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  • 101.
    Hellström, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Who leads, who follows?: Re-examining the party-electorate linkages on European Integration2008In: Journal of European Public Policy, ISSN 1350-1763, E-ISSN 1466-4429, Vol. 15, no 8, p. 1127-1144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article re-examines and evaluates the link between electorates' opinions and national political parties' positions on European integration, i.e. the extent to which political parties lead and/or follow public opinion on this issue. Applying a method for causal modelling (Granger causality tests) to panel data concerning political parties' positions and voters' opinions in 15 countries from 1973 to 2003, I find (contrary to previous investigations of this relationship) that there is little empirical support for an electoral connection or reciprocal causation between party positions and electorates' opinion regarding European integration. Parties have an influence on voter opinions, but are at the same time unresponsive to changes in voter opinion.

  • 102.
    Hellström, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bäck, Hanna
    Statsvetenskapliga institutionen, Lunds universitet.
    Efter valet 2014: Regeringsbildningen och det inställda extra valet2015In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 117, no 2, p. 261-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we discuss government formation after the parliamentary elections in 2014 in a historical and comparative European context, while at the same time connecting our discussion to the research on government formation and duration in parliamentary democracies. The paper raises and tries to answer the following questions: Why did the Social Democrats form a minority government with the Green Party after the parliamentary elections in 2014, excluding the Left party? What can we say about the allocation of ministerial portfolios between the Social Democrats and the Green Party in the new government? And what are the consequences of the so called December agreement between the new government on its ability to govern and survive until the next regular election in 2018?

  • 103.
    Hellström, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Walther, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Governmental participation and alliances of liberal parties in Europe2019In: Liberal parties in Europe / [ed] Caroline Close, Emilie van Haute, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2019, p. 310-325Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When do Liberal parties get into government, and under which circumstances? With which partners do they generally form government? When getting into office, which ministerial portfolios do they usually obtain? In most European democracies, Liberal parties are represented in parliament and have been in office at some point in time. They also seem to have an above-average ability to secure a place in government and to obtain ministerial portfolios. This chapter takes a comparative approach and examines the patterns of government participation among Liberal parties, and their success in getting both the Prime Ministership and other important ministerial portfolios.

  • 104.
    Hendriks, Frank
    et al.
    Tilburg University.
    Lidström, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Loughlin, John
    Cambridge University.
    Local and regional democracy in European politics2014In: Routledge handbook of European politics / [ed] Magone, José M., Oxon & New York: Routledge, 2014, p. 398-417Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 105.
    Hendriks, Frank
    et al.
    University of Tilburg.
    Loughlin, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Lidström, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    European subnational democracy: Comparative reflections and conclusions2012In: The Oxford Handbook of Local and Regional Democracy in Europe / [ed] John Loughlin, Frank Hendriks & Anders Lidström, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, p. 715-742Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 106. Hendriks, Frank
    et al.
    Loughlin, John
    Lidström, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    European subnational democracy: Comparative reflections and conclusions2011In: The Oxford Handbook of Local and Regional Democracy in Europe / [ed] John Loughlin, Frank Hendriks & Anders Lidström, Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2011, p. 715-742Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 107.
    Hertzberg, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Avbrott i policy inom gruvnäring: Policyutveckling i fallen Rönnbäcken och Kallak2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien utgår från två fall av gruvetablering, Rönnbäcken och Kallak, vilka har liknande utgångspunkter men resulterat i olika utfall. Respektive länsstyrelse har i de två fallen yttrat sig jakande respektive nekande. Studien är ett fall av myndighetsutövning i två fall av bearbetningskoncession och syftar till att förklara varför olika beslut fattats i fallen Rönnbäcken och Kallak. Det teoretiska ramverket utgår från Punctuated Equilibrium theory vilket belyser fyra faktorer av vikt för beslut, yttranden och processen i sig i de två fallen. Utgångspunkten är teoriprövande där det teoretiska ramverket används förklarande i och med de olika utfallen. Studien använder sig av processpårning och analyserar därigenom kvantitet såväl som innehåll och tendenser i bland annat artiklar, protokoll, lagar och yttranden.

     

    Studien utgör ett bidrag till existerande forskningslitteratur inom området gruvnäring och stärker i och med slutsatser, förklaringspotentialen hos Punctuated equilibrium theory. Ytterligare slutsatser innefattar att det avstyrkande yttrandet och beslutet i fallet Kallak tyder på policyförändringar där fallet Kallak mycket väl kan påverka utkomsten i fallet Rönnbäcken. Attention och New participants ses som de viktigaste faktorerna i initiering av policyförändring.

  • 108.
    Hjelm, Jonny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Från "påfösare" till modern arbetsledare2012In: Människan, arbetet och historien: en vänbok till professor Tom Ericsson / [ed] Anders Brändström & Svante Norrhem, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2012, p. 186-206Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 109.
    Hovik, Sissel
    et al.
    Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research, Oslo, Norway .
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Management of protected areas in Norway and Sweden: challenges in combining central governance and local participation2010In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 159-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neither Norway nor Sweden has fulfilled international commitments to the principles of direct public involvement in nature conservation, which involve (we believe) the state adopting an 'enabling' role, mobilizing governance resources to support decentralized decision-making while retaining powers to intervene when necessary to defend important minority interests or support international objectives. We analyse four attempts to establish nature conservation areas with substantial levels of direct public involvement in the two countries and argue that in each case, flaws in the setting of the areas' boundaries, the framework for participation and conflict resolution mechanisms have undermined public involvement. Hence, there is a need to design more effective, enabling rules to encourage local actor involvement in nature conservation and resolve any political issues that arise as a consequence of such involvement, before the international commitments can be fulfilled.

  • 110.
    Hudson, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Regional development partnerships in Sweden: a way for higher education institutions to develop their role in the processes of regional governance?2006In: Higher Education, ISSN 0018-1560, E-ISSN 1573-174X, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 387-410Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 111.
    Hudson, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Regionala partnerskap - ett hot mot eller ett förverkligande av demokrati?2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Papperet fokuserar på de nya regionala partnerskap som har införts i samband med de regionala tillväxtavtalen och vilka möjligheter dessa har att stärka eller försvaga demokrati. Partnerskap är en ny formför det politiska arbetet på regional nivå somuppmuntras av både staten och EU. I partnerskap skall aktörer från olika sektorer, särskilt näringslivet, ingå. Det övergripande målet är att genom att utveckla en helhetssyn och en bättre tvärsektoriell samverkan mellan olika aktörer åstadkomma en hållbar ekonomisk tillväxt. Partnerskap kan ses som en del i utvecklingen av en ny regionalpolitik där fokus har förskjutits från traditionellt industristöd till en ökad betoning av att varje region bör bygga sin utveckling på just sina egna förutsättningar. Detta skall stimulera utvecklingen av aktiva regioner som kännetecknas av inklusivitet, nätverk, samverkan och dialog mellan olika regionala intressen (stakeholders). Strategin är nära kopplad till framväxten av en mer holistisk regional diskurs, som innehåller en mer sammanhållen syn på samhällsbyggande och samhällsutveckling där hälsa, kultur, utbildning, miljö samt omsorg om barn och äldre ingår i ett interaktivt skapande av välfärd och tillväxt. Den preliminära slutsats somman kan dra från vår inledande undersökning är att det finns en potential för att regionala partnerskap, som en del av en bredare mer holistisk regional diskurs, skall kunna bidra till en utveckling av den regionala och lokala demokratin. Men om den mer exkluderande diskursen dominerar och regionala partnerskap blir ett elitprojekt finns det risk att demokratin i stället försämras.

  • 112.
    Hudson, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sharing fairly?: mobility, citizenship, and gender relations in two Swedish city-regions2018In: Journal of Urban Affairs, ISSN 0735-2166, E-ISSN 1467-9906, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 82-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the centrality of women's mobility in relation to urban citizenship and how this is influenced by the underlying gender relations. A theoretical framework is developed concerning mobility, citizenship and the gender contract. Focusing on the Swedish situation the relationship between gender, domestic work and commuting is discussed.  Drawing on theories concerning mobility and the concept of gender contract and using the findings from a questionnaire survey, these issues are explored in two Swedish city-regions, Göteborg and Umeå. Focus is on whether, when both in a couple are in paid employment and commute, a more egalitarian gender contract develops where the unpaid domestic work is shared more equally. It concludes that, irrespective of commuting, there continues to be a more traditional gender contract where, despite being in paid employment, the woman continues to be responsible for the brunt of the unpaid domestic labour with the exception of tasks relating to childcare. Here responsibility is more equally shared between both parents, reflecting a strong norm in Swedish society where fathers are also expected to be actively involved with their children.  

  • 113.
    Hudson, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    The university and regional reciprocity2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

     

  • 114.
    Hudson, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Transforming the educative state in the Nordic Countries?2010In: Education in political science: discovering a neglected field / [ed] A.P. Jakobi, K Martens & K.D. Wolf, London & New York: Routledge , 2010, p. 56-70Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 115.
    Hugoson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. CERUM.
    European Capitals of Culture and urban diplomacy2015In: Culture and Sustainability in European Cities: Imagining Europolis / [ed] Svetlana Hristova, Milena Dragićević Šešić, Nancy Duxbury, Routledge, 2015, p. 112-124Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 116.
    Hugoson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Lars Widdings Umeå: Den lokala identitetens dynamik2009In: Historier: Arton- och nittonhundratalens skönlitteratur som historisk källa / [ed] Ahlberger, Christer mfl, Göteborg: Institutionen för historiska studier, Göteborgs universitet , 2009, p. 137-146Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 117.
    Hugoson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Lars Widdings Umeå: Den lokala identitetens dynamik2009Report (Other academic)
  • 118.
    Hugoson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Möten, nätverk och politik: Norrlandsoperan igår, idag, imorgon2010In: Kulturens kraft för regional utveckling / [ed] Lindeborg, Lisbeth och Lindkvist, Lars, Stockholm: SNS Förlag , 2010, p. 356-375Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 119.
    Hugoson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Norrlandsoperan: Fisk eller fråmmande fågel i Umeås kulturliv?2010In: Västerbotten, ISSN 0346-4938, no 1, p. 62-67Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 120.
    Hugoson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Umeå: Björkarnas stad: Från stadsbrand till city brand2009Report (Other academic)
  • 121.
    Hugoson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Vad säger projekt om stadens utveckling?: Introduktion till projektstudiemetod2009Report (Other academic)
  • 122.
    Hugoson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    "We’re a peaceful nation": Krigsretorik efter 11 september: Brigitte Mral. Krisberedskapsmyndigheten, KBM:s temaserie 2994:5, 127 sidor2005In: Rhetorica Scandinavica, ISSN 1397-0534, p. 72-75Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 123. Höglund, Kristine
    et al.
    Jarstad, Anna Karin
    Department of Government, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Towards electoral security: experiences from KwaZulu-Natal2011In: Africa Spectrum, ISSN 0002-0397, E-ISSN 1868-6869, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 33-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing recognition of the dangers of electoral violence. Yet, the theoretical foundation for systematic research and for adequate policy is still underdeveloped. This article aims to develop the theoretical understandings of strategies to manage and prevent electoral violence. This is accomplished by integrating research conducted within the two academic discourses on democratization and conflict management and also by drawing on the experiences from the conflict-ridden province KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. The five strategies identified are monitoring, mediation, legal measures, law enforcement and self-regulating practices. In the article, the functions and mechanisms of the strategies are discussed. In addition, we analyse the limitations and usefulness of each of the strategies in turn and also provide suggestions on how to improve electoral security.

  • 124.
    Hörnström, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Redistributive regionalism: Narratives on regionalisation in the Nordic periphery2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades a stronger role for the regions has developed in many West European countries. To a significant degree this regionalisation trend has coincided with European integration. The key change in the role of the regional level has been with regard to its status as an agent of regional development. In most West European countries there has been a shift from an approach to regional policy that has focused on redistributive measures from the centre in which the regions play a relatively weak role to a perspective that is sometimes labelled “new regionalism” in which the focus is on the region taking responsibility for its own development. In this new regionalist perspective, which is both descriptive and normative, the region is considered as the appropriate arena for both economic activities and decision-making.

    In the political systems of the Nordic countries the regional level has traditionally been in a relatively weak position and regional policy has emphasized centralisation and redistributive measures. Not unexpectedly, the pan-European trend toward a stronger role for the region has also found its way to the Nordic countries. The aim of this study is to describe and analyze if and to what extent key actors in three peripheral regions, situated in countries with a strong tradition of redistribution from the centre and a weak role for the regional level, have embraced the new regionalist perspective. The three regions are Troms in Norway, Pohjois-Pohjanmaa in Finland and Västerbotten in Sweden. All are peripherally located with small populations and economies that rely heavily on natural resources. The analysis is based on interviews with regional and local politicians, civil servants, and business representatives. The empirical material is presented in the form of narratives formulated by the regional actors who express their views on regional policy and the role of the region.

    The results of the study show that regional actors in the three peripheries express similar narratives. To a certain degree actors have embraced the new regionalist perspective in the sense that they see the regional level as an important coordinator for development initiatives and measures. However, the actors’ claims for a stronger regional level must be understood in the context of the unitary state. In this context, the actors’ perspective combines the new regionalist and the centralist redistributive approach, one that can be labelled ‘redistributive regionalism’. The state remains the key actor and is expected to guarantee equal conditions in all parts of the country. The emphasis on strengthening the administrative region is more pronounced in Troms and Västerbotten than in Pohjois-Pohjanmaa, where instead there is a stronger focus on the functional region. Actors in the three regions do not see any contradiction between a strong state and increased regional influence on development issues. In sum, the study finds that the new regionalist perspective has been embraced to a certain extent but that it has been adapted to national characteristics, as well as to the specific conditions in the three regions.

  • 125.
    Jakobsen, Joan Pauli Dahl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Loaded Discourse: Hegemonic Manifestations Concerning Turkey's EU Membership Bid2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 126.
    Jarl, Maria
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Rönnberg, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Skolpolitik: från riksdagshus till klassrum2015 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Varför ser skolan ut som den gör? Vilka aktörer försöker påverka de politiska besluten om skolan? Vad vill de olika aktörerna och hur för de fram sina krav? Den här boken skildrar det politiska spelet om skolan. En viktig utgångspunkt är att skolpolitiken inte bara handlar om politiska beslut i riksdag och regering utan också om lärares och rektorers dagliga gärningar i skolan. Skolpolitiken formas på olika nivåer i skolsystemet. Lärare och rektorer är nyckelaktörer i dessa processer, men även politiska partier, lärarförbunden och ministrar har viktiga roller. Boken Skolpolitik – från riksdagshus till klassrum fokuserar på fyra skolpolitiska huvudfrågor: makten över skolan som organisation, skolans uppdrag, makten över lärare och rektorer, granskningen av skolans verksamhet. I den andra upplagan har författarna reviderat samtliga kapitel och uppdaterat innehållet med hänvisning till de senaste årens skolpolitiska beslut. Den andra upplagan innehåller dessutom ett helt nytt avsnitt om det politiska spelet om lärarlegitimationerna. Boken vänder sig till studenter på lärar- och rektorsutbildningar, verksamma rektorer och lärare, men också andra läsare med intresse för skolpolitik.

  • 127.
    Jarl, Maria
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Rönnberg, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Skolpolitik: från riksdagshus till klassrum2010Book (Other academic)
  • 128.
    Jarstad, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    The Prevalence of Power-Sharing: Exploring the Patterns of Post-Election Peace2009In: Africa Spectrum, ISSN 0002-0397, E-ISSN 1868-6869, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 41-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why are some elections followed by armed conflict, while others are not? This article begins to explore this question by mapping the prevalence of power-sharing agreements and patterns of post-election peace in states shattered by civil war. While democracy builds on the notion of free political competition and uncertain electoral outcomes, power-sharing reduces the uncertainty by ensuring political power for certain groups. Nevertheless, new data presented in this article – the Post-Accord Elections (PAE) data collection – shows that the issues of peace, power-sharing and democracy have become intertwined as the vast majority of contemporary peace agreements provide for both power-sharing and elections. First, in contrast to previous research which has suggested that power-sharing is a tool for ending violence, this study shows that conflict often continues after an agreement has been signed, even if it includes provisions for power-sharing. Second, this investigation shows no evidence of power-sharing facilitating the holding of elections. On the contrary, it is more common that elections are held following a peace process without power-sharing. Third, a period of power-sharing ahead of the elections does not seem to provide for postelection peace. Rather, such elections are similarly dangerous as post-accord elections held without a period of power-sharing. The good news is that power-sharing does not seem to have a negative effect on post-election peace.

  • 129.
    Jarstad, Anna K.
    Uppsala universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Local Peace Agreements: The Road to Peace and Democracy in KwaZulu Natal?2010In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 112, no 1, p. 60-68Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 130.
    Jarstad, Anna K.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Nilsson, Desirée
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    From words to deeds: the implementation of power-sharing pacts in peace accords2008In: Conflict Management and Peace Science, ISSN 0738-8942, E-ISSN 1549-9219, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 206-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Is the implementation of power-sharing provisions the key to durable peace? This study analyzes whether the implementation of political, military, and territorial power-sharing provisions contributes to peace. We introduce a new dataset (IMPACT), which contains unique information on the implementation of power-sharing pacts in peace accords in the post–Cold War period. Based on the logic of costly signaling, we demonstrate that when the parties engage in costly concessions by implementing military and territorial provisions, peace is more likely to prevail. In contrast, the implementation of political pacts is less costly, and hence does not increase the prospects of peace.

  • 131.
    Jarstad, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Åkebo, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    the Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala University.
    Söderström, Johanna
    Department of Government, Uppsala University.
    Saati, Abrak
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Kostić, Roland
    the Hugo Valentin Centre and Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University.
    Sahovic, Dzenan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Peace agreements in the 1990s – what are the outcomes 20 years later?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the 1990s, a number of protracted armed conflicts were finally ended. This period can be described as a paradigmatic shift with regards to how armed conflicts are brought to an end. When the logic of the Cold War no longer hindered the United Nations (UN) to intervene, the number of UN peace operations rose dramatically and became more comprehensive. In addition, conflicts increasingly ended through negotiated settlements rather than military victory. The peace processes of the 1990s gave rise to great optimism that negotiations and peacebuilding efforts, often with considerable international involvement, would bring sustainable peace to war-affected countries. The outcomes of these peace processes, however, appears to be far from unanimously positive. Today, 20 years after the war endings of the 1990s, it is therefore imperative to critically analyze and evaluate these peace processes and their long-term results. What is the situation like today in countries where conflicts ended in the 1990s? What has become of the peace? In this paper, the long-term outcomes of peace processes that took place in the 1990s are evaluated through brief analyses of a number of cases,demonstrating that the nature and quality of peace today show great diversity. The paper also includes a conceptualization of the ”peace triangle” aimed at distinguishing between different forms of peace, as well as a study of the relationship between peacebuilding and democracy in UN peace operations in the 1990s, concluding that outcomes with regards to democratic development in the intervened countries are generally poor.

  • 132.
    Jarstad, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Åkebo, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Barnes, Philippa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eklund, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eklund Wimelius, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Saati, Abrak
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sahovic, Dzenan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Strandh, Veronica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Söderström, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Department of Government, Uppsala University and Department of Comparative Politics, University of Bergen .
    Varieties of peace: presentation of a research program2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Varieties of Peace research program aims to analyze long-term effects of peace processes in conflicts that ended in the 1990s. The central research questions are: What characterizes peace after the peace processes initiated in the 1990s and how does it vary? How can this variation be described and explained? Peace processes have been studied using short time perspectives, usually in ”lessons-learned” evaluations five years after conflict termination, and usually with theories of conflict as a starting point. The Varieties of Peace research program is an ambitious initiative, which starts from a theoretical understanding of peace, its quality and character, and views peace and peace processes as dynamic and transformative. It will investigate and evaluate different types of peace processes from a comparative perspective and 25–30 years after they started, with the ambition of producing generalizable knowledge about peace, what it is and how it can be achieved. As a starting point, the program studies explanatory factors in five areas: 1) the actions, capacity and resilience of civil society, 2) the interests and strategies of the elites, 3) the aims and character of the agreements, 4) the societies’ institutions and resilience, and 5) international involvement. These issues will be studies in at least ten projects, with the ambition to capture and explain variation, internal dynamics and ultimately the results and effects of peace processes, studied over a longer period of time. The Varieties of Peace program is funded by Riksbankens Jubileumsfond: the Swedish Foundation for Humanities and Social Sciences, 2017-2024. For more info, please visit our webpage at www.varietiesofpeace.net.

  • 133.
    Johansson, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Lidestav, Gun
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Can voluntary standards regulate forestry?: Assessing the environmental impacts of forest certification in Sweden2011In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 191-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the issue of to what extent forest certification schemes contribute to the enhancement of environmental protection in Swedish forestry. Our assessment is built on the analysis of three different data sets, namely: 1) the Swedish National Forest Inventory (NFI), 2) the Swedish Database for Forest Owner Analysis, presenting data on small-scale forestry practices and certification, and 3) a follow-up mail survey addressed to private small-scale forest owners with certified forest properties. Our NFI analysis indicated some minor improvements in forest conditions, corresponding with the interim target for enhanced biological diversity (dead wood, broad-leaved trees and old forests). The improvements were less evident on large-scale forest properties (certified in accordance with the Forest Stewardship Council scheme) than on small-scale private forest properties (mainly certified in accordance with the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes). This contradicts a common assumption that a much higher degree of certification with stricter environmental standards will give more evident positive impacts on environmental conditions. However, results from the follow-up survey showed that more harvesting activity had taken place on certified small-scale forest properties than on non-certified properties. This could mean more negative effects on biodiversity. We conclude by stressing the importance of improving quantitative methods for determining a cause-and-effect relationship between certification and nature protection; previous research tends to report rather far-reaching conclusions based on limited data sets.

  • 134.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Equivocal Resolve?: Toward a Definition of Chapter VII Resolutions2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The United Nations Security Council has become significantly more active since the end of the Cold War. Nowhere is this more evident than in the increased resort to Chapter VII of the Charter, under which the Council can make decisions that are binding on member States. Despite the authority vested in the Security Council through Chapter VII, there is occasional disagreement over whether specific resolutions are indeed adopted under Chapter VII or not. Drawing on such disagreements, this paper develops a definition of Chapter VII resolutions. On the basis of this definition, the paper goes on to present an overview of the use of Chapter VII for the period 1946-2007, and relates it to world wide conflict patterns. It illustrates and explores the increased use of Chapter VII in the post-Cold War era, as well as the distribution of Chapter VII resolutions across conflicts and issues on the Council’s agenda. The paper concludes by raising a few questions about possible consequences of the extensive use of Chapter VII for, most importantly, the legitimacy and the effectiveness of the Security Council.

  • 135.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Kan ickevåldsmotstånd mot Ryssland fungera?2015In: Mänsklig säkerhetArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 136.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Konfliktmönster i MENA-regionen 1980-19971999Report (Other academic)
  • 137.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Peace by repatriation: Concepts, cases, and conditions2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this study is the assumption that the return of refugees is a necessary condition for the establishment of sustainable peace after armed conflict. This assumption is often made in the peacebuilding literature as well as by policy makers, but it has rarely been the object of systematic analysis. The purpose of the study, therefore, is to test this assumption, which I label the “peace-by-repatriation thesis.”

    I adopt a two-step approach to analyzing the peace-by-repatriation thesis. The first step is to formulate an analytical framework. The second step is to use the framework to test the peace-by-repatriation thesis on a medium number of cases. The formulation of the analytical framework starts with an examination of previous research. I trace the theoretical foundations of the peace-by-repatriation thesis in research on peacebuilding, forced migration, and partition. The analytical framework is further informed by case studies of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Nagorno-Karabakh, two cases that represent opposing perceptions of repatriation as a condition for peace.

    I adopt a set-theoretic approach to test the peace-by-repatriation thesis. I describe in some detail how the key concepts of the analytical framework are operationalized. I select and code forty-three cases—terminated conflicts that caused large-scale displacement—and use fuzzy-set analysis to test the peace-by-repatriation thesis. The analysis shows that repatriation is not a necessary condition for sustainable peace. Instead, ending displacement—irrespective of how this is done—turns out to be an important condition for peace. This result is consistent across tests of different combinations of cases and tests using alternative operationalizations of key concepts.

    Taken together, the fuzzy-set analysis and the case studies suggest that the relationship between repatriation and peace will vary from case to case and that pre-war interethnic relations is one of the circumstances that affect that relationship.

  • 138.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Refugee Repatriation as a Necessary Condition for Peace2007In: Globalization and Challenges to Building Peace, Anthen Press, London, Chicago and New Delhi , 2007Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 139.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The Humdrum Use of Ultimate Authority: Defining and Analysing Chapter VII Resolutions2015In: Economic Sanctions / [ed] Michael P. Malloy, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 449-482Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 140.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Vad jag läser2014In: Respons, no 5, p. 7-Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 141.
    Johansson, Patrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Amer, Ramses
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The United Nations Security Council and the Enduring Challenge of the Use of Force in Inter-state Relations2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The United Nations Security Council has, after the end of the Cold War, become a markedly more active player on the international stage. The number of resolutions adopted – in particular resolutions adopted under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations – the number of peacekeeping missions, and the number of mandatory sanctions regimes have all increased considerably. The Council has also broadened its view of security, and adopted several resolutions that deal with thematic issues rather than with specific conflicts. In this paper, we raise the question of whether this increased activity has been accompanied by a corresponding increase in the effectiveness of the Council. We do this by analysing how the Council has developed its reaction to the use of force in inter-state relations. Throughout the existence of the United Nations, the prohibition of the use of force, other than in self-defence, has been one of the most fundamental rules that the Council is assigned the responsibility to uphold. We conclude that despite the increased level of activity on the part of the Council since the end of the Cold War, its ability to react consistently and authoritatively to violations of the prohibition of the use of force has not been strengthened.

  • 142. Johansson, Susanne
    et al.
    Roos, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Lika nöjd i syd, i väst och i norr?2010In: Regional demokrati: Om politik och medier i Skåne / [ed] Susanne Johansson, Göteborg: SOM-institutet, Göteborgs universitet , 2010, p. 35-54Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 143.
    Johansson, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Samarbete mellan gymnasieskolan och näringslivet: en studie av lokala partnerskap i fyra kommuner2004Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The national curriculum and the School Act emphasize the importance of establishing partnerships between schools and local businesses. The formation of partnerships was expected to be facilitated by the decentralization reforms that took place in the beginning of the 1990’s. These reforms gave schools and municipalities greater scope for adjusting education to meet local circumstances. However, central government has not made financial resources available for stimulating the establishment of school-business partnerships, nor does it penalize municipalities that do not set up such partnerships.

    The questions in focus in this study are: why do partnerships arise, how are they organised and what factors are important in achieving a partnership which can function in practice? Urban regime theory is applied to explain why collaborations occur and policy network theory is used to analyse how they are organised. A further aim of the study is to examine whether the partnerships can be defined as urban regimes.

    The study was based on case studies of four upper secondary schools in Sweden, each in a different municipality. These municipalities are all industrialized, but the structure of their industrial base varies. Two are dominated by one or a few major companies whereas the others are characterized by the predominance of many small businesses. The study focuses on how three vocational study programmes – industry, electricity and building - collaborate with local businesses.

    The study shows that the main explanation of why a partnership arises is that both partners believe that they can gain something by collaborating. For schools, the main reason for establishing a partnership with business is a belief that this will make the vocational education programmes more attractive for pupils. Through partnerships, schools can get access not only to practical experience for their pupils, but also help from business with developing the content of courses and some financial contributions. However, the economic benefits are of limited importance compared with the perceived gains in terms of the development of the educational content of the courses. This goes against results from studies in other countries.

    For business, it is particularly important to be able to influence decisions about the content of local education. By doing so, they hope to ensure that the pupils, after having completed their education, will enter the local labour market with more relevant qualifications.

    My research shows that several requirements have to be present for a successful partnership to be established. First, there must be a commitment and firm intentions from both partners. Second, size of the businesses involved in the partnerships is important for how they are organized. Larger businesses tend to see the partnership from a more long term perspective. However, it is also possible to organize collaborations with smaller businesses if they can be united under a common organisation. Third, specific actors make a difference in the partnerships. Devoted and interested key actors who are closely associated with the partnership are very important for the continuity of the partnership

    The study suggests that urban regime theory and policy network theory are useful for understanding why and how partnerships between schools and businesses are established and retained. However, it can not be concluded that these collaborations in themselves are urban regimes at a more local level. This would require that their focus was much more long-term.

  • 144.
    Johansson, Viktor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Peace Processes of the 1990s: A Report for the Varieties of Peace Research Program2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is part of the Varieties of Peace Research Program, an ambitious initiative undertaken at the Department of Political Science, Umeå University, Sweden. The program attempts to push our contemporary understanding of peace far beyond the absence of war, and to provide nuance, or rather variation, to a long-running debate. The current report contributes to the program by characterizing and comparing civil-war peace processes that were initiated during the 1990s. In addition, the report offers a long-term analysis of the peace that has (or has not) ensued after these civil wars. The report is descriptive and comparative in its effort and is mainly intended to serve as a basis for further exploration and analysis. Nonetheless, the findings raise some interesting questions.

    In practice, the report views peace agreements as expressions of peace processes. Data on peace agreements have been collected from the Peace Agreements Database (PA-X), and data on civil wars have been collected from the Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP). The agreements have been characterized on a general level and on a conflict-specific level. Several trends and patterns in the general picture, as well as differences and similarities between the specific processes, have been found. The report’s long-term analysis of peace offers a cautiously optimistic picture. On average, the investigated indicators point to improvements in peace. However, in several cases conditions have deteriorated. Such conclusions are, of course, based on the assumption that the examined data and the measured indicators are relevant to peace. However, it is not obvious that this is the case. Thus, when reading the report, it is worth keeping an open mind regarding the question: What is peace?

  • 145.
    Karlsson, Rasmus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Gallery Walk Seminar: Visualizing the Future of Political Ideologies2019In: Journal of Political Science Education, ISSN 1551-2169, E-ISSN 1551-2177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article shows how a gallery walk exercise can be used to encourage broad participation and higher-level thinking among undergraduate students of political science. Asked to visualize the future of different political ideologies, the students work together in groups to create posters that they then present for each other during a vernissage-like event that includes a Q&A session. This seminar format enables an iterative, adaptive, and reflective approach to learning that stimulates higher-level skills such as synthesis and evaluation. As such, the gallery walk exercise can be seen as a useful complement to more traditional didactic learning activities aimed at the lower levels of Bloom’s taxonomy (e.g., knowledge and comprehension). Based on written course evaluations, the students seem to appreciate not only the novelty of the gallery walk seminar format but also how it prompted them to see the different ideologies in a new light and that it significantly deepened their understanding of the subject matter.

  • 146.
    Karlsson, Rasmus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The environmental risks of incomplete globalization2017In: Globalizations, ISSN 1474-7731, E-ISSN 1474-774X, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 550-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the liberal optimism of the long 1990s has faded into a world of growing inequality and resurging nationalism, there is less certainty about the prospects of economic convergence and global integration. Beyond the formidable human cost of maintaining a divided world, the possibility of incomplete globalisation also gives rise to a number of environmental risks. While environmental political theory generally sees strength in localism, history rather shows that a robust world trade system is crucial to offset local resource scarcities and that cosmopolitan norms of solidarity are essential for helping communities to rebuild after environmental catastrophe. In relation to climate change, statist thinking has led to a focus on non-scalable technologies and a silent acceptance of chronic poverty abroad as a way of avoiding a climate emergency. Contrary to such views, this paper argues that accelerating the transition to a fully integrated high-energy planet may more effectively mitigate Anthropocene risks.

  • 147.
    Karlsson, Rasmus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Kim, Hee-Yoon
    Hankuk University of Foreign Studies.
    Korea and Climate Change: Unpacking the Domestic Media Discourse2015In: Asian Politics & Policy, ISSN 1943-0779, E-ISSN 1943-0787, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 332-336Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 148.
    Karlsson, Rasmus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Symons, Jonathan
    Macquarie Univ, Polit & Int Relat, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia.
    Making Climate Leadership Meaningful: Energy Research as a Key to Global Decarbonisation2015In: Global Policy, ISSN 1758-5880, E-ISSN 1758-5899, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 107-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article revisits a number of familiar debates about climate change mitigation yet draws some unorthodox conclusions.First, that progress towards a renewable small-scale energy future in environmentally conscious countries such asGermany and Sweden may take the world as a whole further away from climate stability by reducing the political pressureto finance breakthrough innovation. Second, that without such game-changing innovations, developing countrieswill continue to deploy whatever technologies are domestically available, scalable and affordable, including thermalcoal power in most instances. Third and finally, that as any realistic hope of achieving climate stability hinges on theinnovation of breakthrough technologies, the urgency of climate change calls not so much for the domestic deploymentof existing energy technologies but rather a concentrated effort to develop technologies that will be adoptedglobally. These arguments imply that national innovation policy, and an international treaty establishing a ‘Low-EmissionsTechnology Commitment’ should be the central focus of climate policy.

  • 149.
    Keskitalo, E Carina H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    The politics of Arctic resources: change and continuity in the "Old North" of Northern Europe2019Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Arctic has often been seen as a natural area, or even a "wilderness", where mainly indigenous and subsistence activities have been prominent. Contrary to this, the present volume highlights the very long historical development of resource use systems in northern Europe, across multiple actors and multiple levels, and including varying population groups.

    The book takes a past-present-future perspective that illustrates the paths to institutional emergence, change or persistence over time. It also illustrates how institutions may themselves drive changes, through a focus on resource use cases in northern Europe. This volume demonstrates that understanding "northern" issues is less about understanding sets of geophysical, climatological or environmental conditions than about understanding social and institutional structures. Understanding these trajectories into the future is seen as a key way of understanding what responses to future change may be likely and what the institutions are that will shape, limit or enable our responses to climate change.

    This book will be of great use to scholars and graduates in the fields of Arctic and northern-region politics, and to researchers of resource use and climate change with a focus on vulnerability, social vulnerability, adaptation and mitigation.

  • 150.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Laszlo Ambjörnsson, Emmeline
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Davis, Emily Jane
    Agenda-setting and framing of policy solutions for forest pests in Canada and Sweden: Avoiding beetle outbreaks?2016In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 65, p. 59-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extreme events such as pest outbreaks is one of the issues that may become more pronounced with climate change, placing potentially unprecedented requirements on policy systems to manage and develop responses to these, including potential changes in legislation. This study reviews the way in agenda-setting and framing of policy solutions was developed for the issue of bark beetle pest outbreaks following major outbreaks in Sweden and Canada. The study concludes that the larger events in Canada have resulted in a longer policy window, with a higher focus on developing responses on multiple levels, while the issue in Sweden has led to more specialized response, with the policy window closing after instrumental revisions of legislation. While such responses may be appropriate at the present, they place into consideration development of responses to potentially larger events in the context of climate change. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.

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