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  • 101.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Nyberg, Gert
    SLU.
    Agroforestry Extension and Dietary Diversity: An Analysis of the Importance of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in West Pokot, Kenya2016In: Food Security, ISSN 1876-4517, E-ISSN 1876-4525, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 271-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Worldwide, the challenges of nomadic, pastoralist systems are causing their slow but steady disappearance in favour of sedentary agropastoralism. This paper draws upon an existing household data set from a survey collected and organized by the Swedish non-governmental organization (NGO) Vi Agroforestry, directed at a livestock-based, agro-pastoralist area in West Pokot County, western Kenya. The study focuses on the question of food diversity and malnutrition and the role of agroforestry extension services, i.e. knowledge spread, transfer and development. Our basic hypothesis is that certain fruit and vegetable related food groups are under-consumed in West Pokot, especially in the dryland areas. The results of the study shows that agroforestry, combined with advice through extension efforts can imply a transition path for pastoralists which involves improved dietary diversity, especially concerning food groups that include roots, tubers, fruits and leafy vegetables. From the results certain restrictions that hinder this transition become clear. An important but often overlooked factor is lack of information and knowledge as a determinant of household behavior in developing countries. NGOs such as Vi Agroforestry can play an important role in overcoming this restriction by providing extension services. Developing countries in general are not information-rich environments, a fact that is especially the case for poor citizens living in rural areas. The paper illustrates that careful attention to the information and knowledge available to households is necessary when designing development cooperation.

  • 102.
    Boström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Cross-language information retrieval: en studie av lingvistiska problem och utvecklade översättningsmetoder för lösningar angående informationsåtervinning över språkliga gränser2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay deals with information retrieval across languages by examining different types of literature in the research areas of linguistics and multilingual information retrieval. The essay argues that the many different languages that co-exist around the globe must be recognised as an essential obstacle for information science. The language barrier today remains a major impediment for the expansion of international information retrieval otherwise made technically and theoretically possible over the last few years by new technical developments, the Internet, digital libraries, globalisation, and moreover many political changes in several countries around the world. The first part of the essay explores linguistic differences and difficulties related to general translations from one language to another, using examples from mainly European languages. It is suggested that these problems and differences also must be acknowledged and regarded as highly important when it comes to information retrieval across languages. The essay continues by reporting on Cross-Language Information Retrieval (CLIR), a relatively new research area where methods for multilingual information retrieval are studied and developed. The object of CLIR is that people in the future shall be able to search for information in their native tongue, but still find relevant information in more than one language. Another goal for the future is the possibility to translate complete documents into a person’s language of preference. The essay reports on four different CLIR-methods currently established for automatically translating queries, subject headings, or, in some cases, complete documents, and thus aid people with little or no knowledge of the language in which he or she is looking for information. The four methods – identified as machine translation, translations using a multilingual thesaurus or a manually produced machine readable dictionary, corpus-based translation, and no translation – are discussed in relation to the linguistic translation difficulties mentioned in the paper’s initial part. The conclusion drawn is that language is exceedingly complex and that while the different CLIR-methods currently developed often can solve one or two of the acknowledged linguistic difficulties, none is able to overcome all. The essay also show, however, that CLIR-scientists are highly aware of the limitations of the different translation methods and that many are trying to get to terms with this by incorporating several sources of translation in one single CLIR-system. The essay finally concludes by looking at CLIR-scientists’ expectations and hopes for the future.

  • 103. Boye, Katarina
    et al.
    Grönlund, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Workplace skill investments – an early career glass ceiling?: Job complexity and wages among young professionals in Sweden2018In: Work, Employment and Society, ISSN 0950-0170, E-ISSN 1469-8722, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 368-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite higher educational investments, women fall behind men on most indicators of labour market success. This study investigates whether workplace skill investments set men and women off on different tracks in which the human capital acquired through higher education is either devalued or further developed. A sample of Swedish men and women who recently graduated from five educational programs, leading to occupations with different gender composition, is analysed. Results show that, a few years after graduation, men are more likely than women to acquire complex jobs and that this difference contributes to early career gender gaps in wage and employee bargaining power. The findings do not support the notion that child-related work interruptions provide a main mechanism for sorting women into less complex jobs. 

  • 104.
    Brandel, Jens
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Folatintag och folatstatus hos prematura barn: En kvalitetsundersökning vid en neonatalavdelning2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 105. Briones-Vozmediano, Erica
    et al.
    Carmen Davo-Blanes, Ma
    Garcia-de la Hera, Manuela
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. b Grupo de Investigación en Salud Pública, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante, Espa˜na.
    Vives-Cases, Carmen
    Discursos profesionales sobre la violencia del compañero íntimo: implicación en la atención de las mujeres inmigrantes en España2016In: Gaceta Sanitaria, ISSN 0213-9111, E-ISSN 1578-1283, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 326-332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: 1) to examine the discourses of professionals involved in the care of female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV), with emphasis on how they describe the immigrant women, the perpetrators and their own responsibility of care; and 2) to compare these discourses with the other professions involved in caring for these women (social services, associations and police and justice). Methods: Qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with 43 professionals from social services, associations and the police and judicial systems. A discourse analysis was carried out to identify interpretive repertoires about IPV, immigrant women and their aggressors, their culture and professional practices. Results: Four interpretive repertoires emerged from professional discourses: "Cultural prototypes of women affected by IPV", "Perpetrators are similar regardless of their culture of origin", "Are victims credible and the perpetrators responsible?" and "Lack of cultural sensitivity of professionals in helping immigrant women in abusive situations". These repertoires correspond to preconceptions that professionals construct about affected women and their perpetrators, the credibility and responsibility they attribute to them and the interpretation of their professional roles. Conclusions: The employment of IPV-trained cultural mediators in the services responsible for caring for the female victims, together with cultural training for the professionals, will facilitate the provision of culturally sensitive care to immigrant female victims of intimate partner violence. (C) 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana, S.L.U.

  • 106. Briones-Vozmediano, Erica
    et al.
    Maquibar, Amaia
    Vives-Cases, Carmen
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Public Health Research Group of the University of Alicante, Spain.
    Health-Sector Responses to Intimate Partner Violence: fitting the Response Into the Biomedical Health System or Adapting the System to Meet the Response?2018In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 33, no 10, p. 1653-1678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to analyze how middle-level health systems' managers understand the integration of a health care response to intimate partner violence (IPV) within the Spanish health system. Data were obtained through 26 individual interviews with professionals in charge of coordinating the health care response to IPV within the 17 regional health systems in Spain. The transcripts were analyzed following grounded theory in accordance with the constructivist approach described by Charmaz. Three categories emerged, showing the efforts and challenges to integrate a health care response to IPV within the Spanish health system: "IPV is a complex issue that generates activism and/or resistance," "The mandate to integrate a health sector response to IPV: a priority not always prioritized," and "The Spanish health system: respectful with professionals' autonomy and firmly biomedical." The core category, "Developing diverse responses to IPV integration," crosscut the three categories and encompassed the range of different responses that emerge when a strong mandate to integrate a health care response to IPV is enacted. Such responses ranged from refraining to deal with the issue to offering a women-centered response. Attempting to integrate a response to nonbiomedical health problems as IPV into health systems that remain strongly biomedicalized is challenging and strongly dependent both on the motivation of professionals and on organizational factors. Implementing and sustaining changes in the structure and culture of the health care system are needed if a health care response to IPV that fulfills the World Health Organization guidelines is to be ensured.

  • 107. Briones-Vozmediano, Erica
    et al.
    Vives-Cases, Carmen
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Public Health Research Group, University of Alicante, Alicante, Spain.
    "I'm not the woman I was": Women's perceptions of the effects of fibromyalgia on private life2016In: Health Care for Women International, ISSN 0739-9332, E-ISSN 1096-4665, Vol. 37, no 8, p. 836-854Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this qualitative study, we explored how gender shapes women's experiences of living with fibromyalgia and how it affects their private lives. Through thematic analysis of data from 13 in-depth interviews in Spain, we identified seven themes which reflect that these women feel remorse and frustration for not being able to continue to fulfill the gender expectation of caring for others and for the home. This research contributes to a better understanding of what suffering from fibromyalgia implies for women and provides insights into how families and providers can support women with fibromyalgia in order to achieve a beneficial lifestyle.

  • 108.
    Broomé, Amalia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    In the name of the nation: Analyzing gender (in)equality (represented) in the SwedishArmed Forces2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay, ‘In the name of a nation’, uses Carol Bacchi’s What’s the Problem Represented tobe?-approach to investigate how gender equality is represented in official documents from theSwedish Armed Forces. By drawing on theories of gender and nation, I trace historical ideasand symbols connected to the defence of the nation and relate them to the problemrepresentations. The study shows that the main problem represented to be is a lack of womenin the organisation and to ‘fix’ this, women are also the subjects for measures. Gendermainstreaming the organisation is also considered as representing and reproducing theSwedish nationalist political project.

  • 109.
    Brouder, Patrick
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Climate change in Northern Sweden: intra-regional perceptions of vulnerability among winter-oriented tourism businesses2011In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 19, no 8, p. 919-933Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is a potential threat to society and business. Although research has noted that the tourism sector may be robust on the macro scale, significant losses at local levels have been suggested. This paper examines Upper Norrland, in Northern Sweden, by measuring the perceptions of winter-oriented tourism entrepreneurs. Their perceptions of potential threats from climate change are assessed, including how entrepreneurs view the future, in terms of climate change impacts and sustainability of the region as a winter-tourism destination. A quantitative survey of entrepreneurs (n = 63) gave responses along geographical and operator dimensions to reveal local differences within the Upper Norrland region, showing the coastland to be perceived as more exposed to change than inland areas. Venue-based businesses see climate change as a higher priority than activity-based, potentially mobile, businesses, regardless of their location. The general perception among businesses is that climate change will not drastically impact the tourism sector over the next 10 years. A basic model for mapping local differences is outlined to stimulate further study of the under-researched intra-regional nuances in climate change and tourism research. A case is made for regional planners to use this tool and to educate local businesses on adaptation techniques.

  • 110.
    Brubäcken, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Hbt i skolan: En undersökning av lärares arbete med hbt-frågor och heteronorm2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En studie av hur lärare på gymnasiet arbetar med synliggörande av elever som identifierar sig som homo- och bisexuella eller transpersoner och motverkande av heteronorm. Vidare undersöker studien elevernas uppfattning av skolans och lärarnas arbete och kunskaper i hbt-frågor. Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur lärarna arbetar med värdegrundsfrågor, speciellt hbt-frågor, vilken kompetens kring hbt-frågor de anser sig ha och hur miljön för bht-personer är på skolan. Mot detta ställs liknande frågor till eleverna för att kunna jämföra lärarnas uppfattning av sitt arbete mot hur eleverna uppfattar det. Studien bestod av intervjuer med sex lärare, sex elever och en skolsköterska. Undersökningen visar att lärarna på den undersökta skolan är dåliga på att inkludera hbt-perspektivet i sin undervisning och på så sätt synliggöra dessa ungdomar. Undervisningen sker i de flesta fall heteronormativt och få av de intervjuade lärarna inkluderar hbt-perspektiv i sin undervisning. Undersökningen visar också att trots brister på synliggörande av hbt-personer i undervisningen är lärarna duktiga på att bemöta elever som identifierar sig utanför heteronormen och hbt-eleverna vågar i stor utsträckning vara öppna på skolan. Intervjuerna har skett på en liten skola med ungefär 250 elever belägen i en mellanstor svensk kommun.

  • 111.
    Brydsten, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Social medicine.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Johansson, Klara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Youth unemployment and functional somatic symptoms in adulthood: results from the Northern Swedish cohort2015In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 796-800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Little is known about the possible long-term health consequences of youth unemployment. Research indicates that unemployment may lead to socioeconomic downward mobility and mental health problems, but we still lack knowledge of the long-term health consequences of youth unemployment. This article examines the potential long-term association between youth unemployment and functional somatic symptoms in adulthood. 

    Methods: The ‘Northern Swedish cohort’ was used with data from five data collections, from 1981 (age 16) until 2007 (age 42). Youth unemployment was measured as months in unemployment between age 16 and 21, and health outcome as functional somatic symptoms (an index of 10 items of self-reported symptoms). Linear regression was used to analyse the relationship between months in youth unemployment and functional somatic symptoms at age 21 and age 42, stratified for women and men and adjusted for potential confounders, such as time spent in education at age 21 and later unemployment between age 21 and 42. 

    Results: Youth unemployment was significantly related to functional somatic symptoms at age 21 for men after controlling for confounders, but not for women. Among men, the association remained for functional somatic symptoms at age 42, after controlling for confounders. 

    Conclusions: Adolescence seems to be a sensitive period during which unemployment could have remaining health effects in adulthood, at least for men, though assumptions of causality are tentative and more research is needed.

  • 112.
    Brändström, Sture
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wiklund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Två musikpedagogiska fält: en studie om kommunal musikskola och musiklärarutbildning1995Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis consists of two parts. One is directed towards municipal music schools, and one deals with music teacher education at university level. The purpose was to investigate the recruitment to these two educations, and to describe and explain how different student groups perceived and used their education. Five empirical studies have been accomplished, and central questions were: which deliberate and non-deliberate choices of musical activities are made by children and music students, and how are these choices affected by socio-economical, geographical and gender prerequisites.Theoretically, the first part of the thesis was based on the educational sociology of Pierre Bourdieu and on previous empirical studies in music pedagogy. The first empirical study was directed towards the recruitment of pupils to the municipal music school in Piteå (n=1085). The study showed that two out of three pupils are girls. Furthermore, it was twice as common among children of higher employees and university graduates to study at the music school than among children with working class backgrounds. The second empirical study was an interview with children, 12-13 years of age (n=369). The results indicated that boys and girls understand and use music and music education in significantly different ways. Furthermore, differences related to socioeconomic background, musical background and residential area were also shown.The second part of the thesis begins with a summary of the origin and scientific basis of Swedish music pedagogy, followed by an investigation regarding recruitment to the music teacher education at the School of Music in Piteå (n=177). The investigation indicated that recruitment is socially biased, similar to that of the municipal music school. One third of the music teacher students were recruited from families where one of the parents worked as a teacher. One out of three students came from homes where religion was an important part of family life. In an interview-study with 60 music teacher students, differences related to gender and educational orientation arose in how students looked upon and used their education. The study showed two attitudes to music and music education, which were linked to the following concepts: musician code and teacher code. In connection with these concepts, three action strategies could be identified: navigation, revolt, and adjustment. These strategies were interpreted as an expression of the tension between the demands of the education and the individuals' wish to have his or her interests and needs met. The dissertation concludes with a project called "Self-formulated goals and self-evaluation in music education" and a short forward-looking discussion pertaining to questions that have been generated throughout the entire research process.

  • 113.
    Brännlund, Isabelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Påtvingade omställningar och det minskade utrymmet för anpassning: om rennäring, anpassning och kolonialism2012In: Bårjås, ISSN 1502-0002, p. 16-24Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 114.
    Brännlund, Isabelle
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Family matters: representation of Swedish Sámi households at the turn of the nineteenth century2013In: About the hearth: perspectives on the home, hearth, and household in the circumpolar north / [ed] David G. Anderson, Robert P. Wishart, Virginie Vaté, Oxford and New York: Berghahn Books, 2013, p. 103-122Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 115.
    Brännäs, Kurt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    On estimation in econometric systems in the presence of time-varying parameters1980Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Economic systems are often subject to structural variability. For the achievement of correct structural specification in econometric modelling it is then important to allow for parameters that are time-varying, and to apply estimation techniques suitably designed for inference in such models. One realistic model assumption for such parameter variability is the Markovian model, and Kaiman filtering is then assumed to be a convenient estimator. In the thesis several aspects of using Kaiman filtering approaches to estimation in that framework are considered. The application of the Kaiman filter to estimation in econometric models is straightforward if a set of basic assumptions are satisfied, and if necessary initial specifications can be accurately made. Typically, however, these requirements can generally not be perfectly met. It is therefore of great importance to know the consequences of deviations from the basic assumptions and correct initial specifications for inference, in particular for the small sample situations typical in econometrics. If the consequences are severe it is essential to develop techniques to cope with such aspects.For estimation in interdependent systems a two stage Kaiman filter is proposed and evaluated, theoretically, as well as by a small sample Monte Carlo study, and empirically. The estimator is approximative, but with promising small sample properties. Only if the transition matrix of the parameter model and an initial parameter vector are misspecified, the performance deteriorates. Furthermore, the approach provides useful information about structural properties, and forms a basis for good short term forecasting.In a reduced form fraaework most of the basic assumptions of the traditional Kaiman filter are relaxed, and the implications are studied. The case of stochastic regressors is, under reasonable additional assumptions, shown to result in an estimator structurally similar to that due to the basic assumptions. The robustness properties are such that in particular the transition matrix and the initial parameter vector should be carefully estimated. An estimator for the joint estimation of the transition matrix, the parameter vector and the model residual variance is suggested and utilized to study the consequences of a misspecified parameter model. By estimating th transitions the parameter estimates are seen to be robust in this respect.

  • 116.
    Bränström Öhman, Annelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Comparative Literature and Scandinavian Languages.
    Det oskrivna fyrtiotalet2005In: Feministiska litteraturanalyser 1972-2002, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2005, p. 375-395Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 117.
    Bränström Öhman, Annelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    "kärlek! och någonting att skratta åt! dessutom": Sara Lidman och den kärleksfulla blicken2008Book (Other academic)
  • 118.
    Bränström Öhman, Annelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Leaks and leftovers: reflections on the practice and politics of style in feminist academic writing2012In: Emergent writing methodologies in feminist studies / [ed] Mona Livholts, New York: Routledge, 2012, p. 27-40Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 119.
    Bränström Öhman, Annelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Lisbeth Salanders grav och andra flickgravar2016In: Att konstruera en kvinna: berättelser om normer, flickor och tanter / [ed] Karin Lövgren, Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2016, p. 99-113Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 120.
    Bränström Öhman, Annelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Sara Lidman och "sam-vettets" ekologi2016In: Gränser, mobilitet och mobilisering: Boundaries, mobility and mobilisation : Nationell konferens för genusforskning = Swedish conference for gender research / [ed] Silje Lundgren, Maja Lundqvist, Björn Pernrud, Göteborg: Nationella sekretariatet för genusforskning , 2016, p. 93-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 121.
    Bränström Öhman, Annelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    "Show some emotion!": Om emotionella läckage i akademiska texter och rum2008In: Tidskrift för genusvetenskap, ISSN 1654-5443, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 122.
    Bränström Öhman, Annelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Ärret i handflatan2008In: Lyrikvännen: tidskrift för poesi, ISSN 0460-0762, Vol. årg 55, no 4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 123.
    Bränström Öhman, Annelie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Livholts, Mona
    Genus och det akademiska skrivandets former2007Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 124.
    Burman, Monica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Forum for Studies on Law and Society.
    Blaming violent men - A challenge to the Swedish criminal law on provocation2014In: Women's Studies: International Forum, ISSN 0277-5395, E-ISSN 1879-243X, Vol. 46, p. 88-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feminists have long criticized how provocations narrative of a woman 'asking for it' functions as a legal 'abuse excuse' for violent men and confirms their rationalizations and justifications for violence. This article aims to challenge a particular aspect of provocation in Swedish criminal law namely, a tendency to individualize and subjectivize culpability in a way that suggests that the individual male perpetrator's specific understanding of his violence should be the perspective from which to understand and judge his violence. Criminal legal culpability is approached as an important aspect in the relationships between gender, power, and violence, and the author argues that the notion of culpability should be changed in two respects. The tendency to regard emotions as 'factual' should be replaced by an evaluative view on emotions and men's responsibility for their emotional responses to women should be judged by acknowledging how values and reasons intersect with power relations

  • 125.
    Burman, Monica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Kön, makt och diskurser i straffrätten2011In: På vei: kjønn og rett i Norden / [ed] Eva-Maria Svensson, Ulrika Andersson, Hege Braekhus, Monica Burman, Anne Hellum, Stine Jørgensen, Anu Pylkkänen, Göteborg: Makadam Förlag, 2011, p. 385-403Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 126.
    Burman, Monica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Forum for Studies on Law and Society.
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Challenging gender and violence: Positions and discourses in Swedish and international contexts2014In: Women's Studies: International Forum, ISSN 0277-5395, E-ISSN 1879-243X, Vol. 46, p. 81-82Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 127.
    Byström, Angelica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Viklund, Linn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Sådant som påverkar bemötandet av de ensamkommande barnen: En vinjett- och fokusgruppsstudie om hur boendepersonal, socialsekreterare och lärare bemöter ensamkommande barn2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet i denna studie är att jämföra och undersöka hur boendepersonal, socialsekreterare och lä­rare bemöter ensamkommande barn (14-18 år) och hur aktörernas samverkan fungerar. Förfat­tarna i studien använde sig av en vinjett- och fokusgruppsintervju där de tre aktörerna var för sig fick tillsammans med sina kollegor diskutera vinjetten och några frågor. Slutsatserna i stu­dien visade bland annat att alla aktörerna växlar mellan humanistiskt och naturvetenskapligt syn­sätt. Dessa synsätt använder de oftast i liknande situationer, men ibland förekommer synsät­ten i olika situationer. De tre aktörerna använde även alla det salutogena förhållningssättet, men de visar det på olika sätt i mötet med ungdomen. Samverkan kan förbättras, men aktörerna upp­levde att den fungerar bra i det stora hela. Förbättringsområden boendepersonal och lärare nämnde är att de kan bli ännu bättre på att hålla sig inom sina ramar för sin yrkesprofession och inte överträda varandras gränser. Boendepersonalen kan också bli bättre på att uppdatera dokumentat­ionen mer regelbundet och höra av sig snabbare till socialsekreterarna. Med andra ord råder det mer domänkonsensus än domänkonflikt mellan de tre aktörerna i deras samverkan.

  • 128.
    Bäcklund, Catharina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Sundelin, Gunnevi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Larsson, Christel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Effect of a 1-year lifestyle intervention on physical activity in overweight and obese children2011In: Advances in Physiotherapy, ISSN 1403-8196, E-ISSN 1651-1948, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 87-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the effect of a family-based multifactor intervention programme on physical activity among overweight or obese children. Children (n = 105, mean age 10.6 ± 1.07 years) with overweight or obesity were randomized into an intervention or control group. The intervention group participated in a 1-year programme aiming at lifestyle changes regarding food habits and physical activity. All children's physical activity was measured using SenseWear Armband at baseline and after 1 year. The children in both groups had a physical activity level (PAL) of 1.67 (0.27) at baseline. When comparing the intervention and control groups, no significant differences were found in physical activity outcome variables after 1 year of intervention. Contrarily to the hypotheses, both groups decreased their energy expenditure and time spent at >3 MET, and there was no change in steps and screen time after 1 year. Despite extensive efforts, the intervention showed no significant positive effect on overweight and obese children's PAL. Further studies are needed to obtain more knowledge on how to maintain or increase the PAL successfully among overweight and obese children.

    Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/14038196.2011.566353

  • 129.
    Bäcklund, Catharina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Sundelin, Gunnevi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Larsson, Christel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Effects on physical activity of a 2-year lifestyle intervention in overweight and obese children2011In: Advances in Physiotherapy, ISSN 1403-8196, E-ISSN 1651-1948, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 97-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to examine the effect on physical activity of a 2-year family-based lifestyle intervention among overweight and obese Swedish children 8–12 years of age; 105 children were randomized to either intervention or control group. The intervention group was offered a 2-year lifestyle programme. Physical activity was measured using SenseWear Pro2 Armband during 4 consecutive days before and after the intervention. When comparing the intervention and control groups, no significant differences were found in the physical activity outcome variables after 2 years of intervention. However, the intervention group decreased their number of steps per day by 13%, p = 0.003 but had an unchanged screen time, whereas the control group had an unchanged number of steps but increased their screen time by 15%, p = 0.02, from baseline to 2-year measurement. There were no significant change in the intervention group, whereas significantly fewer children in the control group achieved the physical activity recommendations at 2-year measurement (88%) compared with at baseline (98%), p = 0.007. Future interventions regarding physical activity among overweight and obese children are of great importance even though the present one showed limited effects. In the continuing work, a greater effect may be received with an extended and more intense intervention regarding physical activity, focusing on reducing sedentary time rather than increasing the physical activity level.

    Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/14038196.2011.562540

  • 130.
    Bäcktorp, Ann-Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Change through reflexive action2008Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 131.
    Calvete Moreno, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Gender inequalities in local policies tackling the right to adequate housing: The example of Barcelona through Carol Bacchi’s ‘What’s the Problem Represented to be?’ approach2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The right to adequate housing is an unaccomplished human right, and unequal power relations between men and women are also perpetuated when trying to access decent housing even in the most prosperous global cities such as Barcelona. The aim of this research study has been to show how housing is represented and produced by the Barcelona City Council and which are the gendering effects and implications thereof. Through the analysis of the three most relevant political instruments in the field of housing, the “What’s the Problem Represented to be?” method proposed by Carol Bacchi (1999) has allowed to ascertain different problem representations of the same phenomena within the Council, such as “lack of adequate housing” and “vulnerable women”, with important consequences, along with other policy gaps. In our opinion, while feminism is often produced as the engine for change, these inconsistencies prevent women liberating completely from their socially imposed roles and achieving real and effective gender equality.

  • 132.
    Carbin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Det problematiska systerskapet: Purpurfärgen och postkolonial feminism2014In: Feminism i rörliga bilder / [ed] Katharina Tollin och Maria Törnqvist, Stockholm: Liber, 2014, 2, p. 116-143Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 133.
    Carbin, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Mellan tystnad och tal: Flickor och hedersvåld i svensk offentlig politik2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the contestations around the question of how violence against young women from ethnic minorities was articulated in Swedish public policy debates from 1995-2008. One core question investigated in this study is how the “new” problem of co called honour killings is categorised and understood within gender equality policies against violence and policies of immigrant integration. The thesis explores how different discourses compete and negotiate to make sense of the violence and try to stabilise meaning. Another aim of the thesis concerns the construction of available subject positions for young women, and the potential effects in terms of possibilities and restrictions for subjects to speak politically. The research material consists of parliamentary debates, major government documents, official government inquiries into integration and gender equality, as well as documents from the Swedish Integration Board and the County Administrative Boards. The analysis draws upon discourse theory and feminist postcolonial theory to explore what positions are made available to young women in policy discourses. Four competing discourses are identified: a multicultural discourse, a discourse of value-clashes, a discourse of structural discrimination and finally a gender power-discourse. However, in policies against honour related violence the violence is primarily understood as originating in a cultural and value-based heritage of certain immigrant communities. This study furthermore illustrates how girls are required to speak and make testimonies on their situation. The ways the stories of the girls are used make them into boundary markers between Swedish and non-Swedish. It is argued that letting the girls speak and listen to them might make it possible to understand some of the potential problems they face. Nevertheless, it might not form an agenda for changing the bigger political picture.

  • 134.
    Carbin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Postcolonialism: theoretical and critical perspectives on2016In: The Wiley Blackwell encyclopedia of gender and sexuality studies / [ed] Nancy A. Naples, New York: Wiley-Blackwell, 2016, 1, p. 1-6Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The term postcolonialism has been applied to signal a historical condition, an era, and also, perhaps most commonly, to describe critical perspectives or theories. When postcolonialism signals a critical theory, or perspective, it has come to mean interrogations of the knowledge production of the West. At the center of the analysis is a critique of how the Western self has been constructed, and how Western institutions have been producing knowledge about what they perceive to be other places, and other peoples, thereby constructing the center and the margins. In his groundbreaking work Orientalism, literary theorist Edward Said explores how the Western project of civilization, modernization, progress, and enlightenment is built upon the premise that there is some other (the Oriental) that is seen as the opposite. Orientalism can be characterized as a hegemonic discourse that builds upon the idea that European culture and identity are superior to all others. Postcolonial scholars scrutinize colonial discourses and decolonizing projects all over the world. Scholars like Homi Bhabha and Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak have developed the work of Orientalism in various ways, by deconstructing identity and introducing class, gender, and global capitalism into the analysis of colonial discourse.

  • 135.
    Carbin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    The requirement to speak: Victim stories in Swedish policies against honour related violence2014In: Women's Studies: International Forum, ISSN 0277-5395, E-ISSN 1879-243X, Vol. 46, p. 107-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade, political initiatives against so-called honour-related violence have been undertaken in several Western countries, as well as in the UN. Swedish policy initiatives are relatively ambitious, and have primarily targeted young women as victims, one aim being to make it possible for them to speak up. In this article the overarching concern is to explore how victim stories are used in Swedish policy initiatives. Drawing upon discourse theory and post-colonial feminism, the aim is to challenge the ideal of speech as emancipation and to elaborate the connections between speech, silence and power. The article shows that, despite efforts by policy-makers to include these young women, and not to reproduce stereotypes, the possibility of speaking is formulated within a certain nationalist discursive terrain. The victims are primarily called upon to speak as non-Swedish representatives. Paradoxically, the inclusion of young women into policy discourse has led to a particular exclusion and thereby produced new silences.

  • 136.
    Carbin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Edenheim, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    The intersectional turn in feminist theory: a dream of a common language?2013In: The European Journal of Women's Studies, ISSN 1350-5068, E-ISSN 1461-7420, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 233-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today intersectionality has expanded from being primarily a metaphor within structuralist feminist research to an all-encompassing theory. This article discusses this increasing dedication to intersectionality in European feminist research. How come intersectionality has developed into a signifier for ‘good feminist research’ at this particular point in time? Drawing on poststructuralist and postcolonial theory the authors examine key articles on intersectionality as well as special issues devoted to the concept. They interrogate the conflicts and meaning making processes as well as the genealogies of the concept. Thus, the epistemology and ontology behind the ‘intersectional turn’ in feminist theory is the main concern here. The authors argue that the lack of ontological discussions has lead to its very popularity. Intersectionality promises almost everything: to provide complexity, overcome divisions and to serve as a critical tool. However, the expansion of the scope of intersectionality has created a consensus that conceals fruitful and necessary conflicts within feminism.

  • 137.
    Carbin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Harjunen, Hannele
    Gender Studies Department of Social Sciences and Philosophy, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Kvist, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    (In)appropriate Mothers: Policy discourses on fertility treatment for lesbians in Denmark, Finland and Sweden2011In: Doing families : gay and lesbian family practices / [ed] Judit Takács & Roman Kuhar, Ljubljana: Peace Institute , 2011, p. 59-78Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 138.
    Carbin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Jönsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Den enes bröd, den andres...?: Om peer-review-systemet och framskrivandet av forskarsubjekt i akademiska utlåtanden2016In: Gränser, mobilitet och mobilisering: Boundaries, mobility and mobilisation : Nationell konferens för genusforskning = Swedish conference for gender research / [ed] Silje Lundgren, Maja Lundqvist, Björn Pernrud, Göteborg: Nationella sekretariatet för genusforskning , 2016, p. 95-96Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 139.
    Carbin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Mählck, Paula
    Från redaktionen2012In: Tidskrift för Genusvetenskap, ISSN 1654-5443, E-ISSN 2001-1377, no 1-2, p. 3-5Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 140.
    Carbin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Overud, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Kvist, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Feminism som lönearbete: om den svenska arbetslinjen och kvinnors frigörelse2017Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 141.
    Casian, Alexandru
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    From Feminism to Popular Feminism: A Conceptual History of Feminism in Relation to Popular Culture2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper sets forth a theoretical explanation for the historical trajectory of the conceptof feminism. Despite its controversial nature, the notion of feminism plays an importantrole not only in gender studies but also in many other domains and fields. Feminism as aconcept has constantly undergone a series of re-definitions, transitions andmodifications. By applying the conceptual history methodology, it is possible tounderstand the complex meanings of feminism embedded in popular culture andpopular imagination. Based on the analysis of historical trajectories, the 1970s and the1990s have been identified as two major turning points in the conceptual evolution offeminism. The emergence of the concept of “popular feminism” is considered as animportant mark in the development of feminist vocabulary. In addition, the presentanalysis suggests that popular culture has constituted a powerful catalyst for conceptualchange. One of the main conclusions of this essay is that popular culture has had a dualand contradictory effect on the evolution of the concept of feminism. This essaycontributes to theorization of societal use of feminist ideas and to larger conversationsabout the past, present and future of the concept of feminism.

  • 142.
    Cecilia, Olsson
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Waling, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    School meals do not have a given place in Swedish school's quality management2016In: Health Education Journal, ISSN 0017-8969, E-ISSN 1748-8176, Vol. 75, no 8, p. 961-971Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Sweden is one of three countries worldwide which has a legal requirement to ensure that pupils in compulsory school should be offered free, nutritious school meals. Furthermore, the law states that school meal provision should be included in schools' internal quality management (IQM) system. The objective of this study was to examine to what extent schools in Sweden are following the legal requirement to include school meals in IQM and the relationship between this inclusion and the application of government advisory guidelines regarding school meals.

    Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Head teachers evenly distributed across all regions in Sweden representing municipality schools, independent schools and Sami schools. Method: Web-based questionnaire completed by 216 head teachers.

    Results: About half of the schools did not meet the legal requirement to include schools meals in the IQM. Furthermore, familiarity with and use of the National Food Agency (NFA) guidelines and the web-based tool School Food Sweden, as well as activities considered as part of a pedagogical school meal and the inclusion of school meals in interdisciplinary work, were reported to be less common in schools not including school meals in their IQM system.

    Conclusion: Findings suggest that when there is inclusion of school meals in a school's quality management system, the school is also more likely to include school meals as part of educational activities. By acknowledging school meal provision as part of the educational process, possibilities are opened up for health-promoting activities to prevent non-communicable disease.

  • 143.
    Chan, Lih Shing
    et al.
    Community College of City University.
    Liong, Chan Ching Mario
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Sexualized Female Bodies: Gender Implications on the Characterization of Lengmo in Hong Kong Print Media2012In: Hong Kong Journal of Social Sciences, ISSN 1021-3619, Vol. 42, no Spring/Summer, p. 83-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [zh]

    In recent years, lengmo has emerged as a popular and controversial subject in Hong Kong society. Literally meaning naïve young model, lengmo is a relatively new occupation that allows young women who lack the figure of professional models to enter the entertainment industry. These young women, mostly in sexy appearance, become a social phenomenon propelled by local print media. This paper analyzes how Hong Kong print media characterize lengmo by endorsing them as sexualized subjects. These characterizations imply the discourse of sexualizing female bodies. Although seemingly pushing the expression of female sexuality into social spaces, they do not liberate women in pursuit of sexual autonomy. Such implication entails the patriarchal ideology in which the operation of local print media is grounded.

  • 144.
    Choi, Susanne Yuk-ping
    et al.
    Gender Research Centre, The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
    Au, Winton Wing-tung
    Department of Psychology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
    Wong, Angela Wai-ching
    Gender Research Centre, The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
    Liong, Chan Ching Mario
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Wong, Margaret Fung-yee
    Gender Research Centre, The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
    Lo, Sally Ka-wing
    Gender Research Centre, The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
    Chao, Kin-chong
    Gender Research Centre, The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
    Exploratory Study on Gender Stereotyping and Its Impacts on Male Gender Report2012Report (Other academic)
  • 145.
    Christianson, Monica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Aléx, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Lundman, Berit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Sex and gender traps and springboards: a focus group study among gender researchers in medicine and health sciences2012In: Health Care for Women International, ISSN 0739-9332, E-ISSN 1096-4665, Vol. 33, no 8, p. 739-755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explored the difficulties that gender researchers encounter in their research and the strategies they use for solving these problems. Sixteen Swedish researchers, all women, took part in focus group discussions; the data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The problems reported fell into four main categories: the ambiguity of the concepts of sex and gender; traps associated with dichotomization; difficulties with communication; and issues around publication. Categories of suggested problem-solving strategies were adaptation, pragmatism, addressing the complexities, and definition of terms. Here the specific views of gender researchers in medicine and health sciences-"medical insiders"-bring new challenges into focus.

  • 146.
    Coe, Anna-Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Practicing Gender and Race in Online Activism to Improve Safe Public Space in Sweden2018In: Sociological inquiry, ISSN 0038-0245, E-ISSN 1475-682X, Vol. 88, no 3, p. 510-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to locate the social practices of activist groups online and clarify how they collectively practice gender and race. It draws upon a qualitative study of two locale-oriented groups that sought to improve safe public space in their respective cities in Sweden. Using Grounded Theory method, I observed and analyzed each group’s public Facebook site from initiation until decline or maintenance. The findings captured five routine behaviors done by the groups in a tacit manner: responding to a concrete incident,creating meaningful participation, fostering substantive debate, formulating a long-term vision, and questioning social hierarchies. Working with theories of social,gendered, and racialized practices, I analyze these behaviors as practices available to the activist groups to do, yet open for social change through their performance. Although all five practices were detected among both groups, the two groups performed them differently and this had consequences for their maintenance as well as their ability to challenge gender and racial hierarchies. The analysis makes an important contribution tosocial movement scholarship by showing how tacit and routine behavior forms the backbone of any collective action and is a crucial site for the (re)construction of social hierarchies.

  • 147.
    Coe, Anna-Britt
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Sandberg, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Att ta plats/att ta tillbaka plats: att mobilisera för en trygg stad2016In: Gränser, mobilitet och mobilisering: Boundaries, mobility and mobilisation : Nationell konferens för genusforskning = Swedish conference for gender research / [ed] Silje Lundgren, Maja Lundqvist, Björn Pernrud, Göteborg: Nationella sekretariatet för genusforskning , 2016, p. 97-98Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 148.
    Colliander, Cristian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Science mapping and research evaluation: a novel methodology for creating normalized citation indicators and estimating their stability2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the methodology at the intersection of relational and evaluative bibliometrics. Experimental investigations are presented that address the question of how we can most successfully produce estimates of the subject similarity between documents. The results from these investigations are then explored in the context of citation-based research evaluations in an effort to enhance existing citation normalization methods that are used to enable comparisons of subject-disparate documents with respect to their relative impact or perceived utility. This thesis also suggests and explores an approach for revealing the uncertainty and stability (or lack thereof) coupled with different kinds of citation indicators.This suggestion is motivated by the specific nature of the bibliographic data and the data collection process utilized in citation-based evaluation studies.

    The results of these investigations suggest that similarity-detection methods that take a global view of the problem of identifying similar documents are more successful in solving the problem than conventional methods that are more local in scope. These results are important for all applications that require subject similarity estimates between documents. Here these insights are specifically adopted in an effort to create a novel citation normalization approach that – compared to current best practice – is more in tune with the idea of controlling for subject matter when thematically different documents are assessed with respect to impact or perceived utility. The normalization approach is flexible with respect to the size of the normalization baseline and enables a fuzzy partition of the scientific literature. It is shown that this approach is more successful than currently applied normalization approaches in reducing the variability in the observed citation distribution that stems from the variability in the articles’ addressed subject matter. In addition, the suggested approach can enhance the interpretability of normalized citation counts. Finally, the proposed method for assessing the stability of citation indicators stresses that small alterations that could be artifacts from the data collection and preparation steps can have a significant influence on the picture that is painted by the citationindicator. Therefore, providing stability intervals around derived indicators prevents unfounded conclusions that otherwise could have unwanted policy implications.

    Together, the new normalization approach and the method for assessing the stability of citation indicators have the potential to enable fairer bibliometric evaluative exercises and more cautious interpretations of citation indicators.

  • 149.
    Costa, Denise Reise
    et al.
    Oslo University.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    IRT scales for self-reported test-taking motivation of Swedish students in international surveys2019In: Quantitative psychology: 83rd annual meeting of the psychometric society, New York, NY 2018 / [ed] Marie Wiberg, Steven Culpepper, Rianne Janssen, Jorge González, Dylan Molenaar, Springer, 2019, p. 53-64Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims at modeling the self-reported test-taking motivation items in PISA and TIMSS Advanced studies for Swedish students using an IRT approach. In the last two cycles of the assessments, six test-specific items were included in the Swedish student questionnaires to evaluate pupil’s effort, motivation and how they perceived the importance of the tests. Using a Multiple-Group Generalized Partial Credit model (MG-GPCM), we created an IRT motivation scale for each assessment. We also investigated measurement invariance for the two cycles of PISA (i.e., 2012 and 2015) and of TIMSS Advanced (i.e., 2008 and 2015). Results indicated that the proposed scales refer to unidimensional constructs and measure reliably students’ motivation (Cronbach’s alpha above 0.78). Differential item functioning across assessment cycles was restricted to two criteria (RMSD and DSF) and had more impact on the latent motivation scale for PISA than for TIMSS Advanced. Overall, the test-taking motivation items fit well the purpose of a diagnostic of test-taking motivation in these two surveys and the proposed scales highlighted the slight increase of pupils’ motivation across the assessment cycles.

  • 150.
    Cowman, Krista
    et al.
    University of Lincoln.
    Javette Koefoed, NinaAarhus University.Karlsson Sjögren, ÅsaUmeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Gender in urban Europe: sites of political activity and citizenship2014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern conceptions of citizenship are frequently associated with the emergence of nation-states, but throughout the period covered by this volume, citizenship continued to be practiced at local level. An ongoing growth in urban populations prompted an associated rise in the power and complexitey of local government, making towns and cities a central site for the privileges and demands of modern citizenship. This volume investigates the complex and sometimes unexpected ways in which women and men negotiated the gendering of citizenship in urban locations, at the same time paying attention to the interrelated impact of social class, age and marital status on its development. Through an integrated set of local studies exploring the gendering of political activities across a variety of sites, the volume explores the processes through which groups developed political activity and the connections between such activity and the expansion of citizenship. It contributes to an overall discussion of the connections between the formation of gendered and class-dependent citizenship, and the development of democracy and political representation.

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