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  • 101.
    Hudson, Brian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Department of Interactive Media and Learning. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Learning mathematically as social practice in a workplace setting2008In: New Directions for Situated Cognition in  Mathematics Education / [ed] Ann Watson, Peter Winbourne, New York: Springer, 2008, p. 287-301Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter reports on a small-scale case study involving 15 -16 year old secondary school students participating in a vocational module under the General National Vocational Qualification (GNVQ) scheme that operated in England during the late 1990s. The development was a pilot study involving experience in the workplace in a small-scale light engineering context. An initial aim of the study was to explore the potential of the setting for the development of numeracy practices. The theoretical framework adopted is based on a social perspective on learning and a view of learning mathematically as social practice. Of particular interest were the differences between everyday and school mathematical practices. The analysis focuses on differences in the practices between the settings of workplace and school in particular. Finally issues to emerge from this study are discussed in relation to the wider context of policy and practice. These include issues of relevance, questions of purpose, learner confidence and approaches to assessment in mathematics.

  • 102.
    Johansson, Helena
    et al.
    Department of Mathematics and Science Education, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Department of Mathematics and Science Education, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Objectification of upper-secondary teachers’ verbal discourse in relation to symbolic expressions2019In: Journal of Mathematical Behavior, ISSN 0732-3123, E-ISSN 1873-8028, Vol. 56, article id 100722Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research literature points to the importance of objectification when learning mathematics, and thereby in the discourse of mathematics. To increase the field’s understanding of aspects and degrees of objectification in various mathematical discourses, our study uses the combination of two sub-processes of objectification in order to analyse upper-secondary teachers’ word use in relation to any type of mathematical symbols. Our results show that the verbal discourse around symbols is very objectified. This can put high demands on students understanding of their teacher, since it might be needed that the students have reached a certain degree of objectification in their own thinking in order to be able to participate in a more objectified discourse. The results also show that there exist patterns in the variation of the degree of objectification, in particular that the discourse tends to be more objectified when more familiar symbols are used. This exploratory study also reveals several phenomena that could be the focus of more in-depth analyses in future studies.

  • 103.
    Jonsson, Bert
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Karlsson, Linnea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Liljekvist, Yvonne
    Karlstad University.
    Norqvist, Mathias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Mathematical Teaching Method affects Performance and Brain Activity2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 104.
    Jonsson, Bert
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kulaksiz, Yagmur C.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Creative and algorithmic mathematical reasoning: effects of transfer-appropriate processing and effortful struggle2016In: International journal of mathematical education in science and technology, ISSN 0020-739X, E-ISSN 1464-5211, Vol. 47, no 8, p. 1206-1225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two separate studies, Jonsson et al. (J. Math Behav. 2014;36: 20–32)and KarlssonWirebring et al. (Trends Neurosci Educ. 2015;4(1–2):6–14),showed that learning mathematics using creative mathematical reasoningand constructing their own solution methods can be moreefficient than if students use algorithmic reasoning and are giventhe solution procedures. It was argued that effortful struggle was thekey that explained this difference. It was also argued that the resultscould not be explained by the effects of transfer-appropriate processing,although this was not empirically investigated. This studyevaluated the hypotheses of transfer-appropriate processing andeffortful struggle in relation to the specific characteristics associatedwith algorithmic reasoning task and creativemathematical reasoningtask. In a between-subjects design, upper-secondary students werematched according to their working memory capacity.The main finding was that the superior performance associated withpracticing creative mathematical reasoning was mainly supportedby effortful struggle, however, there was also an effect of transferappropriateprocessing. It is argued that students need to strugglewith important mathematics that in turn facilitates the constructionof knowledge. It is further argued that the way we construct mathematicaltasks have consequences for how much effort students allocateto their task-solving attempt.

  • 105.
    Jonsson, Bert
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Norqvist, Mathias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Liljekvist, Yvonne
    Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Karlstad University, Sweden ; The Centre of Science, Mathematics and Engineering Education Research, Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Learning mathematics through algorithmic and creative reasoning2014In: Journal of Mathematical Behavior, ISSN 0732-3123, E-ISSN 1873-8028, no 36, p. 20-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are extensive concerns pertaining to the idea that students do not develop sufficient mathematical competence. This problem is at least partially related to the teaching of procedure-based learning. Although better teaching methods are proposed, there are very limited research insights as to why some methods work better than others, and the conditions under which these methods are applied. The present paper evaluates a model based on students’ own creation of knowledge, denoted creative mathematically founded reasoning (CMR), and compare this to a procedure-based model of teaching that is similar to what is commonly found in schools, denoted algorithmic reasoning (AR). In the present study, CMR was found to outperform AR. It was also found cognitive proficiency was significantly associated to test task performance. However the analysis also showed that the effect was more pronounced for the AR group.

  • 106.
    Jonsson, Bert
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Börjesson, Arne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Self-reported memory strategies and their relationship to immediate and delayed text recall and working memory capacity2014In: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 385-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the performance of fifth-grade children in the reproduction of the content of a new text - directly, after they had read it (immediate recall), and one week later (delayed recall) - and to investigate the relationship between performance, self-reported memory strategies, and working memory capacity (WMC). The results revealed that more complex strategies are associated with better performances, and that children with high WMC outperformed children with lower WMC in immediate and delayed text recall tasks. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that memory strategy and WMC are the strongest predictors for both immediate and delayed recall tasks. It is argued that self-reported memory strategies are possible to use as estimates of strategy proficiency. The awareness of the importance of memory strategies and children’s WMC in education are further discussed.

  • 107.
    Jäder, Jonas
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Sidenvall, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Mathematical problem solving in textbooks from twelve countriesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A selection of secondary school mathematics textbooks from twelve countries on five continents was analysed to better understand the support they might be in teaching and learning mathematical problem solving. Over 5700 tasks were compared to the information provided earlier in each textbook to determine whether each task could be solved by mimicking available templates or whether a solution had to be constructed without guidance from the textbook. There were similarities between the twelve textbooks in the sense that most tasks could be solved using a template as guidance. A significantly lower proportion of the tasks required a solution to be constructed. This was especially striking in the initial sets of tasks. Textbook descriptions indicating problem solving did not guarantee that a task solution had to be constructed without the support of an available template.

  • 108.
    Jäder, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Sidenvall, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Mathematical problem solving in textbooks from twelve countries2019In: International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, ISSN 0020-739X, E-ISSN 1464-5211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A selection of secondary school mathematics textbooks from twelve countries on five continents was analysed to better understand the support they might be in teaching and learning mathematical problem solving. Over 5700 tasks were compared to the information provided earlier in each textbook to determine whether each task could be solved by mimicking available templates or whether a solution had to be constructed without guidance from the textbook. There were similarities between the twelve textbooks in the sense that most tasks could be solved using a template as guidance. A significantly lower proportion of the tasks required a solution to be constructed. This was especially striking in the initial sets of tasks. Textbook descriptions indicating problem solving did not guarantee that a task solution had to be constructed without the support of an available template.

  • 109. Jäder, Jonas
    et al.
    Sidenvall, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Mathematical Reasoning and Beliefs2014In: Proceedings of the Joint Meeting of PME 38 and PME-NA 36 / [ed] Oesterle, S., Nicol, C., Liljedahl, P., & Allan, D., Vancouver, 2014, Vol. 6, p. 114-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a research project on students’ mathematical reasoning and how beliefs are indicated in their arguments. Preliminary results show that students express beliefs that task solving does not include reflection or much struggle. The results underpin earlier studies stressing expectations as a theme of belief.

  • 110.
    Karakok, Gulden
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Edwards, B
    Ko, C
    Addressing the college algebra problem at Oregon State University2011In: Partner discipline recommendations for introductory college mathematics and the implications for college algebra / [ed] Susan L. Ganther and William E. Haver, Washington D.C.: Mathematical Association of America Publications , 2011, p. 93-98Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 111.
    Karlsson Wirebring, Linnea
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Liljekvist, Yvonne
    Karlstad, Sweden.
    Norqvist, Mathias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Learning mathematics without a suggested solution method: durable effects on performance and brain activity2015In: Trends in Neuroscience and Education, ISSN 2211-9493, Vol. 4, no 1-2, p. 6-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A dominant mathematics teaching method is to present a solution method and let pupils repeatedly practice it. An alternative method is to let pupils create a solution method themselves. The current study compared these two approaches in terms of lasting effects on performance and brain activity. Seventythree participants practiced mathematics according to one of the two approaches. One week later, participants underwent fMRI while being tested on the practice tasks. Participants who had created the solution method themselves performed better at the test questions. In both conditions, participants engaged a fronto-parietal network more when solving test questions compared to a baseline task. Importantly, participants who had created the solution method themselves showed relatively lower brain activity in angular gyrus, possibly reflecting reduced demands on verbal memory. These results indicate that there might be advantages to creating the solution method oneself, and thus have implications for the design of teaching methods.

  • 112.
    Korhonen, Johan
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University.
    Linnanmäki, Karin
    Åbo Akademi University.
    Svens-Liavåg, Camilla
    Åbo Akademi University.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Relationship between mathematical skills, mathematical self-concept andtest anxiety in Finnish and Swedish grade 3 pupils2014In: Special Needs Education in Mathematics: New Trends, Problems and Possibilities / [ed] Anne Berit Fuglestad, Kristiansand: Portal forlag, 2014, p. 104-116Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports a cross-national study on students´ mathematical skills, mathematical self-concept, and test anxiety in grade 3. A total of 172 students from 6 different schools in Finland and Sweden participated in the study. We utilized structural equation modelling and specified a multigroup confirmatory factor analysis model to investigate the relationship between mathematical skills, mathematical self-concept and test anxiety in boys and girls. Consistent with the literature we found evidence for strong relationship between mathematical skills and mathematical self-concept. In contrast to the literature no relationship between mathematical skills and test anxiety was found. However, mathematical self-concept was found to be related to test anxiety, which is in line with previous research. Gender differences in favour of boys emerged in the level of mathematical self-concept and test-anxiety but not in mathematical skills.

  • 113.
    Lapointe, Line
    et al.
    Dep of Plant sciences, University of Wetern Ontario, Canada.
    Huner, Norman
    Dep of Plant sciences, University of Western Ontario, Canada.
    Carpentier, R
    Dep of Plant sciences, University of Western Ontario, Canada.
    Ottander, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Resistance to low temperature photoinhibition is not associated with isolated thylakoid membranes of winter rye.1991In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 97, no 2, p. 804-810Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In vivo measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence indicate that cold-hardened winter rye (Secale cereale L. cv Musketeer) develops a resistance to low temperature-induced photoinhibition compared with nonhardened rye. After 7.2 hours at 5 degrees C and 1550 micromoles per square meter per second, the ratio of variable fluorescence/maximum fluorescence was depressed by only 23% in cold-hardened rye compared with 46% in nonhardened rye. We have tested the hypothesis that the principal site of this resistance to photoinhibition resides at the level of rye thylakoid membranes. Thylakoids were isolated from cold-hardened and nonhardened rye and exposed to high irradiance (1000-2600 micromoles per square meter per second) at either 5 or 20 degrees C. The photoinhibitory response measured by room temperature fluorescence induction, photosystem II electron transport, photoacoustic spectroscopy, or [(14)C]atrazine binding indicates that the differential resistance to low temperature-induced photoinhibition in vivo is not observed in isolated thylakoids. Similar results were obtained whether isolated rye thylakoids were photoinhibited or thylakoids were isolated from rye leaves preexposed to a photoinhibitory treatment. Thus, we conclude that increased resistance to low temperature-induced photoinhibition is not a property of thylakoid membranes but is associated with a higher level of cellular organization.

  • 114.
    Lindfors, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Roos, Helena
    Linneus university, Sweden.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    The nature of knowing and students in need of special education2019In: Book of abstracts: EARLI 2019, RWTH Aachen University , 2019, p. 142-142Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research is to explore teachers’ mathematical epistemic beliefs in relation to students in need of special education in mathematics (SEM-students). Teachers’ views on the subject and the students in need are central aspects for the support (Scherer, Beswick, DeBlois, Healey & Opitz, 2016). In more detail, the interest lies in revealing the epistemologies of teachers’ beliefs on the nature of knowing in two very different educational practices: the general situation of the teaching and learning and in the practice of national testing. The research process is guided by four steps: 1; The identification of statements regarding the justification of and source of knowledge 2; The explanatory paraphrasing into groups of statements. 3; A search for concurrence, differences and patterns within and between groups. 4. Finally, a summary of what is characteristic for the nature of knowing in mathematics in relation to SEM-students in these two practices is given.

  • 115.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    A research framework for creative and imitative reasoning2008In: Educational Studies in Mathematics, ISSN 0013-1954, E-ISSN 1573-0816, Vol. 67, no 3, p. 255-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This conceptual research framework addresses the problem of rote learn- ing by characterising key aspects of the dominating imitative reasoning and the lack of creative mathematical reasoning found in empirical data. By relating reasoning to thinking processes, student competencies, and the learning milieu it explains origins and consequences of different reasoning types

     

  • 116.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    An emerging research framework for analyzing creative and imitative reasoning in problem solving2009In: Problem solving in mathematics education / [ed] Lars Burman, 2009, p. 23-37Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A central problem in mathematics education is that we want students to become problem solvers, but even after 20 years of research and reform many students still do rote thinking. This thinking is a main factor behind learning and achievement difficulties and has been analysed in a series of empirical studies. This presentation will summarise these studies, with a particular focus on the roles of creative and imitative reasoning.

  • 117.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Learning mathematics by Creative or Imitaive Reasoning2013In: / [ed] Fuglestad, A. B., Kristiansand, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 118.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Learning mathematics by imitative and creative reasoning: plenary lecture2015In: Proceedings of the 39th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Hobart: UniPrint, University of Tasmania , 2015, Vol. 1, p. 35-50Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an interdisciplinary research program carried out in collaboration between researchers from mathematics education, psychology and neuroscience. A large body of research has shown that imitative models of mathematics teaching and learning are both common and largely ineffective. The purpose of the program is to explore if and how teaching, including task design, based on students‘ creative task solution reasoning may be more effective. 

  • 119.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Mathematical reasoning in task solving.2000In: Educational Studies in Mathematics, ISSN 0013-1954, E-ISSN 1573-0816, Vol. 41, p. 165-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An earlier study (Lithner 1998) treated the question “what are the main characteristics and background of undergraduate students’ difficulties when trying to solve mathematical tasks?” This paper will focus on, and extend, the part of the earlier study that concerns task solving strategies. The results indicate that focusing on what is familiar and remembered at a superficial level is dominant over reasoning based on mathematical properties of the components involved, even when the latter could lead to considerable progress.

     

  • 120.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Principles for designing mathematical tasks that enhance imitative and creative reasoning2017In: ZDM - the International Journal on Mathematics Education, ISSN 1863-9690, E-ISSN 1863-9704, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 937-949Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design research programme Learning by Imitative and Creative Reasoning (LICR) studies whether, how and why tasks and teaching that enhance creative reasoning lead to a more productive struggle and more efficient learning than the common but inefficient task designs based on imitating given solution procedures. The purpose of this paper is to synthesise the research outcomes determined to date by providing the following: a conceptual framework for key concepts and relationships among teaching, tasks, student activities and learning; a theoretical basis for analyses of causal effects between task/teaching design and learning outcomes; a design research methodology for transforming initial design ideas, through cycles of evaluation and revision, into firmer design principles; and an application of this theory and methodology to empirical studies carried out to date, in order to propose task-design principles related to imitative and creative reasoning.

  • 121.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    The Role of Exercises in Calculus Textbooks2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the discrepancy between the rich goals and the limited outcome in terms of reasoning required to do exercises.

  • 122.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    University mathematics students’ learning difficulties2011In: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 289-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The processes of learning mathematics are immensely complex and we do to large extents lack insights in these processes. This is especially problematic when it comes to tertiary mathematics education, which has been much less researched than primary and secondary mathematics education. Thus it is far from possible to clarify all relevant issues related to university mathematics learning difficulties. This paper will discuss the notion of learning difficulties and some related insights.

  • 123.
    Lithner, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Boesen, Jesper
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Palm, Torulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Palmberg, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Mathematical competencies: A research framework2010In: Mathematics and mathematics education: Cultural and social dimensions / [ed] Bergsten, Jablonka & Wedege, Linköping, Sweden: Svensk förening för matematikdidaktisk forskning, SMDF , 2010, p. 157-167Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 124.
    Lithner, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Norqvist, Mathias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Yvonne, Liljekvist
    Karlstad universitet.
    Mathematical Reasoning: Creative versus Imitative Teaching Methods2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 125.
    Lithner, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Palm, Torulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Learning difficulties and mathematical reasoning2010In: The first sourcebook on nordic research in mathematics education: Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark and contributions from Finland / [ed] Sriraman, B., Bergsten, C., Goodchild, S., Palsdottir, G., Dahl Sondergaard, B., & Haapasalo, L., Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, 2010, p. 283-298Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 126.
    Lithner, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Wallin, HansUmeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Matematikdidaktisk forskning: nordisk forskarworkshop; Umeå, 21-25 augusti 19961997Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 127.
    Lithner, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Wallin, HansUmeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Nordic research workshop: problem driven research in matematics education2000Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 128.
    Norqvist, Mathias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Cognitive Abilities and Mathematical Reasoning in Practice and Test Situations2018In: Proceedings of the 42ndConference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education / [ed] Bergqvist, E., Österholm, M., Granberg, C., & Sumpter, L., Umeå, Sweden: PME , 2018, Vol. 3, p. 419-426Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research studies have shown that to develope conceptual understanding of mathematics, practice needs to that focus this skill. In this study, the aim is to examine how different practice tasks, which promotes either imitative or creative mathematical reasoning, can influence which variables (i.e., cognitive abilities, mathematics grade, and gender) that are important for task completion. Two earlier studies show that cognitive abilities are more important in the test situation when students have practiced with imitative tasks. The result from this study indicate that although cognitive abilities are important when practicing with creative tasks, the influence of cognition is only implicit during the test. Since students often practice imitatively with given solution methods, this study suggests that a substantial part of what we test in school could be cognitive abilities rather than mathematics.

  • 129.
    Norqvist, Mathias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Do explanations increase the efficiency of procedural tasks?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies in mathematics education often point to the necessity for students to engage in more cognitively demanding activities than just solving tasks by applying given solution methods. Lithner’s (2008) framework on mathematical reasoning address this by studying which reasoning a task promotes. Previous studies have shown that students that create their own solution methods, denoted creative reasoning (CMR), perform significantly better in follow up tests than students that are given the solution method and engage in algorithmic reasoning (AR). However, teachers and textbooks at least occasionally provide explanations together with a solution method (XAR) and this could possibly be more efficient than creative reasoning. In this study three matched groups practiced with either AR-, XAR- or CMR-tasks. The study showed that students that practiced with AR- and XAR-tasks performed similarly during both practice and test. The CMR-group did, although a worse practice score, outperform the XAR- group in the test. Additionally, there were differences in which variables predicted the test result with similar results between the XAR- and AR-group where cognitive proficiency and mathematics grade where significant. For the CMR-group the test score was predicted by the practice score alone. This would indicate that students that practice with CMR-tasks are not as dependent on their cognitive abilities for test performance as students that practice with AR- tasks. 

  • 130.
    Norqvist, Mathias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Explanations do not improve algorithmic reasoning tasks: Volume 12016In: Proceedings of the 40th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education: Volume 1 / [ed] Csíkos, C., Rausch, A., & Szitányi, J., Szeged, Hungary: International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education , 2016, Vol. 1, p. 110-110Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 131.
    Norqvist, Mathias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    The effect of explanations on mathematical reasoning tasks2018In: International journal of mathematical education in science and technology, ISSN 0020-739X, E-ISSN 1464-5211, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 15-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies in mathematics education often point to the necessity for students to engage in more cognitively demanding activities than just solving tasks by applying given solution methods. Previous studies have shown that students that engage in creative mathematically founded reasoning to construct a solution method, perform significantly better in follow up tests than students that are given a solution method and engage in algorithmic reasoning. However, teachers and textbooks, at least occasionally, provide explanations together with an algorithmic method, and this could possibly be more efficient than creative reasoning. In this study, three matched groups practiced with either creative, algorithmic, or explained algorithmic tasks. The main finding was that students that practiced with creative tasks did, outperform the students that practiced with explained algorithmic tasks in a post-test, despite a much lower practice score. The two groups that got a solution method presented, performed similarly in both practice and post-test, even though one group got an explanation to the given solution method. Additionally, there were some differences between the groups in which variables predicted the post-test score.

  • 132.
    Norqvist, Mathias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eye-tracking data and mathematical tasks with focus on mathematical reasoning2019In: Data in Brief, E-ISSN 2352-3409, Vol. 25, article id 104216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This data article contains eye-tracking data (i.e., dwell time and fixations), Z-transformed cognitive data (i.e., Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices and Operation span), and practice and test scores from a study in mathematics education. This data is provided in a supplementary file. The method section describes the mathematics tasks used in the study. These mathematics tasks are of two kinds, with and without solution templates, to induce different types of mathematical reasoning.

  • 133.
    Norqvist, Mathias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Qwillbard, Tony
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holm, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Investigating algorithmic and creative reasoning strategies by eye tracking2019In: Journal of Mathematical Behavior, ISSN 0732-3123, E-ISSN 1873-8028, Vol. 55, article id 100701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Imitative teaching and learning approaches have been dominating in mathematics education. Although more creative approaches (e.g. problem-based learning) have been proposed and implemented, a main challenge of mathematics education research is to document robust links between teaching, tasks, student activities and learning. This study investigates one aspect of such links, by contrasting tasks providing algorithmic solution templates with tasks requiring students’ constructions of solutions and relating this to students’ learning processes and outcomes. Information about students’ task solving strategies are gathered by corneal eye-tracking, which is related to subsequent post-test performances and individual variation in cognitive proficiency. Results show that students practicing by creative tasks outperform students practicing by imitative algorithmic tasks in the post-test, but also that students that perform less well on creative tasks tend to try ineffective imitative strategies.

  • 134.
    Norqvist, Mathias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Liljekvist, Yvonne
    Karlstads universitet.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Increased efficiency when engaging in creative mathematical founded reasoning2013In: Proceedings of the 37th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Vol. 5. / [ed] Lindmeier, A. M. & Heinze, A., Kiel, Germany: PME , 2013, p. 136-136Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 135.
    Norqvist, Mathias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Liljekvist, Yvonne
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap..
    Creative Reasoning More Beneficial For Cognitively Weaker Students2015In: Proceedings of the Ninth Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education, Prague: Charles University , 2015, p. 502-503Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a study with 91 upper-secondary students the efficiency of two different types of mathematical practice tasks, procedural based algorithmic tasks and creative reasoning tasks, were studied. It was found that although the algorithmic group outperformed the creative group during practice the latter performed significantly better on a follow-up test. Closer inspection revealed that the difference in test performance was, contrary to common beliefs, driven by the cognitively weaker students.

  • 136.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Does standardized assessment in mathematics hamper or support young pupils’ learning?2010In: MAtematikDIdaktiskaForskningsseminariet-7, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 137.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Testing or Not Testing Young Pupils: What are the consequences for learning in mathematics?2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For several years Sweden has fall down in the international rankings on education, especially in mathematics. As a consequence different political initiatives have been made; however, none has had the wanted effect on pupils’ mathematical performance. The latest reform involves mandatory national tests in mathematics for grade-3-pupils. From having one of the most decentralised educational systems in the EU, the pendulum is now heading another course, i.e. re-centralisation. International comparisons reveal that different countries have various kinds of standardised school tests. Still, Sweden appears to protrude with this step. The downside of standardised testing is that it may lead to situation specific stress, i.e. test anxiety (TA) among pupils. Repeated of times research has proved that serve TA has a significant negative impact on performance, and high anxious pupils considerable under-achieve. Thus, the result is not only biased, it also adventures the individual’s future academic and occupational choices. Some groups tend to be more exposed to TA; girls, elderly, and low-achievers are suggested to experiencing more TA. Additionally, a subject mentioned to call forth more stress is mathematics. Contrary to impairing education, there is substantial, but very often neglected, support for repeated testing to improve pupils’ learning, i.e. the testing effect (TE). Tests could enhance later retention more than additional study of the material, even without feedback, and is applicable for related but nontested material. This effect is robust across many types of materials, has been observed in different age groups, and under most circumstances. Moreover, repeated testing has been shown to reduce TA, make pupils more positive to education, and low-achievers seem to benefit more from it. A key factor influencing a pupil’s ability to learn is the cognitive system of working memory (WM). The WM is also stressed to be the underlying component in TA, and TE. Thus, when anxiety interferes with WM in a negative way there will be a knock-on effect on the capacity. Pupils are preoccupied with worrisome thoughts which interrupt the maintenance of task-relevant information and disrupt performance. Yet, WM is a component that is modulated by repeated testing. Every time a memory is retrieved it enhances the memory traces which in turn decrease the load on WM. In understanding the contribution of TA and TE, a proposed theoretical model based on the characteristics of the WM, outlined by Baddeley, is here suggested for this two-sided possibility of testing. Research on the effects of testing in younger children is generally a neglected area, and from a multi-theoretical perspective yet to be explored. In comparison to other countries Sweden has few tests in mathematics but now moves another direction. Consequently, the aim of this paper is to clarify the influence of national test in mathematics on young pupils’ learning. The following question will be addressed: i) What are pupils’ experiences of TA, and how does this affect learning in mathematics?, ii) How does recurring testing affect pupils’ learning in mathematics?, iii) Are different groups of pupils (i.e. gender, achievement level) experiencing above aspects differently?

    Method

    Present study uses a refined and modernised standardised test measuring children’s TA, and a WM test for children tapping on the phonological loop (believed to be most sensitive to anxiety). Mathematical achievements are determined with the national tests. Statistical analyses (SPSS), supported by lengthy observations during the whole grade 3 year, are used. Forty grade-3-pupils (20 girls and 20 boys) in two classes are in focus.

    Expected Outcomes

    Preliminary results suggest that WM capacity could predict mathematics achievement. However, there is no evidence for experienced TA among the pupils, thus no tendency for under achievement in any group. It is therefore possible that the increased number of testing, by the national tests and the teachers’ additional preparation tests at the prospect of the national tests, have a TE, i.e. learning in mathematics is benefitted by more testing of relevant as well as non-tested material. Further, the teachers’ attitudes and active focus on the national tests probably have had positive effect on the pupils’ test realisation. However, it is not excluded that the young age is answerable for the absence of TA.

  • 138.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    What can we learn from the Swedish national test in grade 3: a failure with algorithms?2013In: Special needs education in mathematics: new trends, problems and possibilities / [ed] Anne Berit Fuglestad, Kristiansand: Portal forlag, 2013, p. 53-63Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has drawn attention to the difficulties associated with developing a mathematical competency. Forty grade 3 pupils taking the national tests in mathematics was assessed with respect to their working memory capacity and anxiety about testing. The pupils seemed not to understand algorithms, and they reported that they were anxious about them. In the current paper, the data were revisited and further analyses conducted in order to examine whether there were any differences in working memory load and test anxiety between algorithms associated with subtraction and those for addition. The result reveal that the working memory load was heavier and the anxiety level higher for subtraction compared to addition. Solution strategy and cognitive overload, might explain this.

  • 139.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Young pupils as a part of the local education agency: their experiences2009In: Third Nordic Research Network: Critical perspectives on Education and Agency, Halden Norway, Nordcrit , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 140.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå School of Education (USE). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Silfver, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Sjöberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Exploring the presence of test anxiety and its relation to mathematical achievement in a sample of grade 32012In: Skrifter från Svensk matematikdidaktisk forskning, MADIF, ISSN 1651-3274, p. 151-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aims at exploring if a sample of Swedish grade 3 pupils reported any test anxiety and whether there were any relations to performance in different mathematical areas. Overall, test anxiety explained 20% of the variance for the total mathematical score, with the subscale “thoughts” as the significant predictor. The model of test anxiety also explained Number understanding, Mass and Time, Patterns, and Mathematical problems; however Mental arithmetic and Written arithmetic algorithms were not significantly explained by the model. Test anxiety seems not to be a major problem in this sample; still, significant negative correlations were found, which likely might influence the pupils in some aspects.

  • 141.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Korhonen, Johan
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kognitiva implikationer för matematiklärande hos yngre elever2015In: Resultatdialog 2015 / [ed] Vetenskapsrådet, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2015, p. 160-171Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vårt projekt visar att kognition och emotion har stor betydelse for åk 3 elevers matematikprestation. Det var 13 gånger högre risk att prestera lågt i matematik för elever identifierade med en risk-kognitiv profil. Det fanns inget samband mellan kronologisk ålder och matematikprestation. Låg arbetsminneskapacitet i samverkan med hög provångest bidrog negativt till matematikprestation. Skolklass bidrog till skillnader i elevers rapporterade provångest.

    Q1) Provångest och arbetsminne predicerade enskilt elevs matematikprestation; hög provångest respektive låg arbetsminneskapacitet bidrog till låg matematikprestation, och låg provångest respektive god arbetsminneskapacitet bidrog till god matematikprestation. Därtill fanns en samverkanseffekt vilken var ogynnsam för elever med låg arbetsminneskapacitet, jämfört med elever med medel och hög arbetsminneskapacitet.

    Q2) Elever identifierade med en risk-kognitiv profil hade 13 gånger högre risk att prestera lågt i matematik. Elever som presterade lågt i matematik hade dock inte uteslutande en risk-kognitiv profil. Likaväl fanns andra profiler än den stödjande-kognitiva profilen i gruppen med bra matematikprestation. Lika lovande som att 75 % av elever med en risk-profil inte presterade lågt i matematik, lika nedslående är det att endast 16 % av elever med en stödjande-kognitiv profil presterade bra i matematik.

    Q3) Grad av matematikprestation ar en funktion av arbetsminneskapacitet, men olika subkomponenter i arbetsminnet karaktariserar olika nivaer av matematikprestation. Lågpresterande elever påvisade framförallt betydande sämre visuospatial förmåga (bearbeta visuell och spatial information), medan god fonologisk förmåga (auditivt material) var karaktaristiskt för den högpresterande elevgruppen. I ett didaktiskt perspektiv pekar dessa resultat på vikten av anpassade pedagogiska insatser i relation till kognitiva förmågor.

    Q4) Skolklass har en betydande inverkan på elevers skattade provångest. För skolklasser med ett högt medelvärde på provångest verkade självregleringsförmåga ytterligare bidra till rapporterad provångest.

    Q5) Resultatet visar inte på någon relativ ålderseffekt och modereras inte heller av arbetsminneskapacitet. Resultatet tyder på att biologisk mognad i termer av arbetsminnet är viktigare än relativa åldereffekter.

  • 142.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hörnkvist Wiklund, Carola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cognitive implications for learning in mathematics: young pupils and national testing2011In: The China-Sweden Symposium on Science and Humanities Education in the 21st Century, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 143.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hörnkvist Wiklund, Carola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Introducing national examination in Swedish primary education: implications for test anxiety2011In: The China-Sweden Symposium on Science and Humanities Education in the 21st Century, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 144.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Korhonen, Johan
    The department of Special Education, Åbo Akademy University Vaasa, Finland.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Children’s mathematical achievement and its relation to working memory, test anxiety, self-regulation: a person-centered approach2015In: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 73-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Meeting the challenges of teaching for all individuals requires a multifaceted approach, especially from the Swedish standpoint of inclusive education for all pupils. In the context of applied standards for receiving special educational provision, the present paper strives to shed light on the scope of novel indicators, which can accommodate pupils’ different needs.  Founded upon 3 hitherto established robust psycho-educational concepts – working memory, test anxiety and self-regulation – all of which are important for educational, social, emotional and behavioural development, the present study examined those concepts in terms of profiles and their relations to mathematical achievement. 624 children between the ages of 8 and 10 completed a battery of tests, assessing working memory, test anxiety, self-regulation, and mathematical achievement. Person-centred analyses reiterated the negative academic outcomes associated with the aforementioned variables but also revealed individual variations that warrant attention. Furthermore pupils labelled with an ‘At-risk’ profile were more likely to achieve low Math scores, compared to pupils with an ‘In-vigour’ profile. Implication for special educational provision is discussed, and practical suggestions provided.

  • 145.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Korhonen, Johan
    Åbo akademi, Vasa, Finland.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    The role of cognitive-affective factors in underachievement2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is converging evidence on the strong relationship between working memory capacity and mathematical performance. Test anxiety is a potential moderating factor involved in the relationship between working memory and academic performance. Based on Eysenck and Calvo’s (1992) Processing Efficiency Theory the present study investigated whether associations between working memory and educational achievement in mathematics were moderated by test anxiety. 624 children aged 9-10 years completed verbal, spatial, and complex working memory tasks. Test anxiety was measured using the Children’s Test Anxiety Scale (Wren & Benson, 2004). Mathematical performance was assessed using the Swedish national test in mathematics.

  • 146.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå School of Education (USE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Korhonen, Johan
    Åbo Academy, Vaasa, Finland.
    Linnanmäki, Karin
    Åbo Academy, Vaasa, Finland.
    Svens-Liavåg, Camilla
    Åbo Academy, Vaasa, Finland.
    Different but alike: comparing the consequences oftwo national testing systems and implications for test anxiety2012In: ECER 2012, European Conference of Educational Research, Cádiz, Spain, September 17-21, 2012, ECER , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compared to other countries, Swedish pupils undergo a very small number of examinations during their compulsory education (OECD, 2005). However, a new assessment program that has recently been introduced in Sweden requires that pupils undergo an increased number of mandatory national examinations. In Finland, there are no national examinations taken by all pupils at a given stage in their basic education. Instead, schools are assessed on the basis of the test results of a random representative sample, typically in a single subject. Notwithstanding, Finnish pupils generally have more classroom examinations over the course of the school year. In addition to undergoing different numbers of exams during their time in school, pupils in Finland and Sweden also differ in terms of their levels of academic achievement, as measured by various international comparative studies in education. For several years, the ranking of Swedish pupils in these comparative exercises has fallen; there is a stable downwards trend in Sweden’s PISA rank. By contrast, Finnish pupils have maintained consistently high rankings (Kupiainen et al., 2009).

    Both Finland and Sweden could be said to have “low-stakes” national assessment systems, although this may be changing in the case of Sweden. While the Swedish accountability system is not really standards-based, it has certain elements that incline it in that direction (Eklöf et al., 2009). High-stakes tests are generally perceived as being stressful, resulting in anxiety (O’Neil & Abedi, 1992). If pupils experience high stress connected to taking a test, i.e. test anxiety, it may adversely affect their performance. Research has shown that as group, highly test-anxious individuals perform less well on examinations (Zeidner, 2007).

    On the other hand, it is possible that increased testing may boost educational performance. Studies have shown that tests influence pupils’ behaviour and stances, providing motivation and encouragement. Together with increases in test-taking skills, familiarity, and changes in attitudes (Connor-Greene, 2000), this seems to reduce test anxiety (Roediger et al., 2006).

    Test anxiety is a growing problem in diverse geographical and cultural settings. There are over 1 000 publications on test anxiety (Stöber & Pekrun, 2004), but little attention has been paid to its occurrence in Sweden or Finland. Even though test anxiety levels do not seem to differ greatly between nations, some cultural groups score higher than others on test anxiety scales (Bodas et al., 2008). Accordingly test anxiety may be sensitive to cultural and socialization factors, and so it may be imprudent to simply generalize previous research findings to other national populations (Zeidner, 1990).

    The objective of present study was thus to determine whether pupils in two unlike school settings, Sweden and Finland, differ in their experiences of test anxiety. Moreover, we examined the test anxiety instrument of Wren and Benson (2004) and their construct of test anxiety; a statistical comparison of its groups and items was undertaken to assess its utility for studying Swedish and Finnish pupils. The result is further discussed and related to Europe-wide patterns and trends in national testing systems.

    Method

    103 girls (34 Swedish) and 69 boys (29 Swedish) between nine and ten years of age participated. The children came from eleven grade three classes (4 Swedish and 7 Finnish) from six different schools (2 Swedish). Finnish and Swedish are being speaking in both countries, and therefore both language groups were included from both countries. The CTAS (the Children’s Test Anxiety Scale: Wren & Benson, 2004) is a refined and modernized 30-item self-reported pen-and-paper instrument. The CTAS assesses an individual’s level of anxiety about testing on a 1-4 Likert scale, asking for participants’ response about how anxious they would feel in response to various settings and experiences. The CTAS is one of several widely-used test anxiety inventories that have satisfactory reliability coefficients and high practicality in naturalistic field settings (Zeidner, 2007). The test has three dimensions: thoughts; autonomic reactions; and off-task behaviors.

    Expected Outcomes

    No differences were found between the levels of test anxiety of Swedish and Finnish pupils. Additionally, low levels of test anxiety were reported. The CTAS was found to accurately measure the latent constructs of thoughts, autonomic reactions and off task behavior in both Finnish and Swedish boys and girls. Two items relating to worries about the test going badly indicated the existence of differences between the two nations. Swedish pupils experienced more worry about what would happen if they failed, whereas Finns worried more about what their parents would say if they failed. The great majority of national tests in Europe are mandatory for all pupils. The use of sample tests in Finland for the purpose of monitoring national performance is relatively widespread in Europe. Only a smaller number of countries, including Sweden, use the tests for formative purposes. Accordingly, either Finland or Sweden has the traditional objective with national testing which is to certify individual pupil attainment, a system being connected to stress. Sample tests are argued to not significantly increasing the burden on pupils (Eurydice, 2009). Consequently, the low reported levels of test anxiety here could be a result of current policies on national testing in respectively country.

    References

    Bodas, J., Ollendick, T. H., & Sovani, A. V. (2008). Test anxiety in Indian children: a cross-cultural perspective. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 21(4), 387-404. Connor-Greene P A (2000) Assessing and promoting student learning: blurring the line between teaching and testing Teaching of Psychology, 27(2), 84-88. Eklöf H., Andersson, E., & Wikström, C. (2009). The concept of accountability in education: does the Swedish school system apply? Cadmo, 2, 1-12. Eurydice. (2009). National testing of Pupils in Europe: Objectives, Organisation and Use of Results. Brussels: Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency P9 Eurydice, Retrieved March, 16, 2010, from http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/education/eurydice/documents/thematic_reports/109EN.pdf Kupiainen, S., Hautamäki, J., & Karjalainen, T. (2009). The Finnish Education System and Pisa. Undervisningsministeriet, Ministry of Education, Helsinki University Print. O’Neil, H. F., Jr., & Abedi, J. (1992). Japanese children’s trait and state worry and emotionality in a high-stakes testing environment. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 5(3), 225-239. OECD. (2005). Education at a glance: OECD indicators. Centre for Educational Research and Innovation, Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Roediger, H. L. III, McDaniel, M., & McDermott, K. (2006). Test enhanced learning. APS Observer, 19(3). Stöber, J., & Pekrun, R. (2004). Advances in test anxiety research. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 17(3), 205-211. Wren, D. G., & Benson, J. (2004). Measuring test anxiety in children: scale development and internal construct validation. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 17(3), 227-240. Zeidner, M. (1990). Does test anxiety bias scholastic aptitude test performance by gender and social group? Journal of Personality Assessment, 55(1&2), 145-160. Zeidner, M. (2007). Test anxiety in educational contexts: Concepts, findings, and future directions. In P. A. Schutz, & R. Pekrun (Eds.), Emotion and education (165-184). San Diego, CA: Elsevier INC

  • 147.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Korhonen, Johan
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa.
    Peng, Aihui
    Faculty of Education, Southwest University, China/School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics, Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Linnanmäki, Karin
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa.
    Svens-Liavåg, Camilla
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Sjöberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    A cross-cultural analysis of test anxiety among Chinese, Finnish and Swedish pupilsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 148.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Korhonen, Johan
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa.
    Peng, Aihui
    Faculty of Education, Southwest University, China/School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics, Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Linnanmäki, Karin
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa.
    Svens-Liavåg, Camilla
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Sjöberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Cultural and Gender Differences in Experiences and Expression of Test Anxiety Among Chinese, Finnish, and Swedish Grade 3 Pupils2015In: International Journal of School & Educational Psychology, ISSN 2168-3603, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 37-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While test anxiety has been studied extensively, little consideration has been given to the cultural impacts of children's experiences and expressions of test anxiety. The aim of this work was to examine whether variance in test anxiety scores can be predicted based on gender and cultural setting. Three hundred and ninety-eight pupils in Grade 3 in China, Finland, and Sweden, each of which has different testing realities, completed the Children's Test Anxiety Scale (CTAS). Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) results indicated that the Chinese sample scored more highly on the autonomic reactions component, whereas the Nordic sample scored higher on the off-task behaviors component. Significant interaction effects between gender and culture were also observed: The Nordic girls exhibited higher levels of autonomic reactions, but the opposite was seen in the Chinese sample, with boys reporting higher levels of the cognitive component. The conceptualization of test anxiety encompassing the off-task behaviors component does not appear to be universal for children. It is also suggested that gender differences vary as a function of culture.

  • 149.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hampering or supporting: young children’s’ experiences of national test2009In: Special Needs Education in Mathematics, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 150.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå School of Education (USE). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Introducing national examination in Swedish primary education: implications for test anxiety2011In: Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, ISSN 1699-5880, E-ISSN 1696-2095, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 995-1022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. The Swedish government has decided to introduce national tests in primary education. Swedish pupils in general have few tests and a recognised possible adverse effect of testing is test anxiety among pupils, which may have a negative impact on examination performance. However, there has been little research on effects of testing on young children within the Swedish context.

    Objectives. The current study explores the experience of test anxiety related to achievement in mathematics and Swedish in a sample of 40 grade 3 pupils. 

    Method.  A modernised standardised test for measuring children’s test anxiety. Academic achievement in various mathematical and Swedish domains.

    Results. Test anxiety, in particular its subcomponent autonomic reactions, is related to poor performance in Swedish. In mathematics there is an especially marked relationship between the subtest Written arithmetic and test anxiety, particularly its subcomponent anxious thoughts.

    Conclusion. Test anxiety seems not to be a general problem in present Swedish young sample, however, cautions need to be taken regarding the acquiring of algorithms and number of tests given.

12345 101 - 150 of 236
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