on road freight transport. The regional dimension regarding the consequences of a kilometer tax seems to be small or even nonexisting.

  • 22.
    Jaraite, Jurate
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Andrius, Kazukauskas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Tommy, Lundgren
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Determinants of environmental expenditure andInvestment: Evidence from SwedenManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 23.
    Jaraite, Jurate
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Kazukauskas, Andrius
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    The effects of climate policy on environmental expenditure and investments: evidence from Sweden2014Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy, ISSN 2160-6544, E-ISSN 2160-6552, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 148-166Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study provides new evidence on the determinants of environmental expenditure and investment. In particular, it investigates how environmental expenditure and investment of Swedish industrial firms responded to climate policies, such as the European Union's Emission Trading System (EU ETS) and the Swedish CO2 tax, directed to mitigate air pollution. Overall, an important conclusion of this analysis is that climate policies, both on the national and international levels, were highly relevant motivations for firm environmental expenditure. However, the findings do not support the expectations that the EU ETS and the Swedish CO2 tax encouraged investment in air pollution abatement.

  • 24.
    Karimu, Amin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Energy intensity and convergence in Swedish industry: a combined econometric and decomposition analysis2017Ingår i: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 62, s. 347-356Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    How to reduce the carbon footprint associated with energy use is still a major concern for most decision-makers. Against this background, a better understanding of energy intensity—the ratio of energy use to output and its convergence could be important in the design of policies targeting the reduction in the carbon footprint related to energy use. This paper analyzes the determinants of energy intensity and tests for energy intensity convergence across 14 Swedish industrial sectors. This analysis builds on a nonparametric regression analysis of an intensity index constructed at the industry sector level as well as indices constructed from a decomposition of this index. The latter isolates two key determinants of changes in energy intensity and convergence patterns: the ef- ficiency channel-fundamental improvement in the use of energy and activity channel-structural shifts in the economy. The empirical analysis relies on a detailed sectorial dataset covering the period 1990–2008. The findings indicate that input prices, including the price of energy, have been significant determinants of energy intensity in the Swedish industrial sectors. This effect can primarily be attributed to the efficiency channel and with a less profound influence from the activity channel. We also find evidence of energy intensity convergence among the industrial sectors, and this primarily stems from the activity channel rather than from the efficiency channel.

  • 25.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    A microeconomic model of CSR2014Ingår i: The economics of Corporate Social Responsibility / [ed] Abagail McWilliams, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 26.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    A micro-economic model of corporate social responsibility2011Ingår i: Metroeconomica, ISSN 0026-1386, E-ISSN 1467-999X, Vol. 62, nr 1, s. 69-95Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the economic mechanisms behind corporate social responsibility (CSR) in a microeconomic model of the firm. The study’s motivation is to shed light on the potential causes of the observed phenomena of voluntary over-compliance among firms. We investigate how assumptions about costs and benefits affect CSR behavior through a stock of goodwill capital. In optimum, the firm must balance marginal costs and benefits of investing in CSR. We characterize the equilibrium and examine comparative statics and dynamics from a parameterized model. Finally, we link some of the model’s results to the empirical literature on CSR.

  • 27.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Environmental Protection and Impact on Adjacent Economies: Evidence from the Swedish Mountain Region 2009Ingår i: Growth and Change, ISSN 0017-4815, E-ISSN 1468-2257, Vol. 40, nr 3, s. 513-532Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study presented here considers the effects of protected land on neighboring local economies, based on a panel data analysis of its influence on economic growth, net migration, and employment in the forest and tourism sectors in 15 municipalities in northwestern Sweden from 1985 to 2001. The main findings are that increases in the area of protected land in this region seem to have promoted slight increases in per capita income growth and net migration, slight reductions in employment in the forest sector, and possible increases (not significant at the 5 percent probability level) in employment in the tourism sector. In addition, there are indications of conditional divergence in the Swedish mountain region, implying that small economies grow more slowly here than larger economies.

  • 28.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Hållbar utveckling i svensk industri2011Ingår i: Hållbar utveckling: från risk till värde / [ed] Lars G. Hassel, Lars-Olle Larsson och Elisabeth Nore, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2011, 1, s. 59-64Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 29.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Cerin, Pontus
    Is the threat to the climate an opportunity to companies?2009Ingår i: Climate challenge – the safety's off / [ed] Birgitta Johansson, Stockholm: Forskningsrådet Formas, 2009Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 30.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Cerin, Pontus
    Är klimatförändringarna en möjlighet för företagen?2009Ingår i: Osäkrat klimat - laddad utmaning / [ed] Birgitta Johansson, Forskningsrådet Formas, 2009Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 31.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Assessing the welfare effects of promoting biomass growth and the use of bioenergy2013Ingår i: Climate Change Economics, ISSN 2010-0078, E-ISSN 2010-0086, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 1350003-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a growth model that accounts for environmental and climate externalities, we take a closer look at the welfare effects of promoting biomass growth and the use of bioenergy, and especially the role of carbon neutrality. As an illustration, a hypothetical intensive forest cultivation project is simulated. Costs and benefits of the project show that only determining the postive effects of promoting biomass growth and the use of bioenergy, such as substitution away from fossil fuels and carbon sequestration is not sufficient. But more importantly, to achieve a balanced measure of the effects on the climate, we must also incorporate all carbon emissions that are associated with bioenergy. Not doing so will over-estimate the positive climate effects of increasing the use of bioenergy.Read 

  • 32.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Bioenergy and carbon neutrality2012Ingår i: Journal of Forest Economics, ISSN 1104-6899, E-ISSN 1618-1530, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 175-176Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 33.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Climate Policy and Profit Efficiency2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    As widely recognized, human mankind stands before the most challenging problem of preventing anthropogenic climate change. As a response to this, the European Union advocates an ambitious climate policy mix. However, there is no consensus concerning the impact of stringent environmental policy on firms’ competitiveness and profitability. From the traditional ‘static’ point of view there are productivity losses to be expected. On the other hand, the so called Porter hypothesis suggests the opposite; i.e., due to ‘dynamic’ effects, ambitious climate and energy policies within the EU could actually be beneficial to firms in terms of enhanced profitability and competitiveness. Based on Sweden’s manufacturing industry, our main purpose is to specifically assess the impact of the CO2 tax scheme of Sweden on firms’ profit efficiency. The empirical methodology is based on stochastic frontier estimations and, in general, the results suggest we can neither reject nor confirm the Porter hypothesis across industry sectors. Therefore, we do not generally confirm the argument of stringent environmental policies having positive dynamic effects that potentially offset costs related to environmental policy.

  • 34.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Climate policy, environmental performance, and profits2015Ingår i: Journal of Productivity Analysis, ISSN 0895-562X, E-ISSN 1573-0441, Vol. 44, nr 3, s. 225-235Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigate how firm level environmental performance (EP) affects firm level economic performance measured as profit efficiency (PE) in a stochastic profit frontier setting. Analyzing firms in Swedish manufacturing 1990–2004, results show that EP induced by environmental policy is not a determinant of PE, while voluntary or market driven EP seem to have a significant and positive effect on firm PE in most sectors. The evidence generally supports the idea that good EP is also good for business, as long as EP is not brought on by policy measures, in this case a CO2 tax. Thus, the results provide no general support for the Porter hypothesis.

  • 35.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). SLU.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). SLU.
    Economics of biofuels: an overview2013Ingår i: Encyclopedia of energy, natural resources and environmental economics: Volume 1 / [ed] Jason F Shogren, Elsevier, 2013, s. 184-187Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuels are regarded as energy sources with the potential to solve a series of problems related to the climate and sustainability. Expectations are that pursuing policies supporting biofuels will be beneficial for welfare and sustainability in societies. It is convenient to divide the effects of such policies into four categories: Climate effects, other environmental effects, energy security effects, and net economic effects. Reviewing the literature to date reveals that the effects of converting from fossil fuels to biofuels do not necessarily have positive net welfare effects, and the argument to substitute biofuels for fossil fuels is not as obvious as it initially appears to be. Short-run stringent climate policy objectives are proposed to counteract global warming, and increasing the use of biofuels is promoted as an adequate strategy. One important conclusion drawn from recent studies is that biofuels are not entirely carbon neutral, as is commonly assumed. Therefore, the use of biofuels as an instrument in climate policy must be carefully scrutinized before set into play on a global scale.

  • 36.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Nationalekonomi.
    Kriström, Bengt
    Institutionen för skogsekonomi, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet/Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    The Economics of Biofuels2008Ingår i: International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 1932-1465, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 237-280Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuels are increasingly regarded as energy sources with the potential to solve diverse problems related to serious concerns, including climate change, environmental degradation, energy supply, and energy security. Here we examine biofuels, primarily biofuels used for transportation (e.g., ethanol and biodiesel),

    through the lens of modern resource economics and address fundamental questions, such as: Why biofuels?We then review some of the relevant literature and present a framework for analysis drawn mainly from the green accounting literature.

    The literature reviewed indicates that the effects of policies promoting conversion from fossil fuels to biofuels do not necessarily promote welfare. Our theoretical framework provides indications of possible reasons for this. Based on findings obtained using the framework we propose policies that not only penalize

    emissions of CO2 from all sources, but also stimulate biomass growth. Finally, we identify issues for further research.

  • 37.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Samakovlis, Eva
    National Institute of Economic Research, Stockholm.
    Wenchao, Zhou
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Carbon prices and incentives for technological development2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    How to significantly decrease carbon dioxide emissions has become one of the largest challenges faced by modern society. The standard recipe prescribed by most economists is to put a price on carbon, either through a tax or through emissions trading. Such measures can reduce emissions cost-effectively and create incentives for technological development. There is, however, a growing concern that the carbon prices generated through the European Union emission trading system (EU ETS) have been too low to create the incentives necessary to stimulate technological development. This paper empirically analyzes how the Swedish carbon dioxide tax and the EU ETS have affected productivity development in the Swedish pulp and paper industry 1998-2008. A Luenberger total factor productivity (TFP) indicator is computed using data envelopment analysis. How the policy measures affect TFP is assessed using a system generalized method of moments estimator. The results show that climate policy had a modest impact on technological development in the pulp and paper industry, and if significant it has been negative. The price on fossil fuels, on the contrary, seems to have created important incentives for technological development. Hence, results suggest that the carbon prices faced by the industry through EU ETS and the carbon dioxide tax have been too low.

  • 38.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Samakovlis, Eva
    Zhou, Wenchao
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Carbon prices and incentives for technological development2015Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 150, s. 393-403Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is concern that the carbon prices generated through climate policies are too low to create the incentives necessary to stimulate technological development. This paper empirically analyzes how the Swedish carbon dioxide (CO2) tax and the European Union emission trading system (EU ETS) have affected productivity development in the Swedish pulp and paper industry 1998-2008. A Luenberger total factor productivity (TFP) indicator is computed using data envelopment analysis. The results show that climate policy had a modest impact on technological development in the pulp and paper industry, and if significant it was negative. The price of fossil fuels, on the contrary, seems to have created important incentives for technological development. Hence, the results suggest that the carbon prices faced by the industry through EU ETS and the CO2 tax have been too low. Even though the data for this study is specific for Sweden, the models and results are applicable internationally. When designing policy to mitigate CO2 emissions, it is vital that the policy creates a carbon price that is high enough otherwise the pressure on technological development will not be sufficiently strong. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 39.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    zhang, shanshan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Energy Efficiency in Swedish Industry: a Stochastic Frontier Approach2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper estimates firm level energy efficiency and its determinants in 14 sectors of Swedish manufacturing by using stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). We derive energy demand frontiers both from cost minimizing and profit maximizing perspectives. To account for firms’ heterogeneity, Greene’s true random effects model is adopted. Results show that, from both firm behavior perspectives, there is room to improve energy efficiency in all sectors of Swedish manufacturing. The EU ETS seem to have had a moderate or no effect on Swedish firms’ efficient use of energy. Moreover, we found that energy intensity or energy productivity (energy use over production value) is not an appropriate proxy for energy efficiency.

  • 40.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Olsson, Rickard
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Environmental incidents and firm value: international evidence using a multi-factor event study framework2010Ingår i: Applied Financial Economics, ISSN 0960-3107, E-ISSN 1466-4305, Vol. 20, nr 16, s. 1293-1307Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Event study methodology is used to analyse whether bad news in the form of Environmental (EV) incidents affect firm value negatively. An international sample of firms with EV incidents is studied. It is found that EV incidents are generally associated with the loss of value. For European firms, the loss is statistically significant and the magnitude of the abnormal returns should be of economic significance to corporations and investors. The results are not sensitive to multiple variations in methodology, including the use of international versions of the market model as well as of multi-factor models of the Fama-French type. Results are also robust to different parametric and nonparametric test statistics.

  • 41.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Olsson, Rickard
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    How bad is bad news?: Assessing the effects of environmental incidents on firm value2009Ingår i: American Journal of Finance and Accounting, ISSN 1752-7767, Vol. 1, nr 4, s. 376-392Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a formal model of how investments in corporate socialresponsibility act upon firm value through goodwill, we derive the hypothesisthat under uncertainty bad news are detrimental to goodwill, and subsequentlyhave a negative impact on value. We examine by event study methodologywhether bad news in the form of environmental (EV) incidents affect firmvalue negatively as measured by abnormal returns using a global data set. AnEV incident is a company incident allegedly in violation of international normson environmental issues. We analyse 142 EV incidents 2003–2006. The EVincidents are generally associated with loss of value, but which are notstatistically significant, except for incidents for firms in Europe. Furthermore,results indicate that firms with low goodwill capital (high EV risk rating) areassociated with relatively larger negative abnormal returns in case of an EV incident.

  • 42.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Stage, Jesper
    Tangerås, Thomas
    Energimarknaden, ägandet och klimatet2013 (uppl. 1)Bok (Refereegranskat)
  • 43.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Stage, Jesper
    Tangerås, Thomas P.
    Energimarknaden, ägandet och klimatet2013Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 44.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Zhang, Shanshan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Zhou, Wenchao
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Energy efficiency in Swedish industry: a data envelopement analysis2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 45.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Zhou, Wenchao
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Firm performance and the role of environmental management2017Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 203, s. 330-341Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the interactions between three dimensions of firm performance productivity, energy efficiency, and environmental performance and especially sheds light on the role of environmental management. In this context, environmental management is investments to reduce environmental impact, which may also affect firm competitiveness, in terms of change in productivity, and spur more (or less) efficient use of energy. We apply data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique to calculate the Malmquist firm performance indexes, and a panel vector auto-regression (VAR) methodology is utilized to investigate the dynamic and causal relationship between the three dimensions of firm performance and environmental investment. Main results show that energy efficiency and environmental performance are integrated, and energy efficiency and productivity positively reinforce each other, signifying the cost saving property of more efficient use of energy. Hence, increasing energy efficiency, as advocated in many of today's energy policies, could capture multiple benefits. The results also show that improved environmental performance and environmental investments constrain next period productivity, a result that would be in contrast with the Porter hypothesis and strategic corporate social responsibility; both concepts conveying the notion that pro-environmental management can boost productivity and competitiveness.

  • 46.
    Zhang, Shanshan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Zhou, Wenchao
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Energy efficiency in Swedish Industry: A firm-level data envelopment analysis2016Ingår i: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 55, s. 42-51Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper assesses energy efficiency in Swedish industry. Using unique firm-level panel data covering the years 2001–2008, the efficiency estimates are obtained for firms in 14 industrial sectors by using data envelopment analysis (DEA). The analysis accounts for multi-output technologies where undesirable outputs are produced alongside with the desirable output. The results show that there was potential to improve energy efficiency in all the sectors and relatively large energy inefficiencies existed in small energy-use industries in the sample period. Also, we assess how the EU ETS, the carbon dioxide (CO2) tax and the energy tax affect energy efficiency by conducting a second-stage regression analysis. To obtain consistent estimates for the regression model, we apply a modified, input-oriented version of the double bootstrap procedure of Simar and Wilson (2007). The results of the regression analysis reveal that the EU ETS and the CO2 tax did not have significant influences on energy efficiency in the sample period. However, the energy tax had a positive relation with the energy efficiency.

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