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  • 101.
    Bertilsdotter Rosqvist, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Katsui, Hisayo
    McLaughlin, Janice
    Change and continuity in journal priorities2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, ISSN 1501-7419, E-ISSN 1745-3011, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 281-283Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 102.
    Bertilsdotter Rosqvist, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Katsui, Hisayo
    McLaughlin, Janice
    Editorial Review: Touring the Archive 1999-2017 and Mapping the Future of Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, ISSN 1501-7419, E-ISSN 1745-3011, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 1-5Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research is now an Open Access Journal from this issue onwards. We are particularly pleased that not only new articles, but also our full archive are included in the publishing agreement with Stockholm University Press. To celebrate this turning point in the Journal's history, we have revisited trends in its development, considered what recent and newly published articles say about its direction, and have explored what we see as important possibilities for our future. This editorial is our reflections on what we have found.

  • 103.
    Bertilsdotter Rosqvist, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Lövgren, Veronica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Doing adulthood through parenthood: notions of parenthood among people with cognitive disabilities2013In: Alter;European Journal of Disability Research ;Journal Europeen de Recherche Sur le Handicap, ISSN 1875-0672, E-ISSN 1875-0680, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 56-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perspectives on reproduction and developmental disabilities are gradually changing in Sweden. Through this change parents with developmental disabilities are gradually being included within an emergent discourse of “good enough parenting” on certain conditions. The present article explores discourses of reproduction and parenting among adults with developmental disabilities in two Swedish contexts: in a Swedish magazine, “Empowerment”, produced by and aimed at adults with autism, and interviews with people with intellectual disabilities in Sweden. Common to the materials from both studies are a normative reprosexual discourse of parenting and an underlying assumption that parenthood relates to adulthood in the sense that it requires maturity. The stories in the magazine “Empowerment” can be seen as expressing an emergent counter-hegemonic conditional discourse of “good enough parenting” which regards some people with autism as “good enough” parents. In general terms, the stories about parenting in the interview study depict parenting as related to age awareness and, unlike what is found in the material from “Empowerment”, there is no discussion of or reflection on whether or how impairment affects one's opportunity/ability to become a parent.

  • 104.
    Björk, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Thomassen, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Användandet av de juridiska möjligheterna vårdnadsöverflyttning och adoption i relation till svensk samhällsvård.: The Use of the Legal Possibilities Custody Transfer and Adoption in Relation to the Swedish Social-care2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige finns barn som placerats i familjehem med liten eller ingen möjlighet till att ånyo bo i föräldrahemmet. Många av dessa barn växer upp under otrygga och instabila förhållanden. Den rättsliga grundprincipen är återförening mellan barn och förälder. Och är något som eftersträvas.

    Samtidigt finns rättsliga möjligheter som kan ge barnet nya vårdnadshavare antigen genom vårdnadsöverflyttning eller adoption. Därmed kan barnet få andra förutsättningar, forskning visar nämligen att långvarigt placerade barn klarar sig sämre i samhället än adopterade. Socialstyrelsens granskning visar att dessa möjligheter används i en för liten utsträckning och att socialsekreterare inte fullt förstår skillnaden mellan dessa bådan rättsliga förfaranden.  

    Begreppet barnets bästa är i sammanhanget av stor betydelse då det ska vara avgörande vid beslut som rör barn. Begreppet saknar dock en enhetlig definition. Domstolens bedömning av vad som är barnets bästa kan därför skilja sig beroende på den specifika situationen. 

    Uppsatsen ämnar undersöka vårdnadsöverflyttning och adoption av familjehemsplacerade barn utifrån den svenska rättsordningen och belysa hur barnets bästa bedöms vid domstols prövning. Enligt den rättsdogmatiska metoden har främst propositioner, lagar, praxis och SOU:er granskats. Vilket resulterat i att skillnader mellan bestämmelserna framkommit, liksom att det finns möjlighet att genomföra adoption mot förälders vilja. 

  • 105.
    Björk, Lorentz
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Höglund, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Vårdbehovet i fokus: En studie om två kommuners resursfördelning efter vårdbehovet inom äldreomsorgen2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur vårdbehovet står i grund till resursfördelning i två olika kommuners äldreomsorgsverksamhet samt hur verksamhetens arbetssituation påverkas utifrån det. Läsaren får kunskap om äldreomsorgens utvecklingsprocess och hur omorganisationer påverkar verksamheten. Socialstyrelsen kommer 2014 med nya riktlinjer som påverkar arbetet med demenssjuka på kommunernas särskilda boenden. Studien behandlar även varför behovet av vårdtyngdsmätningar är viktiga och hur mätningarna och resursfördelningen kan påverka personalens arbetssituation. För att ta reda på syftet har kvalitativa intervjuer gjorts med nyckelpersoner i två olika kommuner. En kommun använder sig av modellen Care Optimizer på särskilt boende för att mäta vårdbehovet och resursfördelar efter ett egenkomponerat system. Den andra kommunen använder systemen LapsCare och Mobipen som är system för att fördela resurser och mäta vårdbehov inom hemtjänsten. Resultaten visar att en effektiv resursfördelning efter vårdbehov ger en kvalitet i omvårdnaden. Nackdelen är att kontinuiteten kan försämras med en rörligare bemanning. En fördel är att den ordinarie personalen kan nyttjas effektivare och de känner sig mer delaktiga med dessa modeller.

  • 106.
    Björkas, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    ”Barnets bästa är ett sådant där fluffigt begrepp…”: En kvalitativ intervjustudie kring hur föräldrar och familjerättssekreterare uttrycker ett barnperspektiv i surrogatarrangemang.2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    ”Barnets bästa är ett sådant där fluffigt begrepp…” skrevs utifrån tanken att utreda hur ett barnperspektiv kan formuleras i förhållande till barn som är komna ur en surrogatprocess. Detta utifrån synvinkeln av ett antal personer som är eller tänker sig till att bli föräldrar via en surrogatprocess och ytterligare ett antal familjerättssekreterare. Totalt genomfördes fem stycken semi-strukturerade intervjuer med sex personer. Dessa intervjuer analyserades sedan utifrån en så kallad konventionell innehållsanalys. Här har det empiriska materialet kodats förutsättningslöst och utan förutbestämda kategorier, vilket så också lett till en begreppsutveckling av informanternas ”barnens bästa”/barnperspektiv.

     

    Ett barnperspektiv har visat sig vara ett mångfacetterat och tvetydigt begrepp där innebörden kan skilja sig stort beroende på vem man talar med. Likväl som det finns ett socialt perspektiv så finns också ett offentligt, mer juridiskt präglat, synsätt. I denna studie kännetecknades informanternas berättelser tydligt utifrån den roll de intervjuades. Då föräldrarna framförallt hyste ett ”barnets perspektiv” i fråga om att se till barnets bästa var familjerättssekreterarnas syn mer präglad av ett pendlande mellan ett renodlat barnrättsperspektiv och ett allmänt barnperspektiv, samtidigt som de alla var individer med egna och unika ingångar.

     

    Att värna ett barnperspektiv är slutligen framförallt beroende på individens unika inställning till detta synsätt. Det finns dock en tendens att detta till stor del handlar om en situation av god omvårdnad enligt föräldrarna medan familjerättssekreterarna kompletterar detta synsätt med att lägga en minst lika stor vikt också vid barnets juridiska situation.

  • 107.
    Björkhagen, Maja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Adoptivföräldrars tankar och förväntningar på föräldraskapet: Innan adoptionen, efter adoptionen och om framtiden2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I internationella studier har man sett kopplingar mellan ouppfyllda förväntningar och stress hos adoptivföräldrar, man har även sett kopplingar till depression. Inga liknande studier på adoptivföräldrars förväntningar har gjorts i svensk kontext. Syftet med denna studie är därför att undersöka adoptivföräldrars tankar och förväntningar om föräldraskapet, innan adoptionen, efter adoptionen och i framtiden. Empiri insamlades genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med adoptivföräldrar samt yrkesverksamma som möter dessa föräldrar i en stödjande roll. Slutsatserna man kan dra av studien är att föräldrarna hade generellt sett höga förväntningar och de vars förväntningar inte infriades upplevde tiden efter adoptionen som mycket svår och kände sig idag utbrända samt hade större oro inför framtiden.

  • 108.
    Björklund, Caroline
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Lundmark, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Söderberg, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Konsten att vara sitt eget verktyg: En kvalitativ studie om socialsekreterares erfarenheter av utredningssamtal med barn2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 109.
    Björklund, Lina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Lindberg, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Kvinnor i behandling enligt LVM: Känsla av sammanhang i behandlingsarbetet2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen var att studera hur kvinnliga klienter vid ett LVM-hem ser på sin behandling utifrån mål och behandlingsbehov, samt att jämföra hur personalen arbetar med behandlingen utifrån målen och behoven. Syftet delades in i två underliggande frågeställningar: 1) Hur beskriver kvinnor vid ett LVM-hem sin problematik och behandling enligt LVM? 2) Hur arbetar personalen med klienternas problematik genom behandlingen? Studien utgick från en induktiv ansats och vi genomförde kvalitativa intervjuer med både klienter och personal vid ett LVM-hem. Resultatet av studien har härletts från intervjuerna genom innehållsanalys, tidigare forskning och teorin om känsla av sammanhang (KASAM).

    Resultatet visade att klienterna var nöjda med vad de själva definierade som behandling, medan personalen ansåg att klienterna inte hade kunskap i vad som inrymdes i behandlingsbegreppet. I såväl klient- som personalintervjuerna framkom det att klienterna var motiverade till förändring. Dock var klienterna och personalen av olika åsikter gällande vad målet med behandlingen var. Klienterna menade att målet med behandlingen var att de skulle bli nyktra och drogfria vid LVM-tidens slut, medan personalen ansåg att målet med behandlingen var att motivera klienterna till fortsatt frivillig rehabilitering.

    Vår slutsats blev att det fanns en svag KASAM angående klienternas begriplighet i sitt totala sammanhang. Däremot såg vi att KASAM-komponenterna hanterbarhet och meningsfullhet var något som personalen hjälpte klienterna att stärka i behandlingsarbetet. Vi ko också fram till att klienternas sociala position hade stor betydelse för hur de skulle uppnå sina mål och därmed även resultatet av behandlingen.

  • 110.
    Björklund, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Eriksson, Emelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Kan det vara vem som helst?: En kvalitativ studie om socionomstudenters uppfattningar om våldtäkt, offer och förövare.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Våldtäkt är ett utbrett globalt problem som påverkar på individ- och samhällsnivå. Utifrån detta har syftet med denna studie varit att belysa och få en djupare förståelse för hur socionomstudenter uppfattar våldtäkt, offer- och förövarskap samt hur detta är kopplat till kön. Studien innehar en kvalitativ ansats och materialet samlades in genom sex semistrukturerade intervjuer. Urvalet gjordes genom ett snöbolls- samt ett målinriktat urval och materialet analyserades utifrån tematisk analysmetod. Resultatet påvisade att det fanns en otydlig definition av våldtäkt bland respondenterna och en viss problematik i att beskriva vart gränsen mellan sex och våldtäkt går då den påverkas av olika omständigheter. Våldtäkt uppfattades och beskrevs som en makthandling som utförs av män mot kvinnor, att det bottnar i ett jämställdhetsproblem. Respondenterna menade på att offret och förövaren kan vara vem som helst men av deras resonemang framgick att deras uppfattningar om offer- och förövarskapet kan kopplas till kön. Resultatet visade även på tre omständigheter som respondenterna uppfattar kan komma att villkora offer- och förövarskapet.

  • 111.
    Björkström, Jennifer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    ”Barn och unga är rädda för socialtjänsten”: En intervjustudie med ideella verksamheter som stöttar barn och unga2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur några ideella verksamheter som arbetar med barn och unga uppfattar ungdomars bild av socialtjänsten och hur dessa verksamheter ser på sin roll i förhållande till socialtjänsten. Studien bygger på kvalitativa intervjuer med företrädare för fyra olika verksamheter. Studien utgår från ett induktivt synsätt och materialet har analyserats utifrån en tematisk analysmetod, en tematisk analysmetod, som innebär att teman som är relevanta för studiens syfte och frågeställningar identifierats i intervjumaterialet. En av studiens slutsatser är verksamheterna uppfattar att ungdomar ofta har en negativ bild av socialtjänsten och att den ofta baseras på egna erfarenheter och rykten. De ungas berättelser präglas ofta av en rädsla för socialtjänsten och erfarenheter av att inte bli tagna på allvar, trodda eller lyssnade på. Studien visar också att de ideella verksamheterna fångar upp ungdomar som faller mellan stolarna där socialtjänsten och BUP inte räckt till. De ideella verksamheterna kan även fungera som en bro mellan ungdomen och socialtjänsten och i det ligger en del i att skapa förtroende för den hjälp som finns. Verksamheterna arbetar också för att stärka barns rättigheter i samhället och de undervisar och föreläser även för professionella om att bli bättre på att möta barns behov och tillgodose deras rättigheter. 

  • 112.
    Bleeker, Pommeline
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Lindén, Julia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Dahlström, Lovisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Min oskuld - deras heder: En kvalitativ studie om utvecklandet av insatser kring hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 113.
    Blom, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    From Vision to Reality in the Personal Social Services in Sweden: how organizational specialization affects clients and social workers2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 114.
    Blom, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    [Förord och fackgranskning till:] Priscilla Dunk-West. Att bli socialarbetare2016In: Att bli socialarbetare: En reflekterande vägledning för studenter, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, 1, p. 9-11Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Både under och efter studierna i socialt arbete kan det vara svårt att ta ett steg tillbaka och reflektera över vad det innebär att ­vara socialarbetare. Med det som utgångspunkt diskuterar Att bli social­arbetare kunskapsbasen i socialt arbete – från mänsklig ­utveckling till det sociala arbetets praktik – och undersöker hur dina egna värderingar, principer och erfarenheter tillsammans ­formar din identitet och praktik som socialarbetare.

  • 115.
    Blom, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    [Förord till] Annemette Matthiessen, Birgitte Zeeberg & Maja Haack: Specialisering – et tveægget sværd? En undersøgelse af organisering i børne- og ungeafdelninger set fra en sagsbehandler- og en familiesynsvinkel.2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [da]

    Hvordan skal arbejdet med socialt udsatte mennesker organiseres? Det er et spørgsmål som har været aktuelt i den vestlige verden siden slutningen af 1800-tallet, da fattigvæsen og finantropi overgik til at blive det vi nu kalder socialt arbejde. Idag arbejder socialarbejdere i de nordiske lande næsten udelukkende i organisationer, først og fremmest i kommuner, regioner eller staten. I denne rapport, som handler om socialforvaltningens arbejde med børn og unge i Danmark, bliver det tydeligt, at spørgsmålet om, hvordan det socialt arbejde skal organiseres endnu ikke er besvaret, selv om problematikken har eksisteret i mere end 100 år.

  • 116.
    Blom, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Generative mechanisms in social work practice: how they differ from other types of mechanisms2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of my presentation is generative mechanisms, a basic concept and phenomenon within the meta-theoretical perspective of critical realism. Briefly, a generative mechanism is as a trans-empirical but real existing entity, making events occur. Mechanisms are mostly possible to grasp only indirectly by analytical work (theory building), based however on empirical observations. More specifically I will concentrate on generative mechanisms in social work practice, and how they differ from other types of generative mechanisms.

  • 117.
    Blom, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Knowing or un-knowing?: that is the question in the era of evidence-based social work practice2009In: Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1468-0173, E-ISSN 1741-296X, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 158-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary: A present trend in social work is the focus on evidence-based knowledge. This kind of knowledge does fill a purpose, but is not sufficient on its own. The article argues that social workers need a complement to knowing, and this approach could be conceptualized as un-knowing. In this article, a theory of un-knowing for social work practice is outlined. This implies a theoretical scrutiny of knowing and un-knowing and a discussion of how it can be used in practice. Moreover, the article presents findings from an empirical study of social work students who describe their usage of different forms of knowledge reflexively.

    Findings: The article presents the results of a study in which social work students' usage of different forms of knowledge in their field studies was examined. The results demonstrate that social work students use different forms of knowledge in practice, and un-knowing is one of the actively used forms. Women tend to use un-knowing somewhat more than men.

    Applications : The article is a contribution to the ongoing debate on evidence-based practice in social work. It is argued that it is important to teach social work students to understand un-knowing in theory and to use it in practice, and in combination with other forms of knowledge in social work.

  • 118.
    Blom, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Marknadsorientering av socialtjänstens individ- och familjeomsorg: om villkor, processer och konsekvenser1998Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the end of the 1980s, the introduction of market mechanisms in the public sector has been a dominant feature in Sweden. The same is true for the social services in several municipalities, where business style behaviour and organisation, and competition have become salient features of market-oriented social services.

    The aim of the study is to describe and analyse: the structural conditions for market oriented personal social services; how social workers pursue client centred work in market oriented personal social services; the consequences of this market orientation on the personal social services.

    The empirical study is a case study of the personal social services in the municipality of Linköping. The purchaser-provider model in Linköping is one of the most advanced and discussed in Sweden. The research comprises a quantitative pilot study and a qualitative main study. The main study is based on twenty semi-structured interviews with experienced social workers and their immediate superiors.

    The analysis of the interviews reveals that the personal social services are only achieving to a lesser extent the ends that a quasi-market, theoretically, should achieve. The conditions that have to be satisfied to achieve the ends of the quasi-market are only partly met. Bureaucratic control is one important reason why the personal social services are imperfect as a quasi- market.

    The re-organisation has resulted in a number of, to some extent, positive consequences. The re-organisation has, however, also resulted in some negative consequences. In the thesis these are categorised in terms of fragmentation, antagonism and obscurity. A linguistic change, in market oriented personal social services, appears to have influenced social workers to think and act differently in relation to their work.

    The most important conclusion drawn from the study is that the market oriented personal social services partly function as a responsive quasi-market for strong, rational and well- informed clients. However, in relation to the most vulnerable, it is failing in many respects.

  • 119.
    Blom, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Social work research and evaluation: a critical realist perspective2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on evidence in social work, inspired by evidence research and evaluation in medicine, mainly builds on empirical correlations between standardized methods and its effects on clients. This kind of research is a prerequisite for evidence-based practice (EBP). The ambition is to verify that certain methods probably are more effective than others, but the content and processes in between interventions and results remains a black box. This kind of research and evaluation is mainstream in the field of EBP, and randomised controlled trials usually are regarded as ”gold standard”.

    However, if the ambition is to explain how and why results emerge from the content of interventions and its contextual contingencies – to open up the black box – the research or evaluation task will be quite different. In order to discover the powers and causes in the social reality, that in a deeper sense explain empirical observations, we have to turn to a meta-theoretical perspective taking us beneath the empirical surface. Powers and causes in social reality are seldom observable, rather we must grasp them in terms of abstract entities like structures and patterns of generative mechanisms. It is a matter of developing theory about these structures and mechanisms, based on empirical observations. The meta-theoretical perspective critical realism can work as guide to this sub-empirical dimension of social reality.

    This presentation presents the CAIMeR theory that connects critical realism to social work research and evaluation. This theory can help us explain the way results in social work practice arise from the content of interventions and its contextual contingencies. 

  • 120.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Dukes, Kimberly A.
    DM-STAT, One Salem Street Suite 300, Malden, MA 02148 USA; Center for Addictions Research and Services, Boston University School of Social Work, 264 Bay State Road, Boston, MA 02215 USA.
    Lundgren, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. School of Social Work, Boston University, USA.
    Sullivan, Lisa M.
    Center for Addictions Research and Services, Boston University School of Social Work, 264 Bay State Road, Boston, MA 02215 USA.
    Register data in the evaluation and program planning of addiction treatment programs: using Sweden as an example2015In: Evaluation and Program Planning, ISSN 0149-7189, E-ISSN 1873-7870, Vol. 49, p. 185-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data from large-scale registers is often underutilized when evaluating addiction treatment programs. Since many programs collect register data regarding clients and interventions, there is a potential to make greater use of such records for program evaluation. The purpose of this article is to discuss the value of using large-scale registers in the evaluation and program planning of addiction treatment systems and programs. Sweden is used as an example of a country where register data is both available and is starting to be used in national evaluation and program planning efforts. The article focuses on possibilities, limitations and practicalities when using large-scale register data to conduct evaluations and program planning of addiction treatment programs. Main conclusions are that using register data for evaluation provides large amounts of data at low cost, limitations associated to the use of register data may be handled statistically, register data can answer important questions in planning of addiction treatment programs, and more accurate measures are needed to account for the diversity of client populations.   

  • 121.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Evertsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Perlinski, Marek
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    European social and caring professions in transition2017In: Social and caring professions in European welfare states: policies, services and professional practicies / [ed] Björn Blom, Lars Evertsson and Marek Perlinski, Bristol: Policy Press, 2017, p. 1-17Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 122.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Evertsson, LarsUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.Perlinski, MarekUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Social and caring professions in European welfare states: policies, services and professional practices2017Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This collection provides new insights about current welfare professions in a number of European countries.

    Focusing on research representing different types of European welfare states, including the Scandinavian and the Continental, the book offers in-depth understandings of professionals' everyday work within different contextual conditions, explored from empirical and theoretical perspectives. Subjects covered include knowledge and identity, education and professional development, regulation, accountability, collaboration, assessment and decision making.

    This is a valuable contribution to the discussion of professionalism and welfare professions, offering lessons learned and ways forward.

  • 123.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Evertsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Perlinski, Marek
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Rexvid, Devin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Decision-making in problematic situations: reflections on social workers’ use of knowledge and implications for social work research2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently there is an effort to make social workers act according to principles of evidence-based practice. This approach assumes that by supporting social workers with reviews of “what works”, or practice guidelines, decision-making, and knowledge use will improve.

    Our paper discusses decision-making and knowledge use in social work practice. What kind of knowledge is used? How is decision-making conditioned by contextual contingencies? What are the implications for social work research?

    The paper draws on two studies of social workers. From the study Social Workers and Doctors Use of Knowledge in Practice, written narratives describing problematic situations where decision-making were hampered were collected. The participants (29 social workers) were experienced and came from different areas of the Swedish social services.

    The project “Specialization or integration in the Personal Social Services?” studied how specialised respectively integrated organisations condition interventions and outcomes. We studied three organisational models using several research methods: 1) survey among social workers, 2) interviewing politicians, mangers and social workers, 3) focus groups with social workers, 4) analysing official documents, guidelines etc.

    Decision-making and knowledge use proved to be more complex than usually assumed within the EBP paradigm. It is seldom just a matter of rational decision-making and matching specific interventions and well-defined social problems. The character of the interaction with clients conditions social workers’ decision-making and use of knowledge. Interaction with clients, perceived as being “problematic”, causes a rupture in social workers’ professional routine practice, which affects decision-making and knowledge use.

    The predominant discourse on decision-making and knowledge use focuses on "the best” kind of knowledge, how knowledge should be implemented, as well as professionals’ motivation and competence. Professional action is largely viewed as a rational cognitive process. However, this is insufficient and policy-makers and social work researcher should focus more on social and relational aspects (i.e. client encounters) of decision-making and knowledge use.

  • 124.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Fu, Lihua
    Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    A Comparative Analysis of Social Services Organizations in Sweden and China. Lessons for Social Work and Social Development Practice2016In: SWSD 2016: Program book, Seoul, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presentation covers a comparative analysis of social services organizations in Sweden and China, which includes lessons for social work and social development practice.

    The presentation describes how social services organizations in Sweden and China have developed since the 1970s, as well as their current state. This is followed by an analysis of these country's social services organizations, which focus on main advantages and disadvantages, for social workers and service users/clients. In conclusion, we present lessons for social work as well as the social development practice. The presentation is based on our own empirical research and a review of previous research in this area.

    Sweden is one of the world’s most developed welfare states and has had publicly organized social services, on a municipal level, since the 1950s. China has not had well-developed and modern systems of social welfare and social service. Moreover, the traditional social welfare system in China, formed during the planned economy era (1953-1978), is not adequate for the modern China. However, China is currently developing a welfare system with publicly organized social services. The Chinese transformation project is partly inspired from other countries, including Sweden.

    The presentation includes a discussion of two common assumptions: 1) that social services organizations in western welfare states have been developed optimally, and that non-welfare states only need to copy them to obtain well-functioning social services, and 2) that welfare states like Sweden have little to learn from countries like China, concerning social services organizations. We argue that these assumptions are incorrect, e.g. by showing that social services organizations are not universally appropriate, and that such organizations cannot be detached from the culture and mentality in a country. 

  • 125.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Lalos, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Morén, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Olsson, Mariann
    Karolinska institutet.
    Hälso- och sjukvården – en central arena för socialt arbete2014In: Socialt arbete i hälso- och sjukvård: villkor, innehåll och utmaningar / [ed] Ann Lalos, Björn Blom, Stefan Morén, Mariann Olsson, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2014, 1, p. 17-31Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 126.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Morén, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Analysis of generative mechanisms2011In: Journal of Critical Realism, ISSN 1476-7430, E-ISSN 1572-5138, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 60-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this article is the analysis of generative mechanisms, a basic concept and phenomenon within the metatheoretical perspective of critical realism. It is emphasized that research questions and methods, as well as the knowledge it is possible to attain, depend on the basic view – ontologically and epistemologically – regarding the phenomenon under scrutiny. A generative mechanism is described as a trans empirical but real existing entity, explaining why observable events occur. Mechanisms are mostly possible to grasp only indirectly by analytical work (theory-building), based however on empirical observations. In order to achieve such an explanatory analysis, five methodological steps are suggested and discussed, among them abduction and retroduction. These steps are illustrated throughout by examples drawn from empirical research regarding social work practice. The article is concluded with a discussion of the need for knowledge of generative mechanisms.

     

  • 127.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Morén, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Evaluation of quality in social-work practice2012In: Nordic Journal of Social research, ISSN 1892-2783, Vol. 3, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This theoretical article describes and discusses the concept of quality in relation to the evaluation of social-work practice. Of particular interest are the difference between quality of services and quality of life and the importance of balancing the stakeholders’ different interests in order to make a sound judgement of quality in social work possible. This article begins with presenting some basic perspectives on quality as well as the transference of the concept of quality from manufacturing industry to social-work practice. Thereafter the two main issues are discussed: the concepts of quality of service and of quality of life and the importance of balancing different stakeholders’ perspectives in the evaluation of quality in social-work practice. This article concludes that: 1) it is crucial to be aware of and to consider the distinction between quality of service and quality of life; 2) clients’ perspective on quality of life is an aspect of outcome that currently receives insufficient attention; 3) clients’ subjective experiences of welfare of well-being deserve greater attention for ethical as well as methodological reasons; and 4) judgement of quality in social work are inevitably dependent on different stakeholders’ perspectives.

  • 128.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Morén, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Explaining social work practice: the CAIMeR theory2015In: Social work research: Volume 2, Decisions about research strategy / [ed] Ian F. Shaw, Mark Hardy, Jeanne C. Marsh, Sage Publications, 2015, p. 239-260Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary: This article presents the CAIMeR theory, consisting of a conceptual framework and a theoretical model, which can help explain how results in social work practice arise from interventions and its contextual contingencies. The theory has been developed over several years in connection with empirical studies, and together with social workers. Findings: The article starts from the meta-theoretical perspective critical realism and its notion of explanative knowledge as a stepping stone to open up the so-called black box. A fundamental concept in critical realism, generative mechanisms, is discussed and elaborated. Applications: The CAIMeR theory can be used in several contexts: social work practice, and for evaluation of social work, and, moreover, for organization development in social work. We argue that social workers, evaluators and decision-makers need accurate theory about the core activity (work with clients) within its contextual conditions. The CAIMeR theory pays attention to generative mechanisms at different levels, which is necessary if one wants to understand what is going on in a certain agency, and explain the results in a more qualified way. The theory can also be useful for researchers and university students that need a comprehensive explanative framework when studying phenomena in social work practice.

  • 129.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Morén, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Explaining social work practice: The CAIMeR theory2010In: Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1468-0173, E-ISSN 1741-296X, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 98-119Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 130.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Morén, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Kritisk realistisk utvärdering2011In: Utvärdering i socialt arbete: Utgångspunkter, modeller och användning / [ed] Björn Blom, Stefan Morén, Lennart Nygren, Stockholm: Natur & Kultur , 2011, 1, p. 139-154Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 131.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Morén, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Kunskapsbasering av socialt arbete: ett förklarande perspektiv2009In: Socionomen, ISSN 0283-1929, no 2, p. 12-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 132.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Morén, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Kvalitetsbegreppet2011In: Utvärdering i socialt arbete: Utgångspunkter, modeller och användning / [ed] Björn Blom, Stefan Morén, Lennart Nygren, Stockholm: Natur & Kultur , 2011, 1, p. 71-87Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 133.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Morén, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Quality of life and quality of evaluation: how do they relate in social work practice?2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 134.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Morén, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Teori för socialt arbete2015 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här boken redovisas en teori som har ambitionen att både beskriva och förklara hur det sociala arbetet fungerar. Det är den första svenska boken i sitt slag som presenterar teori utvecklad specifikt ur och för det sociala arbetets praktik. En av grundfrågorna är: Hur kan man förklara hur resultat i socialt arbete uppstår som en följd av socialarbetares och klienters insatser under vissa kontextuella villkor? Teorin går under benämningen KAIMeR, vilket innebär att den på ett systematiskt och sammanhållet sätt beaktar teori om kontext, aktörer, insatser, mekanismer och resultat. Ett centralt inslag är begreppet generativa mekanismer, med vars hjälp man kan fånga de ofta icke observerbara krafter som gör begripligt hur resultat i socialt arbete uppstår som en följd av insatser och kontextuella villkor. I boken beskrivs också en domänteori som klargör hur socialarbetares professionsutövning betingas av politik, förvaltning och institutionella förhållanden i samhället. Boken vänder sig till studerande i socialt arbete och angränsande områden, men även till forskare, chefer och socialarbetare verksamma inom det sociala arbetets område.

  • 135.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Morén, Stefan
    Theory for social work practice2019 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book presents a theory with the ambition of both describing and explaining the nature of social-work practice. It is the first book that presents an explanative theory developed specifically from and for social-work practice.

    One of the fundamental questions is: How can we explain how results in social-work practice emanate from social worker's and clients' actions under certain contextual conditions?

    The theory presented in this book is named CAIMeR, which means that it takes a systematic and coherent approach to the theory of Contexts, Actors, Interventions, Mechanisms and Results. The meta-theoretical basis is critical realism, where a key feature is the concept of generative mechanisms. This perspective can help us capture the often unobservable powers that explain how results in social work emerge as a consequence of interventions and contextual conditions. The book also presents a domain theory that explains how social workers' professional practice is conditioned by politics, management and institutional conditions.

    This book is essential reading for students in social work and adjoining disciplines, but also for researchers, managers and professional social workers.

  • 136.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Morén, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Nygren, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Inledning: Utvärdering i socialt arbete2011In: Utvärdering i socialt arbete: Utgångspunkter, modeller och användning / [ed] Björn Blom, Stefan Morén, Lennart Nygren, Stockholm: Natur & Kultur , 2011, 1, p. 17-33Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 137.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Morén, StefanUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.Nygren, LennartUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Kunskap i socialt arbete: Om villkor, processer och användning2013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 138.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Morén, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Nygren, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Olikheter och beröringspunkter2013In: Kunskap i socialt arbete: Om villkor, processer och användning (2:a omarb. utgåvan) / [ed] Björn Blom, Stefan Morén & Lennart Nygren, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2013, 2, p. 176-179Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 139.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Morén, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Nygren, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Perspektiv och utvecklingslinjer2013In: Kunskap i socialt arbete: Om villkor, processer och användning (2:a omarb. utgåvan) / [ed] Björn Blom, Stefan Morén & Lennart Nygren), Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2013, 2, p. 79-82Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 140.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Morén, StefanUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.Nygren, LennartUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Utvärdering i socialt arbete: Utgångspunkter, modeller och användning2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att kunna utföra ett socialt arbete som ger resultat för de som berörs, behövs en ständig granskning av de metoder och tillvägagångssätt som används. Men vad innebär det att utvärdera socialarbetares enskilda insatser, liksom hela verksamhetsfält?

    I den här boken diskuterar författarna utmaningar och möjligheter när man planerar och genomför olika typer av utvärderingar inom socialt arbete. Aktuella modeller och begrepp granskas kritiskt, och läsaren får bland annat kunskaper om kvalitet och evidensbasering kopplat till utvärdering. Dessutom diskuteras utvärdering inom bl.a. äldreomsorg, individ- och familjeomsorg samt i anslutning till etnicitet, kön och funktionshinder.

  • 141.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Morén, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Perlinski, Marek
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hur bör socialtjänstens IFO organiseras?2011In: Tidskriften Socionomen, ISSN 0283-1929, no 4, p. 12-16Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 142.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Nygren, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Analysing written narratives: considerations on the ‘code-totality problems’2010In: Nordic Journal of Social Research, ISSN 1892-2783, E-ISSN 1892-2783, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes and discusses a number of fundamental aspects of analysing short written narratives. Of particular interest are the code-totality problems that arise during the transformation of several individual stories into a collective narrative. This article starts with a brief introduction to our previous narrative research on Swedish social-work students, which is followed by a description of textual interpretation according to Paul Ricoeur’s theory of interpretation, and a discussion and elaboration on the different concepts of meaning within his theory. The core of this article is an account of four models for analysing narrative data from several informants. This is followed by a concrete example of the implications that follow from the implementation of these models. We conclude that the degree of heterogeneity in the narrative material affects the choice of the mode of textual analysis and the code compilation.

  • 143.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Nygren, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Analysis of written narratives: how to handle the ”code-totality problems”2008In: ”Den berättande människan", 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 144.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Nygren, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Review of the book: Toward evidence-based practice: variations on a theme2011In: European Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1369-1457, E-ISSN 1468-2664, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 142-145Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 145.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Nygren, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Socionomstudenters kunskapsanvändning i kritiska situationer under studiepraktiken2013In: Kunskap i socialt arbete: Om villkor, processer och användning (2:a omarb. utgåvan) / [ed] Björn Blom, Stefan Morén & Lennart Nygren, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2013, 2, p. 193-207Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 146.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Perlinski, Marek
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Morén, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Organisational structure as barrier or support in the personal social services?: Results from a client survey2009In: Dilemmas for human services 2009 : Papers presented at: the 13th International Research Conference “Breaking Down the Barriers”, Staffordshire University, 10 - 11 September 2009 (revised version October 2009), 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 147.
    Blom Nilsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Chassler, Deborah
    Center for Addictions Research and Services, Boston University School of Social Work, 264 Bay State Road, Boston, MA 02215 USA.
    Lundgren, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Center for Addictions Research and Services, Boston University School of Social Work, 264 Bay State Road, Boston, MA 02215 USA.
    Factors associated with work and taking prescribed methadone or buprenorphine among Swedish opiate addicts2015In: Evaluation and Program Planning, ISSN 0149-7189, E-ISSN 1873-7870, Vol. 49, p. 172-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/aims: Using national register data from 2002 to 2008, this exploratory study examines for opiate addicts (n = 2638) whether there is an association between predisposing, enabling and need factors and working and taking methadone or buprenorphine prescribed by a physician for a year or more.

    Methods: Chi-square analyses and One-way ANOVA were used to determine significant relationships between the independent variables and the dependent variable. A binomial logistic regression model, with variables entered as a single block, measured statistical associations between the independent variables and the dichotomous dependent variable.

    Results: Men and those with greater number of years of education (7%) and those with children were 7.08 times more likely to be working and taking prescription methadone or buprenorphine. Those who had more inpatient drug treatment episodes (5%), those who had been charged with crime 3.23 times, and those who had used psychiatric medications were 8.43 times more likely to be working and to have taken prescription methadone or buprenorphine one year or more.

    Conclusion: This study highlights that clients in treatment for opiate addiction who are working and have received methadone or buprenorphine treatment may have better treatment retention and be more integrated socially than their counterparts even though they have a higher level of problem severity and treatment needs.

  • 148.
    Blomberg, Barbro
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social Welfare.
    Inklusion en illusion?: Om delaktighet i samhället för vuxna personer med utvecklingsstörning2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The background to this thesis lies in the great changes that have occurred in the disability field during the last threes decades. The purpose of this thesis is to describe, analyze and try to understand how these changes impact on life conditions for adult persons with mild intellectual disabilities. The main focus in this study is to listen to the experiences of people with intellectual disabilities themselves. The questions addressed in the study are; how do people with intellectual disabilities experience participation, citizen-ship, social exclusion and social inclusion in society? Where are their daily arenas and what characterizes those arenas in terms of citizenship, exclusion and inclusion? What type of experiences do they have from encountering people in the community, from encountering the organisations and staff that provide support and service and from the consequences of disability policies in practise? How do staff close to them work to reach the goals of participation? What role can professionals play in supporting participation? Which possibilities and barriers do the staff experience?

    Empirical data for the study has been gathered by qualitative methods, mainly participant observations and interviews but also from document analysis of local authority documents, official guidelines, laws and national and international disability policy documents.

    The theoretical framework is based on theories about citizenship and participation. Social exclusion and social inclusion are the sensitizing concepts in this study. For the interpretation and analysis theories about citizenship, participation and categorization were used.

    In the light of the empirical findings the results of the study show that three main themes were promi-nent. The first theme concerned the daily arenas, were there were both excluded arenas and included are-nas with various forms of interaction with the society. The arenas for support and service in housing and daily activities are described as excluded arenas with mainly internal social interaction. On the other hand the new arenas such as daily activity centres, located in the community, such as cafés, shops run by peo-ple with intellectual disabilities together with staff had frequent interaction with other people in the soci-ety. The second theme concerned the content in the encounters between respondents with intellectual disabilities and different actors in the community. The informants had both positive and negative experi-ences of these encounters. The encounter with the disability policy was, according to this dissertation, that the user informants hade many experiences of lacking social citizenship but also that they experienced structural inclusion when politicians listen to them and answered their questions. The third theme con-cerned how the staff works to reach the goals of participation where both possibilities and barriers exist on structural and individual levels. This study illustrates the user informants’ many experiences of citi-zenship and social exclusion but also examples of social inclusion.

    In the concluding chapter the results are discussed and analyzed in relation to the theoretical frame-work, where the concept of categorisation was very important. Finally, the description of the process clearly illustrates the difficulties for disability service organisations to develop support and services that are adapted to the actual disability policy. The results shed light on the gap between theory and practise.

    Some of the most positive changes towards inclusion in society for people with intellectual disabilities come from services run by users and staff close to them. Final conclusions and reflections of the results in the study are that support and service also can be discussed in terms of universalism in order to reduce the process of categorisation.

  • 149.
    Blomkvist, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Engström, Linn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Det åldersbestämda föräldraskapet: En studie om hur unga föräldrar blir bemötta i samhället2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 150.
    Blommendahl, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Skolkuratorers förebyggande arbete: hinder och möjligheter2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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