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  • 101.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Raitio, Kaisa
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Studying conflicts, proposing solutions: Towards multi-level approaches to the analyses of forest conflicts2013In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 33, p. 123-127Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 102.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    The Mountain Mistra Programme: the Political Science Approach2005In: Fourth Annual Parks and Protected Areas Research Forum. Winnipeg, Canada, 30 september, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 103.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ericsson, G
    Om svenskars inställning till rovdjur och rovdjurspolitik2009Report (Other academic)
  • 104.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ericsson, G
    Om svenskars inställning till rovdjursförvaltning2009Report (Other academic)
  • 105.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Ericsson, G
    Rovdjursfrågan ingen traditionell höger-vänsterfråga: partier går i otakt med sina anhängare2006Report (Other academic)
  • 106.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Co-management of large carnivores in a multi-level institutional setting: problems and prospects2006In: International Symposium on Society and Resource Management. Vancouver, Canada, 3-8 juni, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 107.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Falleth, Eva Irene
    Hovik, Sissel
    Omstridd natur2008In: Omstridd natur: Trender och utmaningar i nordisk naturförvaltning, Boréa, Umeå , 2008, p. 13-32Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 108.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Hovik, Sissel
    Falleth, Eva Irene
    Förord2008In: Omstridd natur: Trender och utmaningar i nordisk naturförvaltning, Boréa, Umeå , 2008, p. 9-10Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 109.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Kanyama, Annika Carlsson
    Räty, Riitta
    Sonnek, Karin Mossberg
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    Mossing, Annika
    Nordin, Annika
    Policy goals and instruments for achieving a desirable future forest: Experiences from backcasting with stakeholders in Sweden2020In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The future of forests is a controversial issue in Sweden and elsewhere. Different stakeholder groups differ in the importance they give to roles they envision forests should have in, for example, the national economy, the protection of biodiversity and sustainable use of ecosystem services, and in mitigating climate change. We used participatory backcasting, a solution-oriented form of scenario analysis, as a method to identify stakeholders' various views as to what constitutes a desirable future forest in Sweden. By involving key stakeholders, we wanted to explore how to broaden the scope of potential solutions to the controversial issue of forest futures by analyzing goals, measures and policy instruments in order to form a bridge between stakeholders' policy objectives, and the instruments and support tools they would like to use to implement those policies. Preferences for particular policy instruments varied considerably among the stakeholder groups. In line with the literature, our study confirms that policy instruments are not mere empty vessels, but represent particular policy ideas, objectives and outlooks, and can show how stakeholders want forests to be governed in the future.

  • 110.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Institutionen för Vilt, fisk och miljö, SLU.
    Lindberg, D-E
    Ericsson, G
    Utvärdering av prøveordning för statlig leie jaktrett på elg i ulvrevir 2006-20072009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 111.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Lindkvist, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Öhman, Karin
    SLU, Department of Forest Resource Management.
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    SLU, Department of Forest Resource Management.
    Governing competing demands for forest resources in Sweden2011In: Forests, ISSN ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 218-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changing and competing land use, where we make use of a growing share of resources, potentially undermines the capacity of forests to provide multiple functions such as timber, biodiversity, recreation and pasture lands. The governance challenge is thus to manage trade-offs between human needs and, at the same time, maintain the capacities of forests to provide us with these needs. Sweden provides a clear example of this kind of challenge. Traditionally, timber has been the most apparent contribution of the forest to Swedish national interests. However, due to competing land use, the identification of the wider role of forests in terms of multifunctionality has been recognized. Today, a number of functions, such as water quality and biodiversity together with cultural and social activities related to forests, are increasingly included as potential demands on forests in competition with traditional functions such as timber production. The challenge is thus related to trade-offs between different functions. How to balance the relationship and guide trade-offs between different functions of forests is, to a large extent, a matter of policy choice and the design of appropriate governance institutions and pro-active management activities. Based on perceptions among stakeholders on future competing demands and a literature review, the paper explore the multifunctionality of the Swedish forests and how it is affected by competing demands for land use; how multifunctionality is currently governed; and concludes by suggesting promising decision support methods to manage trade-offs between different functions.

  • 112.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Lindvall, A
    Regional förvaltning av rovdjur i Västerbotten och Norrbotten: om likheter och skillnader ur ett samförvaltningsperspektiv2006Report (Other academic)
  • 113.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Moen, Jon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Widmark, Camilla
    Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Danell, Öje
    Reindeer Husbandry Unit, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Progressing toward Co-management through collaborative learning: forestry and reindeer husbandry in dialogue2006In: The International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management, ISSN 1745-1590, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 326-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With complex common pool resources, it is important to balance the multitude of interests in order to generate a sustainable management regime. This is not the case in the northern parts of Sweden, where forest resources are used for different extractive purposes by forest companies and the reindeer herding industry. In many respects, the present situation represents a classic collective-action problem with a number of reasons why no cooperative behaviour might be expected. This article illuminates the relationship between the two industries in an historical, ecological and institutional perspective in order to explain the limited scope of coordinated action between the two actors. It also, through the use of collaborative learning techniques and scenario methods, explores the possibilities for the two industries to consider each other's needs and to identify strategies for co-existence and co-management. The testing of a broad range of scenarios among a selected group of stakeholders leads to the identification of possibilities for improving the management of the forest and lichen resource by changing institutional arrangements and improving coordination between the stakeholders.

  • 114.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Pellika, Jani
    Department of Sociology and Social Policy, University of Joensuu, Joensuu, Finland.
    Ratamäki, Outi
    Department of Sociology and Social Policy, University of Joensuu, Joensuu, Finland.
    Sande, Allan
    Department of Social Science, Bodö University College, Bodö, Norway.
    Management of Large Carnivores in Fennoscandia: New Patterns of Regional Participation2009In: Human Dimensions of Wildlife, ISSN 1087-1209, E-ISSN 1533-158X, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 37-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Countries are increasingly shifting responsibility for large carnivore management from central to local government authorities. The three countries in Fennoscandia—Finland, Norway, and Sweden—are no exception. In all three countries new approaches to large carnivore management have emerged, including some elements of decentralization, which is intended to increase efficiency, and improve the equity, participation, and transparency of the government to the citizenry. Although the three countries are similar in terms of their biophysical and socioeconomic characteristics, they have chosen three different decentralization strategies. In Norway a representative model of decentralization has emerged, whereas the Swedish and Finnish model has a corporatist character. This comparative study of policies relating to the large carnivores in the three countries focuses on the actors, and their powers and accountability, and demonstrates that the different strategies result in no significant increase in power at the local or regional level.

  • 115.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sandström, Per
    SLU Umeå.
    Jougda, Leif
    Swedish forest agency.
    Mitigating conflicts through collaborative learning: the case of forestry and reindeer husbandry in northern Sweden2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 116.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sjölander-Lindqvist, Annelie
    Pellikka, Jani
    Hiedanpää, Juha
    Krange, Olve
    Skogen, Ketil
    Between politics and management: governing large carnivores in Fennoscandia2018In: Large carnivore conservation and management: human dimensions / [ed] Tasos Hovardas, Oxon: Routledge, 2018, p. 269-290Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental collaborative governance or decentralization are increasingly promoted as useful means to manage conflicting goals and to balance different interests with regard to large carnivores. In Finland, Norway, and Sweden, new approaches to large carnivore governance and management have emerged since 2000, each including some elements of collaborative governance or decentralization of authority. In all three cases, the processes are assumed, or at least hoped to, result in the sharing of information and knowledge, joint agreements, dialogues, and conflict mitigation measures. When comparing the different modes of governance applied in the three countries, it becomes apparent that there is no panacea, quick fix, or blueprint for a single type of governance mode that has the capacity to accommodate multiple objectives and activities. While the countries have tried to successively adjust their governance systems to handle identified weaknesses, considerable efforts could still be undertaken to share experiences and best practices between the countries. This includes aspects such as the design of institutions and the setup of participatory processes for planning and management.

  • 117.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Competing land use associated with Sweden´s forests: External drivers affecting Swedish forests and forestry2009Report (Refereed)
  • 118.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Dilemmas in forest policy development: the Swedish forestry model under pressure2015In: The future use of nordic forests: a global perspective / [ed] Erik Westholm, Karin Beland Lindahl, Florian Kraxner, Springer, 2015, p. 145-158Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter brings back the discussion to the Swedish situation and describes the forest policy dilemmas related to a transition of forest governance. The expected transition implies a shift in forest policy and practice in developed countries with a reduced "emphasis on timber production relative to the provision of environmental goods and services". The chapter describes a number of dilemmas and concludes that Swedish forestry policy has not managed to handle the gap between key stakeholders. Now this gap seems too wide to expect any joint contribution to the development of Swedish forest policy. Instead, the disagreements have resulted in putting pressure on the Swedish forestry model 

  • 119.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Konflikten om bärplockning är av gammalt datum2012In: Skogshistoriska sällskapet. Årsskrift 2012, ISSN 1650-0962, p. 44-53Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den politiska majoriteten i riksdagen har hela tiden gått emot förslagen om inskränkningar av allemansrätten till skogens vilda bär. Man har erkänt att det förekommer konflikter kring resursen, men menat att de kan förebyggas och lösas genom undervisning och information om vilka lagar och regler som gäller i skog och mark och inte via hårdare regleringar som stärker markägarnas rätt till bären.

    Avgörande för denna inställning tycks hittills ha varit att bären är alltför lite utnyttjad resurs – även som kommersiell produkt och som växer utan att markägaren behöver göra några investeringar. Det har därför funnits en farhåga att begränsningar av rätten till att plocka skulle göra resursen ännu mindre utnyttjad, vilket setts som en nationalekonomisk nackdel.

    Trots att skogens bär är en så användbar resurs är det nämligen endast en liten del som plockas. Av de uppskattningsvis 300 miljoner kilo bär som växer i de svenska skogarna varje år är det alltjämt uppskattningsvis endast cirka 5–10 procent som tas om hand. Samtidigt importeras stora mängder skogsbär i dag, liksom under hela 1900-talet. Nutida statistik visar exempelvis att när Sverige under 2000-talet exporterat mellan 6 000 och 9 000 ton blåbär per år så har vi också importerat mellan 4 000 och 5 000 ton.

  • 120.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Wennberg DiGasper, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Öhman, Karin
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Conflict resolution through ecosystem-based management: the case of Swedish moose management2013In: International Journal of the Commons, ISSN 1875-0281, E-ISSN 1875-0281, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 549-570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish moose (Alces alces) management has over the years transformed from a situation similar to what Hardin (1968) defined as a tragedy of the commons – i.e. where open access and unrestricted demands lead to over-exploitation – into a situation characterized by an abundance of moose. While high numbers of moose are preferred by hunters, they damage forests through grazing, causing conflicts between hunters and forest owners. In an attempt to resolve these disputes, the Swedish government is introducing a new local ecosystem-based management system. This paper analyzes this shift from managing a single resource to the broader perspective of ecosystem management and discusses to what extent it will contribute to conflict resolution. The results suggest that some of the problems highlighted may be solved through the implementation of an ecosystem management system. However, several challenges remain to be tackled, such as how to establish robust partnerships between forest owners and hunters for managing moose on land with a fragmented property rights structure. This can lead to different and conflicting objectives and, consequently, difficulties in reaching collective action.

  • 121.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Widmark, C
    Moen, J
    Daniell, Ö
    Esselin, A
    Skogen som gemensam resurs: Vägledning för effektivare samråd mellan ren- och skogsnäring2006Report (Other academic)
  • 122.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Widmark, Camilla
    Effektivare samråd mellan rennäring och skogsbruk2006In: Fjällen i fokus. Vilhelmina 21 november, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 123.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Widmark, Camilla
    Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Stakeholders’ perceptions of consultations as tools for co-management: A case study of the forestry and reindeer herding sectors in northern Sweden2007In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 10, no 1-2, p. 25-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The forestry and reindeer herding sectors utilize the same land in northern Sweden, and adversely affect each other's productivity. The common pool resource character of this situation has made it difficult to find ways to resolve conflicts that could threaten the two sectors' continued co-existence. A consultation procedure that was introduced to reduce conflicts does not appear to be effective, since conflicts between the two actors still occur. One reason for this failure might be found in the power distribution between forestry and reindeer herding. Earlier research has shown that a co-management system in which the allocation of power between the stakeholders is uneven is difficult to maintain in the long term. However, it is unclear just how uneven the power distribution is between the two actors in this case, and the consequences the disparity might have for the viability and stability of the management system. Focusing on the power relations within the consultation procedures, this paper explores the potential of the present institutional system to take the different interests of the stakeholders into account and to use the consultation procedures as tools for co-managing the forest resources in northern Sweden.

  • 124. Sandström, Per
    et al.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Reindeer husbandry and forestry: conflict mitigation in northern Sweden2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 125. Sandström, Per
    et al.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Svensson, Johan
    Jougda, Leif
    Baer, Karin
    Participatory GIS to mitigate conflicts between reindeer husbandry and forestry in Vilhelmina Model Forest, Sweden2012In: Forestry Chronicle, ISSN 0015-7546, Vol. 88, no 3, p. 254-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve communication between reindeer-herders and other land users, we developed and implemented a system to produce reindeer husbandry plans together with Sami reindeer-herding communities. A central component of our communications strategy was the introduction and use of a participatory GIS (pGIS). We evaluated the potential and limitations of pGIS as a tool for collaborative learning. We concluded that by merging traditional and scientific knowledge in a pGIS, the process of spatial communication has contributed to a more inclusive planning process, and to improved knowledge-sharing. Furthermore, the process has contributed to a more efficient long-term perspective where land use planning focuses on key areas but with solutions applied to the landscape. The Model Forest offered an appropriate platform to facilitate the process.

  • 126. Simoncini, Riccardo
    et al.
    Ring, Irene
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Albert, Christian
    Kasymov, Ulan
    Arlettaz, Raphael
    Constraints and opportunities for mainstreaming biodiversity and ecosystem services in the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy: Insights from the IPBES assessment for Europe and Central Asia2019In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 88, article id 104099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), being one of the strongest drivers of agricultural land-use practices, has a substantial impact on biodiversity and ecosystem services in the Member States. The initial focus of the CAP to increase and intensify agricultural production affected water and land qualities and contributed to the degradation of traditional agricultural landscapes, cultural identities, and erosion of typical farmland biodiversity. Recent CAP reforms have begun to consider biodiversity and ecosystem services, but still fall short of a thorough mainstreaming approach. The objectives of this paper are to point out main findings regarding (i) key shortcomings of the current CAP, and (ii) major opportunities to enhance the mainstreaming of biodiversity and ecosystem services within the CAP. The paper is based on insights generated in the sub-global assessment of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) for Europe and Central Asia11A major part of this contribution is based on an earlier, pre-peer reviewed version of Ring et al. (2018): Ring, I., Sandström, C., Acar, S., Adeishvili, M., Albert, C., Allard, C., Anker, Y., Arlettaz, R., Bela, G., ten Brink, B., Fischer, A., Fürst, C., Galil, B., Hynes, S., Kasymov, U., Marta-Pedroso, C., Mendes, A., Molau, U., Olschewski, R., Pergl, J., & Simoncini, R. (2018): Chapter 6: Options for governance and decision-making across scales and sectors. In: IPBES (2018): The IPBES regional assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services for Europe and Central Asia. Rounsevell, M., Fischer, M., Torre-Marin Rando, A., Mader, A. (eds.). Secretariat of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, Bonn, Germany, pp. 661-802.. Our results illustrate the evolution of agricultural policy objectives and instruments applied in the CAP, and their effects on selected ecosystem services and biodiversity. We shed light on key shortcomings of existing policy and provide recommendations for further CAP reforms to achieve more effective biodiversity conservation and sustainable use of ecosystem services.

  • 127. Sjölander-Lindqvist, Annelie
    et al.
    Bendz, Anna
    Cinque, Serena
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Research amidst the contentious issue of wolf presence: exploration of reference frames and social, cultural, and political dimensions2018In: Large carnivore conservation and management: human dimensions / [ed] Tasos Hovardas, Oxon: Routledge, 2018, p. 19-36Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the case of the Scandinavian wolf, the species is both considered an impediment to rural livelihoods and survival, and valued as an inextricable part of the fauna. Understanding the social, cultural and political roots of this polarization, which involve uncertainty regarding future prospects for species recovery and human – wildlife coexistence, conflicting environmental goals and values, and disputes over the burdens and benefits of conservation initiatives, requires a research approach that can contribute to a renewed and broadened understanding of the contemporary aspects of contested policy and management. We argue that any research into such contentious and politicized situations requires a comprehensive and exhaustive research design capable of addressing both individual and collective dimensions, including emotive human responses, issues of social and political trust, conflicting values and norms, clashing knowledge claims, and politicized arenas of interaction. At the same time, studying politicized phenomena may be challenging for the researcher who must create a trustful conversational space and balance the entanglements arising from the socio-cultural and political embeddedness of the connections between individuals, groups, organizations, and institutions. To illustrate this, we highlight the usefulness of different theoretical and methodological perspectives in the exploration of the different frames held by actors at different levels.

  • 128.
    Sjölander-Lindqvist, Annelie
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Johansson, Maria
    Lunds tekniska högskola .
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Individual and collective responses to large carnivore management: the roles of trust, representation, knowledge spheres, communication and leadership2015In: Wildlife Biology, ISSN 0909-6396, E-ISSN 1903-220X, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 175-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Overseeing the continued recovery, dispersal and management of large carnivore populations while simultaneously considering human viability and welfare requires delicately balancing local concerns for rural communities’ livelihood prospects and property vulnerability with international concerns for saving threatened species. In this article, we propose an integrated analytical perspective to elucidate how competing interests and power relationships influence the governance and management of contested wildlife resources. However, simply identifying these patterns is not enough. It is also imperative that the interrelationships between broader biophysical, social, political, economic, and cultural contexts and histories be explored in order to describe, analyze and better understand how and why individual and collective responses vary. In doing this, we drew from findings from a variety of social science disciplines (environmental communication, environmental psychology, human ecology, human geography, political science, public administration and social anthropology) and, here, present how social science approaches can enhance understanding of the different layers and contexts of contested natural resource management. Highlighting the individual, socio-cultural, political, and institutional dimensions, the article concludes by identifying five recurrent concepts that must be understood and consciously applied to large carnivore governance and management: i) establishment of trust between people and groups interacting on the subject; ii) fair representation of stakeholder interests; iii) acknowledgement of the different knowledge-spheres, including those based on personal experiences, culture and tradition, and science; iv) communication, based on dialogue about pluralistic perspectives, to collectively formulate and agree on set goals; and v) leadership emphasising empowerment.

  • 129. Sjölander-Lindqvist, Annelie
    et al.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Shaking Hands: Balancing Tensions in the Swedish Forested Landscape2019In: Conservation and Society, ISSN 0972-4923, E-ISSN 0975-3133, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 319-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wild ungulates play a key role in the management and governance of Swedish wildlife. They are primarily harvested for meat, but are also important for non-consumptive uses of wildlife such as recreation. However, due to browsing and crop raiding, ungulates also reduce the forest's economic value and make it difficult for farmers to maintain agricultural practices. While current policies and regulations clearly indicate that wildlife is to be treated as a valuable, others may disagree. This setting provided an opportunity to study the search for mutually acceptable outcomes and working relationships in parallel to the state-regulated management arrangements. The shared and disputed issues in the studied case echo the broader issues of entitlement to resources and value transformation that can stabilise but also disturb or even disrupt environmental management. The diverging interests, claims and experiences of forestry, hunting, farming, recreation, and protection, expressed in their own voices and consolidated into narratives about land, land use, and rights and obligations, can be seen as an important driver of collective action. The connections between the experiences of and the dynamics behind the decision to collaborate reveal a contested space in which the commercial wood industries, agriculture, the decentralised state, conservation, and recreational interests are all involved and must negotiate with one-another to secure their interests. The participants justify their actions symbolically, referring to an idiom of rights, the construct of forestry's importance for the public good, and the desire to be resourceful and authoritative outside the framework of state action.

  • 130. Strand, Geir-Harald
    et al.
    Hansen, Inger
    de Boon, Auvikki
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Carnivore Management Zones and their Impact on Sheep Farming in Norway2019In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 64, no 5, p. 537-552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the impact of Norway's current zonal carnivore management system for four large carnivore species on sheep farming. Sheep losses increased when the large carnivores were reintroduced, but has declined again after the introduction of the zoning management system. The total number of sheep increased outside, but declined slightly inside the management zones. The total sheep production increased, but sheep farming was still lost as a source of income for many farmers. The use of the grazing resources became more extensive. Losses decreased because sheep were removed from the open outfield pastures and many farmers gave up sheep farming. While wolves expel sheep farming from the outfield grazing areas, small herds can still be kept in fenced enclosures. Bears are in every respect incompatible with sheep farming. Farmers adjust to the seasonal and more predictable behavior of lynx and wolverine, although these species also may cause serious losses when present. The mitigating efforts are costly and lead to reduced animal welfare and lower income for the farmers, although farmers in peri-urban areas increasingly are keeping sheep as an avocation. There is a spillover effect of the zoning strategy in the sense that there is substantial loss of livestock to carnivores outside, but geographically near the management zones. The carnivore management policy used in Norway is a reasonably successful management strategy when the goal is to separate livestock from carnivores and decrease the losses, but the burdens are unequally distributed and farmers inside the management zones are at an economic disadvantage.

  • 131.
    Sténs, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Fries, Clas
    Skogsstyrelsen.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    In the eye of the stakeholder: the challenges of governing social forest values2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 87-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines which kinds of social benefits derived from forests are emphasised by Swedish stakeholders and what governance modes and management tools they accept. Our study shows that there exists a great variety among stakeholders’ perceptions of forests’ social values, where tourism and recreation is the most common reference. There are also differences in preferred governance modes and management where biomass and bioenergy sectors advocate business as usual (i.e. framework regulations and voluntarism) and other stakeholders demand rigid tools (i.e. coercion and targeting) and improved landscape planning. This divide will have implications for future policy orientations and require deliberative policy processes and improved dialogue among stakeholders and authorities. We suggest that there is a potential for these improvements, since actors from almost all stakeholder groups support local influence on governance and management, acknowledged and maintained either by the authorities, i.e. targeting, or by the stakeholders themselves, i.e. voluntarism.

  • 132.
    Sténs, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Allemansrätten: Hinder eller möjlighet för grönt entreprenörskap?2014In: Skogens sociala värden: Forskningen visar vägen / [ed] Susanna Lundqvist & Lena Johnson, Alnarp: Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet , 2014, 1, p. 52-61Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 133.
    Sténs, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Allemansrätten in Sweden: A resistant custom2014In: Landscapes, ISSN 2040-8153, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 106-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By studying parliamentary proposals, debates, and reports as well as governmental inquiries and proposals from the first half of the twentieth century, the authors analyse the status of the allemansrätt – ‘every man’s right’ to public access - in Sweden. The founding principles of this use-right have been generally accepted since the late nineteenth century, but for almost as long there has been a feeling that it has been used (and abused) for commercial as well as personal interest, first by ‘for-profit’ berry harvesters and later on by tourist companies. These uses have been questioned by a minority of conservative and (to a less extent) liberal landowners, who have tried to limit the right of public access to private land by addressing the issue in the parliament. At the same time, a political majority of socialists, liberals, and conservatives has defended the right from being either limited or regulated by law. This resistance is explained by the economic characteristics of the resources at stake, and by the difficulties associated with transferring a customary right into law, i.e. an informal institution to a formal institution.

  • 134.
    Sténs, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Allemansrätten och bären: vem ska äga "skogens guld"2014In: Idéer och värderingar: rapport från Future Forests 2009-2012 / [ed] Erland Mårald och Christer Nordlund, Umeå: SLU, Future Forests , 2014, , p. 2p. 20-21Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 135.
    Sténs, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Divergent interests and ideas around property rights: the case of berry harvesting in Sweden2013In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 33, p. 56-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper illustrates the clash between interests and ideas concerning property rights and regulation by analyzing the ongoing debate on the right of public access in Sweden, which has recently intensified due to an influx of foreign professional berry harvesters. The conflicts in Sweden are found to stem from contradictory concepts concerning property (notably, ownership and the right of public access) and ideological differences in terms of whether forest resources should be regulated by government or governance. While the precise circumstances of this case are somewhat unique to Sweden, differences of opinion concerning property rights and regulations are common and so our findings will be broadly applicable when defining and analyzing forest-related conflicts, especially those involving multiple-use situations.

  • 136. Svensson, Johan
    et al.
    Sandström, Per
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Jougda, Leif
    Baer, Karin
    Sustainable landscape management in the Vilhelmina Model Forest, Sweden2012In: Forestry Chronicle, ISSN 0015-7546, Vol. 88, no 3, p. 291-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to outline current foundations for sustainable landscape management in the Vilhelmina Model Forest, northwest Sweden. A case study revealed that the remaining patches of undisturbed or less disturbed boreal forest ecosystems comprise multiple values and, thus, constitute the basis for landscape planning. By identifying these patches, it is also possible to construct a spatial planning infrastructure for implementing sustainable management and land use. A more comprehensive toolbox needs to be developed, however, including monitoring and inventory schemes for relevant biophysical and socio-economic data, better temporal resolution for cause and effect analyses, and functioning scale-flexible planning and governance instruments.

  • 137.
    Widmark, Camilla
    et al.
    Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Bostedt, Göran
    Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Andersson, Mats
    Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Measuring transaction costs incurred by landowners in multiple land-use situations2013In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 677-684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the development and implementation of a method to measure the transaction costs in situations of multiple land-use, where the actions of one actor have negative effects on the other and vice versa (i.e., where the two actors' usage patterns are interdependent). In situations where more than one agent is using a limited resource, transaction costs arise, which may affect the governance of that resource. For example, in northern Sweden the forestry and reindeer husbandry sectors incur transaction costs during consultations over land-use management. The analysis presented here indicates that the transaction costs incurred by the forestry industry are mainly affected by the number of consultations held, and that the industry's costs could be reduced if more of the reindeer-herding communities drew up formal land-use plans (RBP). The availability of these RBP affected the behaviour of the forestry companies' agents. For example, they were more likely to draw up detailed plans prior to consultations when a RBP was available. The method used to measure and model transaction costs may be useful in other situations involving multiple interdependent actors competing for the use of a common resource, especially in cases involving co-management.

  • 138.
    Widmark, Camilla
    et al.
    Skogsekonomi, SLU.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Transaction Costs of Institutional Change in Multiple-Use Commons: The Case of Consultations Between Forestry and Reindeer Husbandry in Northern Sweden2012In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 428-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interdependence, that is, when the choice of one actor influences that of another, has relevance for the success of an institutional arrangement. Transaction cost theory can help to explain responses to governance solutions and problems associated with governance and policy of such arrangements. This paper focuses on the parallel use of the forest resources by the forestry industry and indigenous groups practising reindeer husbandry in Northern Sweden as an example of such interdependence. A theoretical model of governance of interdependence and the effect of transaction costs is developed in the paper to meet the needs of being able to evaluate the effect of interdependence in a multiple-use situation. The model is then tested on the empirical example of forestry and reindeer husbandry, using scenario and focus-group methods, to discuss the effect of transaction costs in the present hybrid institution system. This institution is intended to address the interdependence between the actors and manage conflicts, but currently fails to reduce conflict. Next, the model is used to evaluate possible changes; the results of the analysis show that modifying the institutional arrangement can bring about improvements that would have some redistributive effects in terms of transaction costs, lessening the impact of interdependence.

  • 139. Willebrand, T
    et al.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Lundgren, T
    Reaching for new perspectives on socio-ecological systems: exploring the possibilities for adaptive co-management in the Swedish mountain region2006In: International Journal of Biodiversity, Science and Management, Vol. 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 140.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Med sikte på en bättre fjällförvaltning2004Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 141.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Samarbete ger mer flexibilitet2004Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 142. Öhman, M-B
    et al.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Sapmi’s ‘vita kol’: en exposé över tillämpbara perspektiv på kraft, konflikt och kulturella kuriositeter längs Norrlands älvar2004Report (Other academic)
123 101 - 142 of 142
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