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  • 101. Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Granlund, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Fler konkurrenter är nyckelnför att sänka läkemedelspriserna2017In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 45, no 7, p. 18-29Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi finner att fler konkurrenter på marknader för receptbelagda läkemedel varspatent löpt ut leder till lägre priser. Resultatet är väntat, men att empirisktkvantifiera effekten av ökad konkurrens på priset har visat sig vara förhållandevisbesvärligt. Orsaken till detta är problem såsom omvänd kausalitet ochicke-observerade kvalitetsskillnader, men på de marknader vi studerar är dessaproblem små. Resultaten visar att effekten av ytterligare konkurrenter är storäven när det befintliga antalet är betydande. Exempelvis medför en ökning frånsju till tio företag på lång sikt 21 procent lägre priser på generiska kopior.

  • 102.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola och HUI Research.
    Granlund, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. HUI Research.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    HUI Research och Högskolan Dalarna.
    Apoteksmarknadens omreglering: effekter på följsamhet, priser och kostnader per dygnsdos2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport ingår som en del i Tillväxtanalys projekt att utvärdera effekterna av omregleringen av apoteksmarknaden, särskilt vad gäller priserna. Uppdraget är en uppföljning och utvidgning av Tillväxtanalys WP/PM 2011:50 författat av Bergman och Rudholm. Syftet är att empiriskt studera hur omregleringen påverkat apotekens följsamhet, andel av försäljningen som avser billigaste generika, den så kallade månadens vara, priserna på receptbelagda läkemedel på generikamarknaden, samt vilken totalkostnadseffekt mätt som kostnaden per konsumerad dygnsdos reformen haft. Den senare aspekten är ny jämfört med den tidigare rapporten, medan övriga delar innebär en replikering.

    Resultaten visar entydigt att följsamheten ökat på grund av reformerna oavsett vilket följsamhetsmått vi använder. Resultaten vad gäller reformernas påverkan på leverantörernas prissättnings- och budstrategier är mera splittrade. Denna del av rapporten syftar till att förstå prissättningen på generikamarknaden och att analysera generikamarknadens funktionssätt, snarare än att analysera om apoteksmarknadsreformen totalt sett medfört en ökad eller minskad kostnad för generiska läkemedel.

    Resultaten från uppdragets tredje del, att estimera reformernas effekter på kostnaden per konsumerad dygnsdos visar att kostnaden sjunkit som en följd av omregleringen. Kostnadssänkningen uppskattas till ungefär 10 procent mätt i AUP och ungefär 30 procent mätt i AIP. Den större sänkningen mätt i AIP förklaras dels av marginalförstärkningen och av att en viss procentuell prissänkning i AIP ger en lägre procentuell sänkning av AUP på grund av de prisoberoende delarna i apotekens marginaler.

  • 103.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörns Högskola.
    Johansson, Per
    IFAU, Uppsala University.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Spagnolo, Giancarlo
    Stockholm School of Economics SITE.
    Privatization and Quality: Evidence from Elderly Care in Sweden2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-contractible quality dimensions are at risk of degradation when the provision of public services is privatized. However, privatization may increase quality by fostering performance-improving innovation, particularly if combined with increased competition. We assemble a large data set on elderly care services in Sweden between 1990 and 2009 and estimate how opening to private provision affected mortality rates--an important and not easily contractible quality dimension--using a difference-in-difference-in-difference approach. The results indicate that privatization and the associated increase in competition significantly improved non-contractible quality as measured by mortality rates. It also reduced the cost per resident, although left total cost unaffected.

  • 104. Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Lundberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Stake, Johan Y.
    Interactions Across Firms and Bid Rigging2020In: Review of Industrial Organization, ISSN 0889-938X, E-ISSN 1573-7160, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 107-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluate whether an econometric technique that is used in the spatial econometrics and network effects literature can be adopted as a test for collusive bidding in public procurement auctions. The proposed method is applied to the Swedish asphalt cartel that was discovered in 2001. Our dataset covers the period 1995–2009, which makes it possible to test for conditional independence between complementary cartel bids before and after 2001. Our estimates show a significant positive correlation between complementary cartel bids during the cartel period, whereas a non-significant correlation is shown during the later period. The variance of the parameter estimate of interest also differs between the periods, which suggests a structural change in bidding behavior among cartel members between the two periods.

  • 105.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörns Högskola.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Tender evaluation and supplier selection methods in public procurement2013In: Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, ISSN 1478-4092, E-ISSN 1873-6505, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 73-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU procurement directives stipulate that public contracts be awarded to the lowest bidder or to the bidder with the economically most advantageous tender; the latter requiring that a scoring rule be specified. We provide a simple theoretical framework, based on standard microeconomic theory, for tender evaluation (scoring and weighing) and discuss the pros and cons of methods such as highest quality (beauty contest), lowest price and price-and-quality-based evaluations. We argue that the most common method, price-to-quality scoring, is inappropriate for several reasons. It is non-transparent, making accurate representation of the procurer's preferences difficult. It is often open to strategic manipulation, due to dependence on irrelevant alternatives, and it tends to impose particular and unjustified non-linearity in bid prices. The alternative quality-to-price scoring method, where money values are assigned to different quality levels, is a better alternative. However, when the cost of quality is relatively well-known and several providers can offer optimal quality lowest price is the preferable award criteria, while beauty contests may be preferred when purchasing budgets are inflexible.

  • 106. Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Granlund, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Squeezing the last drop out of your suppliers: an empirical study of market-based purchasing policies for generic pharmaceuticals2017In: Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, ISSN 0305-9049, E-ISSN 1468-0084, Vol. 79, no 6, p. 28p. 969-996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the effect of the degree of exclusivity for the lowest bidder on the averageprice of generic pharmaceuticals in the short and long terms. Our results indicate that a1-percentage-point gain in market share of the lowest bidder reduces average costs by 0.2%in the short term and 0.8% in the long term, but also reduces the number of firms by 1%.We find that reducing the number of firms has a strong positive (and hence counteracting)effect on average prices, a 1% reduction raising prices by approximately 1%.

  • 107.
    Bergqvist, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Dynamics in the rural housing markets: A Vector Autoregressive approach to the ripple effect in Sweden2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the “ripple effect” and its presence on a regional level within Swedish counties. This effect implies that central housing markets “lead” the fluctuations in prices, and other local markets follow with a time lag. Vector auto regressive methods are used to capture the effects of real house price changes on single-family houses during the years 1984 to 2014, within Sweden’s large and sparsely populated counties. The results confirms the presence of this effect between Stockholm and regional capitals, but cannot confirm that this effect continuous from regional capitals to their respective neighbouring municipalities. But the results indicate that there are reasons to believe that the “ripple effect” is there, but that there are some internal dynamics within some counties that this thesis cannot explain and that need further research.

  • 108.
    Bergqvist, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Efficiency in Swedish Power Grids: A Two-Stage Double Bootstrap DEA Approach for Estimating the Effects from Environmental Variables2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses a two-stage Data Envelopment Analysis approach to model the technical efficiency among the ~150 local electricity grids in Sweden. The analysis sets out to capture their heterogeneous environment and firm characteristics that might affect their efficiency. A novel aspect in this paper is the inclusion of the shares of distributed power from Small- and Micro-Scale producers such as wind farms and solar panels as environmental variables. To draw inference on how the environmental and firm specific factors affect the firms operatingthe grids, a Double Bootstrap Approach is employed. This is accompanied and compared tomore naïve modelling approaches often used in the literature. The general findings in this paper are that Density, the Fraction of Wires underground and Small-Scale production is associated with higher efficiency as well as large geographical differences. The policy implications from this study are that the regulator should incentivise firms to increase their share of wires that are underground but it also presents a modelling framework for future studies of power grids and other regulated industries.

  • 109.
    Bergqvist, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Searching the Mortgage Market: An Estimated Consumer Search Model of the Swedish Mortgage Market2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper sets out to explain the observed mortgage rate dispersion in the Swedish mortgage rate market through a consumer search model. Utilizing a structural approach that only requires average mortgage rate data, the search cost distribution for consumers are estimated for the period May 2016 to February 2017. Examining the different contract lengths for mortgages, the three-months and one-year mortgage rates do not fit the consumer search cost framework but the two- tree- and five-year fixed mortgage contracts fits well. The results indicate that there is considerable search cost in the mortgage market and that the low number of searches yields considerable market power to the banks, in the sense of being able to price mortgages above marginal cost. Further the fitted model for the five-year fixed mortgage rate is used to simulate the effects from a cost increase for the banking sector. The results indicates that due to the high consumer search costs present in the market, the mortgages facing the consumers will increase substantially to modest cost increases. A decrease in the consumers search costs are also simulated, which results in lower expected mortgage rates. This paper adds to the literature through the use of average monthly data and a search cost perspective to the question of why there are dispersions of mortgage rates in the Swedish mortgage market.

  • 110.
    Bergström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Vad förväntar du dig i lön?: Könsrelaterade skillnader i förväntad lön bland civilekonomer2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 111.
    Bergström, Balder
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Tanka fritt är stort men tanka rätt är större: -En studie av drivmedelsprisets påverkan på drivmedelskonsumtionen från personbilstrafiken2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Då riksdagen nyligen satt upp nya ambitiösa mål för att minska växthusgasutsläppen i allmänhet och för vägtrafiksektorn i synnerhet föreligger det ett behov av studier på hur denna målsättning ska nås på kostnadseffektivaste vis. Vad som bland annat behövs är kunskap om egenpriselasticiteten på drivmedel vilket är vad denna uppsats ämnar bidra till. För att erhålla mer korrekta skattningar av efterfrågan på drivmedel har konsumtionen av drivmedel brutits ner i sina elementära beståndsdelar, fordonsparkens storlek, den genomsnittliga energieffektiviteten och medeldistansen som personbilar körs. På grund av variablernas karaktär har en dynamisk felkorrigerings modell (ECM) används på tidseriedata från Sverige mellan åren 1979-2016. Inget konsistent samband mellan drivmedelspris och energieffektivitet har kunnat hittas. Egenpriselasticiteten på drivmedel för personbilstrafiken skattas på lång sikt till -0.9. Givet fortsatt BNP utveckling och i övrigt samman förutsättningar som tidigare, uppskattas att drivmedelspriset måste öka med ca 90% för att personbilstrafiken ska uppnå sin andel av de utställda miljömålen på vägtransportsektor.

  • 112.
    Bergström, Balder
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    The Swedish payroll tax reduction for young workers: - A study of effects found using publicly available aggregated (macro) data2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2007, the Swedish payroll tax was reduced for youths in an attempt to suppress the perceived high unemployment among Swedish youths. The reform was rolled back later in 2016. For this period there is a rich supply of publicly available aggregated (macro) data. This thesis aims to examine: first, if the aggregated data is suitable for policy evaluation of the reform, and second, the effects of the reform introduction and repeal. This has been done by using both a conventional fixed effects model and a more unorthodox synthetic control method. Neither of the two methods could show any unbiased and consistent significant result of the treatment effects of the reform. Instead, the results of this thesis suggest that the publicly available aggregated data doesn’t contain enough information to evaluate such reforms.

  • 113. Bezabih, Mintewab
    et al.
    Holden, Stein
    Mannberg, Andrea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    The Role of Land Certification in Reducing Gaps in Productivity between Male- and Female-Owned Farms in Rural Ethiopia2016In: Journal of Development Studies, ISSN 0022-0388, E-ISSN 1743-9140, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 360-376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the impact of a low-cost land certification programme on the productivity of female-headed households. The hypotheses tested in the paper emphasise on the interaction between the constraints that female-headed households face in terms of insecure land tenure, lack of productive resources and suboptimal land market participation, on the one hand, and the tenure security benefits of certification on the other. Our findings show that land certification has a positive effect on land market participation and productivity. Our analysis also suggests higher marginal effects of certification on female-headed households' productivity, compared to the male ones.

  • 114.
    Bilal, Muhammad
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Does the export sector generate positive externality for the non-tradable sector? The case of Bangladesh, India & Pakistan2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pakistan, India and Bangladesh are part of the developing countries in the world. These countries are continuously working hard and discovering different alternates to overcome its problems. The main objective of these south Asian countries is to stand among those countries which are considered to be developed. In my thesis I am pursuing trade as my main subject. Export is extensive issue and can affect the economy of any country in many ways. In trade I will opt for that portion, which is playing vital role in Pakistan, India and Bangladesh’s economy and affecting the economy in a severe way. I decided to focus on the two sector model to know about productivity differential between the export and non export sectors of these countries. To find out how much export, labor and investment contributes to gross domestic product within the period of 1962-2016 for Pakistan and India and 1971-2016 for Bangladesh. After working on these matter I reached to my results and I found that productivity differential between the export and non-export sectors is positive and statistically significant. I also concluded that labor force, weighted export and investment to GDP contribute positively to economic growth in these countries.

  • 115. Bingley, Paul
    et al.
    Lanot, Gauthier
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Public pension programmes and the retirement of married couples in Denmark2007In: Journal of Public Economics, ISSN 0047-2727, E-ISSN 1879-2316, Vol. 91, no 10, p. 1878-1901Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we study the economic determinants of the joint retirement process of married couples. We propose a tractable dynamic discrete choice model for retirement decisions which allows for non-trivial saving behaviour. We estimate the model on a 1% sample of Danish couples of potential retirement age drawn from a population-based administrative register. The introduction and subsequent reforms of a publicly financed early retirement programme provide us with variation in the data to insure identification of the parameters of interest: the elasticities of participation/retirement with respect to income flows. Our estimates imply a significant asymmetry in the sensitivity of retirement behaviour of men and women with respect to variation in their own, or their spouse's, income flows.

  • 116.
    Björkman, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    PASS-THROUGH-EFFEKTENS UTVECKLING: En empirisk studie från Sverige2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie undersöks det hur växelkursens pass-through-effekt på importpriser har förändrats över tid, där en period före och en period efter finanskrisen 2008 jämförs. Utöver effekten på de svenska importpriserna på aggregerad nivå beaktas även förändringar i importpriserna för sju olika branscher. Pass-through-effekten är definierad som den procentuella förändringen i importpriser som ges av en enprocentig förändring i växelkursen. För att skatta förändringarna i denna effekt används rullande regressioner för tidsperioden 1998 – 2019. Två olika modeller används för att jämföra och kunna säkerställa resultaten, där den ena tar hänsyn till kointegration genom en ECM och den andra skattas med OLS för förstadifferenserna. Modellerna visar i princip samma resultat gällande pass-through-effektens utveckling, dock beror effektens storlek på valet av de två olika modellerna. Till skillnad från en del tidigare forskning visar resultaten en tydlig uppgång för pass-through-effektens storlek på både kort och lång sikt. Effektens storlek har ökat på såväl aggregerad nivå som för de sju olika branscherna. För den första modellen verkar det finnas en påtaglig fördröjning av effektens genomslag vid en växelkursförändring, medan fördröjningen är relativt låg för den andra modellen.

    Att pass-through-effektens storlek har ökat över tid kan tolkas som att växelkursen har fått ett större inflytande på de svenska importpriserna efter finanskrisen. I förlängningen innebär det att de svenska företagen tvingas lägga större vikt vid förändringar i växelkursen då de har en större påverkan på importpriserna idag än för 20 år sedan. Dessutom kan det indikera att Riksbanken bör ta större hänsyn till den effekten vid deras räntebeslut idag jämfört med tidigare.

  • 117.
    Björkman, Sebastian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Nettoinkomstens effekt på Bostadspriserna i Sverige: En empirisk studie över inkomstens påverkan på de svenska bostadsrätternas priser.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För att ge en förklaring till den kraftiga prisuppgång som råder på bostadsrätter i Sverige sågenomförs en empirisk studie av bostadsmarknaden. Studiens syfte är att genomregressionsanalyser undersöka hur stor del av prisökningen på bostadsrätter i Sverige som kanförklaras av den disponibla inkomsten. Resultaten från flera av modellerna tyder på attinkomsten har en stor påverkan på prisuppgången men att även andra faktorer spelar in.Resultaten i denna studien är signifikanta och överensstämmer med den ekonomiska teorin sompresenteras i denna studien. Avslutningsvis så demonstreras modellerna träffsäkerhet genom attmed hjälp av data förutspå priserna för olika regioner och modellen visar sig ge ett signifikantresultat utifrån marknadens verkliga priser.

  • 118.
    Blanck, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    On the Performance of Mean-Risk Portfolio Optimization Strategies2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Finding a portfolio strategy that entails optimal performance and risk diversification may be a complicated task for investors. In this thesis, we explore and evaluate the performances of several non-trivial portfolio optimization strategies, based on various measures of risk, to identify the optimal choice. Furthermore, as in contemporary papers, we will also assess whether or not trivial strategies are outperformed by those that rely on rigorous theoretical frameworks.

    These portfolio strategies were backtested on historic U.S. stock marketdata ranging from 2000 to 2015, to evaluate how they had performed in reality at the time.

    In accordance with similar studies, the performance of a trivial equally weighted strategy was not significantly distinguishable from the non-trivial counterparts analyzed in this paper. However, it required 42% more reallocations,possibly implying higher operational costs. By contrast, a non-trivial Expected Shortfall strategy performed better in general, particularly considering its Sharpe ratio. Based on this and mainly its appealing theoretical properties, it is deemed the best strategy to pursue in portfolio management.

  • 119.
    Bojarinova Sandström, Alexandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Immigration and native employment: A study of the effects in Sweden 2011-20172019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Immigration has been and will continue to be a common occurrence in the world. As a field ofstudy immigration is a controversial subject. In addition, there are many contradictory previous results from studies on the effects of immigration on the native born population. This thesis isa compliment to earlier research on the field with a focus on the effects on the employment rate of natives in Sweden. The aim of the study is to move the field towards coherence.

    Panel data for the years 2011 to 2017 are used and the observations are the 290 municipalities in Sweden. An econometric approach is conducted where the response variable is the percent of the native born population which is gainfully employed. The thesis shows that there is a small but positive correlation between immigration and the employment rate of natives in Sweden, at least as long as there are not too many people with low economic standard. If too many people have a low economic standard the amount of foreign born who are gainfully employed will have a negative effect on the amount of native born who are gainfully employed.

  • 120.
    Boman, Viktor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    The impact from oil price shocks on the Trade Balance: The case of the two Nordic brothers2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the relationship between oil price shocks on two measures of oil importers and exporter´s trade balances, namely the Merchandise Trade balance and Non-oil trade balance. The paper also aims to analyse whether oil price fluctuation tend to explain a smaller or larger part of the variability on the Trade and Non-oil trade balance. The short-run dynamics running from the oil price to overall and non-oil trade balance are investigated using a Impulse Response function, Granger causality test and Forecast error variance decomposition test(FEVD) with quarterly data spanning between Q1 1995 to Q4 2018. Two Nordic countries distinguishable in their terms of oil characteristic are regarded in this analysis. Sweden as an oil importer and Norway as oil exporter. Furthermore, a subperiod estimation are performed by splitting the time series into two subperiod, and thereby be able to perform a FEVD test to see whether the share of oil regarding its influence on the trade balance are decreasing over time.

  • 121.
    Boman, Viktor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    The impact of oil price shocks on household consumption: The case of Norway2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the end of World War II, oil price shocks and its impact on the economy have been a hot topic among economic researchers and agents. The price of oil has experienced several fluctuations during the late 20th century and the initial empirical findings suggest that these unexpected changes have several negative effects within countries’ economies. However, most of the research apply only on oil-importing countries and the same results from oil shocks aren´t expected for oil-exporting countries. Furthermore, the robustness of the relationship has recently come to be revaluated since many countries move towards alternative energy resources, thus moving away from its oil dependence.The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between oil shocks and consumption for the small democratic economy of Norway. The choice of selecting an oil-exporting country for this analysis is somewhat unique since many of the world economies are oil-importers and the research made up until now are focusing on these economies. To do this, the study ends up with analyzing the short-run effects of oil shocks on household consumption by using a Vector autoregression model, Granger-causality test and an Impulse response function. The result suggests that there is a granger causality between oil shocks and consumption. Also, for Norway, we find that a shock due to increased crude oil prices has a positive short effect on household consumption.

  • 122.
    Boman, Viktor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Netzén Örn, André
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Okun’s law within the OECD: A cross-country comparison2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the 60’s, the first article identifying the relationship between output growth and unemployment were released, with the purpose of providing a tool for US authorities to estimate the effect of labour policy on output. This article, presented by Arthur Okun, came to lay the foundation for the commonly known empirical relationship, named Okun’s law. However, since the 60’s, the world has gone through political and economic shocks, such as the oil crisis, fall of the berlin wall, the crisis of the 90’s, the financial crisis and crisis of 2008. These events open up the question: has the relationship changed?

    This study focuses on 21 OECD countries for the time period 1991-2016, with the purpose to identify their respective relationship between output growth and unemployment, namely their Okun coefficient. The test that will be performed calculates the marginal effects of respective country to observe differences. Further, this study aims to give the reader a greater understanding of the complexity underlying the simple model Okun presented in the 60’s. This is done by investigating whether there are any differences in the coefficient for countries within the EU, compared to those out of the EU. To explain the complexity further we check whether factors that affects labour market rigidity, such as union density, create differences in the Okun coefficient. The results from the study shows that the Okun coefficient differs between different countries. They also show that countries belonging to the European Union has a lower Okun’s coefficient on average. Finally, the results show that countries with a union density of over 75 % have a lower coefficient on average.

  • 123.
    Bostedt, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    John C. Bergström & Alan Randall (2010): Resource Economics: An Economic Approach to Natural Resource and Environmental Policy2013In: Marine Resource Economics, ISSN 0738-1360, Vol. 27Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 124.
    Bostedt, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    John Rawls i klimatekonomiska analyser2018In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 5, p. 86-89Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 125.
    Bostedt, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Naturresurs- och skogsekonomi2013 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 126.
    Bostedt, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Pastoralist Economic Behaviour – Empirical Results from Reindeer Herders in Northern Sweden.2005In: Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, ISSN 1068-5502, E-ISSN 2327-8285, Vol. 30, p. 381-396Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 127.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Berkström, Charlotte
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Carlén, Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Florin, Ann-Britt
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Bergström, Ulf
    Benefits and costs of two temporary no-take zones2020In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporary no-take zones (NTZs) are increasingly introduced in Sweden as a fisheries management tool to restore populations of specific target species. This paper presents a cost-benefit analysis of two real case temporary NTZs closed during a 5–6 year period in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea, using scenario analysis to account for uncertainty in both the biological and economic effects. A sensitivity analysis was added for certain key parameters. The results of the cost-benefit analyses for the two NTZs are positive in all scenarios relating to the most realistic case of no opportunity costs, i.e., assuming that all fishing activity could be relocated to adjacent areas without cost during the closed period. As an extreme case comparison, full opportunity costs were included, assuming that no fishing activity could be relocated to other areas during the closed period. One of the NTZs then exhibited a negative net result for most scenarios. For the other area the net result was positive even when the maximum opportunity costs of temporary lost fishing opportunities were included, largely depending on the strong positive change in the value of commercial fishing. By demonstrating potential costs and benefits of using temporary no-take zones in fisheries management this study may contribute to policy making, as well as to creating acceptance from stakeholder groups that incur short-term costs from closing areas to fishing.

  • 128.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Boman, Mattias
    Nonresponse in Contingent Valuation – Reducing Uncertainty in Value Inference.1996In: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 8, p. 119-124Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 129.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Carlén, Ola
    SLU.
    Gisselman, Fredrik
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Fiskefria områden ur ett samhällsekonomiskt perspektiv: En empirisk studie2016Report (Other academic)
  • 130.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Carlén, Ola
    SLU.
    Gisselman, Fredrik
    Enetjärn Natur AB.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Fiskefria områden ur ett samhällsekonomiskt perspektiv: En empirisk studie.2016Report (Other academic)
  • 131.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). SLU.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Carlén, Ola
    SLU.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Fiskefria områden ur ett samhällsekonomiskt perspektiv: en konceptuell analys2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Huvudsyftet med föreliggande rapport är att på ett övergripande och konceptuellt plan beskriva innebörden av en samhällsekonomisk nytto- och kostnadsanalys, eller samhällsekonomisk bedömning, och hur en sådan kan och bör genomföras för att analysera samhällsnyttan av fiskefria områden. Vidare syftar rapporten till att exemplifiera vilken typ av empiriska data och metoder som finns tillgängliga för en sådan analys med hjälp av den fritidsfiskeundersökning som årligen görs i regi av Hav och Vattenmyndigheten.

  • 132.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Geijer, Erik
    SLU.
    Spridningseffekter och målkonflikter2014In: Samhällsekonomiska analyser av miljöprojekt: en vägledning / [ed] Kriström, Bengt & Bonta Bergman, M., Naturvårdsverket , 2014, p. 261-270Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 133.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Ekvall, Hans
    SLU.
    Övrig produktion: konflikt eller samspel med virkesproduktionen2009In: Skogsskötselns ekonomi, Jönköping: Skogsstyrelsen , 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 134.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    SLU.
    Kindberg, Johan
    SLU.
    Contingent Values as Implicit Contracts – Estimating Minimum Legal Willingness To Pay for Conservation of Large Carnivores in Sweden.2008In: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 39, p. 189-198Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 135.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Nyberg, Gert
    SLU.
    Agroforestry Extension and Dietary Diversity: An Analysis of the Importance of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in West Pokot, Kenya2016In: Food Security, ISSN 1876-4517, E-ISSN 1876-4525, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 271-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Worldwide, the challenges of nomadic, pastoralist systems are causing their slow but steady disappearance in favour of sedentary agropastoralism. This paper draws upon an existing household data set from a survey collected and organized by the Swedish non-governmental organization (NGO) Vi Agroforestry, directed at a livestock-based, agro-pastoralist area in West Pokot County, western Kenya. The study focuses on the question of food diversity and malnutrition and the role of agroforestry extension services, i.e. knowledge spread, transfer and development. Our basic hypothesis is that certain fruit and vegetable related food groups are under-consumed in West Pokot, especially in the dryland areas. The results of the study shows that agroforestry, combined with advice through extension efforts can imply a transition path for pastoralists which involves improved dietary diversity, especially concerning food groups that include roots, tubers, fruits and leafy vegetables. From the results certain restrictions that hinder this transition become clear. An important but often overlooked factor is lack of information and knowledge as a determinant of household behavior in developing countries. NGOs such as Vi Agroforestry can play an important role in overcoming this restriction by providing extension services. Developing countries in general are not information-rich environments, a fact that is especially the case for poor citizens living in rural areas. The paper illustrates that careful attention to the information and knowledge available to households is necessary when designing development cooperation.

  • 136.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Innala, Sophia
    SLU.
    Löfgren, Stefan
    SLU.
    Bishop, Kevin
    SLU.
    CBA av skogsmarks- och ytvattenkalkning2014In: Samhällsekonomiska analyser av miljöprojekt: en vägledning / [ed] Kriström , B. & Bonta Bergman, M., Naturvårdsverket , 2014, p. 60-79Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna fallstudie presenterar en CBA av skogsmarkskalkning under 2007. Mer specifikt, i studien, analyseras och jämförs de samhällsekonomiska konsekvenserna av olika typer av skogsmarkskalkning med våtmarks- och ytvattenkalkning. Effekterna av den naturliga återhämtningen inkluderas i analysen. Fallstudien följer inte exakt den steg-för-steg guide för CBA som presenteras i Del II Kapitel 2. Studien baseras på ett samarbete mellan institutionerna förskogsekonomi, SLU, Umeå (Bostedt & Innala) och miljöanalys, SLU, Uppsala (Löfgren & Bishop). Ursprungsrapporten är på svenska är Bostedt et al. (2008), men finns även utgiven på engelska i tidskriften Ambio (Bostedt et al., 2010).

  • 137.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. European Forest Institute, North European Regional Office, SLU, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Forest Economics, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Mustonen, Mika
    LUKE, Finland.
    Gong, Peichen
    SLU.
    Increasing Forest Biomass Supply in Northern Europe – Countrywide Estimates and Economic Perspectives2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 314-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Woody biomass is the largest source of renewable energy in Europe, and the expected increase in demand for wood for energy purposes was the stimulus for writing this paper. Opportunities to increase the supply of forest biomass in the short and long term are discussed, as well as environmental side effects of intensive forest management. Focusing on northern Europe, national estimates of potential annual fellings and the corresponding potential amounts, simulated by the European Forest Information Scenario model, are then presented, as well as reported fellings. For the region as a whole, there seems to be substantial unused biophysical potential, although recent data from some countries indicate underestimated annual felling rates. We argue that an economic perspective is lacking in the debate about wood production for energy purposes in Europe and harvest potentials, and we discuss the effects of biophysical capacity limits in forest yield from a partial equilibrium perspective. Using a larger proportion of the biophysical potential in northern Europe than at present will entail trade-offs with environmental and social values, which means that strategies are needed to protect and account for the benefits and costs of all forms of ecosystem services.

  • 138.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. European Forest Institute, North European Regional Office, SLU, S-901 83 Umeå, Sweden; Dept. of Forest Economics, SLU, S-901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Mustonen, Mika
    Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), P.O. Box 18 (Jokiniemenkuja 1), FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland.
    Gong, Peichen
    Dept. of Forest Economics, SLU, S-901 83 Umeå, Sweden; European Forest Institute, North European Regional Office, SLU, S-901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Increasing Forest Yield in Northern Europe: Countrywide Estimates and Economic Perspectives2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Woody biomass is the largest source of renewable energy in Europe and the expected increase in demand for wood was the stimulus for writing this paper. We discuss the economic effects of biophysical capacity limits in forest yield from a partial equilibrium perspective. Opportunities to increase the supply of forest biomass in the short- and long-term are discussed, as well as environmental side effects of intensive forest management. Focusing on northern Europe, national estimates of potential annual fellings and the corresponding potential amounts, simulated by the European Forest Information Scenario model (the EFISCEN model) are then presented, as well as reported fellings. For the region as a whole, there seems to be substantial unused biophysical potential, although recent data from some countries indicate underestimated annual felling rates. There is a need to discuss strategies to ensure that demand for wood resources in northern Europe can be accommodated without large price increases. However, using a larger proportion of the biophysical potential in northern Europe than at present will entail trade-offs with environmental and social values, which means that strategies are needed to protect and account for all the benefits of all forms of ecosystem services.

  • 139. Bostian, Moriah
    et al.
    Färe, Rolf
    Grosskopf, Shawna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Department of Economics, Oregon State University, USA.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Network Representations of Pollution-Generating Technologies2017In: International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 1932-1465, E-ISSN 1932-1473, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 193-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We update developments on modeling technology including unintended outputs and show how these can, at least to a large extent, be incorporated in a network model framework. Recently there have been efforts to specify more detailed models which include multiple functions to separately capture intended and unintended products. Yet another recent strand of the recent literature has also explicitly tried to include a material balance condition in the model. We see this general evolution as beginning with what might be called a black box technology, with inputs entering the box, and good and bad outputs exiting the box. The more sophisticated models can be thought of as filling in the black box with the more detailed processes involved with production, prevention and abatement, with production accompanied by undesirable byproducts subject to legal regulations and laws of nature. This can be modeled as a network within the black box.

  • 140. Brannas, E.
    et al.
    Lundqvist, H.
    Prentice, E.
    Schmitz, M.
    Brännäs, Kurt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Wiklund, B. -S
    Use of the passive integrated transponder (PIT) in a fish identification and monitoring system for fish behavioral studies1994In: Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, ISSN 0002-8487, E-ISSN 1548-8659, Vol. 123, no 3, p. 395-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus, the system was developed in order to track individual differences. The authors demonstrate some of the applications in behavioral research, such as individual, general, and diet locomotor activity patterns, rheotactic behavior, and sociograms showing activity relationships among individuals within a group. -from Authors

  • 141.
    Bredal, Robin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Lundgren, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Kärnkrafen och klimatet: En studie om kärnkraft som ett alternativ för minskade koldioxidutsläpp2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 142.
    Broberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Kazukauskas, Andrius
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Vesterberg, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    An electricity market in transition: demand flexibility and preference heterogeneity2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a recent report to the Swedish Energy Markets Inspectorate (Broberg et al., 2014) consumer behavior and consumer flexibility concerning energy use were analyzed. Two main conclusions were drawn. First, electricity consumption follows a regular pattern over the day, week, and year, which to a large extent reflects household living patterns and climate variations over the year. Second, the average household needs a substantial economic compensation to voluntarily reschedule its electricity use away from peak demand hours. The required compensations were found to be far higher than the economic incentives households face today when exposed to real-time pricing. In addition, it was found that households are more flexible in the use of electricity for heating than in the use of electrical appliances. Finally, households were found to be more flexible during the morning peak hours than during the evening hours. These findings led to the overall conclusion that both the possibilities and incentives are such that we cannot expect any substantial change in energy use patterns from technical reforms that creates incentives for demand response in line with the current price variation on the wholesale market for electricity.

    In the above-mentioned report we also analyzed people’s attitudes towards information dissemination. We concluded that many households do not wish to have their electricity use scrutinized by experts and other households. We found that people, on average, required a compensation to allow such information sharing. Again, new technologies open for various demand response policies, although it does not necessarily imply substantially higher demand flexibility. New technologies need to be combined with consumer interest to be successful in a market economy.

    The overall objective of the current report is to further scrutinize consumer behavior and flexibility. The first part focuses on Swedish households’ choice of electricity supplier contracts. Specifically, we analyze what types of households choose a fixed price contract. 1 The choice of contract implicitly reveals a consumer’s flexibility since a fixed price contract works as an insurance against price variation. So, by studying what type of households chose a fixed price contract we are able to infer on which type of households are relatively inflexible. This part of the analysis is policy relevant since it touches on the question of what to expect from real-time pricing reforms. A central question is whether a household who uses relatively more electricity is more likely to have a fixed price contract. If this is the case, future access to real-time pricing and a greater price variation may not be a guarantee for a substantial increase in demand response as important consumers (from a policy perspective) are more likely to insure against such circumstances. From this perspective the market for price insurances (fixed price contracts) is a market for inflexibility.

    While the analysis above considers the effectiveness of future energy policies to promote demand response, it is also relevant to study the question of how the peak demand problem may develop over time. This question is explicitly addressed in the current report by studying how consumer behavior varies across income levels. The existing literature suggests that electricity consumption is positively related to income, although the income elasticity 2 is fairly small. However, almost all studies concerning income effects have studied aggregate electricity use on monthly or yearly basis. The present study departs from the existing literature by studying how daily household electricity use patterns vary across income levels. This approach is novel since it allows us to analyze how the peak load problem may develop in the future as a result of higher income levels, which is commonly expected.

    By studying the choice of electricity contracts and by estimating hourly income elasticities, the report approach demand flexibility in an indirect way. In the third analysis of the report we address these issues again, although with a somewhat more direct approach. The choice experiment part in Broberg et al. (2014), which focused on the economic incentives needed in order to change people’s energy consumption in a predefined way, is now deepened. The focus is on how socio-economic factors such as e.g. age, gender, education and income may explain preference heterogeneity among the Swedish population. Energy related factors such as living conditions and heating systems are also considered in the analysis. This analysis will inform us about what types of households are inclined to reschedule their energy use when given relatively small economic incentives, and what household’s that are relatively inflexible and thus require large compensations to change their behavior. We also study preference heterogeneity regarding information dissemination in purpose of anonymous peer comparisons.

    In the final part of the report we deepen our analysis of households’ demand for information about their own and others electricity use. Besides creating incentives for demand response, new technologies included in the smart grid concept also make it possible for policy makers to use tailored information to help consumers to use energy more efficiently. A number of studies highlight inefficiencies in the households’ use of energy (see e.g. Broberg and Kazukauskas, 2014). One highlighted reality is that people seem to pay little attention to energy issues. Of course, if people pay little attention to the price of electricity, the effectiveness of policy measures that work through the pricechannel is limited. In this part of the report we address four basic questions of great relevance for energy efficiency policies worldwide. The questions are (1) What knowledge do people have about the marginal cost of electricity use in terms of everyday electrical appliances? (2) Are the cost perceptions biased and in what direction? (3) Do inattention to energy issues play a significant role in this bias? (4) Do households want information that may help them de-bias their perceptions about energy costs and use?

    The report is structured such that section 2 gives a brief background on the issues analyzed in the report. The following sections correspond to the issues outlined in the introduction. Section 7 works to tie the analyses together and conclude our results

  • 143.
    Broberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Kazukauskas, Andrius
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Vesterberg, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    En elmarknad i förändring: är kundernas flexibilitet till salu eller ens verklig?2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I rapporten ”En elmarknad i förändring – Är kundernas flexibilitet till salu eller ens verklig?” tittar en forskargrupp vid Centrum för Miljö- och Naturresursekonomi (CERE) vid Handelshögskolan, Umeå Universitet på konsumenternas nuvarande och framtida roll på elmarknaden. Rapporten är beställd av Energimarknadsinspektionen.

  • 144. Broberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Consumer preferences and soft load control on the Swedish electricity market2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of the present report is to present the results of the project "The electricity customer, a new power on the electricity market?" The main purpose of the project is to estimate lost values due to various restrictions on household electricity consumption, which gives us "prices" of schematic reductions in power through behavioral adaptations among Swedish households. Another purpose is to estimate households' costs for short power outages, which gives a "price" of a targeted disconnection of electricity. The willingness of households to adjust their electricity consumption is governed by several factors - both economic and non-economic. An additional objective is therefore to analyze the extent to which households are willing to adapt for non-economic reasons, for example, to facilitate the integration of renewable electricity production such as solar and wind power.

    To achieve the objectives of the project, we analyze household habits and preferences for electricity usage in connection with daily demand peaks during winter time in Sweden. We have chosen an empirical approach where households are subjected to choose between hypothetical electricity contracts where different types of restrictions in the use of large-scale household appliances are included. The different characteristics of the agreements or contracts relate to (1) maximum power usage in watts, (2) the duration of the restriction, (3) number of occasions of restriction and (4) the ability to change the selection of which electrical appliances to be used during the restriction.

    In addition to the above-mentioned approach, we also study how this relates to other electricity usage (e.g. heating, lighting, TV, etc.). This is done by asking households for compensation requirements to accept full power outages, i.e. black-outs. By studying the difference in compensation requirements between the "soft" limitation and the black-outs, the value of different loads can be estimated.

    The results reveal that households on average require a compensation of SEK 2000 - 3700 depending on the severity of electricity consumption constraint. Depending on how we define the potential loss in potential electricity usage for different scenarios, the results can be translated to be between SEK 20 and 40 per kWh. In the case of total power outages, the valuation is significantly higher and corresponds to SEK 3000 to 4600. This can in turn be translated to the equivalent of SEK 400 - 600 per kWh. The results thus indicate a significant difference between the value of the load in a soft control DSM program, and the remaining load (e.g. heating, lighting and TV). Compared to previous literature on the value of lost load, VOLL, our estimates fall in the higher range, especially compared to Swedish studies. We believe this is in line with the context outlined in the present study with rather many occasions of disruptions at the peak demand hour.

    The results also show that a pro-environmental cheap talk make people more likely to opt into a DSM program with load controlled at many occasions. It did not, however, make people see more lenient on hard load controls in general.

    An immediate policy implication from the results is that specific policies aiming at stimulating behavioral changes probably are very ineffective and/or costly. As a result, policies to affect demand response should focus on automatization and passive response. A related policy implication is that it is far from obvious that demand response is always more cost effective than supply response, i.e., increasing production of electricity. 

  • 145.
    Broberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Daniel, Aemiro Melkamu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Household preferences for load restrictions: is there an effect of pro-environmental framing?2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate if a pro-environmental framing influences households' stated willingness to accept restrictions on their electricity use. We use a split-sample choice experiment (CE) and ask respondents to choose between their current electricity contract and hypothetical contracts featuring various load controls and a monetary compensation. Our results indicate that the pro-environmental framing have little impact on the respondents' choices. We observe a significant framing eeffect on choices and marginal willingness-to-accept (MWTA) for only a few contract attributes. The results further suggest that there is no significant framing effect among households that engage in different pro-environmental activities.

  • 146.
    Broberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Egüez, Alejandro
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Blame it on the owner – Ownership and energy performance of multi-dwelling buildings2018In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 72, p. 108-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate the energy efficiency of multi-dwelling buildings in Sweden to find out whether the type of ownership matters. More specifically, we investigate whether rental apartment buildings are less energy efficient than cooperative apartment buildings and whether public ownership has a negative impact on energy efficiency. A conceptual framework is presented to illustrate that such differences could be explained by the split incentives problem and deviations from profit maximizing interests. The empirical analysis is based on a unique dataset that combines data from energy performance certificates with ownership data on residential units. The results indicate that cooperative apartment buildings are significantly more energy efficient than buildings with rental apartments. The results also indicate that publicly owned buildings have somewhat lower energy performance than privately owned ones.

  • 147.
    Broberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Egüez, Alejandro
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Kazukauskas, Andrius
    Vilnius University.
    Effects of energy performance certificates on investment: A quasi-natural experiment approach2019In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 84, article id 104480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Incomplete information may be one reason why some households do not invest in energy efficiency even though it would benefit them to do so. Energy performance certificates (EPCs) have been promoted to overcome such information shortages. In this paper, we investigate whether EPCs together with mandatory home energy audits make households more likely to invest in energy efficiency. Our study takes advantage of the mandatory nature of the EPCs to avoid the potential selection bias problem that typically applies to studies using voluntary energy audits as the treatment. Our treatment group consists of single-household houses in Sweden sold from 2008, i.e., when EPCs became legally required in connection with sales of residential buildings, to 2015; while the control group consists of houses sold between 2002 and 2008, i.e., without an EPC. The results show that there is no statistically significant treatment effect for most of the measures that a household can take to improve the energy performance of their house. The significant treatment effect that we do find concerns a few heating system-related measures.

  • 148.
    Broberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Is our everyday comfort for sale?: Preferences for demand management on the electricity market2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a European perspective, the electricity markets have been experiencing major changes via deregulation, new technologies and changes in the production mix. Together with the daily and seasonal peak hours on the demand side, the changing markets put pressure on increased flexibility to handle and sustain balance in the grid systems. This paper focuses on the demand side and analyzes preferences related to demand management of Swedish households energy use. Preferences are analyzed within the framework of choice experiments and people are faced with hypothetical electricity contracts. The respondents reveal their preferences for attributes related to external control of heating, household electricity and information dissemination (integrity). The results show that people put a substantial value on not being controlled, illustrated by compensations up to thousands of SEK for accepting a contract characterized by external control of energy use in various dimensions. In addition, the results show that household composition, age, gender and income play a role for the perceived discomfort from the external control and information dissemination. 

  • 149.
    Broberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Is our everyday comfort for sale?: preferences for demand management on the electricity market2016In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 54, p. 24-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a European perspective, the electricity markets have been experiencing major changes via deregulation, new technologies and changes in the production mix. Together with the daily and seasonal peak hours on the demand side, the changing markets put pressure on increased flexibility to handle and sustain balance in the grid systems. This paper focuses on the demand side and analyzes preferences related to demand management of Swedish households' energy use. In a web-based choice experiment respondents were faced with three hypothetical electricity contracts. The choices of preferred contracts revealed preferences for attributes related to external control of heating, household electricity and information dissemination (integrity). The results show that people put a substantial value on not being controlled, illustrated by compensations up to thousands of SEK for accepting a contract characterized by external control of energy use in various dimensions. In addition, the results show that household composition, age, gender and income play a role for the perceived discomfort from the external control and information dissemination. 

  • 150.
    Brockwell, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Signaling through taxing America’s sin: a panel data study2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to examine how sin taxation changes long-term consumer behavior regarding commodities which are deemed harmful for both health and the environment. These include tobacco, alcoholic beverages, sugar and confectionary, household energy, and motor fuel. Specifically, we examine the signaling effect from taxation which is seen if a tax increase leads to a significantly larger change in consumption than a producer price change. The empirical analysis is conducted by a US panel data study, during the period 1988-2012 for the four US census regions, using the Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS). We find the main result to be that the signaling effect from taxation is significant for tobacco as well as for electricity and motor fuel.

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