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  • 1. Del Missier, Fabio
    et al.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Parker, Andrew M
    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Unraveling the Aging Skein : Disentangling Sensory and Cognitive Predictors of Age-related Differences in Decision Making2017Ingår i: Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, ISSN 0894-3257, E-ISSN 1099-0771, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 123-139Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Age-related differences in sensory functioning, processing speed, and working memory have been identified as three significant predictors of the age-related performance decline observed in complex cognitive tasks. Yet, the assessment of their relative predictive capacity and interrelations is still an open issue in decision making and cognitive aging research. Indeed, no previous investigation has examined the relationships of all these three predictors with decision making. In an individual-differences study, we therefore disentangled the relative contribution of sensory functioning, processing speed, and working memory to the prediction of the age-related decline in cognitively demanding judgment and decision-making tasks. Structural equation modeling showed that the age-related decline in working memory plays an important predictive role, even when controlling for sensory functioning, processing speed, and education. Implications for research on decision making and cognitive aging are discussed.

  • 2.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    et al.
    University of Trieste.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Psychology, University of Stockholm ; Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi
    Leeds University Business School and Carnegie Mellon University.
    Parker, Andrew M.
    RAND Corporation, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    University of Stockholm ; Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Multifold Relationship Between Memory and Decision Making: An Individual-Differences Study2013Ingår i: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 39, nr 5, s. 1344-1364Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Several judgment and decision-making tasks are assumed to involve memory functions, but significant knowledge gaps on the memory processes underlying these tasks remain. In a study on 568 adults between 25 and 80 years of age, hypotheses were tested on the specific relationships between individual differences in working memory, episodic memory, and semantic memory, respectively, and 6 main components of decision-making competence. In line with the hypotheses, working memory was positively related with the more cognitively demanding tasks (Resistance to Framing, Applying Decision Rules, and Under/Overconfidence), whereas episodic memory was positively associated with a more experience-based judgment task (Recognizing Social Norms). Furthermore, semantic memory was positively related with 2 more knowledge-based decision-making tasks (Consistency in Risk Perception and Resistance to Sunk Costs). Finally, the age-related decline observed in some of the decision-making tasks was (partially or totally) mediated by the age-related decline in working memory or episodic memory. These findings are discussed in relation to the functional roles fulfilled by different memory processes in judgment and decision-making tasks.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Maija
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nääs, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Berginström, Nils
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. School of Sport Sciences, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Sedentary behavior as a potential risk factor for depression among 70-year-olds2020Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 263, s. 605-608Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sedentary behavior has previously been associated with the risk of depression. In addition, older adults have been proven to be more sedentary and more depressed than other age groups. However, studies using objective measures of sedentary behavior and taking physical activity into account are lacking. Thus, the purpose of this population-based study was to examine how total sedentary time and length of sedentary bouts were associated with the risk of depression among 70-year-olds.

    Methods: The present study used data from the Healthy Ageing Initiative (n = 3,633), an ongoing cross-sectional research project in Umeå, Sweden. Sedentary behavior was measured objectively with the ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer, and depression was measured with the Geriatric Depression Scale. Several covariates, including physical activity, were included in logistic regression analyses.

    Results: Results from two hierarchical logistic regression models showed that a greater percentage of the day spent sedentary [odds ratio (OR) = 1.031, p = 0.010] and longer average length of sedentary bouts (OR = 1.116, p = 0.045) increased the risk of depression.

    Limitations: Limitations include of possible underrepresentation of severely depressed participants, and possible observer effects.

    Conclusions: The present study verified the relationship between sedentary behavior and depression and provides new information about the risks associated with increased length of sedentary bouts.  These findings may be important to consider in the development of future recommendations for the prevention of depression among older adults.

  • 4.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Körning Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Different Features of Bilingualism in Relation to Executive Functioning2019Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, nr 269Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion that the long-term practice of managing two languages is beneficial for the executive control system is an ongoing debate. Criticism have been raised that studies demonstrating a bilingual advantage often suffer from small sample sizes, and do not control for fluid intelligence as a possible confound. Taking those suggested factors into account, focusing on older bilingual age groups and investigating the potential effects of linguistic distances, this study aimed to improve the interpretations of the bilinguals’ advantages. Measures of inhibition (Flanker, Stroop, Simon task) and switching (Number-letter, Color-Shape, Local-global task) were collected in participants in the ages 50-75 years (n = 193). Despite a large study sample, results did not support any beneficial effects related to improve processing costs in executive functioning. Sub-analyses of the two different language groups (Swedish – Finnish / Swedish – English) intended to investigate the effect of linguistic distances did not change this outcome. Future studies exploring the potential long-term term effects of bilingualism would benefit from identifying tests of cognitive control with greater ecological validity and include other measures of cognitive functioning. Language learning interventions may also be a promising tool for future research.

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  • 5.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Pritschke, Ilona
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Complexity of Primary Lifetime Occupation and Cognitive Processing2019Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, s. 1-12, artikel-id 1861Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, there are a lack of studies focusing on the relationship between occupational complexity and executive functioning. This is noteworthy since executive functions are core aspects of cognitive processing. The present study was aimed to investigate if three occupational complexity factors (with data, people, and things) of main lifetime occupation were related to performance in executive tasks (inhibition, switching, updating). We analyzed cross-sectional data that were available for 225 participants aged 50–75 years. Results from structural equation models showed that higher complexity levels of working with data were related to lower error rates in the updating component of cognitive control. In addition, higher rates of complexity working with people was associated with lower error rates in task-switching, which also persisted after adjustment of fluid intelligence. Complexity with things, however, was not related to performance in the executive tasks. Future studies would benefit from a longitudinal design to investigate if the results from this study also hold in the long term and to further investigate the directionality between factors.

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  • 6.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Blood Pressure Levels and Longitudinal Changes in Relation to Social Network Factors2016Ingår i: Psychological Topics, ISSN 1332-0742, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 59-73Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between social network variables and levels of and longitudinal changes in blood pressure in a middle-aged/older sample. The participants (50-75 years at baseline; n=1097) responded to questions concerning social relationships at baseline and their blood pressure (diastolic, systolic) was measured. Blood pressure levels were reassessed 5, 10, and 15 years later. Latent growth models with responses to questions concerning social relationships as predictors and basic demographic factors (age, sex) as covariates, unexpectedly indicated that a more limited social network (no close friend, few visits, little contact with friends in other ways, not living with someone, and a composite index based on all questions) was associated with significantly lower diastolic blood pressure levels. For systolic blood pressure a similar result was observed for one of the variables (lack of a close friend). In general, these effects diminished over time, as indexed by the positive relationship between several of the social variables and slope. The results were little affected by inclusion of additional covariates (e.g. measures of psychological distress, smoking/alcohol habits, and BMI) suggesting that the origins of this unexpected pattern of findings must probably be sought for in other subjectrelated factors, such as, for example, increased help seeking. Future studies should consider qualitative aspects (e.g. feelings of loneliness, quality of social relationships) in addition to structural aspects to provide a better understanding of these associations.

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  • 7.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Josefsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Marsh, John Everett
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ljungberg, Jessica K.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Longitudinal effects of bilingualism on dual-tasking2017Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 12, artikel-id e0189299Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An ongoing debate surrounds whether bilinguals outperform monolinguals in tests of executive processing. The aim of this study was to investigate if there are long-term (10 year) bilingual advantages in executive processing, as indexed by dual-task performance, in a sample that were 40-65 years at baseline. The bilingual (n = 24) and monolingual (n = 24) participants were matched on age, sex, education, fluid intelligence, and study sample. Participants performed free-recall for a 12-item list in three dual-task settings wherein they sorted cards either during encoding, retrieval, or during both encoding and retrieval of the word-list. Free recall without card sorting was used as a reference to compute dual-task costs. The results showed that bilinguals significantly outperformed monolinguals when they performed card-sorting during both encoding and retrieval of the word-list, the condition that presumably placed the highest demands on executive functioning. However, dual-task costs increased over time for bilinguals relative to monolinguals, a finding that is possibly influenced by retirement age and limited use of second language in the bilingual group.

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  • 8.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    A naïve sampling model of intuitive confidence intervals2007Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A particular field in research on judgment and decision making (JDM) is concerned with realism of confidence in one’s knowledge. An interesting finding is the so-called format dependence effect, which implies that assessment of the same probability distribution generates different conclusions about over- or underconfidence depending on the assessment format. In particular, expressing a belief about some unknown continuous quantity (e.g., a stock value) in the form of an intuitive confidence interval is severely prone to overconfidence as compared to expressing the belief as an assessment of a probability judgment. This thesis gives a tentative account of this finding in terms of a Naïve Sampling Model, which assumes that people accurately describe their available information stored in memory, but they are naïve in the sense that they treat sample properties as proper estimators of population properties (Study 1). The effect of this naivety is directly investigated empirically in Study 2. A prediction that short-term memory is a constraining factor for sample size in judgment, suggesting that experience per se does not eliminate overconfidence is investigated and verified in Study 3. Age-related increments in overconfidence were observed with intuitive confidence interval but not for probability judgment (Study 4). This thesis suggests that no cognitive processing bias (e.g., Tversky & Kahneman, 1974) over and above naivety is needed to understand and explain the overconfidence “bias” with intuitive confidence interval and hence the format dependence effect.

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  • 9.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Psykologi.
    Overconfidence and Format Dependence in Subjective Probability Intervals: Naive Estimation and Constrained Sampling2005Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A particular field in research on judgment and decision making (JDM) is concerned with realism of confidence in one’s knowledge. An interesting finding is the so-called format dependence effect which implies that assessment of the same probability distribution generates different conclusions about over- or underconfidence bias depending on the assessment format. In particular,expressing a belief about some unknown quantity in the form of a confidence interval is severely prone to overconfidence as compared to expressing the belief as an assessment of a probability. This thesis gives a tentative account of this finding in terms of a Naïve Sampling Model (NSM;Juslin, Winman, & Hansson, 2004), which assumes that people accurately describe their available information stored in memory but they are naïve in the sense that they treat sample properties as proper estimators of population properties. The NSM predicts that it should be possible to reducethe overconfidence in interval production by changing the response format into interval evaluation and to manipulate the degree of format dependence between interval production and interval evaluation. These predictions are verified in empirical experiments which contain both general knowledge tasks (Study 1) and laboratory learning tasks (Study 2). A bold hypothesis,that working memory is a constraining factor for sample size in judgment which suggests that experience per se does not eliminate overconfidence, is investigated and verified. The NSM predicts that the absolute error of the placement of the interval is a constant fraction of interval size, a prediction that is verified (Study 2). This thesis suggests that no cognitive processing bias(Tversky & Kahneman, 1974) over and above naivety is needed to understand and explain the overconfidence bias in interval production and hence the format dependence effect.

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  • 10.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The naïve intuitive statistician: Organism- environment relations from yet another angle.2008Ingår i: The Probabilistic Mind: Prospects for Bayesian cognitive science / [ed] N. Chater & M. Oaksford, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008, s. 237-259Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 11.
    Hansson, Patrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Institute of Clinical Dentistry, UIT The Arctic Universityof Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Bergdahl, Maud
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Nilsson, Lars-Goran
    Dental status is unrelated to risk of dementia: a 20-year prospective study2014Ingår i: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, ISSN 0002-8614, E-ISSN 1532-5415, Vol. 62, nr 5, s. 979-981Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 12.
    Hansson, Patrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Juslin, P
    Winman, A
    Naïve sampling and format dependence in subjective probability calibration.2003Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 13.
    Hansson, Patrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Juslin, P
    Winman, A
    The naïve intuitive statistician: Organism- enviroment relations from yet another angle.2008Ingår i: The Probabilistic Mind: Prospects for Bayesian cognitive science / [ed] N. Chater & M. Oaksford, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008, s. 237-259Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 14.
    Hansson, Patrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Juslin, Peter
    Winman, Anders
    Probability intervals and sample constraints2004Ingår i: Proceedings of the twenty-sixth annual conference of the cognitive science society / [ed] Forbus, K; Gentner, D; Regier, T, Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004, s. 1567-1567Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 15.
    Hansson, Patrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University.
    Winman, Anders
    Uppsala University.
    The role of short-term memory capacity and task experience for overconfidence in judgment under uncertainty2008Ingår i: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 34, nr 5, s. 1027-1042Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research with general knowledge items demonstrates extreme overconfidence when people estimate confidence intervals for unknown quantities, but close to zero overconfidence when the same intervals are assessed by probability judgment. In 3 experiments, the authors investigated if the overconfidence specific to confidence intervals derives from limited task experience or from short-term memory limitations. As predicted by the naïve sampling model (P. Juslin, A. Winman, & P. Hansson, 2007), overconfidence with probability judgment is rapidly reduced by additional task experience, whereas overconfidence with intuitive confidence intervals is minimally affected even by extensive task experience. In contrast to the minor bias with probability judgment, the extreme overconfidence bias with intuitive confidence intervals is correlated with short-term memory capacity. The proposed interpretation is that increased task experience is not sufficient to cure the overconfidence with confidence intervals because it stems from short-term memory limitations.

  • 16.
    Hansson, Patrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Juslin, Peter
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Adult age differences in the realism of confidence judgments: overconfidence, format dependence, and cognitive predictors2008Ingår i: Psychology and Aging, ISSN 0882-7974, E-ISSN 1939-1498, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 531-544Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Realistic confidence judgments are essential to everyday functioning, but few studies have addressed the issue of age differences in overconfidence. Therefore, the authors examined this issue with probability judgment and intuitive confidence intervals in a sample of 122 healthy adults (ages:

    35-40, 55-60, 70-75 years). In line with predictions based on the naïve sampling model (P. Juslin, A. Winman, & P. Hansson, 2007), substantial format dependence was observed, with extreme overconfidence when confidence was expressed as an intuitive confidence interval but not when confidence was expressed as a probability judgment. Moreover, an age-related increase in overconfidence was selectively observed when confidence was expressed as intuitive confidence intervals. Structural equation modeling indicated that the age-related increases in overconfidence were mediated by a general cognitive ability factor that may reflect executive processes. Finally, the results indicated that part of the negative influence of increased age on general ability may be compensated for by an age-related increase in domain-relevant knowledge.(c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  • 17.
    Hansson, Patrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sunnegårdh-Grönberg, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Tandhygienistutbildning.
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bergdahl, Maud
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Relationship between natural teeth and memory in a healthy elderly population2013Ingår i: European Journal of Oral Sciences, ISSN 0909-8836, E-ISSN 1600-0722, Vol. 121, nr 4, s. 333-340Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between mastication and cognitive function remains unclear, but both animal and experimental human studies suggest a possible causal relationship. In the present study it was hypothesized that natural teeth are of importance for hippocampus-based cognitive processes, such as episodic long-term memory. A population-based sample of 273 participants (55-80yr of age; 145 women) was investigated in a cross-sectional study. The participants underwent health assessment, completed a battery of cognitive tests, and took part in an extensive clinical oral examination. The number of natural teeth contributed uniquely and significantly to explaining variance (3-4%) in performance on measures of episodic memory and semantic memory over and above individual differences in age, years of education, gender, occupation, living conditions, and medical history. The number of natural teeth did not have an influence on the performance of measures of working memory, visuospatial ability, or processing speed. Within the limitations of the current study, a small, but significant, relationship between episodic memory and number of natural teeth is evident.

  • 18. Juslin, Peter
    et al.
    Winman, Anders
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The naïve intuitive statistician: a naïve sampling model of intuitive confidence intervals2009Ingår i: Judgement and decision making / [ed] Nick K Chater, London: Sage Publications, 2009, s. 678-703Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 19.
    Juslin, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Winman, Anders
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The naïve intuitive statistician: A naïve sampling model of intuitive confidence intervals2007Ingår i: Psychological review, ISSN 0033-295X, E-ISSN 1939-1471, Vol. 114, nr 3, s. 678-703Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The perspective of the naïve intuitive statistician is outlined and applied to explain overconfidence when people produce intuitive confidence intervals and why this format leads to more overconfidence than other formally equivalent formats. Thenaïve sampling model implies that people accurately describe the sample information they have but are naïve in the sense that they uncritically take sample properties as estimates of population properties. A review demonstrates that the naïve sampling model accounts for the robust and important findings in previous research as well as provides novel predictions that are confirmed, including a way to minimize the overconfidence with interval production. The authors discuss the naïve sampling model as a representative of models inspired by the naïve intuitive statistician.

  • 20.
    Ljungberg, Jessica K.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Andrés, Pilar
    Department of Psychology, University of the Balearic Islands, Palma, Spain.
    Josefsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A Longitudinal Study of Memory Advantages in Bilinguals2013Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 9, s. e73029-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Typically, studies of cognitive advantages in bilinguals have been conducted previously by using executive and inhibitory tasks (e.g. Simon task) and applying cross-sectional designs. This study longitudinally investigated bilingual advantages on episodic memory recall, verbal letter and categorical fluency during the trajectory of life. Monolingual and bilingual participants (n=178) between 35–70 years at baseline were drawn from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study of aging, memory, and health. Results showed that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals at the first testing session and across time both in episodic memory recall and in letter fluency. No interaction with age was found indicating that the rate of change across ages was similar for bilinguals and monolinguals. As predicted and in line with studies applying cross-sectional designs, no advantages associated with bilingualism were found in the categorical fluency task. The results are discussed in the light of successful aging.

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  • 21.
    Ljungberg, Jessika K.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Cardiff University.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    The effect of language skills on dementia in a Swedish longitudinal cohort2016Ingår i: Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, ISSN 1879-9264, E-ISSN 1879-9272, Vol. 6, nr 1-2, s. 190-204Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent findings indicate that bilingualism delay the onset of dementia. Using data from the Betula longitudinal cohort study on memory, health and aging (www.betula.su.se) the issue of a possible protective effect of bilingualism was addressed.

    Monolingual (n = 736) and bilingual (n = 82) participants (≥ 60 years) without dementia at inclusion were followed for incident dementia over a time-period up to 10 years. In total, 112 participants developed dementia. Analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for age, sex, and presence/absence of the Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4 allele, with dementia outcome as the dependent variable.

    Results showed no delayed onset of dementia in bilinguals compared to monolinguals. However, because of the findings from a study using participants from the same population showing beneficial longitudinal effects of bilingualism on episodic memory; we argue that our results may depend on the frequency of use of the second language after retirement.

  • 22. Marsh, John E.
    et al.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Körning Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Division of Human Work Science, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Executive Processes Underpin the Bilingual Advantage on Phonemic Fluency: Evidence from Analyses of Switching and Clustering2019Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, artikel-id 1355Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bilinguals often show a disadvantage in lexical access on verbal fluency tasks wherein the criteria require the production of words from semantic categories. However, the pattern is more heterogeneous for letter (phonemic) fluency wherein the task is to produce words beginning with a given letter. Here, bilinguals often outperform monolinguals. One explanation for this is that phonemic fluency, as compared with semantic fluency, is more greatly underpinned by executive processes and that bilinguals exhibit better performance on phonemic fluency due to better executive functions. In this study, we re-analyzed phonemic fluency data from the Betula study, scoring outputs according to two measures that purportedly reflect executive processes: clustering and switching. Consistent with the notion that bilinguals have superior executive processes and that these can be used to offset a bilingual disadvantage in verbal fluency, bilinguals (35-65 years at baseline) demonstrated greater switching and clustering throughout the 15-year study period.

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  • 23.
    Marsja, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Marsh Everett, John
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Neely, Gregory
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Examining the Role of Spatial Changes in Bimodal and Uni-Modal To-Be-Ignored Stimuli and How They Affect Short-Term Memory Processes2019Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, s. 1-8, artikel-id 299Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the potential vulnerability of short-term memory processes to distraction by spatial changes within to-be-ignored bimodal, vibratory, and auditory stimuli. Participants were asked to recall sequences of serially presented dots or digits while being exposed to to-be-ignored stimuli. On unexpected occasions, the bimodal (Experiment 1), vibratory (Experiment 2), or auditory (Experiment 3) stimuli changed their spatial origin from one side of the body (e.g., ear and arm, arm only, ear only) to the other. It was expected that the bimodal stimuli would make the spatial change more salient compared to that of the uni-modal stimuli and that this, in turn, would yield an increase in distraction of serial short-term memory in both the verbal and spatial domains. Performance across three experiments support this assumption as a disruptive effect of the spatial deviant was only observed when presented within the bimodal to-be-ignored sequence (Experiment 1): Uni-modal to-be-ignored sequences, whether vibratory (Experiment 2) or auditory (Experiment 3), had no impact on either verbal or spatial short-term memory. Implications for models of attention capture, short-term memory, and the potential special role attention capturing role of bimodal stimuli is discussed.

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  • 24.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Human Work Science, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Human Work Science, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap.
    Mental demands at work and risk of dementia2020Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, ISSN 1387-2877, E-ISSN 1875-8908, Vol. 74, nr 3, s. 735-740Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    High mental demands at work was examined as a possible protective factor to reduce the risk of dementia in 1,277 initially dementia-free participants, aged 60 years and older. The cohort was followed for a mean of 13.6 years. During follow-up, 376 participants developed all-cause dementia (Alzheimer’s disease = 199; vascular dementia = 145). The association between mental demands at work and dementia was analyzed with Cox hazard models, adjusted for a range of covariates. The results revealed no significant association between mental demands at work and incidence of dementia. Based on the measures used in this study, it was concluded that high mental demands at work may not reduce the risk of dementia later on in life.

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  • 25.
    Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ljungberg K., Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Psykologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Language skills and risk of dementia: a population-based study2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 26.
    Winman, Anders
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Juslin, Peter
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Subjective probability intervals: how to reduce overconfidence by interval evaluation2004Ingår i: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 30, nr 6, s. 1167-1175Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Format dependence implies that assessment of the same subjective probability distribution produces different conclusions about over- or underconfidence depending on the assessment format. In 2 experiments, the authors demonstrate that the overconfidence bias that occurs when participants produce intervals for an uncertain quantity is almost abolished when they evaluate the probability that the same intervals include the quantity. The authors successfully apply a method for adaptive adjustment of probability intervals as a debiasing tool and discuss a tentative explanation in terms of a naive sampling model. According to this view, people report their experiences accurately, but they are naive in that they treat both sample proportion and sample dispersion as unbiased estimators, yielding small bias in probability evaluation but strong bias in interval production.

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