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  • 1.
    Al-Alawi, Kamila
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Team-based approach in the management of diabetes at primary health care level in Muscat, Oman: challenges and opportunities2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The growth of type 2 diabetes is considered an alarming epidemic in Oman. The efficient team-based approach to diabetes management in primary health care is an essential component for providing ideal diabetic care. This thesis aimed to explore the current situation related to team-based management of type 2 diabetes in public Primary Health Care Centres (PHCCs) under the Ministry of Health (MOH) in Oman, including the various challenges associated with diabetes management and the most preferable Human Resources for Health (HRH) management mechanism, and to examine how this could be optimized from provider and patient perspectives.

    Materials and methods: The entire project was conducted in Muscat Governorate and was based on one quantitative and three qualitative studies. In the quantitative study, 26 public PHCCs were approached through cross-sectional study. The core diabetes management team recommended by the MOH for PHCCs in Oman was explored in terms of their competencies, values, skills, and resources related to the team-based approach to diabetes management. For the qualitative studies, five public purposely-selected PHCCs were approached. The diabetes consultations conducted by the core members and other supportive members involved in diabetes management were observed and later the Primary Health Care Providers (PHCPs) were interviewed. The different approaches explored challenges related to diabetes management and the most preferable HRH mechanism by PHCPs. Seven type 2 diabetes patients with different gender, employment status, and education were consequently interviewed to explore their perceptions towards the current diabetes management service and their opinions towards nurse-led clinics.

    Results: The survey provided significant and diverse perceptions of PHCPs towards their competencies, values, skills, and resources related to diabetes management. Physicians considered themselves to have better competencies than nurses and dieticians. Physicians also scored higher on team-related skills and values compared with health educators. In terms of team-related skills, the difference between physicians and nurses was statistically significant and showed that physicians perceived themselves to have better skills than nurses. Confusion about the leadership concept among PHCPs with a lack of pharmacological, technical, and human resources was also reported. The observations and interviews with PHCPs disclosed three different models of service delivery at diabetes management clinics. The challenges explored involved PHCCs’ infrastructure, nurses’ knowledge, skills, and non-availability of technical and pharmaceutical support. Other challenges that evolved into the community were cultural beliefs, traditions, health awareness, and public transportation. Complete implementation of task-sharing mechanisms within the team-based approach was selected by all PHCPs as the most preferable HRH mechanism. The selection was discussed in the context of positive outcomes, worries, and future requirements. The physicians stated that nurses’ weak contribution to the team within the selected mechanism could be the most significant aspect. Other members supported the task-sharing mechanism between physicians and nurses. However, type 2 diabetes patients’ non-acceptance of a service provided by the nurses created worries for the nurses. The interviews with type 2 diabetes patients disclosed positive perceptions towards the current diabetes management visits; however, opinions towards nurse-led clinics varied among the patients.

    Conclusions and recommendations: The team-based approach at diabetes management clinics in public PHCCs in Oman requires thoughtful attention. Diverse presence of the team members can form challenges during service delivery. Clear roles for team members must be outlined through a solid HRH management mechanism in the context of a sharp leadership concept. Nurse-led clinics are an important concept within the team; however, their implementation requires further investigation. The concept must involve clear understandings of independence and interdependence by the team members, who must be educated to provide a strong gain for team-based service delivery.

  • 2.
    Al-Alawi, Kamila
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa. Department of Training and Studies, Royal Hospital, Ministry of Health, Muscat, Oman.
    Al Mandhari, Ahmed
    Johansson, Helene
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Care providers' perceptions towards challenges and opportunities for service improvement at diabetes management clinics in public primary health care in Muscat, Oman: a qualitative study2019Ingår i: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 19, artikel-id 18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundThe literature has described several challenges related to the quality of diabetes management clinics in public primary health care centres in Oman. These clinics continue to face challenges due to the continuous growth of individuals diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. We sought to explore the challenges faced in these clinics and discuss opportunities for improvement in Oman.MethodsThis qualitative study was designed to include non-participant observations of diabetic patients and care providers during service provision at diabetes management clinics, as well as semi-structured interviews with care providers, at five purposively selected public primary health care centres. Care providers included physicians, nurses, dieticians, health educators, pharmacists, an assistant pharmacist, a psychologist, and a medical orderly. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis.ResultsThe study disclosed three different models of service delivery at diabetes management clinics, which, to varying degrees, face challenges related to health centre infrastructure, technical and pharmaceutical support, and care providers' interests, knowledge, and skills. Challenges related to the community were also found in terms of cultural beliefs, traditions, health awareness, and public transportation.ConclusionThe challenges encountered in diabetes management clinics fall within two contexts: health care centres and community. Although many challenges exist, opportunities for improvement are available. However, improvements in the quality of diabetic clinics in primary health care centres might take time and require extensive involvement, shared responsibilities, and implications from the government, health care centres, and community.

  • 3.
    Al-Alawi, Kamila
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Johansson, Helene
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Perceptions of type-two diabetes patients towards diabetes management visits at public primary health care centres with diverse opinions towards nurse-led clinics in Muscat, Oman: a pilot qualitative studyManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 4.
    Al-Alawi, Kamila
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Johansson, Helene
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    The question is not what we want; the question is, are we ready?: a qualitative study exploring primary health care providers`perceptions towards different human resources for health management mechanisms at diabetes management clinics in primary health care centres in Muscat, OmanManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5.
    Al-Alawi, Kamila
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Department of Training and Studies, Royal Hospital, Ministry of Health, Muscat, Oman.
    Johansson, Helene
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Al Mandhari, Ahmed
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Are the resources adoptive for conducting team-based diabetes management clinics?: An explorative study at primary health care centers in Muscat, Oman2018Ingår i: Primary Health Care Research and Development, ISSN 1463-4236, E-ISSN 1477-1128, Vol. 20, s. 1-28, artikel-id E3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of this study is to explore the perceptions among primary health center staff concerning competencies, values, skills and resources related to team-based diabetes management and to describe the availability of needed resources for team-based approaches.

    BACKGROUND: The diabetes epidemic challenges services available at primary health care centers in the Middle East. Therefore, there is a demand for evaluation of the available resources and team-based diabetes management in relation to the National Diabetes Management Guidelines.

    METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 26 public primary health care centers in Muscat, the capital of Oman. Data were collected from manual and electronic resources as well as a questionnaire that was distributed to the physician-in-charge and diabetes management team members.

    FINDINGS: The study revealed significant differences between professional groups regarding how they perceived their own competencies, values and skills as well as available resources related to team-based diabetes management. The perceived competencies were high among all professions. The perceived team-related values and skills were also generally high but with overall lower recordings among the nurses. This pattern, along with the fact that very few nurses have specialized qualifications, is a barrier to providing team-based diabetes management. Participants indicated that there were sufficient laboratory resources; however, reported that pharmacological, technical and human resources were lacking. Further work should be done at public primary diabetes management clinics in order to fully implement team-based diabetes management.

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