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  • 101.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cue intercorrelation and redundancy in probabilistic inference tasks1976Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 102.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Confidence in multiple-cue judgments as a function of cue intercorrelation and task predictability1975Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Armelius, K., & Armelius, B-Å. The hypothesis that the subjects' confidence is a direct function of the cue intercorrelation, rij, in a pure judgmental task, was tested in a two-cue MCPL experiment where the cue interearrelation and total task predictability, Re2, were inversely related. The hypothesis was supported.When the subjects received no feedback confidence was determined by rij. However, when the subjectsreceived feedback the effects of rij. on confidence was, as predicted, reduced in the direction of Re2 .

  • 103.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Detection of cue intercorrelation in multiple-cue probability learning1975Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Armelius, K., and Armelius, B-Å. Detection of cueintercorrelation in multiple cue probability learning.Umeå Psychological Reports No. 84, 1975. - Detection of cue intercorrelation, rij, was tested in ten twocueMCPL tasks after completion of a Learning stage.The values of rij ranged from -.8O to .80. The cuecriterion correlations, rei, and the predictability of the tasks, Re2, were factorially combined. The results showed a positive linear relation between the subjective and the objective values of rij. The values of rij were, however, underestimated by about 50%. These results were consistent with previous studies on thedetection of rij. There was no relation between detection of rij and performance or any of the task parameters rei or Re2.

  • 104.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Note on the effects of cue-criterion correlations, cue intercorrelation and the sign of the cue intercorrelation on confidence in multiple-cue probability learning1975Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Armelius, K., and Armelius, B-Å. Note on the effects of cue-criterion correlations, cue intercorrelation and the sign of the cue intercorrelation on confidence in multiple-cue probability learning. Umeå Psychological Reports, No. 83, 1975. - The subjects' confidence in the correctness of their judgments was investigated in a two-cue MCPL-experiment, where the cue-criterion correlations,as well as the sign and magnitude of the intercorrelation between the cues were systematically varied. The results showed that even though the subjects' performance was influenced by the task parameters, their confidence was not. The subjects' confidence was low, and there were no differences among conditions. In view of the finding that performance was generally low and that all tasks were considered as equally difficult, an explanation for the result might be that the five-point rating scale used to measure confidence was too insensitive and that the criterion for correctness was too strict.

  • 105.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Redundancy and inference behavior1976Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Armelius, K., and Armelius, B-Å. Redundancy and inference behavior. Umeå Psychological Reports No. 102, 1976. -Within MCPL research redundancy has been treated as synonymous with intercorrelation among cues. As shown in the present paper this definition of redundancy is inadequate, and a definition of redundancy based on Brunswik' s conceptual frame-work and made in analogy with the definition of redundancy in information theory was proposed. Redundancy was defined as the difference between the sum of all squared correlations and the squared multiple correlation. That is, when the intercorrelation between cues does not contribute to the predictable variance in the criterion the task is redundant. When the cue intercorrelation does contribute to the predictable variance in the criterion the task was defined as a suppressor task. Some implications of this view of probabilistic inference tasks for research were discussed in the paper.

  • 106.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The effect of cue-criterion correlations, cue intercorrelations and the sign of the cue intercorrelation on performance in suppressor variable tasks1975Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Arraelius, K., and Armelius, B. The effect of cue-criterion correlations, cue intercorrelations and the sign of the cue intercorrelation on performance in suppressor variable tasks. Umeå Psychological Reports No. 81, 1975. - The subjects' performance was investigated in a two-cue MCPL-experiment with a 2 (Cue-criterion correlations, rel = .60 and .80) a 2 (Total task predictability, Re2 = 1.00 and .70) x 2 (Sign of rij) x 5 (Blocks) factorial design. The difference in in Re2 was due entirely to an increase in the cue2intercorrelation, rij. Effects of Re2 on performance were therefore interpreted as effects of the cueintercorrelation. Two control conditions, with orthogonal cues and the same values of rei as in the experimental conditions, were included in the design. Subject consistency was directly related to the cue-criterion correlations and the cue-judgment beta-weights were directly related to the magnitude of thecue intercorrelation. The sign of rij determined the level of consistency.

  • 107.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Engström, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Brännström, Jan
    Nyström, Siv
    Brukarna är nöjda med missbruksvården - även om problemen inte förbättrats2014In: Socionomen, ISSN 0283-1929, no 7, p. 38-53Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 108.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hakelind, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Interpersonal complementarity - self-rated behaviour by normal and antisocial adolescents with a liked and a disliked peer2007In: Interpersona: An International Journal on Personal Relationships, ISSN 1981-6472, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 99-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The principle of complementarity in interpersonal theory and the SASB model (Structural Analysis of Social Behavior) as developed by Benjamin (1974) were used to study how adolescents in a normal group of 60 adolescents and a group of 42 adolescents with severe behavioural problems rated that they usually behaved in relation to a liked and disliked peer. The peer’s behaviour varied in a systematic way on the dimensions of affiliation and dominance. Complementary behavior was defined as the same behaviour from peer and self and anticomplementarity was defined as opposite behaviour from self in relation the peer’s behavior. Consistent over the two groups complementarity and anticomplementarity were influenced by both the peer’s behaviour and type of relationship with the peer. Friendly behaviour from a liked peer evoked much more complementary friendly behaviour compared to a disliked peer who with the same behaviour evoked almost as much anticomplementary hostile behaviour as complementary friendly behaviour. Hostile behaviour from a disliked peer evoked much more complementary hostile behaviour compared to a liked peer with the same kind of behavior. Autonomy granting from a liked peer evoked more complementary autonomous behaviour compared to a disliked peer. Differences between the two groups were small and only in relation with a disliked peer. The results were discussed in terms of interpersonal theory and the principle of complementarity with focus on kind of relationship.

  • 109. Armstrong, Elijah L
    et al.
    Woodley, Michael A
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The rule-dependence model explains the commonalities between the Flynn effect and IQ gains via retesting2014In: Learning and individual differences, ISSN 1041-6080, E-ISSN 1873-3425, Vol. 29, p. 41-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a new model of the Flynn effect. It is proposed that Flynn effect gains are partly a function of the degree to which a test is dependent on rules or heuristics. This means that testees can become better at solving 'rule-dependent' problems over time in response to changing environments, which lead to the improvement of lower-order cognitive processes (such as implicit learning and aspects of working memory). These in turn lead to apparent IQ gains that are partially independent of general intelligence. We argue that the Flynn effect is directly analogous to IQ gains via retesting, noting that Raven's Progressive Matrices is particularly sensitive to both the effects of retesting and the Flynn effect. After an extensive review of the relevant supporting literature, we test our thesis by developing a rule-dependence typology and then correlate the vector of a test's position in the typology with the vector of the Flynn effect that it yields. We find a significant vector correlation of r similar to.60 (N = 14). Finally, we make a number of novel and testable predictions based on our model.

    (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 110.
    Arnström, Anna-Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    TRUST IS A TWO‐WAY STREET: HUR TIO UNGDOMAR TYCKER ATT EN SAMTALSBEHANDLARE SKA VARA2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den ökade psykiska ohälsan bland ungdomar ställer krav på behandlare att effektivisera olika typer av behandlingar, t.ex. samtal. Samtidigt anses det svårt att behandla ungdomar, och det finns få empiriska studier som belyser vilka aspekter som ökar möjligheten att få ett positivt resultat av samtalsbehandling (Bolton Oetzel & Scherer, 2003). Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur ungdomar, med erfarenhet av samtalsbehandling, tycker att en samtalsbehandlare ska vara. En retrospektiv intervjustudie genomfördes med 10 informanter i åldern 19‐22 år som hade erfarenheter av samtalsbehandling under tonårstiden. En innehållsanalys resulterade i fyra övergripande teman. Dessa var Ungdomars olika behov, Mötas som personer, Ta det lugnt och Respekt. Delar av resultatet i studien låg i linje med den forskning som finns kring vuxenterapier och vilka egenskaper hos terapeuten som där är önskvärda.

    Utvecklingspsykologiska aspekter kan dock göra att kvalitéer hos terapeuten, som visat sig ha ett samband med en god terapeutisk relation i vuxenterapier, är extra viktiga i ungdomsterapier. En tolkning av materialet var att ungdomarna önskade en vänskapsinriktad relation med terapeuten.

  • 111.
    Arshamian, Artin
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Frescati Hagväg 14, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Frescati Hagväg 14, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Maria
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Frescati Hagväg 14, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sniff your way to clarity: the case of olfactory imagery2008In: Chemosensory Perception, ISSN 1936-5802 (Print) 1936-5810 (Online), Vol. 1, no 4, p. 242-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addressed the effects of blocking spontaneous sniffing during olfactory imagery. A group of subjects (n = 40) who scored high in olfactory focus and imagery ability rated the vividness in olfactory and visual imagery content under conditions of blocked sniffing, blocked vision, and a nonblocked control. The imagery stimuli consisted of 90 common words that could represent either an odor or a visual object. Blocked sniffing was expected to impair olfactory imagery vividness, but since visual imagery entails eye movements, which was not affected by the “blocked vision” manipulation, visual imagery ratings were effectively used as a placebo control. Confirming our hypotheses, the results showed that preventing sniffing resulted in a selectively poorer olfactory but not visual vividness, whereas blocked vision showed no effect on either the visual or olfactory vividness ratings. These observations confirm that sensorimotor activity is an important aspect for the quality of evoked olfactory images.

  • 112.
    Arslan, Tugba
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Qualitative studies in social psychology are more often authored by female researchers2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are indications that females prefer and apply qualitative research methods to a greater extent than males. A cross-sectional design examined sex differences in 329 academic journal articles in social psychology, randomly sampled from the Web of Science publication database. Each article was coded in terms of the sex of all the authors, whether qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods were employed, and whether the research question could be classified as exploratory or confirmatory. The results show that qualitative studies have more often female than male first authors, while quantitative studies exhibited no such sex difference. The application of quantitative methods was associated with confirmatory research questions, but there was no association between sex and the type of research question.

  • 113.
    Ask, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Accounts of Chemical Intolerance2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Given the need for further understanding of Chemical Intolerance (CI), the aim was to examine how persons living with CI describe their experiences of the course of CI. Eleven participants were recruited via Swedish websites hosted by CI support groups. A questionnaire was sent by postal mail to participants, and their written replies were analysed narratively. The analysis resulted in 5 types of narrative. The types were constructed based on similarities in onset and course of CI. Differences between types were related to possible effects on health and well-being based on theories of social support, coping and basic psychological needs. Differences in participants’ perceptions of symptom onset were related to aetiological theories of CI. Implications of similarities between types were also discussed. The 5 narrative types were similar in their descriptions of alienation from society and poor social support. Perceptions of symptom onset differed between types with regard to suddenness, point in life and cause of symptoms. Moreover, the results indicate that coping among persons with CI is dynamic and vary with contextual conditions. 

  • 114.
    Augustin, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gymnasieungdomars upplevelser av trygghet i skolmiljön, självkänsla och psykisk ohälsa2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescents and young adults mental health problems has been a controversial topic in the public debate.Reports indicate that this still is a problem in Sweden and in many countries around Europe (Socialstyrelsen,2009), (Wessel Andersson, Bjørngaard, Kaspersen, Wang, Skre, & Dahl, 2010). Gender have been identified as afactor that may ave an affect on mental health problems. While men's mental health problems more oftenmanifests itself thhhrough outward behavior are women's mental health problems more often linked to anxietyrelated problems (Wessel Andersson et al. 2010). The aim of the study was to investigate Northlands uppersecondary-school youth´s experience of insecurity in the school environment, self-esteem and mental health, andto investigate whether there is an correlation between these variables in the target-group. The study wasconducted at two upper secondary yy schools in Northland territory, Sweden and was based on quantitativemethod. A total of 67 people participated in the survey. Of the participants were 34 women and 33 men (N = 67,18-20 years). The results showed that the youth generally felt they had a safe school environment, an healthyself-esteem and good mental health. There was a significant negative correlation between self-esteem andpsychological distress (-.70). The higher the participants estimated on self-esteem, the lower the participantshad estimated on mental illness. The results show a positive image of upper secondary schools in Northland territory.

  • 115.
    Augustin, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sinnesstämning och estimeringsförmåga: Påverkar sinnesstämning estimeringsförmåga för frekvenser?2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Undersökningen behandlar ämnet estimeringsförmåga av frekvenser i syfte att utröna om människors estimering av frekvenser påverkas av vilken sinnesstämning man befinner sig i. Försöksdeltagarna har blivit indelade i två grupper som utsatts för olika sorters påverkan, så kallad inducering, En grupp har blivit utsatt för ett bildspel med glada ansikten och glad musik, Denna grupp har benämningen positivt inducerad grupp. Den andra gruppen har blivit utsatt för ledsna ansikten och sorgsen musik, denna grupp har benämningen negativt inducerad grupp. Deltagarna i undersökningen har estimerat frekvenserna av bilder på ansikten som visats i ett bildspel på en filmduk. En jämförelse mellan dessa grupper har sedan visat om det funnits någon skillnad i prestation av deltagarnas estimeringar på frekvenserna av dessa ansikten beroende på vilken grupp man tillhört. Resultatet visar att det inte gått att påvisa någon skillnad i prestation mellan de två grupperna. Däremot har de bilder som blivit exponerade minst antal gånger också blivit bedömda minst antal gånger av försöksdeltagarna i en stegrande skala till de bilder som blivit exponerade flest antal gånger.

  • 116.
    Augustsson, Beatrice
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Östman, Minna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Närstående som mist någon i suicid: upplevelsen av stödinsatser och sambandet med self-compassion2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    People bereaved by suicide are at risk to develop mental health problems. Few studies have aimed to research on their experience of support efforts in combination with self-compassion and how it influences help-seeking behaviour. The purpose of the study was to investigate how the bereaved experience support efforts, and whether the degree of self-compassion affects how much support they sought and which support effort they turned to. The participants were 174 persons from the non-profit organization Suicidprevention och efterlevandestöd (SPES) and all participants were over 18 years old. Independent t-test was used to see the difference in means between groups of self-compassion and the number of support efforts they sought. Chi-square test and ANOVA-analyzes were used to calculate the significant difference between groups in self-compassion, how much and what kind of support they sought. Results showed that the bereaved experienced most support from family members/friends or partners, non-profit organizations and religious associations. They experienced least support from adult psychiatry, primary care and private practicing psychologists. There was a significant association between how many support efforts bereaved sought and degree of self-compassion, where they with lower degree of self-compassion sought more support efforts. The result showed a significant difference between degree of self-compassion and those who sought help from adult psychiatry and family member/friend or partner. As the result indicates that the current support is inadequate, more research in this area is needed as a basis for improvement.

  • 117.
    Augustsson, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Den transkulturella mötet: Fyra flyktingars berättelser om mötet med behandlare av psykisk ohälsa2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 118.
    Averin, Emina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Valderrama, Majorie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Action words: Studying the involuntary capture of attention of action words2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study’s aim was to examine how attention is affected by action words. Twenty participants performed a cross‐modal oddball task with a standard sound (a sine wave tone) and two recorded speech sounds as novel sounds (stop and press). The result showed that novel sounds captured attention and increased response time compared to standard. There was a significant difference between “press” and standard and “stop” and standard but not between stop and press. This showed that the participants could not block out the sound and focus on the focal attention task. Even though not significant, the response time for “stop” was the slowest since it may inhibit the involuntary response. The results might be explained by the fact that not enough subjects participated, and because of that same reason the result might not be generalized either.

  • 119.
    Awad, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Sunderby Research Unit, Umeå University, Sweden..
    Lundqvist, Robert
    Research and Innovation Unit, Norrbotten County Council, Luleå, Sweden..
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine. Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Sunderby Research Unit, Umeå University, Sweden..
    Lower cognitive performance among long-term type 1 diabetes survivors: A case-control study2017In: Journal of diabetes and its complications, ISSN 1056-8727, E-ISSN 1873-460X, Vol. 31, no 8, p. 1328-1331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have an increased risk of cognitive dysfunction. The cognitive decrement is believed to depend on macro- and microvascular complications and long disease duration. Some patients do not develop these complications, but still report cognitive symptoms. We examined if long-standing T1D without complications is associated with lower cognitive performance.

    METHODS: A group of patients (n=43) with long-standing T1D (>30years) without micro- or macro vascular complications was compared with a non-diabetic control group (n=86) on six cognitive tests which probed episodic memory, semantic memory, episodic short-term memory, visual attention and psychomotor speed. Each patient was matched with two controls regarding age, gender and education. A linear mixed effect model was used to analyze the data.

    RESULTS: The mean age was 57years and mean duration was 41years. Patients with diabetes had lower diastolic blood pressure but BMI, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure and smoking did not differ between groups. Patients had lower results than non-diabetic controls in episodic short-term memory (p<0.001) and also lower values on a test that mirrors visual attention and psychomotor speed (p=0.019).

    CONCLUSIONS: Long-standing T1D was associated with lower cognitive performance, regardless of other diabetes-related complications.

  • 120.
    Axell, Samuel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Martinsson, Ingela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Utvärdering av en internetbaserad intervention i mindfulness och självmedkänsla med låg daglig träningsdos: - Effekter på upplevd stress, utmattningssymtom samt tacksamhet2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Stress och utmattningssymtom utgör ett samhällsproblem i Sverige då 49 % av alla sjukskrivningar utgörs av stressreaktioner. Vårdstudenter upplever höga nivåer av stress- och utmattningssymtom vilket har visat sig relatera till kompetensproblem under utbildningen och ökade intentioner att lämna kommande arbete. Tidigare forskning har visat att träning i mindfulness och självmedkänsla är hjälpsamt för vårdstudenter gällande att minska stress och utmattningssymtom. Det råder dock fortfarande oklarheter om vilken träningsmängd som är tillräcklig för att uppnå effekter. Utifrån denna bakgrund genomfördes en randomiserad kontrollerad studie på 49 psykolog- (n=29), sjuksköterske (n=7) och socionomstudenter (n=13). Syftet var att utvärdera ett internetbaserat korttidsprogram i mindfulness och självmedkänsla vars omfattning var mellan 6-7 minuters träning per dag, sex dagar per vecka i fem veckor med en totaltid på ungefär 3 timmar. Utvärderingen avsåg förändringar av upplevd stress, utmattningssymtom samt tacksamhet. Resultaten visade att interventionsgruppen (n= 23) minskade sina nivåer av upplevd stress och utmattningssymtom samt ökade grad av mindfulness, självmedkänsla och tacksamhet, medan kontrollgruppens (n=26) förändringar var liten. Dessa fynd indikerar att träning i mindfulness och självmedkänsla är effektivt för att minska vårdstudenters upplevda stress och utmattningssymtom samt ökad grad av tacksamhet. Resultaten går i linje med tidigare studier. Att träningsmängden på endast 6-7 minuters daglig träning gav effekt är utmärkande i jämförelse med tidigare forskning. Studien ger stöd för fortsatt framtida forskning av kortare internetbaserad träning i mindfulness och självmedkänsla.

  • 121.
    Axelson-Fisk, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Löfvendahl, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Relationen mellan tidsperspektiv och subjektivt välbefinnande hos äldre vuxna: En tvärsnittsstudie2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Time perspective influences mental health, but few studies have examined the relationship between well-being and time perspective among the elderly. The present study investigates the correlation between time perspective according to S-ZTPI and subjective well-being in older adults. Future-positive, Present-hedonistic and Past-positive were expected to show positive correlations with subjective well-being, and negative correlations with depressive symptoms while Future-negative, Present-fatalistic and Past-negative were expected to show negative correlations with subjective well-being and positive correlations with depressive symptoms. S-ZTPI, CES-D, PSQ-R and two global measures of satisfaction with life were used as measures of the participants time perspective and well-being. The sample consisted of 452 participants age 60-90 years, with 54% women. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed for each dependent variable. The hypotheses were confirmed regarding the past time perspectives and Future-negative. Future-positive exhibited a positive correlation with well-being and satisfaction with life, and a negative correlation with depressive symptoms. The present time perspectives lacked significance in all regression analyses. Results indicate that time perspective is related to subjective well-being and mainly confirm existing studies. 

  • 122.
    Axelsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kihlberg, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    HANDLEDNING I UTBILDNINGSTERAPI: STUDENTERS EGNA BERÄTTELSER OM ATT HANDLEDAS UTIFRÅN DELIBERATE PRACTICE, FEEDBACK INFORMED TREATMENT OCH SELF-COMPASSION.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are high rates of sick-leave among therapists and supervision is seen as an important support in both professional practice and during education. Despite this, there are few methods that focuses on therapists' experience of supervision. Some new methods with the aim to increase the intrapersonal and psychological capacity of therapists in work with clients are Deliberate Practice (DP), Feedback Informed Treatment (FIT) and Self-Compassion (SC). During 2018, these methods were used by two supervisors who supervised six student therapists during training. This study examines how the student therapists experienced the new way of working. To collect the data semi-structured interviews were conducted, to further be analyzed thematically based on an inductive approach. The result showed that an experience- and feedback-based approach was perceived as efficient, structured and goal-oriented. This created activity and participation, a strong group dynamic and a good alliance with the supervisors, which provided a good climate for learning and development. Some negative aspects of the work method were that it’s a time-consuming. Further, focusing on performance and feedback was perceived as an obstacle that could create stress, anxiety and a feeling that the evaluation was not fair. The result showed overall that the way of working was perceived as beneficial for student therapists in education therapy regarding the development of both therapeutic skills and intrapersonal capacity. A challenge is that supervision is mandatory, hierarchical and that it’s a graded task. In order to generate good conditions for the work method more available space is needed within program. The advantages of the method need to be highlighted and an open climate with focus on alliance between students and supervisors need to be maintained. It is also important to consider the students' ability to be self-compassionate.

  • 123.
    Axelsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mörtvik, Mia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kritiska händelser vid utryckningskörning: Polisers egna berättelser2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Accidents with police vehicles continue to increase. However, little is known about the police's own experiences of critical events during emergency driving. To contribute to increased understanding of emergency driving, the study's purpose was to investigate how policemen describe their experiences of the emergency driving. In this study, we used a semistructured interview guide to investigate how five policemen talked about their experiences. Through narrative analysis of the interviews, similarities and differences of critical events during emergency driving were investigated. We identified five recurring themes, so-called narrative types: the will to capture, to drive fast, difficulties in questioning a colleague's driving style, deciding when high speeds are justified, and finding the balance in emergency driving to experience control. These five types gave a good understanding of how the policemen talked about unexpected events that created risky situations in their service. Similarities in the stories mostly concerned behaviors and attitudes. The differences consisted mainly of circumstances, such as how the start-up began and what information the police received or did not receive during the reprisal. The differences were linked to the possible consequences of the expression based on theories of decision making, risk awareness and injury prevention. Furthermore, the results indicated that the experience of emergency driving was dynamic and varied with contextual conditions. 

  • 124. Bakhiet, Salaheldin Farah Attallah
    et al.
    Dutton, Edward
    Ashaer, Khalil Yousif Ali
    Essa, Yossry Ahmed Sayed
    Blahmar, Tahani Abdulrahman Muhammad
    Hakami, Sultan Mohammed
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Understanding the Simber Effect: why is the age-dependent increase in children's cognitive ability smaller in Arab countries than in Britain?2018In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 122, p. 38-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research indicates that the typical increase in IQ during childhood is greater in European countries than in Arab countries. A systematic literature review of age-dependent IQ in Arab countries is conducted, yielding relevant studies for 12 countries that fulfil the inclusion criteria. In almost all of these studies, Arab children exhibit an age-dependent IQ decline relative to Caucasian children, from 5 to about 12 years of age in particular. We term this phenomenon the Simber Effect. We propose two non-exclusive explanations. (1) The Flynn Effect is less intense in Arab countries because of localised differences, including poorer education quality and greater religiosity. (2) Those from Arab countries follow a faster Life History Strategy than Europeans, for environmental and possibly genetic reasons. Either way, the Simber Effect may amount to a Wilson Effect, meaning that the impact of genetic IQ increases with age.

  • 125.
    Baldwin, Scott A.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, USA.
    Murray, David M.
    Division of Epidemiology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.
    Shadish, William R.
    School of Social Sciences, Humanities and Arts, University of California, Merced, Merced, California, USA.
    Pals, Sherri L.
    Department of Psychology, University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee, USA.
    Holland, Jason M.
    VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA .
    Abramowitz, Jonathan S.
    Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Department of Behavioural Sciences, Linköping, University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Atkins, David C.
    Center for the Study of Health and Risk Behaviors, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA .
    Carlbring, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carroll, Kathleen M.
    Division of Substance Abuse, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
    Christensen, Andrew
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Eddington, M.
    Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina, USA.
    Ehlers, Anke
    Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Feaster, Daniel J.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA.
    Keijesers, Ger P. J.
    Behaviour Science Institute, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Koch, Ellen
    Department of Psychology, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, Michigan, USA.
    Kuyken, Willem
    Mood Disorders Centre, School of Psychology University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom.
    Lange, Alfred
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Lincoln, Tania
    Department of Psychology, University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany.
    Stephens, Robert S.
    Department of Psychology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA .
    Taylor, Steven
    Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
    Trepka, Chris
    Bradford District NHS Care Trust, Bradford, United Kingdom.
    Watson, Jeanne
    Department of Adult Education, Community Development and Counselling Psychology, University of.
    Intraclass correlation associated with therapists: estimates and applications in planning psychotherapy research2011In: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 15-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is essential that outcome research permit clear conclusions to be drawn about the efficacy of interventions. The common practice of nesting therapists within conditions can pose important methodological challenges that affect interpretation, particularly if the study is not powered to account for the nested design. An obstacle to the optimal design of these studies is the lack of data about the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), which measures the statistical dependencies introduced by nesting. To begin the development of a public database of ICC estimates, the authors investigated ICCs for a variety outcomes reported in 20 psychotherapy outcome studies. The magnitude of the 495 ICC estimates varied widely across measures and studies. The authors provide recommendations regarding how to select and aggregate ICC estimates for power calculations and show how researchers can use ICC estimates to choose the number of patients and therapists that will optimize power. Attention to these recommendations will strengthen the validity of inferences drawn from psychotherapy studies that nest therapists within conditions.

  • 126.
    Bask, Nina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bäckström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of preterm birth: Associations between brain volumes, neuropsychological functioning, and side preference in school age children.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A preterm birth is associated with increased risk for neurocognitive deficits, but there is a need to further investigate brain/behavior relations among younger school age children born preterm. The main purpose of this study was to investigate relations between brain volumes and neuropsychological functioning, with an additional aim of examining side preference, among 18 school age children, nine born extremely/very preterm and nine born at-term. Brain volumes were examined using 3T MRI, neuropsychological functioning by WISC-IV and side preference through laterality observations. The children born preterm had, in general lower total brain volume, gray matter and WISC-IV score. Contrary to previous findings no difference was found regarding white matter volumes. Stronger right hand preference was associated to higher perceptual reasoning ability among both preterm and at-term born children, but the associations between right hand preference and brain volumes differed between the groups. The results in this study support previous findings showing long-term neurocognitive effects of a preterm birth.

  • 127.
    Bellander, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Blomqvist, Isabell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bekväma och obekväma subjekts(positioner) i sex: Åtta mäns erfarenheter och upplevelser av att ha heterosex och göra manlighet2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare studier har visat att det endast finns ett fåtal studier att tillgå som uteslutande fokuserar på hur manlig heterosexualitet och manlighet skapas av män (Mooney–Somers & Ussher, 2008). Denna studie syftade till att beskriva och analysera unga mäns upplevelser och erfarenheter av heterosexuella möten/relationer och manlighetsskapande. Den tematiska analysen bygger på åtta semi-strukturerade intervjuer och gav fyra huvudteman: Vad är sex?, Att vara aktiv, Att inneha ett starkt agentskap och Kärlekssex och casual sex. Våra tolkningsverktyg har utgjorts av tre diskurser kring heterosexualitet: Diskursen om manlig sexualdrift, äga/besitta diskursen och sex som makt. Vi fann såväl bekväma som obekväma positioner män kan inta i förhållande till de tre heterosexuella diskurserna. Vidare tolkade vi att dessa heterosexuella diskurser hade en stark inverkan på vilka sexuella praktiker och preferenser männen presenterade som eftersträvansvärda och betydelsefulla. Manlig heterosexualitet ses som naturlig, självklar och står ofta oemotsagd. Vi tror att vår studie kan bidra till att dekonstruera och syna dessa taget förgivna föreställningar kring maskulin heterosexualitet.

  • 128.
    Bendelin, Nina
    et al.
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Dahl, Johan
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Zetterqvist Nelson, Karin
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden and Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Experiences of guided Internet-based cognitive-behavioural treatment for depression: A qualitative study2011In: BMC Psychiatry, ISSN 1471-244X, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 11, no 107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Internet-based self-help treatment with minimal therapist contact has been shown to have an effect in treating various conditions. The objective of this study was to explore participants’ views of Internet administrated guided self-help treatment for depression.

    Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 strategically selected participants and qualitative methods with components of both thematic analysis and grounded theory were used in the analyses.

    Results: Three distinct change processes relating to how participants worked with the treatment material emerged which were categorized as (a) Readers, (b) Strivers, and (c) Doers. These processes dealt with attitudes towards treatment, views on motivational aspects of the treatment, and perceptions of consequences of the treatment.

    Conclusions: We conclude that the findings correspond with existing theoretical models of face-to-face psychotherapy within qualitative process research. Persons who take responsibility for the treatment and also attribute success to themselves appear to benefit more. Motivation is a crucial aspect of guided self-help in the treatment of depression.

  • 129.
    Bengtsson, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Therapists' experiences of conducting CBT online vis-á-vis face-to-face2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores therapists’ experiences of conducting CBT online and face-to-face. Eleven therapists partook in semi-structured interviews, which were thematically analysed using an abductive approach. The results indicate that the therapists viewed face-to-face-therapy as a stronger experience than internet-based CBT, and the latter as more manualised but providing more work-time control. They also showed that working alliance may be achieved faster and more easily in face-to-face-therapy and that internet-based CBT is heavily reliant on the intrinsic motivation of the clients. The final themes concerned the advantages of blended therapy and that both therapy forms appealed to different clients and therapists. Clinical implications in need of investigation are whether working with internet-based CBT might buffer therapist exhaustion, and whether this therapy form can be improved by becoming less manual dependant in order to be easier to individualise.

  • 130.
    Bengtsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlbring, Per
    Therapists' Experiences of Conducting Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Online vis-a-vis Face-to-Face2015In: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 470-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study has explored therapists' experiences of conducting cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) online and face-to-face. Eleven therapists partook in semi-structured interviews, which were thematically analysed using an abductive approach. The results indicate that the therapists viewed face-to-face therapy as a stronger experience than Internet-based CBT (ICBT), and the latter as being more manualised, but providing more work-time control. Several participants also thought that working alliance may be achieved faster and more easily in face-to-face therapy, and might worsen with fewer modalities of communication. Clinical implications in need of investigation are whether working with ICBT might buffer therapist exhaustion, and whether this therapy form can be improved by becoming less manual dependant in order to be easier to individualise.

  • 131.
    Bengtsson, Sandra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dalsmyr, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Självkänsla och idrottslig kompetens hos idrottare inom Special Olympics2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), IQ<70, tend to have lower self-esteem than individuals without ID. Low self-esteem is correlated with mental illnesses, such as depression, anxiety and eating disorders. Global self-esteem, an individual's overall perception of itself and its value, affects and is affected by subgroups, such as sport competence (Shavelson, Hubner, & Stanton, 1976). Studies outside of Sweden shows that participation in organized sports activities increase global self-esteem and sport competence among individuals with ID. The purpose of this study was to investigate self-esteem and sport competence among athletes, aged 16 and above, in Special Olympics Sweden. Participants (N = 78) results on the self-assessment forms; The Adapted Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (M = 15.79) and the subscale Sport competence in PSPP-R (M = 20.90), indicated moderate global self-esteem and high sport competence. Female participants and Precamp participants, preparing themselves for an international championship, reported significantly lower results than male participants and non-Precamp participants, respectively. Future studies should focus on the development of instruments for individuals with ID and sport organizations should work to strengthen self-esteem and sport competence among female athletes with ID.

  • 132.
    Berg, Odd
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Billman, Jennie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Svenska neuropsykologers utredningsarbete:  En kartläggning av praktik och instrumentanvändning2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

     

    Studien syftar till att kartlägga svenska neuropsykologers utredningsarbete med avseende på instrumentanvändning och generell utredningspraktik. Då den är den första i sitt slag i Sverige kan den fungera som ett viktigt underlag för diskussioner som rör utbildningsplanering och nationella riktlinjer. Med utgångspunkt i tidigare amerikansk forskning på området (Butler et al., 1991; Camara et al., 2000; Rabin et al., 2005; Sweet et al., 2000) gjordes ett enkätutskick till samtliga medlemmar i Sveriges Neuropsykologers Förenings medlemsregister. Av de 708 personer som kontaktades erhölls 435 svar, vilket gav en svarsfrekvens på 61 procent. Av dessa uppfyllde 321 svar studiens inklusionskriterier. Den genomsnittliga neuropsykologen hade en genomsnittsålder på 50,1 år och gruppen bestod till 74 procent av kvinnor.

    Resultaten visar bl.a. på att svenska neuropsykologer ägnar större delen av sin arbetstid till utredningsarbete. Det vanligaste förhållningssättet vid instrumentval är då användandet av flexibla batterier och den genomsnittliga tidsåtgången per utredning är 20,2 timmar. Resultatet visar även att svenska neuropsykologer använder sig av ett stort antal instrument, varav de tre mest frekvent använda är Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCFT) samt testbatterierna Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) och Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning System (DKEFS).

    Jämförelser med nordamerikanska neuropsykologers utredningspraktik visar huvudsakligen på likheter, vissa tydliga skillnader kan dock ses, t.ex. gällande bredden i verksamhetsområden, användandet av personlighetstester och frekvensen av kliniskt arbete med specifika diagnosgrupper.

  • 133.
    Bergdahl, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Larsson, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Riklund Åhlström, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Treatment of chronic stress in employees: subjective, cognitive and neural correlates2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 395-402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports the effect of an affect-focused intervention program, the Affect School, on stress, psychological symptoms, cognitive functioning and neural activity. Fifty employees in social service and education, with high levels of chronic stress, were randomly divided into a treatment (N= 27) and control (N= 23) group. Complete sets of data were available in 20 participants in the treatment group and 17 in the control group. The Perceived Stress Questionnaire assessed stress and the Symptom Check List-90 psychological symptoms before and after treatment. Episodic-memory functioning under focused and divided attention conditions was also assessed. Prior and after the Affect School, seven participants in the treatment group were studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during episodic memory processing. After the Affect School there was a reduction in stress and psychological symptoms for the treatment group but not in the control group. The controls showed a reduction in episodic memory functioning whereas the performance of the treatment group remained intact. The fMRI scanning indicated a qualitative change in the neural network subserving episodic memory. These preliminary results suggest that the Affect School is effective on individuals with high stress.

  • 134.
    Bergdahl, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Marell, L
    Bergdahl, M
    Perris, H
    Psychobiological personality dimensions in two environmental-illness patient groups2005In: CLINICAL ORAL INVESTIGATIONS, ISSN 1432-6981, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 251-256Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 135.
    Bergdahl, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mårell, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Bergdahl, Maud
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Perris, Hjördis
    Psychobiological personality dimensions in two environmental-illness patient groups2005In: Clinical Oral Investigations, ISSN 1432-6981, E-ISSN 1436-3771, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 251-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the psychobiological personality dimensions in two subgroups of patients with environmental illness (EI). Fifty-nine patients, 34 women and 25 men (aged 32-69 years), were referred for symptoms allegedly caused by abnormal sensitivity to either dental fillings (DF; n=26) or electromagnetic fields (EMF; n=33). For the evaluation of personality, the Swedish 238-item version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was used. Compared with a control group, the EMF group scored higher on the temperament dimension Persistence. The DF group scored higher on the TCI subscales Harm Avoidance (fatigability and asthenia) and Self-Directedness (self-acceptance). Women scored higher than men did on the Novelty Seeking and Reward Dependence (RD) dimensions in the DF group and on RD in the control group, indicating an inherited gender difference. No differences were found between men and women in the EMF group. Our results indicate that the high level of persistence found in the EMF group and the high level of fatigability and asthenia in combination with high self-acceptance found in the DF group represent vulnerable personalities. No significant differences were found between the two patient groups, indicating that these groups are quite similar regarding personality. This vulnerability can be expressed as various mental and somatic symptoms, which can be interpreted as El symptoms by the affected individual.

  • 136.
    Bergdahl, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenberg, Berndt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Dermatology and Venerology.
    Eriksson, N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Lindén, G
    Widman, L
    Coping and self-image in patients with visual display terminal-related skin symptoms and perceived hypersensitivity to electricity2004In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 77, no 8, p. 538-542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to measure coping resources and self-image in patients with visual display terminal (VDT)-related skin symptoms and hypersensitivity to electricity (HE).

    Methods: From 1980 to 1998, 350 patients with electrical sensitivity were registered. The patients were subdivided into two groups: patients with skin symptoms evoked by VDTs, television screens, and fluorescent-light tubes and patients with so-called hypersensitivity to electricity with multiple symptoms evoked by exposure to different electrical environments. A questionnaire was sent to all patients and contained the coping resources inventory (CRI) and the structural analysis of social behaviour (SASB) in order for us to measure coping resources and self-image, respectively. The CRI and SASB scores were compared with those of control groups. Two hundred and fifty respondents (73%) returned the questionnaire, 200 (78.5% women) in the VDT group and 50 (62% women) in the HE group.

    Results: The patient group rated high on the CRI spiritual/philosophical scale and high on the SASB spontaneous, positive and negative clusters but low on the controlled cluster. The female patients scored high on the CRI emotional scale. The VDT group rated lower than the controls on the SASB controlled cluster and higher on both the positive and negative cluster. The HE group scored higher than the control group on the SASB spontaneous and positive clusters. The women in the HE group scored higher on the CRI cognitive and CRI total scale than the VDT group and control group and higher on the CRI emotional scale than the controls. The women in the HE group rated higher than both the women in the VDT and control groups on the SASB spontaneous and positive clusters.

    Conclusions: The deviant self-image found in these patients, especially the female HE patients, support the view that VDT and HE symptoms can be stress related. In the clinic, a trustful alliance should be established with the patient in order for a more realistic view to be achieved of the capacity.

  • 137. Bergdahl, Maud
    et al.
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Psykologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Difference in apolipoprotein E type 4 allele (APOE e4) amongdentate and edentulous subjects2008In: Gerodontology, ISSN 0734-0664, E-ISSN 1741-2358, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 179-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To evaluate the frequency of apolipoprotein (APOE) alleles and determine whether APOE type 4 allele (e4) was associated with edentulousness even when certain factors were controlled.Background: The APOE are important in lipid homeostasis, and APOE e4 has been found in many diseases and to have a negative impact on longevity. Tooth loss is more common in ill aged subjects with low income and education.Materials and methods: In a population-based study involving 1860 subjects between 35 and 85 years 1321 dentate (mean age = 54; 54% women, 46% men) and 539 edentulous (mean age = 72; 62% women, 38% men) subjects were studied. Logistic regression was performed with dentate/edentulous as dependent variables and years of education, socio-economic status, social network, stress level, handicap from birth, 23 various diseases and APOE e4 as covariates. Thereafter, APOE e4 frequencies were studied in 342 dentateand 336 edentulous subjects 50–85 years of age. The subjects were matched with regard to age, gender, years of education, living condition, stress level, handicap from birth and 23 various diseases.Results: APOE allele frequency in the total group was e2 = 7.8%, e3 = 76.4% and e4 = 15.8%. Age, living condition, years of education and APOE e4 were significant covariates in edentulous subjects (p £ 0.001).APOE e4 in the matched groups revealed significant differences between the dentate group and the edentulous group (v2 = 5.68; p = 0.017). There was no group effect (F(29,648) = 0.849; p < 0.696; Wilks’ lambda = 0.963). In the dentate group, the frequencies of APOE were: e2 = 8.8%, e3 = 77.9% ande4 = 13.3%. Corresponding frequencies of APOE in the edentulous group were: e2 = 6.6%, e3 = 75.4% and e4 = 18.0%.Conclusion: Despite matching both groups with regard to different background factors, the edentulous group had a higher frequency of APOE e4 than the dentate group. Thus, genetic factors might contribute to greater risk in developing complex oral diseases leading to tooth loss or just be an indication that the subjects in our study carrying APOE e4 are more fragile.

  • 138. Bergdahl, Maud
    et al.
    Habib, Reza
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Natural teeth and cognitive function in humans2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 557-565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of neurobiological, psychological and social factors may account for cognitive impairment. In animal studies a relation between dental status and cognitive performance has been found. It is unclear whether such a relation exists for humans. In a first step we compared the performance of 1,351 participants (53% women, 47% men; age M = 54.0) with natural teeth to 487 edentulous participants (59% women, 41% men; age M = 71.3) on 12 cognitive tests. The natural teeth group had a lower mean age, fewer women, more years of education, higher mini-mental state (MMSE), and performed significantly higher on several cognitive tests. In a subsequent analysis, the cognitive performance of a subset of the participants (50–85 years) was examined. In this analysis, 211 had natural dentition and 188 were edentulous. The groups were matched for gender, age, social variables, diseases, stress and MMSE. The cognitive disadvantage of the edentulous group was still apparent. The results suggest that functional natural teeth relate to relatively preserved cognitive functioning in older age.

  • 139.
    Bergfors, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sambandet mellan aerob kondition, självskattad fysisk aktivitet och utbrändhet över tid2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fysisk aktivitet har visat sig ha positiv effekt på både fysiologiska och psykiska folkhälsosjukdomar. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka sambandet mellan aerob kondition, självskattad fysisk aktivitet och utbrändhet, inklusive sömnkvalité och trötthet. Detta studerades genom en sekundäranalys av data från studien Rehabilitation for stress-related disease and burnout (REST) i en patientgrupp (n=122) från Stresskliniken vid Norrlands universitetssjukhus som behandlats för utbrändhet med kognitiv beteendeinriktad behandling (KBR) och/eller Qigong. Regressionsanalyser visade att den aeroba konditionen, men inte den självskattade fysiska aktiviteten, predicerade tillfrisknandet från utbrändhet samt reducerandet av trötthet över tid. Ju bättre aerob kondition patienterna hade, både i början och i slutet av behandlingen, desto bättre tillfrisknade de från utbrändhet och desto mer reducerades deras trötthet. Studiens resultat visar på att den aeroba konditionen kan vara en viktig faktor i utvecklandet av behandling för utbrändhet.

  • 140.
    Berggren, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jansson, Julia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hälsa och skolrelaterade svårigheter hos barn födda för tidigt i yngre skolålder2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recent improvements in perinatal care have led to increased survival of children born premature. Previous research has shown that the premature population constitutes a risk group for neurological and physical impairments and adverse health effects, including an increased risk of school-related difficulties and bullying. The purpose of this study was to investigate the health and support needs of 6-8 year old children (n = 130) born premature, in terms of physical and cognitive impairments, school related difficulties and bullying. Parental reported physical impairments, school related difficulties and the occurrence of bullying were investigated by the Nordic health and family questionnaire and Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). Cognitive ability was assessed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). The results showed that visual impairment, constipation, loss of appetite and the use of glasses were more frequent in children born very premature than in children born full-term. The results also showed a difference in cognitive ability, where children born very premature received lower results than children born full-term, both groups remained at an average level. In contrast to previous studies, the results did not show a difference between children born premature and children born full-term with regards to school related difficulties or the occurrence of bullying. Overall, the results indicate that a very premature birth need not involve considerably more problems concerning health, school-related difficulties or bullying among children in early school age, despite a slightly lower general cognitive level. Possible reasons for this could be few participating children born extremely premature, and/or an effective neonatal care in Sweden.

  • 141.
    Bergh, Charlotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Intra-Familial and Extra-Familial Child Sexual Abuse: Differences in Swedish Court Cases2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) has been shown to differ depending on the relationship between child complainant and defendant, yet no found studies have compared intra-familial and extra-familial CSA in Sweden. The present thesis aimed to study quantitative differences between alleged intra-familial and extra-familial cases of CSA. Cases from Swedish District Courts (n = 174) of sexual abuse against children up to 7 years old were analyzed. In line with previous research, several differences in characteristics between alleged intra- and extra-familial cases were found. A significant difference in juridical decision to convict or acquit was also shown, with more intra-familial cases resulting in acquittal and more extra-familial cases resulting in conviction. Extra-familial relationship was also a significant predictor to conviction. Future studies may want to further examine whether an explanation for the difference in juridical decision could be found in differences in evidence provided. 

  • 142.
    Bergkvist, Sandra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlsson, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Det affektiva arbetet:: Behandlares berättelser om att arbeta med Affektskola2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that therapists’ understanding of affects is important when working with patients who suffer from mental illness. This study examined how therapists attended to, was affected by and used their own and their patients affects when working with the group treatment Affect school. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six therapists who all worked with this treatment. The interviews were analysed using thematic analysis with an abductive approach. The analysis resulted in three themes, Therapists with knowledge of affects, Working with emotional contagion and Challenging affects, containing sub-themes. The results showed that the therapists thought it was important to be aware of and openly express their own affects to be able to show patients how affects can be expressed. They reported that they were affected by emotional contagion, which could be used to help patients distinguish between different affects. The therapists expressed difficulties with differentiating between their own and their patients’ affects, and working with the affects shame and joy. The results indicated altogether that the therapists had high levels of affect consciousness and an ability to work with their own and their patients’ affects.

  • 143. Bergman Nordegren, Lise
    et al.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Kadowaki, Åsa
    Carlbring, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tailored internet-administered treatment of anxiety disorders for primary care patients: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial2012In: Trials, ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 13, p. 16-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Internet-administered cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) has been found to be effective for a range of anxiety disorders. However, most studies have focused on one specific primary diagnosis and comorbidity has not been considered. In primary care settings, patients with anxiety often suffer from more than one psychiatric condition, making it difficult to disseminate ICBT for specific conditions. The aim of this study will be to investigate if ICBT tailored according to symptom profile can be a feasible treatment for primary care patients with anxiety disorders. It is a randomised controlled trial aimed to evaluate the treatment against an active control group.

    Methods: Participants with anxiety disorders and co-morbid conditions (N = 128), will be recruited from a primary care population. The Clinical Outcome in Routine Evaluation (CORE-OM) will serve as the primary outcome measure. Secondary measures include self-reported depression, anxiety, quality of life and loss of production and the use of health care. All assessments will be collected via the Internet and measure points will be baseline, post treatment and 12 months post treatment.

    Discussion: This trial will add to the body of knowledge on the effectiveness of ICBT for anxiety disorders in primary care. The trial will also add knowledge on the long term effects of ICBT when delivered for regular clinic patients Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01390168

  • 144.
    Bergqvist, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Learning in a multiple-cue judgment task: Evidence for shifts from rule based processing to similarity based processingIndependent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cue abstraction (additively combining abstracted values) and exemplar memory (comparing with stored memory via similarity) are important processes in multiple  cue  judgments,  but  previous  studies  lack  insight  into  how  people  use  these  processes  while  learning  to  make  judgments.  The  present  study  investigates  the  learning  process  in  multiple  cue  judgment  tasks,  comparing  a  linear  structure  with  a  non--‐linear  and  modeling  participant  responses  with  formal  models.  Concurrent  verbal  reporting  (think  aloud)  was  used.  The  hypotheses  were  a)  that  initial  learning  would  follow  a  “rule  bias”  via  additive  integration,  b)  the  representation  of  the  task  would  shift  to  an  exemplar  memory  based  one  with  learning  in  the  non--‐linear  structure  and  c)  the  think  aloud  protocol  would  reflect  this  hypothesized  shift.  The  multiplicative  environment  enables  better  learning  of  the  material,  and  is  best  described  by  an  exemplar  memory  model  while  the  linear  group  performs  worse  and  is  equally  well  described  by  both  models.  Model  fit  in  the  non--‐linear  group  changes  from  equal  to  favoring  exemplar  memory  with  training.  Hypothesis  a  was  not  supported  in  the  results,  both  b  and  c  were  supported.  Furthermore  the  results  have  implications  on  the  question  of  Rule  Bias,  and  also  corroborates  previous  studies.  

  • 145.
    Bergqvist, Maja
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ulander, Lovisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ledarskapets effekt på prestation och upplevd motivation - en experimentell studie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within sports, leadership is considered having a great impact on individuals’ motivation. Leadership could, within a Self-Determination Theory (SDT) framework, be sorted into two different styles, autonomous and controlling leadership. There is a gap in current research concerning the effects of autonomous and controlling leadership on motivation in experimental settings. The aim of the present study was to, in an isolated environment, examine how an autonomy supportive- or a controlling leadership affects intrinsic motivation and performance. The study included 37 participants who, over a period of 20 minutes, performed a lego building task under a neutral, an autonomy supportive- or a controlling leadership style condition. The results indicated that the controlling leadership style had a negative impact on motivation and that the controlled group had lower perceived competence compared to the autonomous group. None of the leadership styles affected performance. Further, perceived motivation was found to significantly correlate with task.

  • 146.
    Bergström, Anton
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hagström, Marina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sambandet mellan terapeutegenskaper och klientskattad arbetsallians: En pilotstudie om studentterapeuters interpersonella problem och självmedkänsla2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The working alliance between therapist and client has proved to be an important factor in predicting the therapeutic outcome. According to interpersonal theory, the therapist’s personal characteristics ought to have an influence on the therapy relationship as well as on the client. However, the ways in which the therapist’s relational patterns influence the working alliance is scarcely investigated. The aim of the present pilot study was to explore the relationship between student therapists’ personal characteristics and their clients’ experience of the working alliance in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Psychodynamic Therapy (PDT). Two self-report instruments, Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP) and Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), were administered post-therapy to student therapists within the therapeutic modalities PDT (N=17) and CBT (N=24). These self-reports were correlated with client ratings of working alliance using the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI). Student therapists’ interpersonal problems in the Nonassertive subscale was negatively correlated with client-rated working alliance within the PDT modality. No significant correlations concerning student therapists’ interpersonal problems were found within the CBT modality. No significant correlations were found between student therapists’ self-reported self-compassion and client-rated working alliance for either group. Results indicate that nonassertive interpersonal problems – such as uncertainty, difficulties with taking initiative and difficulties with expressing divergent opinions – could have a negative influence on the working alliance in PDT. This is discussed in relation to previous studies and interpersonal theory. The usefulness of self-compassion as a therapist characteristic is discussed, as well as differences between the therapeutic modalities and limitations within the study.

  • 147.
    Bergström, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Comparing Neural Correlates of Conscious and Unconscious Working Memory2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Until recently, subliminally encoded memory retention has been considered too brief to study with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, this fMRI study compared conscious and unconscious working memory to find qualitative and/or quantitative differences. An attentional blink paradigm was used, the first target was a math task, and the second target was one of four letters. There were 22 participants, 11 female, at 20-28 years. A three-scaled perceptual awareness scale was used to measure subjective awareness, with significant, p < .001, long lasting (M = 10s) subliminally encoded working memory retention. There was a qualitative and quantitative difference in activity between conscious and unconscious encoding and retrieval, but no difference during maintenance. Unconscious maintenance showed right mid-DLPFC activity compared to baseline. The result supports the controversial claim that subliminal information can activate mid-DLPFC.

  • 148.
    Bergström, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tracing Subliminal Memory Traces2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    This study aims to explore subliminally encoded memory traces over time in an Attentional Blink (AB) paradigm. The AB paradigm consisted of a Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) of numbers among which two targets (T1) a simple math task, and (T2) a single letter (A, S, D, or F) were to be identified. Two direct behavioral measures, T2 accuracy and T2 Response Time (RT) were used. Conscious perception was measured with the subjective Perceptual Awareness Scale (PAS). The expectations was to find a decline in T2 accuracy, and increase in RT over three memory storage lengths (150ms, 3000ms, 7000ms). There were 21 participants, 21-32 years of age, out of which 8 were female. Each of the memory storage lengths showed significant behavioral effects (p< .001), which indicates unconscious perception. However, the repeated measure ANOVA did not find any significant differences for the three memory storage lengths (p> .05) over time. Thus, it was concluded that subliminally encoded memory traces seem to be able to persist for at least 7000ms without end in sight. The result challenge the 500ms limit usually accepted, and thus there is reason to continue to trace subliminal memory traces.

  • 149.
    Bergström, Jan
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet, Department of clinical Neuroscience, Center for Psychiatry Research,Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Karolinska institutet, Department of clinical Neuroscience, Center for Psychiatry Research,Stockholm, Sweden, Linköping University, Department of Behaioural Sciences and Learning, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Karolinska institutet, Department of clinical Neuroscience, Center for Psychiatry Research,Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ruck, Christian
    Karolinska institutet, Department of clinical Neuroscience, Center for Psychiatry Research,Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andreewitch, Sergej
    Karolinska institutet, Department of clinical Neuroscience, Center for Psychiatry Research,Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Andreas
    Mid Sweden University, Department of Social Sciences, Section of Psychology, Östersund, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Department of Social Sciences, Section of Psychology, Östersund, Sweden.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Mid Sweden University, Department of Social Sciences, Section of Psychology, Östersund, Sweden.
    Internet-versus group-administered cognitive behaviour therapy for panic disorder in a psychiatric setting: a randomised trial2010In: BMC Psychiatry, ISSN 1471-244X, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 10, no 54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Internet administered cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is a promising new way to deliver psychological treatment, but its effectiveness in regular care settings and in relation to more traditional CBT group treatment has not yet been determined. The primary aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Internetand group administered CBT for panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia) in a randomised trial within a regular psychiatric care setting. The second aim of the study was to establish the cost-effectiveness of these interventions.

    Methods: Patients referred for treatment by their physician, or self-referred, were telephone-screened by a psychiatric nurse. Patients fulfilling screening criteria underwent an in-person structured clinical interview carried out by a psychiatrist. A total of 113 consecutive patients were then randomly assigned to 10 weeks of either guided Internet delivered CBT (n = 53) or group CBT (n = 60). After treatment, and at a 6-month follow-up, patients were again assessed by the psychiatrist, blind to treatment condition.

    Results: Immediately after randomization 9 patients dropped out, leaving 104 patients who started treatment. Patients in both treatment conditions showed  significant improvement on the main outcome measure, the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) after treatment. For the Internet treatment the within-group effect size (pre-post) on the PDSS was Cohen's d = 1.73, and for the group treatment it was d = 1.63. Between group effect sizes were low and treatment effects were maintained at 6-months follow-up. We found no statistically significant differences between the two treatment conditions using a mixed models approach to account for missing data. Group CBT utilised considerably more therapist time than did Internet CBT. Defining effect as proportion of PDSS responders, the cost-effectiveness analysis concerning therapist time showed that Internet treatment had superior cost-effectiveness ratios in relation to group treatment both at post-treatment and follow-up.

    Conclusions: This study provides support for the effectiveness of Internet CBT in a psychiatric setting for patients with panic disorder, and suggests that it is equally effective as the more widely used group administered CBT in reducing panic-and agoraphobic symptoms, as well as being more cost effective with respect to therapist time.

  • 150.
    Bergström, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ett Excel-baserat informationssystem för IKEAs personalavdelningar2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    IKEA HaparandaTornio employ some two-hundred people in its furniture retail store.

    Keeping track of staff statistics and employee information has previously been achieved

    through the use of a basic Microsoft Office Excel spreadsheet. The store’s human resources

    department requested an upgrade to this system with the hope of speeding up and

    simplifying the administrative process, as well as to make it easier to monitor HR-related

    target statistics. The following report documents the development process of that upgrade as

    carried out by the author. The project draws on research in usability design and cognitive

    psychology to develop a user-friendly interface. Particular focus has been put on features

    related to the administration of employee information, including adding, editing and

    deleting personnel entries, as well as a clean and informative statistical interface. The result

    is an Excel-based information system that uses VBA programming to achieve said goals.

    The vast majority of planned features were implemented, although some were revised or

    scaled-down due to limitations in Excel. Overall the project goal was reached, but work will

    continue in order to enhance the final result.

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