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  • 101.
    Larsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Molinder, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    "Det hade tagit oss ett år att komma hit": Effekterna av en intervention med fokus på dans, teater, relation och beteende på sammanhållningen i ett damfotbollslag.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The positive correlation between team-cohesion and performance in sport teams is a well- established fact within the field of sport psychology. That working with culture can be an effective tool to reach this objective has been proven by Swedish soccer club Östersund, who’s success-story has become world famous. The aim of this study was to investigate if a team- building intervention combining dance, improvisational theatre, Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) and interpersonal bonding exercises, could have measurable effects on female soccer players’ sense of social cohesiveness. The participants in the intervention group were female elite soccer players. The study-control consisted of male soccer players in the same club. The Group Environment Questionnaire was administered at two occasions. A semi- structured interview was also conducted. Results showed a significant increase of social cohesion as measured by the sub-scale Group Integration- Social, (p < .001). A very large effect, (Cohen’s d = -1.607). A first conclusion drawn from the interview data was that a focus on teamwork-behaviors and engaging participants in their own goal-setting seemed to have been particularly effective in increasing the teams’ sense of cohesion. A second conclusion was that culture activities together with interpersonal bonding-exercises, might have worked as a facilitator for later work with OBM. It can also be concluded that content of the intervention, combined with its time-effective and intense format, probably was optimal for this team. Moreover, results also indicate that the intervention might have given the team a sort of “jump- start” into a team development process.

  • 102. Li, Chunxiao
    et al.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Wu, Yandan
    The dynamic interplay between burnout and sleep among elite blind soccer players2018In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 37, p. 164-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamic pattern between burnout and sleep among athletes is unknown. This longitudinal survey examined the interplay between burnout and sleep among blind elite soccer players. China national blind soccer team players (n = 10) completed measures on burnout and sleep quality through interview at baseline (month 1), and followed at months 2, 3, 4, and 5. The results of dynamic p-technique analysis, using Bayesian estimation, showed a credible relationship between burnout and sleep quality. Also, burnout had a credible lagged effect on subsequent sleep quality whereas sleep quality did not have a credible lagged effect on burnout. The results suggest that burnout and sleep are not reciprocally related and burnout may be a risk factor of sleep problems among athletes.

  • 103.
    Lindahl, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Department of Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Colliander, Cristian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Umeå University, Umeå University Library.
    Trends and knowledge base in sport and exercise psychology research: a bibliometric review study2015In: International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1750-984X, E-ISSN 1750-9858, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 71-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bibliometric methods were used to examine: (1) research themes in sport and exercise psychology articles published between 2008 and 2011; and (2) the intellectual base of the field of sport and exercise psychology, defined as influential literature being cited in these articles. The dataset consisted of 795 articles from five sport and exercise psychology journals and 345 articles obtained through citation-based extension (n = 1140 articles). A cluster analysis yielded 73 clusters showing themes in sport and exercise psychology research. Principal component analysis was used to identify and analyze relationships between 14 highly cited research areas constituting the intellectual base of sport and exercise psychology. Some main findings were: (1) the identification of many re-emerging themes, (2) research related to motivation seems to be extensive, (3) sport psychology and exercise psychology research share theoretical frameworks to some extent, however (4) differences compared to previous reviews indicate that sport psychology and exercise psychology may be regarded as two distinct research fields, rather than one united field, and (5) isolated research areas were identified indicating potential for research integration. Suggestions for future research are provided. The bibliometric approach presented a broad overview of trends and knowledge base in sport and exercise psychology research.

  • 104.
    Lindblad Berkhout, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine. TNO Work and Employment, Polarisavenue 151, 2130 AS Hoofddorp, The Netherlands.
    Hendriksson-Larsén, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Bongers, Paulien
    The effect of using a laptopstation compared to using a standard laptop PC on the cervical spine torque, perceived strain and productivity2004In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 147-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of using a laptopstation and a laptop PC and how this difference in work set-up affected the mechanical load on the neck (C7-Th1 segment). the subjective evaluation of strain on the neck and productivity. Ten healthy male students at Umea University, Sweden with in average of 10 years of PC work experience and ail average of 18 months of laptop PC work experience participated in the study. For each research subject measurements were divided into two parts; sitting working at the ErgoQ laptopstation in test situation A, and sitting working at a conventional laptop PC, test situation B. Each part took 4 h and was scheduled on two consecutive days. Photography and biomechanical analysis was used to calculate the torque at the neck. To examine perceived strain the Borg Scale was used and to assess performance a productivity score was calculated. The results in the study demonstrated a significant (p<0.05) difference with the use of the laptopstation resulting in decreased torque at the C7-Th1 segment, less perceived strain at the neck and a higher productivity score. A conclusion, the results of the study confirm the importance of adjustable work tools that recognize anthropometric differences and biomechanics to meet the needs of individual customers during continuous visual display terminal work.

  • 105.
    Lindgren, Lenita
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Clinical Dentistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, UIT - The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Longitudinal Evidence for Smaller Hippocampus Volume as a Vulnerability Factor for Perceived Stress2016In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 26, no 8, p. 3527-3533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hippocampal volume has been found to be smaller in individuals with stress-related disorders, but it remains unclear whether smaller volume is a consequence of stress or rather a vulnerability factor. Here, we examined this issue by relating stress levels to hippocampal volumes in healthy participants examined every 5 years in a longitudinal population-based study. Based on scores of 25- to 60-year-old participants on the perceived stress questionnaire, we defined moderately to high (n = 35) and low (n = 76) stress groups. The groups were re-examined after 5 years (at the 6th study wave). Historical data on subjective stress were available up to 10 years prior to Wave 5. At the first MRI session, the moderately to high stress group had a significantly smaller hippocampal volume, as measured by FreeSurfer (version 5.3), compared with the low-stress group. At follow-up, group differences in stress levels and hippocampal volume remained unchanged. In retrospective analyses of subjective stress, the observed group difference in stress was found to be stable. The long-term stability of group differences in perceived stress and hippocampal volume suggests that a small hippocampal volume may be a vulnerability factor for stress-related disorders.

  • 106.
    Lindner, Philip
    et al.
    Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyström, Markus B.T.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Stockholm ; Linköping, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm, Sweden.
    Who seeks ICBT for depression and how do they get there?: Effects of recruitment source on patient demographics and clinical characteristics2015In: Internet Interventions, Vol. 2, p. 221-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on internet-administered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) frequently use several different sources of recruitment, yet no study has investigated whether different recruitment sources produce different clinical and demographic profiles among participants. Using data from a large sample (n=982) seeking ICBT for depression, we compared these characteristics on the basis of self-reported recruitment source. Recruitment sources that imply more active treatment- seeking behaviors (Google searches, viewing postings on mental health websites) presentedmore severe depression and anxiety than those recruited throughmore passive sources of information (newspaper advertisements, referrals by friends and family). In addition, a number of demographic differences between groups were found. These findings have important implications for ICBT research projects and clinical programs who employ open recruitment procedures and multi-modal recruitment strategies, and who wish to recruit representative samples or target specific subgroups. Replications in other countries will however be required to establish cross-cultural patterns. 

  • 107. Lindros, Ola
    et al.
    Wilhelmson Aspman, Emma
    Lidestav, Gun
    Neely, Gregory
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Accidents in family forestry´s firewood production2008In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 40, p. 877-886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Firewood is commonly used around the world, but little is known about the work involved in its production and associated accidents. The objectives were to identify relationships between accidents and time exposure, workers’ age and sex, equipment used and work activities in family forestry’s firewood production. Data from a postal survey in Northern Sweden were compared to a database of injuries in the same region. Most accidents occurred to 50–69 year old men, who also worked most hours. No significant differences in sex and age were found between expected and recorded accident frequencies when calculated from total work hours; however, when calculated using numbers of active persons significant differences were found for both age and sex. Frequency of accidents per unit worked time was higher for machine involving activities than for other activities. Accidents that occurred when using wedge splitter machines were responsible for most of this overrepresentation. Fingers were the most commonly injured body parts. Mean accident rate for the equipment used was 87 accidents per million work hours, and the rate was highest for wedge splitters (122 accidents per million work hours). Exposure to elevated risks due to violation of safety procedures is discussed, as well as possible preventative measures.

  • 108.
    Ljungberg, Jessika K.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Cardiff University.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    The effect of language skills on dementia in a Swedish longitudinal cohort2016In: Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, ISSN 1879-9264, E-ISSN 1879-9272, Vol. 6, no 1-2, p. 190-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent findings indicate that bilingualism delay the onset of dementia. Using data from the Betula longitudinal cohort study on memory, health and aging (www.betula.su.se) the issue of a possible protective effect of bilingualism was addressed.

    Monolingual (n = 736) and bilingual (n = 82) participants (≥ 60 years) without dementia at inclusion were followed for incident dementia over a time-period up to 10 years. In total, 112 participants developed dementia. Analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for age, sex, and presence/absence of the Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4 allele, with dementia outcome as the dependent variable.

    Results showed no delayed onset of dementia in bilinguals compared to monolinguals. However, because of the findings from a study using participants from the same population showing beneficial longitudinal effects of bilingualism on episodic memory; we argue that our results may depend on the frequency of use of the second language after retirement.

  • 109.
    Logeswaran, Suthanthan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hand preference and manual midline crossing in 12-month-old infants2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has found that hand preference can be detected reliably in infants as young as 6 months of age through the use of reach-grasp tasks. While many studies have targeted their efforts at discerning hand preference in infants younger than 12-months of age, a lack of knowledge about hand preference during the ages of 1-2 years remain. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether 12-month-old infants demonstrate a clear hand use preference during unimanual reaching and grasping. Participants consisted of 54 healthy, full term 12-month-old infants (+2/-2 weeks). Goal objects were placed at a reachable distance, in front of the infants and randomly allocated to either left, midline or right positions. Infant hand choices and the success of each grasp were coded offline from video recordings made of the reach-grasp sessions and an overall lateralisation index (LI) was calculated later for each infant. The results demonstrated that the 12-month-old infants were generally right-preferred. Additionally, almost double the frequency of grasps were accounted for by right hand grasps. Further, a significant right hand preference was found when children reached across the midline to grasp objects. The findings imply that hand preference may be readily observed in the prehension activities of 12-month-old infants, and particularly prominent when reaching across the midline.

  • 110. Loras, H.
    et al.
    Stensdotter, A. K.
    Öhberg, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Sigmundsson, H.
    Individual differences in timing of discrete and continuous movements: a dimensional approach2014In: Psychological Research, ISSN 0340-0727, E-ISSN 1430-2772, Vol. 78, no 2, p. 289-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated aspects of individual differences in timing of continuous and discontinuous movements to different pacing signals (auditory or visual), pacing intervals (500, 650, 800, 950 ms), and across effectors (dominant versus non-dominant hand). Correlation and principal component analysis demonstrated that a single statistical dimension accounted for up to 60 % of the explained variance in discontinuous tasks and 25 % of the variance in continuous tasks, when applied to performance obtained from tasks conducted with different effectors and at different pacing rates. Correlation analysis of factor scores representing effector and rate independent task performances showed that timing of discrete or continuous movements can be associated with modality independent mechanisms. Timing variability from discrete and continuous trials was not significantly correlated. This study goes beyond previous correlational work on individual differences in discrete and continuous movements, demonstrating that individual differences in discrete (event-based) or continuous (emergent) motor timing tasks can be modeled as distinctive statistical components with dissimilar capability to capture effector, rate, and modality independent variance.

  • 111.
    Lorentzi, Oskar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS AMONG PATIENTS INVESTIGATED FOR CANCER OF THE BLADDER AND/OR UPPER URINARY TRACT2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Psychiatric illness is common among cancer patients. Patients commonly experience increased anxiety before medical examinations used to diagnose cancer, and the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms vary between patients with different types of cancer and cancer in different sites, as well as patients in different stages of the medical process. Patients with previous psychiatric illness may have a particular vulnerability to anxiety and depression when diagnosed with cancer. The aim of this thesis was to study the levels of anxiety, depression and distress in patients being investigated at Swedish urology clinics for cancer of the bladder and/or upper urinary tract. Patients (n=11) answered Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Distress Thermometer (DT) together with questionnaires regarding background information at three time points (T1, T2, T3): at the beginning of the investigation, right before cystoscopy (T1); one week later (T2); and two weeks later (T3). The results showed low levels of anxiety, depression and distress as compared to clinical cut-off levels for normal population, at T1 and no change to T2 or T3. Patients with a history of psychiatric illness experienced higher levels of anxiety than patients without such a history. Due to small sample size, these results are preliminary, but do point to the importance of identifying patients at particular risk for developing psychiatric illness when investigated or treated for cancer.

  • 112.
    Lorentzi Wall, Oskar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS AMONG PATIENTS INVESTIGATED FOR CANCER OF THE BLADDER AND/OR UPPER URINARY TRACT2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Psychiatric illness is common among cancer patients. Patients commonly experience increased anxiety before medical examinations used to diagnose cancer, and the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms vary between patients with different types of cancer and cancer in different sites, as well as patients in different stages of the medical process. Patients with previous psychiatric illness may have a particular vulnerability to anxiety and depression when diagnosed with cancer. The aim of this thesis was to study the levels of anxiety, depression and distress in patients being investigated at Swedish urology clinics for cancer of the bladder and/or upper urinary tract. Patients (n=11) answered Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Distress Thermometer (DT) together with questionnaires regarding background information at three time points (T1, T2, T3): at the beginning of the investigation, right before cystoscopy (T1); one week later (T2); and two weeks later (T3). The results showed low levels of anxiety, depression and distress as compared to clinical cut-off levels for normal population, at T1 and no change to T2 or T3. Patients with a history of psychiatric illness experienced higher levels of anxiety than patients without such a history. Due to small sample size, these results are preliminary, but do point to the importance of identifying patients at particular risk for developing psychiatric illness when investigated or treated for cancer.

  • 113. Lornudd, Caroline
    et al.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Schwarz, Ulrica von Thiele
    Bergman, David
    The mediating role of demand and control in the relationship between leadership behaviour and employee distress: A cross-sectional study2015In: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 543-554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The relationship between leadership and employee distress is well established, however, the processes involved in this relationship remain largely unclear. For a stretched nursing workforce, understanding in what ways leadership may influence employee distress is particularly important. Objectives: To examine possible mediating effects of the work environment factors demand and control in the relationship between leadership behaviour in change, production, and employee orientation and employee distress. Design: Cross-sectional study design. Settings: The study was conducted at a large county council in Sweden providing both institutional and non-institutional care. Participants: A random sample of 1249 employees (primarily nurses, but also a wide range of other healthcare professionals and administrative staff), who had a healthcare manager that was about to enter a leadership development programme (n = 171), responded to a web-based questionnaire. The response rate was 62%. Methods: The employees rated their healthcare managers' behaviour in change, production, and employee orientation, as well as their own perceptions of level of demand, control (subdivided into decision authority and skill discretion), and five distress outcomes. Multilevel analysis was performed. Results: The mediators demand, decision authority, and skill discretion were significant predictors of all five distress outcomes for all three leadership orientations. In eight of 15 regressions, the mediators fully explained the relationships between leadership orientations and outcomes. Four of five relationships with distress outcomes were fully mediated for change-oriented leadership, whereas two of five outcomes were fully mediated for production- and employee-oriented leadership. In all three leadership orientations, the relationship between the mediator skill discretion and the distress measure disengagement were particularly strong, with B-coefficients (-.44, p < .001) twice as high as for any of the other relationships. Conclusions: It seems that the way that employees perceive healthcare managers' change-oriented behaviour, and how that aspect is related to employee distress, is primarily explained by perception of demand and control. Furthermore, regardless of leadership behaviour orientation, how employees perceive their opportunity to use specific job skills plays an important role in the interplay between perception of healthcare managers' behaviour and disengagement.

  • 114.
    Lundkvist, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstads Universitet.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Northumbria University, UK.
    What is missing and why it is missing from coach burnout research2016In: The psychology of effective coaching and management / [ed] Paul A. Davis, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2016, p. 407-428Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The topic of burnout in sports has been the focus of research attention for several decades, although research has largely centered on the antecedents and consequences associated with athlete burnout. Currently, a limited number of studies have examined coach burnout and the implications it can have on the coaching process, social interactions, and general wellbeing. The professionalization of coaching has promoted the development of effective coaching yet it has also increased job demands and the potential for work-family conflict. In this chapter we provide a brief introduction to the burnout construct as well as a short review of the coach burnout research to date. Further, suggestions are outlined for how the authors foresee that research in the area will evolve in the future. Specifically, the use of theoretical frameworks that advance knowledge of burnout and promote diverse lines of inquiry are forwarded. Additionally, the use of more idiocratic quantitative designs with more frequent measurement across multiple time points are proposed in an effort to advance knowledge of coach burnout. Finally, we offer applied suggestions for burnout prevention and optimization of the wellbeing of coaches.

  • 115.
    Lundkvist, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Geography and Sustainable development, University of St Andrews, United Kingdom .
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstads Universitet.
    Davis, Paul
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, United Kingdom .
    Hassmén, Peter
    School of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, Australia .
    Workaholism, home-work/work-home interference, and exhaustion among sport coaches2016In: Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, ISSN 1932-9261, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 222-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were to (a) examine the associations between workaholismand work-related exhaustion and (b) examine associations between work–home/home–work interference and work-related exhaustion in 261 Swedish coaches.Quantile regression showed that workaholism is only associated with exhaustionfor coaches who score high on exhaustion, that negative work–home interferencehas a stronger association with exhaustion than negative home–work interference,and that the coaches on a mean level scored low on all measured constructs. Inaddition, coaches in the higher percentiles have a higher risk for burnout. Ourresults highlight the importance of studying coach exhaustion with respect toaspects that extend beyond the sports life.

  • 116.
    Lundkvist, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    How to measure coach burnout: an evaluation of three burnout measures2014In: Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, ISSN 1091-367X, E-ISSN 1532-7841, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 209-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although coach burnout has been studied for 30 years, what measure to use in this context has not yet been problematized. This study focuses on evaluating convergent and discriminant validity of three coach burnout measures by using multi-trait/multi-method analysis (CT-C[M-1]) model. We choose Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), the two dimensional Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI), and a coach version of Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (CBQ). Our analysis shows that MBI and OLBI cover similar definitions of exhaustion and depersonalization/disengagement and that CBQ measures somewhat different dimensions. A problem for OLBI is a lack of discriminant validity due to high correlations between exhaustion and disengagement. For lack of personal accomplishment/reduced sense of accomplishment CBQ measures a somewhat different construct than MBI. Although all three measures have advantages and disadvantages, we promote CBQ since it discriminates between dimensions and covers important aspects of burnout in a sports context that the other two do not cover.

  • 117.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Medical Management Centre, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hasson, Henna
    Schwarz, Ulrica von Thiele
    Hasson, Dan
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Medical Management Centre, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Leading for change: line managers' influence on the outcomes of an occupational health intervention2017In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 276-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Line managers may play a central role in the success of occupational health interventions. However, few studies have focussed on the relationship between line managers' behaviours and the outcomes of occupational health interventions. We examined the influence of both line managers' attitudes and actions towards an intervention as well as their transformational leadership on the expected outcomes of the intervention (i.e. employee self-rated health and work ability). The intervention consisted of the implementation and use of a web-based system for occupational health management. A sample of 180 employees provided data for the analysis. Self-rated health and work ability were measured at the baseline (Time 1) and follow-up (Time 3), while employee ratings of line managers' attitudes and actions, and transformational leadership were measured during the intervention process (Time 2). The results revealed that line managers' attitudes and actions positively predicted changes in both self-rated health and work ability. The influence of transformational leadership was indirect and mediated through line managers' attitudes and actions towards the intervention. Based on the results, we suggest using process measures that include aspects of both line managers' attitudes and actions as well as their transformational leadership in future process evaluation.

  • 118.
    Lyrén, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Atroshi, Isam
    Lunds universitet; Hässleholm och Kristianstad sjukhus.
    Using item response theory improved responsiveness of patient-reported outcomes measures in carpal tunnel syndrome2012In: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, ISSN 0895-4356, E-ISSN 1878-5921, Vol. 65, no 3, p. 325-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To compare responsiveness based on item response theory (IRT) with that based on conventional scoring for two patient-reported outcomes measures in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS); the short disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (QuickDASH) measure, and the 6-item CTS symptoms scale (CTS-6).

    Study Design and Setting Prospective cohort study of patients with CTS undergoing carpal tunnel release at one orthopedic department. Of 455 consecutive patients, 343 completed the QuickDASH and the CTS-6 before and within 1 year after surgery. IRT-based and conventional scores were compared in subgroups according to global rating of change in hand status and treatment satisfaction. The effect size (ES) and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used as measures of responsiveness.

    Results The mean value for the IRT-based QuickDASH estimate was −0.09 (standard deviation [SD] = 1.13) preoperatively and −2.14 (SD = 1.79) postoperatively (ES = −1.8) and for the CTS-6 estimate was 0.29 (SD = 1.36) preoperatively and −3.87 (SD = 2.3) postoperatively (ES = −3.1), indicating very large improvement. The ES for the QuickDASH and CTS-6 were very large (−2.4 and −3.8), respectively, in the group with the largest perceived improvement and decreased with lower perceived improvement. The ES was consistently larger with IRT-based scoring than conventional scoring. The AUC for the QuickDASH and CTS-6 exceeded 0.85.

    Conclusion IRT-based scoring showed high responsiveness for the QuickDASH and CTS-6, and the ES were larger than those estimated using conventional scoring.

  • 119.
    Lyrén, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Hambleton, Ronald K.
    University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
    Consequences of Violated Equating Assumptions under the Equivalent Groups Design2011In: International Journal of Testing, ISSN 1530-5058, E-ISSN 1532-7574, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 308-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The equal ability distribution assumption associated with the equivalent groups equating design was investigated in the context of a selection test for admission to higher education. The purpose was to assess the consequences for the test-takers in terms of receiving improperly high or low scores compared to their peers, and to find strong empirical evidence of potential violations of the assumption. Test-takers' scores on anchor items from two subtests were estimated using information about test-taker performance on the regular subtests. The results indicated that the anchor test item performance varied sufficiently, both in terms of means and spreads. Therefore, the equal ability distribution assumption could be questioned. Also, the estimated differences between different cohorts of test-takers are large enough to have an impact on the actual admissions decisions. Consequently, our conclusion is that more caution is needed when applying the equivalent groups design in the equating of tests. Assuming equal ability groups is a convenient assumption to make but it can also lead to systematic bias in the equating of test scores with potentially severe implications for test-takers, and this study provides a demonstration of this point.

  • 120.
    Madison, G
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Deterministic multi-levelrhythmical patterns (MLP), and some examples of their uses in rhythm research.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 121.
    Madison, G
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Parts ofthe journey to understand groove in music - capturing what people feel andthink2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 122.
    Madison, G
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rhythm, movement and thegroove connection – what is it good for?2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 123.
    Madison, G
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mosing, M
    Verweij, K
    Ullén, F
    Common genetic influences onintelligence and simple reaction time.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 124.
    Madison, G
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Paulin, J
    Percievedmusical ability’s effect on mate attraction. Implications for sexual selectiontheory.2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 125.
    Madison, G
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sioros, G
    Davies, M
    Miron, M
    Cocharro, D
    Gouyon, F
    Adding syncopation to simplemelodies increases the perception of groove.2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 126.
    Madison, G
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ullén, F
    Intelligence and temporalvariability – further examinations of the top-down versus bottom-up accounts ofthe underlying common component.2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 127.
    Madison, G
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Woodley, M.A
    Ullén, F
    Investigating relationshipsbetween cognition and life history in a sample of 6364 individuals.2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 128.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    An auditory illusion of infinite tempo change and some of its applications2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 129.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Capturing what people feel and think about music2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 130.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Exploring the origin of long-range dependence in human timing: Effects of sensory feedback andrelations between synchronisation and production2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 131.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tracking and reproduction of non-metric interval sequences: How training affects accuracy and representation2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 132.
    Madison, Guy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    de Manzano, Ö
    Ullén, F
    Intelligence and temporal variability – unique and common sources of variance among finger tapping and reaction time measures2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 133.
    Madison, Guy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    de Manzano, Örjan
    Magnusson, P
    Pedersen, N.L
    Ullén, F
    Creative achievement, intelligence, and personality2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 134.
    Madison, Guy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dutton, Edward
    Stern, C
    Intelligence, competitive altruism, and "clever silliness" may underlie bias in academe2017In: Behavioural and Brain Sciences, Vol. 40, p. 32-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why is social bias and its depressing effects on low-status or low-performing groups exaggerated? We show that the higher intelligence of academics has at best a very weak effect on reducing their bias, facilitates superficially justifying their biases, and may make them better at understanding the benefits of social conformity in general and competitive altruism specifically. We foresee a surge in research examining these mechanisms and recommend, meanwhile, reviving and better observing scientific ideals.

  • 135.
    Madison, Guy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Forsman, Lea
    Blom, Örjan
    Karabanov, Anke
    Ullén, Fredrik
    IQ is correlated with variability in isochronous tapping tasks: comparisons between different measures of timing performance2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 136.
    Madison, Guy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gouyon, Fabien
    INESC, Porto, Portugal.
    Ullén, Fredrik
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Musical groove is correlated with properties of the audio signal as revealed by computational modelling, depending on musical style2009In: SMC 2009: proceedings of the 6th Sound and Music Computing Conference, 23-25 July 2009 Casa da Música, Porto - Portugal, Porto: INESC , 2009, p. 239-240Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With groove we mean the subjective experience of wanting to move rhythmically when listening to music. Previous research has indicated that physical properties of the sound signal contribute to groove - as opposed to mere association due to previous exposure, for example. Here, a number of quantitative descriptors of rhythmic and temporal properties were derived from the audio signal by means of computational modelling methods. The music examples were 100 samples from 5 distinct music styles, which were all unfamiliar to the listeners. Listeners’ ratings of groove were correlated with aspects of rhythmic patterning for Greek, Indian, Samba, and West African music. Microtiming was positively correlated with groove for Samba and negatively correlated with groove for Greek, but had very small unique contributions in addition to the rhythmical properties. For Jazz, none of the measured properties had any significant contributions to groove ratings.

  • 137.
    Madison, Guy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holmquist, Jakob
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vestin, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Musical improvisation skill in a prospective partner is associated with mate value and preferences, consistent with sexual selection and parental investment theory: implications for the origin of music2018In: Evolution and human behavior, ISSN 1090-5138, E-ISSN 1879-0607, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 120-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Music is a human universal, which suggests a biological adaptation. Several evolutionary explanations have been proposed, covering the entire spectrum of natural, sexual, and group selection. Here we consider the hypothesis that musical behaviour constitutes a reliable or even costly signal of fitness, and thus may have evolved as a human trait through sexual selection. We experimentally tested how musical performance quality (MPQ), in improvisations on the drums, saxophone, and violin, affects mate values and mate preferences perceived by a prospective partner. Swedish student participants (27 of each sex) saw a face of a person of the opposite sex and heard a piece of improvised music being played. The music occurred in three levels of MPQ and the faces in three levels of facial attractiveness (FA). For each parametric combination of MPG and FA, the participants rated four mate value scales (intelligence, health, social status, and parenting skill) and four mate preference scales (date, intercourse, and short- and long term relationship). Consistent with sexual selection theory, mate value ratings were generally increased by MPQ for raters of both sexes. Consistent with more specific hypotheses that follow from combining sexual selection and parental investment theory, women’s but not men’s preference for a long-term, but not short-term, relationship was significantly increased by MPQ, MPQ generally affected women’s ratings more than men’s, FA generally affected men’s ratings more than women’s, and women’s ratings of intelligence were even more influenced by MPQ than by FA.

  • 138.
    Madison, Guy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Karampela, Olympia
    Ullén, Fredrik
    Holm, Linus
    Training motor timing2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 139.
    Madison, Guy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Paulin, J
    The role of multiple rhythmical levels in the perception of music: Judgments of speed increase with event density2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 140.
    Madison, Guy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ullén, Fredrik
    Variability and serial dependency in sequential timing: Results related to duration, intelligence, and neuropharmacological factors2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 141.
    Malmberg Gavelin, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rehabilitation for improved cognition in stress-related exhaustion: cognitive, neural and clinical perspectives2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress-related exhaustion disorder (ED) has been associated with concomitant cognitive impairment, perceived by patients to have large impact on everyday life. However, little is known about how to address cognition in stress rehabilitation and how this could influence stress recovery over time. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the efficacy of additional cognitive and aerobic training for patients with ED who participated in a multimodal stress rehabilitation program. A further aim was to explore the neural correlates of ED. The main focus of this thesis was on cognitive training, the effects of which were studied from a cognitive, neural, and clinical perspective (Study I-III). The final part of this thesis (Study III) broadened the perspective and investigated the long-term effects of cognitive and aerobic training on cognitive and clinical outcomes.

    Study I and II evaluated the effects of process-based cognitive training immediately following the intervention. The results from Study I showed that generalization of training effects following cognitive training was selective and restricted to tasks similar to those trained. The cognitive training group showed a greater reduction in burnout symptoms, and partial support was given for fewer subjective cognitive complaints compared to stress rehabilitation alone. Study II used functional neuroimaging to explore the neural effects of cognitive training, showing training-related activation increases at high working memory load; however, conclusions were restricted due to the small sample.

    Study II additionally explored the neural correlates of ED by investigating within-group associations between burnout level and functional neural response during working memory updating. The results revealed that patients with higher levels of burnout showed greater recruitment of working memory-related regions during task execution, potentially reflecting a compensatory mechanism serving to uphold task performance.

    Study III evaluated the clinical utility of addressing cognitive impairments in stress rehabilitation. Here, the effects of cognitive and aerobic training on several ED-related variables were investigated 1 year after the intervention. Cognitive training was associated with a small and lasting improvement in cognitive performance. Aerobic training yielded improvements in episodic memory immediately following the intervention, but no significant difference was found between the aerobic training group and the control group at 1-year follow-up. For psychological health and work ability, no additional benefits were seen for the added interventions relative to stress rehabilitation alone. However, a long-term improvement in burnout symptoms favouring cognitive training was observed when restricting the analysis to only include patients who had completed the intervention. This highlights the importance of supporting patients in adhering to added treatments.

    In sum, the papers in this thesis provide initial evidence of neurocognitive plasticity in patients with ED and tentatively suggest that cognitive improvements following cognitive training may translate into alleviated clinical symptoms. These results support the argument that interventions targeting cognitive impairments holds a place in the effective rehabilitation of ED.

  • 142.
    Malmberg Gavelin, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eskilsson, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark..
    Josefsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Social and Psychological Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Slunga Järvholm, Lisbeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Rehabilitation for improved cognition in patients with stress-related exhaustion disorder: RECO – a randomized clinical trial2018In: Stress, ISSN 1025-3890, E-ISSN 1607-8888, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 279-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress-related exhaustion has been associated with selective and enduring cognitive impairments. However, little is known about how to address cognitive deficits in stress rehabilitation and how this influences stress recovery over time. The aim of this open-label, parallel randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03073772) was to investigate the long-term effects of 12 weeks cognitive or aerobic training on cognitive function, psychological health and work ability for patients diagnosed with exhaustion disorder (ED). One-hundred-and-thirty-two patients (111 women) participating in multimodal stress rehabilitation were randomized to receive additional cognitive training (n = 44), additional aerobic training (n = 47) or no additional training (n = 41). Treatment effects were assessed before, immediately after and one-year post intervention. The primary outcome was global cognitive function. Secondary outcomes included domain-specific cognition, self-reported burnout, depression, anxiety, fatigue and work ability, aerobic capacity and sick-leave levels. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed a small but lasting improvement in global cognitive functioning for the cognitive training group, paralleled by a large improvement on a trained updating task. The aerobic training group showed improvements in aerobic capacity and episodic memory immediately after training, but no long-term benefits. General improvements in psychological health and work ability were observed, with no difference between interventional groups. Our findings suggest that cognitive training may be a viable method to address cognitive impairments for patients with ED, whereas the effects of aerobic exercise on cognition may be more limited when performed during a restricted time period. The implications for clinical practice in supporting patients with ED to adhere to treatment are discussed.

  • 143.
    Malmberg Gavelin, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Social and Psychological Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Eskilsson, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Slunga Järvholm, Lisbeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Neural activation in stress-related exhaustion: cross-sectional observations and interventional effects2017In: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, ISSN 0925-4927, E-ISSN 1872-7506, Vol. 269, p. 17-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the association between burnout and neural activation during working memory processing in patients with stress-related exhaustion. Additionally, we investigated the neural effects of cognitive training as part of stress rehabilitation. Fifty-five patients with clinical diagnosis of exhaustion disorder were administered the n-back task during fMRI scanning at baseline. Ten patients completed a 12-week cognitive training intervention, as an addition to stress rehabilitation. Eleven patients served as a treatment-as-usual control group. At baseline, burnout level was positively associated with neural activation in the rostral prefrontal cortex, the posterior parietal cortex and the striatum, primarily in the 2-back condition. Following stress rehabilitation, the striatal activity decreased as a function of improved levels of burnout. No significant association between burnout level and working memory performance was found, however, our findings indicate that frontostriatal neural responses related to working memory were modulated by burnout severity. We suggest that patients with high levels of burnout need to recruit additional cognitive resources to uphold task performance. Following cognitive training, increased neural activation was observed during 3-back in working memory-related regions, including the striatum, however, low sample size limits any firm conclusions.

  • 144. Masia, U
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Unraveling safety compliance in the mining industry: Examining the role of work stress, job insecurity, satisfaction and commitment as antecedents.2011In: South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, Vol. 31, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 145. Matosic, Doris
    et al.
    Ntoumanis, Nikos
    Boardley, Ian David
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sedikides, Constantine
    Linking Narcissism, Motivation, and Doping Attitudes in Sport: A Multilevel Investigation Involving Coaches and Athletes2016In: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 556-566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on coaching (Bartholomew, Ntoumanis, & Thogersen-Ntoumani, 2009) has shown that coaches can display controlling behaviors that have detrimental effects on athletes' basic psychological needs and quality of sport experiences. The current study extends this literature by considering coach narcissism as a potential antecedent of coaches' controlling behaviors. Further, the study tests a model linking coaches' (n = 59) own reports of narcissistic tendencies with athletes' (n = 493) perceptions of coach controlling behaviors, experiences of need frustration, and attitudes toward doping. Multilevel path analysis revealed that coach narcissism was directly and positively associated with athletes' perceptions of controlling behaviors and was indirectly and positively associated with athletes' reports of needs frustration. In addition, athletes' perceptions of coach behaviors were positively associated directly and indirectly with attitudes toward doping. The findings advance understanding of controlling coach behaviors, their potential antecedents, and their associations with athletes' attitudes toward doping.

  • 146. Meyer, R
    et al.
    Rothmann, S
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Coping, stress and suicide ideation in the South African Police Service in the Eastern Cape.2003In: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 1-24Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 147. Milosavljevic, Stephan
    et al.
    Bergman, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Rehn, Börje
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Carman, Allan B
    All-terrain vehicle use in agriculture: Exposure to whole body vibration and mechanical shock2010In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 530-535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whole body vibration (WBV) and mechanical shock were measured in 12 New Zealand farmers during their daily use of all-terrain vehicles (ATVs). As per the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) guidelines for WBV exposure, frequencies between 0 and 100Hz were recorded via a seat-pad tri-axial accelerometer during 20min of ATV use. The farmers were also surveyed to estimate seasonal variation in daily ATV usage as well as 7-day and 12-month prevalence of spinal pain. Frequency-weighted vibration exposure and total riding time were calculated to determine the daily vibration dose value (VDV). The daily VDV of 16.6m/s(1.75) was in excess of the 9.1m/s(1.75) action limit set by ISO guidelines suggesting an increased risk of low back injury from such exposure. However, the mean shock factor R, representing cumulative adverse health effects, was 0.31 indicating that these farmers were not exposed to excessive doses of mechanical shock. Extrapolation of daily VDV data to estimated seasonal variations of farmers in ATV riding time demonstrated that all participants would exceed the ISO recommended maximum permissible limits during the spring lambing season, as compared to lower exposures calculated for summer, autumn and winter. Low back pain was the most commonly reported complaint for both 7 day (50%) and 12 month prevalence (67%), followed by the neck (17% and 42%) and the upper back (17% and 25%) respectively. The results demonstrate high levels of vibration exposure within New Zealand farmers and practical recommendations are needed to reduce their exposure to WBV.

  • 148.
    Molander, Bo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Demographic Data Base.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Borg, Elisabet
    Stockholms universitet.
    Judging and regulating force in sports: the psychophysical scale as a tool for putting shots2015In: Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, ISSN 2152-0704, E-ISSN 2152-0712, Vol. 6, p. 154-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many sports it is highly important to attain skills to judge and regulate the perceived force needed for the execution of motor actions. In the present paper it is emphasized that, while more research on these issues is sorely needed, there are psychophysical methods available to handle force. The putting shot in golf is used as an example, and it is shown how one of the psychophysical scales, the Borg CR100 scale®, functions in laboratory as well as field conditions. Detailed recommendations to players, instructors, and sport psychology practitioners are given for how to use the Borg scale in practice and in games, and it is concluded that such a scale is likely to be useful in many other sports as well.

  • 149. Moller, Henry
    et al.
    Saynor, Lee
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Chignell, Mark
    Nature and Nurturance across the ages: Modest means for modern times2019In: Proceedings of ArtsIT 2019, Springer, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to leisure and wellbeing can be difficult to arrive at due to constraints in health, income, location and time. With shifting demographics ( inversion of the aging pyramid) and increasing urbanization, there is an increasingly urgent need to improve access to leisure activities, particularly for those living in crowded cities or who have limited mobility.

    We propose the use of 3D capture of majestic nature scenes and their display in a therapeutic context, as an affordable way to enhance well-being and to provide care to those lacking adequate access to leisure and wellbeing. Our approach to the application of VR-based nature therapy involves immersive media interfaces employing either contemplative (mindfulness-based stress reaction - MBSR) or active (mind/body based behavioural activation) approaches, both using environmental cues salient to end-users and developed within an inclusive design paradigm. The end goal is to employ immersive virtual reality and suitably designed human-machine interfaces to allow individuals of varying ages, means and abilities to continue to enjoy an optimal level of presence and engagement in the real world to preserve quality (and perhaps quantity) of life.

  • 150. Montgomery, Henry
    et al.
    Sharafi, Parvaneh
    Hedman, Leif R
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Engaging in activities involving information technology: dimensions, modes, and flow2004In: Human Factors, ISSN 0018-7208, E-ISSN 1547-8181, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 334-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An engagement mode involves a subject (e.g., a user of information technology, or IT) who is engaged in an activity with an object in a certain manner (the mode). The purpose of this study is to develop a general model of engagement modes that may be used for understanding how IT-related activities are shaped by properties of the user and the IT object. A questionnaire involving items on IT engagement and the experience of flow was administered to 300 participants. The results supported an engagement mode (EM) model involving 5 different engagement modes (enjoying/acceptance, ambition/curiosity, avoidance/hesitation, frustration/anxiety, and efficiency/productivity) characterized on 3 dimensions (evaluation of object, locus of control between subject and object, and intrinsic or extrinsic focus of motivation). The flow experience follows from a balance between enjoying/acceptance and efficiency/productivity propelled by ambition/curiosity. The EM model could provide a platform for considering how IT users, IT applications, and IT environments should work together to yield both enjoyment and efficiency. Actual or potential applications of this research include designing IT training programs on different levels of specificity.

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