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  • 101. Adams, D.
    et al.
    Coelho, T.
    Suhr, Ole
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Conceicao, I.
    Waddington-Cruz, M.
    Schmidt, H.
    Campistol, J.
    Pouget, J.
    Buades, J.
    Falzone, R.
    Harrop, J.
    De Frutos, R.
    Butler, J.
    Cehelsky, J.
    Nochur, S.
    Vaishnaw, A.
    Gollob, J.
    Interim results from phase ii trial of aln-ttr02, a novel RNAi therapeutic for the treatment of familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy2013Inngår i: Journal of the peripheral nervous system, ISSN 1085-9489, E-ISSN 1529-8027, Vol. 18, nr Supplement 2, s. 1-2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 102. Adams, D.
    et al.
    Gonzalez-Duarte, A.
    O'Riordan, W. D.
    Yang, C. -C
    Ueda, M.
    Kristen, A. V.
    Tournev, I.
    Schmidt, H. H.
    Coelho, T.
    Berk, J. L.
    Lin, K. -P
    Vita, G.
    Attarian, S.
    Plante-Bordeneuve, V.
    Mezei, M. M.
    Campistol, J. M.
    Buades, J.
    Brannagan, T. H. , I I I
    Kim, B. J.
    Oh, J.
    Parman, Y.
    Sekijima, Y.
    Hawkins, P. N.
    Solomon, S. D.
    Polydefkis, M.
    Dyck, P. J.
    Gandhi, P. J.
    Goyal, S.
    Chen, J.
    Strahs, A. L.
    Nochur, S. V.
    Sweetser, M. T.
    Garg, P. P.
    Vaishnaw, A. K.
    Gollob, J. A.
    Suhr, Ole B.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Patisiran, an RNAi Therapeutic, for Hereditary Transthyretin Amyloidosis2018Inngår i: New England Journal of Medicine, ISSN 0028-4793, E-ISSN 1533-4406, Vol. 379, nr 1, s. 11-21Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Patisiran, an investigational RNA interference therapeutic agent, specifically inhibits hepatic synthesis of transthyretin.

    METHODS: In this phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned patients with hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis with polyneuropathy, in a 2:1 ratio, to receive intravenous patisiran (0.3 mg per kilogram of body weight) or placebo once every 3 weeks. The primary end point was the change from baseline in the modified Neuropathy Impairment Score+7 (mNIS+7; range, 0 to 304, with higher scores indicating more impairment) at 18 months. Other assessments included the Norfolk Quality of Life-Diabetic Neuropathy (Norfolk QOL-DN) questionnaire (range, -4 to 136, with higher scores indicating worse quality of life), 10-m walk test (with gait speed measured in meters per second), and modified body-mass index (modified BMI, defined as [weight in kilograms divided by square of height in meters] x albumin level in grams per liter; lower values indicated worse nutritional status).

    RESULTS: A total of 225 patients underwent randomization (148 to the patisiran group and 77 to the placebo group). The mean (+/- SD) mNIS+7 at baseline was 80.9 +/- 41.5 in the patisiran group and 74.6 +/- 37.0 in the placebo group; the least-squares mean (+/- SE) change from baseline was -6.0 +/- 1.7 versus 28.0 +/- 2.6 (difference, -34.0 points; P<0.001) at 18 months. The mean (+/- SD) baseline Norfolk QOL-DN score was 59.6 +/- 28.2 in the patisiran group and 55.5 +/- 24.3 in the placebo group; the least-squares mean (+/- SE) change from baseline was -6.7 +/- 1.8 versus 14.4 +/- 2.7 (difference, -21.1 points; P<0.001) at 18 months. Patisiran also showed an effect on gait speed and modified BMI. At 18 months, the least-squares mean change from baseline in gait speed was 0.08 +/- 0.02 m per second with patisiran versus -0.24 +/- 0.04 m per second with placebo (difference, 0.31 m per second; P<0.001), and the least-squares mean change from baseline in the modified BMI was -3.7 +/- 9.6 versus -119.4 +/- 14.5 (difference, 115.7; P<0.001). Approximately 20% of the patients who received patisiran and 10% of those who received placebo had mild or moderate infusion-related reactions; the overall incidence and types of adverse events were similar in the two groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: In this trial, patisiran improved multiple clinical manifestations of hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis.

  • 103. Adams, David
    et al.
    Suhr, Ole B.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Hund, Ernst
    Obici, Laura
    Tournev, Ivailo
    Campistol, Josep M.
    Slama, Michel S.
    Hazenberg, Bouke P.
    Coelho, Teresa
    First European consensus for diagnosis, management, and treatment of transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy2016Inngår i: Current Opinion in Neurology, ISSN 1350-7540, E-ISSN 1473-6551, Vol. 29, s. S14-S26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of review Early and accurate diagnosis of transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP) represents one of the major challenges faced by physicians when caring for patients with idiopathic progressive neuropathy. There is little consensus in diagnostic and management approaches across Europe. Recent findings The low prevalence of TTR-FAP across Europe and the high variation in both genotype and phenotypic expression of the disease means that recognizing symptoms can be difficult outside of a specialized diagnostic environment. The resulting delay in diagnosis and the possibility of misdiagnosis can misguide clinical decision-making and negatively impact subsequent treatment approaches and outcomes. Summary This review summarizes the findings from two meetings of the European Network for TTR-FAP (ATTReuNET). This is an emerging group comprising representatives from 10 European countries with expertise in the diagnosis and management of TTR-FAP, including nine National Reference Centres. The current review presents management strategies and a consensus on the gold standard for diagnosis of TTR-FAP as well as a structured approach to ongoing multidisciplinary care for the patient. Greater communication, not just between members of an individual patient's treatment team, but also between regional and national centres of expertise, is the key to the effective management of TTR-FAP.

  • 104. Adams, David
    et al.
    Suhr, Ole
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Conceicao, Isabel
    Waddington-Cruz, Marcia
    Schmidt, Hartmut
    Buades, Juan
    Campistol, Josep
    Pouget, Jean
    Berk, John
    Coelho, Teresa
    Phase 2 open-label extension study of patisiran, an investigational RNAi therapeutic for the treatment of familial amyloid polyneuropathy2015Inngår i: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, ISSN 0022-3050, E-ISSN 1468-330X, Vol. 86, nr 11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 105. Adams, Hieab H. H.
    et al.
    Hibar, Derrek P.
    Chouraki, Vincent
    Stein, Jason L.
    Nyquist, Paul A.
    Renteria, Miguel E.
    Trompet, Stella
    Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro
    Seshadri, Sudha
    Desrivieres, Sylvane
    Beecham, Ashley H.
    Jahanshad, Neda
    Wittfeld, Katharine
    Van der Lee, Sven J.
    Abramovic, Lucija
    Alhusaini, Saud
    Amin, Najaf
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Arfanakis, Konstantinos
    Aribisala, Benjamin S.
    Armstrong, Nicola J.
    Athanasiu, Lavinia
    Axelsson, Tomas
    Beiser, Alexa
    Bernard, Manon
    Bis, Joshua C.
    Blanken, Laura M. E.
    Blanton, Susan H.
    Bohlken, Marc M.
    Boks, Marco P.
    Bralten, Janita
    Brickman, Adam M.
    Carmichael, Owen
    Chakravarty, M. Mallar
    Chauhan, Ganesh
    Chen, Qiang
    Ching, Christopher R. K.
    Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel
    Den Braber, Anouk
    Doan, Nhat Trung
    Ehrlich, Stefan
    Filippi, Irina
    Ge, Tian
    Giddaluru, Sudheer
    Goldman, Aaron L.
    Gottesman, Rebecca F.
    Greven, Corina U.
    Grimm, Oliver
    Griswold, Michael E.
    Guadalupe, Tulio
    Hass, Johanna
    Haukvik, Unn K.
    Hilal, Saima
    Hofer, Edith
    Hoehn, David
    Holmes, Avram J.
    Hoogman, Martine
    Janowitz, Deborah
    Jia, Tianye
    Kasperaviciute, Dalia
    Kim, Sungeun
    Klein, Marieke
    Kraemer, Bernd
    Lee, Phil H.
    Liao, Jiemin
    Liewald, David C. M.
    Lopez, Lorna M.
    Luciano, Michelle
    Macare, Christine
    Marquand, Andre
    Matarin, Mar
    Mather, Karen A.
    Mattheisen, Manuel
    Mazoyer, Bernard
    Mckay, David R.
    McWhirter, Rebekah
    Milaneschi, Yuri
    Mirza-Schreiber, Nazanin
    Muetzel, Ryan L.
    Maniega, Susana Munoz
    Nho, Kwangsik
    Nugent, Allison C.
    Loohuis, Loes M. Olde
    Oosterlaan, Jaap
    Papmeyer, Martina
    Pappa, Irene
    Pirpamer, Lukas
    Pudas, Sara
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Puetz, Benno
    Rajan, Kumar B.
    Ramasamy, Adaikalavan
    Richards, Jennifer S.
    Risacher, Shannon L.
    Roiz-Santianez, Roberto
    Rommelse, Nanda
    Rose, Emma J.
    Royle, Natalie A.
    Rundek, Tatjana
    Saemann, Philipp G.
    Satizabal, Claudia L.
    Schmaal, Lianne
    Schork, Andrew J.
    Shen, Li
    Shin, Jean
    Shumskaya, Elena
    Smith, Albert V.
    Sprooten, Emma
    Strike, Lachlan T.
    Teumer, Alexander
    Thomson, Russell
    Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana
    Toro, Roberto
    Trabzuni, Daniah
    Vaidya, Dhananjay
    Van der Grond, Jeroen
    Van der Meer, Dennis
    Van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.
    Van Eijk, Kristel R.
    Van Erp, Theo G. M.
    Van Rooij, Daan
    Walton, Esther
    Westlye, Lars T.
    Whelan, Christopher D.
    Windham, Beverly G.
    Winkler, Anderson M.
    Woldehawariat, Girma
    Wolf, Christiane
    Wolfers, Thomas
    Xu, Bing
    Yanek, Lisa R.
    Yang, Jingyun
    Zijdenbos, Alex
    Zwiers, Marcel P.
    Agartz, Ingrid
    Aggarwal, Neelum T.
    Almasy, Laura
    Ames, David
    Amouyel, Philippe
    Andreassen, Ole A.
    Arepalli, Sampath
    Assareh, Amelia A.
    Barral, Sandra
    Bastin, Mark E.
    Becker, Diane M.
    Becker, James T.
    Bennett, David A.
    Blangero, John
    van Bokhoven, Hans
    Boomsma, Dorret I.
    Brodaty, Henry
    Brouwer, Rachel M.
    Brunner, Han G.
    Buckner, Randy L.
    Buitelaar, Jan K.
    Bulayeva, Kazima B.
    Cahn, Wiepke
    Calhoun, Vince D.
    Cannon, Dara M.
    Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.
    Chen, Christopher
    Cheng, Ching -Yu
    Cichon, Sven
    Cookson, Mark R.
    Corvin, Aiden
    Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto
    Curran, Joanne E.
    Czisch, Michael
    Dale, Anders M.
    Davies, Gareth E.
    De Geus, Eco J. C.
    De Jager, Philip L.
    de Zubicaray, Greig I.
    Delanty, Norman
    Depondt, Chantal
    DeStefano, Anita L.
    Dillman, Allissa
    Djurovic, Srdjan
    Donohoe, Gary
    Drevets, Wayne C.
    Duggirala, Ravi
    Dyer, Thomas D.
    Erk, Susanne
    Espeseth, Thomas
    Evans, Denis A.
    Fedko, Iryna
    Fernandez, Guillen
    Ferrucci, Luigi
    Fisher, Simon E.
    Fleischman, Debra A.
    Ford, Ian
    Foroud, Tatiana M.
    Fox, Peter T.
    Francks, Clyde
    Fukunaga, Masaki
    Gibbs, J. Raphael
    Glahn, David C.
    Gollub, Randy L.
    Goring, Harald H. H.
    Grabe, Hans J.
    Green, Robert C.
    Gruber, Oliver
    Gudnason, Vilmundur
    Guelfi, Sebastian
    Hansell, Narelle K.
    Hardy, John
    Hartman, Catharina A.
    Hashimoto, Ryota
    Hegenscheid, Katrin
    Heinz, Andreas
    Le Hellard, Stephanie
    Hernandez, Dena G.
    Heslenfeld, Dirk J.
    Ho, Beng-Choon
    Hoekstra, Pieter J.
    Hoffmann, Wolfgang
    Hofman, Albert
    Holsboer, Florian
    Homuth, Georg
    Hosten, Norbert
    Hottenga, Jouke-Jan
    Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff
    Ikeda, Masashi
    Ikram, M. Kamran
    Jack, Clifford R., Jr.
    Jenldnson, Mark
    Johnson, Robert
    Jonsson, Erik G.
    Jukema, J. Wouter
    Kahn, Rene S.
    Kanai, Ryota
    Kloszewska, Iwona
    Knopman, David S.
    Kochunov, Peter
    Kwok, John B.
    Lawrie, Stephen M.
    Lemaitre, Herve
    Liu, Xinmin
    Longo, Dan L.
    Longstreth, W. T., Jr.
    Lopez, Oscar L.
    Lovestone, Simon
    Martinez, Oliver
    Martinot, Jean-Luc
    Mattay, Venkata S.
    McDonald, Colm
    McIntosh, Andrew M.
    McMahon, Katie L.
    McMahon, Francis J.
    Mecocci, Patrizia
    Melle, Ingrid
    Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas
    Mohnke, Sebastian
    Montgomery, Grant W.
    Morris, Derek W.
    Mosley, Thomas H.
    Muhleisen, Thomas W.
    Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram
    Nalls, Michael A.
    Nauck, Matthias
    Nichols, Thomas E.
    Niessen, Wiro J.
    Noethen, Markus M.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Ohi, Kazutaka
    Olvera, Rene L.
    Ophoff, Roel A.
    Pandolfo, Massimo
    Paus, Tomas
    Pausova, Zdenka
    Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.
    Pike, G. Bruce
    Potkin, Steven G.
    Psaty, Bruce M.
    Reppermund, Simone
    Rietschel, Marcella
    Roffman, Joshua L.
    Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina
    Rotter, Jerome I.
    Ryten, Mina
    Sacco, Ralph L.
    Sachdev, Perminder S.
    Saykin, Andrew J.
    Schmidt, Reinhold
    Schofield, Peter R.
    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur
    Simmons, Andy
    Singleton, Andrew
    Sisodiya, Sanjay M.
    Smith, Colin
    Smoller, Jordan W.
    Soininen, Hindu.
    Srikanth, Velandai
    Steen, Vidar M.
    Stott, David J.
    Sussmann, Jessika E.
    Thalamuthu, Anbupalam
    Tiemeier, Henning
    Toga, Arthur W.
    Traynor, Bryan J.
    Troncoso, Juan
    Turner, Jessica A.
    Tzourio, Christophe
    Uitterlinden, Andre G.
    Hernandez, Maria C. Valdes
    Van der Brug, Marcel
    Van der Lugt, Aad
    Van der Wee, Nic J. A.
    Van Duijn, Cornelia M.
    Van Haren, Neeltje E. M.
    Van't Ent, Dennis
    Van Tol, Marie Jose
    Vardarajan, Badri N.
    Veltman, Dick J.
    Vernooij, Meike W.
    Voelzke, Henry
    Walter, Henrik
    Wardlaw, Joanna M.
    Wassink, Thomas H.
    Weale, Michael E.
    Weinberger, Daniel R.
    Weiner, Michael W.
    Wen, Wei
    Westman, Eric
    White, Tonya
    Wong, Tien Y.
    Wright, Clinton B.
    Zielke, H. Ronald
    Zonderman, Alan B.
    Deary, Ian J.
    DeCarli, Charles
    Schmidt, Helena
    Martin, Nicholas G.
    De Craen, Anton J. M.
    Wright, Margaret J.
    Launer, Lenore J.
    Schumann, Gunter
    Fornage, Myriam
    Franke, Barbara
    Debette, Stephanie
    Medland, Sarah E.
    Ikram, M. Arfan
    Thompson, Paul M.
    Novel genetic loci underlying human intracranial volume identified through genome-wide association2016Inngår i: Nature Neuroscience, ISSN 1097-6256, E-ISSN 1546-1726, Vol. 19, nr 12, s. 1569-1582Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Intracranial volume reflects the maximally attained brain size during development, and remains stable with loss of tissue in late life. It is highly heritable, but the underlying genes remain largely undetermined. In a genome-wide association study of 32,438 adults, we discovered five previously unknown loci for intracranial volume and confirmed two known signals. Four of the loci were also associated with adult human stature, but these remained associated with intracranial volume after adjusting for height. We found a high genetic correlation with child head circumference (rho(genetic) = 0.748), which indicates a similar genetic background and allowed us to identify four additional loci through meta-analysis (N-combined = 37,345). Variants for intracranial volume were also related to childhood and adult cognitive function, and Parkinson's disease, and were enriched near genes involved in growth pathways, including PI3K-AKT signaling. These findings identify the biological underpinnings of intracranial volume and their link to physiological and pathological traits.

  • 106.
    Adane, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Effectiveness of PMTCT programs in Sub-Saharan Africa, a meta-analysis2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 107.
    Adawi, Nadia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Jewaratnam, Sukanya
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Tooth Extraction and Implant Placement Causes Changes in Both Muscle Fiber Composition and Motor Cortex in Rats. Experimental study2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Tooth loss has been shown to induce neuroplastic changes in the sensorimotor cortical area of the brain that represents jaw muscles. Dental implants placed into extraction sites reversed these changes. Since muscles are highly plastic, we hypothesize that the cortical changes after dental extraction also are reflected in jaw-opening muscles and that these changes are prevented/reversed following dental implant placement.

     

    Fifteen rats were randomly allocated in four groups; extraction 1 (Ext-1, n=4), extraction 2 (Ext-2, n=4), implant group (n=4) and control group (n=3). The anterior digastric (AD) muscle was obtained from the extraction groups after 1 and 2 months, respectively, and from the implant group after 3 weeks. The samples were analyzed with immunohistochemical and morphological techniques. Our results showed; 1) intermediate and low oxidative fast MyHCII fibers predominated AD muscle, 2) oxidative capacity of fibers was higher in the central region, 3) extraction caused a shift towards fibers with lower oxidative capacity in the central region, 4) placement of dental implants increased the oxidative capacity of fibers in both central and peripheral region.

     

    We conclude that in the AD muscle, loss of teeth cause a tendency to shift against fibers with faster contraction properties and lower oxidative capacity, while treatment with implants tends to reverse it. Interestingly, these alterations followed the change pattern of the cortical motor area for the AD muscle i.e. larger proportion of fibers with higher oxidative capacity and fine motor control were associated with increased motor representation sites (MRS) for the AD muscle.

     

  • 108.
    Adcock, Joanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och folkhälsovetenskap. Overseas Development Institute, London, UK.
    Fottrell, Edward
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och folkhälsovetenskap.
    The North-South information highway: case studies of publication access among health researchers in resource-poor countries2008Inngår i: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Less than 2% of scientific publications originate in low-income countries. Transfer of information from South to North and from South to South is grossly limited and hinders understanding of global health, while Northern-generated information fails to adequately address the needs of a Southern readership.

    Methods: A survey of a new generation of health researchers from nine low-income countries was conducted using a combination of email questionnaires and face-to-face interviews. Data were gathered on personal experiences, use and aspirations regarding access and contribution to published research.

    Results: A total of 23 individuals from 9 countries responded. Preference for journal use over textbooks was apparent, however a preference for print over online formats was described among African respondents compared to respondents from other areas. Almost all respondents (96%) described ambition to publish in international journals, but cited English language as a significant barrier.

    Conclusion: The desire to contribute to and utilise contemporary scientific debate appears to be strong among study respondents. However, longstanding barriers

  • 109. Addario, Barbara
    et al.
    Sandblad, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Persson, Karina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Backman, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Characterisation of Schizosaccharomyces pombe alpha-actinin2016Inngår i: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 4, artikkel-id e1858Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The actin cytoskeleton plays a fundamental role in eukaryotic cells. Its reorganization is regulated by a plethora of actin-modulating proteins, such as a-actinin. In higher organisms, alpha-actinin is characterized by the presence of three distinct structural domains: an N-terminal actin-binding domain and a C-terminal region with EF-hand motif separated by a central rod domain with four spectrin repeats. Sequence analysis has revealed that the central rod domain of alpha-actinin from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe consists of only two spectrin repeats. To obtain a firmer understanding of the structure and function of this unconventional alpha-actinin, we have cloned and characterized each structural domain. Our results show that this alpha-actinin isoform is capable of forming dimers and that the rod domain is required for this. However, its actin-binding and cross-linking activity appears less efficient compared to conventional alpha-actinins. The solved crystal structure of the actin-binding domain indicates that the closed state is stabilised by hydrogen bonds and a salt bridge not present in other a-actinins, which may reduce the affinity for actin.

  • 110.
    Addi, Simon
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Odontologi, Odontologisk materialvetenskap.
    Hedayati-Khams, Arjang
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Odontologi, Odontologisk materialvetenskap.
    Poya, Amin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Odontologi, Odontologisk materialvetenskap.
    Sjögren, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Odontologi, Odontologisk materialvetenskap.
    Interface gap size of manually and CAD/CAM-manufactured ceramic inlays/onlays in vitro.2002Inngår i: Journal of Dentistry, ISSN 0300-5712, E-ISSN 1879-176X, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 53-58Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives : To determine the fit of ceramic inlays manufactured using a recently introduced CAD/CAM-system (Decim) and of two types of laboratory-made heat-pressed ceramics (IPS Empress and Opc).

    Materials and methods : Extracted human premolars were prepared to receive mesio-occlusodistal (MOD) ceramic inlays, for which 10 Denzir, 10 IPS Empress, and 10 Opc were fabricated. The Denzir restorations were produced by the manufacturer of the CAD/CAM-system, and the IPS Empress and Opc by student dental technicians. Before luting the internal fit on the diestone models and on the premolars was determined using replicas. After luting on the premolars with a resin composite the marginal and internal fit were measured. The values were analyzed statistically using ANOVA and Scheffe's test at a significance level of p<0.05.

    Results : Before luting there were no significant differences ( p>0.05) in the internal gap width between the three systems studied when placed on their matching diestone models. When placed on the premolars a significant difference ( p<0.01) in the internal fit was seen between Empress and Opc before luting, whereas there were no significant differences ( p>0.05) between Empress and Denzir and between Opc and Denzir. Between the diestone models and the premolars there were significant differences ( p<0.01) in the internal fit, except for IPS Empress. After luting there were no significant differences ( p>0.05) between IPS Empress and Denzir, whereas the marginal gap width was significantly wider ( p<0.001) for Opc than for IPS Empress and Denzir. The internal fit was significantly ( p<0.001) wider for Opc than for IPS Empress, whereas there were no significant differences ( p>0.05) between IPS Empress and Denzir or between Opc and Denzir.

    Conclusion : After luting there were only slight differences in the fit between the restorations fabricated using the three different manufacturing techniques and ceramics. Therefore, long-term follow-up studies are needed to assess the clinical significance of the slight differences between the three systems.

  • 111.
    Adelphine, Ishimwe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Road traffic injuries in Rwanda:: A study protocol of trend and prevalence in Kigali city.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Road traffic injuries constitute the health burden all over the World. Every year more than a million people are killed and 50 million are injured as a result of road unsafety. The cost of dealing with associated consequences is even greater than many infectious diseases, since it runs to billions dollars every year. This issue is particularly alarming in the developing World, but African region is more affected than others continents.

    Rwanda is facing similar problems as other developing countries in terms of road traffic injuries. Apart from environment factors, vehicles conditions and human risky behaviours, the ignorance of road users is the major leading cause of many road traffic crashes. As many studies revealed, road accident is a preventable issue. Improvement of road safety by commitment of governments and population engagement, it is possible to save a significant number of lives.

    Objective: Since a decade of action for road safety has been launched by the World health organization in 2010, the government of Rwanda fixed a target of road fatality reduction of 50% by 2015. The aim of this study is to identify the change of road traffic accidents over a period of ten years (2005- 2015).

    Method: This write-up is a study protocol. A quantitative retrospective study involving secondary data analysis will be described. Information will be collected in the capital city of the Rwanda, since it has been identified as the most affected by road accidents. Data will be gathered from traffic Police records because it has the responsibility to collect all data related to traffic accidents in the country. Due to underreporting of some accidents, hospital records will be used to deal with that underestimation issue. Further later, data will be analysed and the estimation of the trend will be achieved by using multi linear regression. The trend analysis of change in number of deaths and injuries will be conducted. This information will be useful to localize where more effort is needed and how can be achieved. The result might be used by different organization in charge of transport safety, to improve countermeasures designed to tackle road accidents. 

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    Ortega-Vazquez, Irene
    Rodriguez, Lorena
    Herrera, Norberto
    Arachchi, Prasad Pitigala
    Jan, Wanigasekara Senanayake Mudiyanselage Kithsiri
    Arachchige, Lalith Asanka Jayasooriya Jayasooriya
    Sivaganesh, Sivasuriya
    Samaraweera, Dulan Irusha
    Thanusan, Vimalakanthan
    Musa, Ahmed Elgaili Khalid
    Balila, Reem Mohammed Hassan
    Mohamed, Mohamed Awad Elkarim Hamad
    Ali, Hussein
    Elabdin, Hagir Zain
    Hassan, Alaa
    Mahdi, Sefeldin
    Ahmed, Hala
    Idris, Sahar Abdoun Ishag
    Elsayed, Makki
    Elsayed, Mohammed
    Mahmoud, Mohamed
    Thorarinsdottir, Hildur
    Utter, Maria
    Sundstrom, Sami Martin
    Wredberg, Cecilia
    Kjellin, Ann
    Nyberg, Johanna
    Frisk, Bjorn
    Ahlqvist, Sandra
    Bjorklund, Ida
    Hjertberg, Maria
    Sund, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap.
    Andersson, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap.
    Gunnarsson, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap.
    Royson, Hanna
    Weber, Per
    Schmid, Roger
    Schivo, Debora
    Despotidis, Vasileios
    Breitenstein, Stefan
    Staerkle, Ralph F.
    Schadde, Erik
    Deichsel, Fabian
    Gerosa, Alexandra
    Nocito, Antonio
    Raptis, Dimitri Aristotle
    Mijuskovic, Barbara
    Zuber, Markus
    Eisner, Lukas
    Kruspi, Swantje
    Reinisch, Katharina Beate
    Schoewe, Christin
    Novak, Allan
    Palma, Adrian F.
    Teufelberger, Gerfried
    Balkan, Ali Zeynel Abidin
    Gumar, Mehmet
    Yavuz, Mehmet Ali
    Karabacak, Ufuk
    Lap, Gokhan
    Ozkan, Bahar Busra
    Adams, Ryan
    Morton, Robert
    Henderson, Liam
    Gratton, Ruth
    Clement, Keiran David
    Chang, Kate Yu-Ching
    McNish, David
    McIntosh, Ryan
    Milligan, William
    Skelly, Brendan
    Anderson-Knight, Hannah
    Lawther, Roger
    Onimowo, Jemina
    Shatkar, Veereanna
    Tharmalingam, Shivanee
    Woin, Evelina
    Fautz, Tessa
    Ziff, Oliver
    Dindyal, Shiva
    Arman, Sam
    Talukder, Shagorika
    Gadhvi, Vijay
    Chew, Luen Shaun
    Heath, Jonathan
    Mannu, Gurdeep Singh
    Zachariades, Dimitris-Christos
    Snaith, Ailsa Claire
    Hettiarachchi, Thusitha Sampath
    Nesaratnam, Arjun
    Wheeler, James
    Sykes, Mark
    Behar, Nebil
    Jordan, Harriet
    Arulampalam, Tan
    Shah, Apar
    Brown, Damien
    Blower, Emma
    Sutton, Paul
    Gasteratos, Konstantinos
    Vimalachandran, Dale
    Magee, Cathy
    Mcguigan, Andrew
    Mcaleer, Stephen
    Morgan, Clare
    Braungart, Sarah
    Lafferty, Kirsten
    Labib, Peter
    Tanase, Andrei
    Mangan, Clodagh
    Reza, Lillian
    Woodward, Helen
    Gouldthorpe, Craig
    Turner, Megan
    Wild, Jonathan R. L.
    Malik, Tom Am
    Proctor, Victoria K.
    Hewage, Kalon
    Davies, James
    Dubois, Andre
    Sarwary, Sayed
    Zardab, Ali
    Grant, Alan
    Mcintyre, Robert
    Tewari, Shirish
    Humm, Gemma
    Farinella, Eriberto
    Parthiban, Sunil
    Hall, Nigel J.
    Wright, Naomi J.
    Major, Christina P.
    Xerri, Thelma
    De Bono, Phoebe
    Amin, Jasim
    Farhad, Mustafa
    Camilleri-Brennan, John F.
    Robertson, Andrew G. N.
    Swann, Joanna
    Richards, James
    Jabbar, Aijaz
    Attard, Myranda
    Burns, Hannah
    Macdonald, Euan
    Baldacchino, Matthew
    Skehan, Jennifer
    Camilleri-Brennan, Julian
    Hall, Tom Falconer
    Gimzewska, Madelaine
    Mclachlan, Greta
    Shah, Jamie
    Giles, James
    Hassan, Maleeha
    Beasley, William
    Vlachogiorgos, Apostolos
    Dias, Stephen
    Maharaj, Geta
    McDonald, Rosie
    Cross, Kate
    Rees, Clare M.
    Van Duren, Bernard
    Upchurch, Emma
    Karandikar, Sharad
    Bowley, Doug
    Karim, Ahmed
    Chachulski, Witold
    Richardson, Liam
    Dawnay, Giles
    Thompson, Ben
    Mistry, Ajayesh
    Ghetia, Millika
    Roy, Sudipta
    Al-Obaedi, Ossama
    Das, Kaustuv
    Prabhudesai, Ash
    Cocker, D. M.
    Tan, Jessica Juliana
    Vivekanantham, Sayinthen
    Gillespie, Michael
    Gudlaugsdottir, Katrin
    Pezas, Theodore
    Currow, Chelise
    Kim, Matthew Young-Han
    Salama, Yahya
    Shah, Rohi
    Ibrahem, Ahmad Aboelkassem
    Ebdewi, Hamdi
    Gravante, Gianpiero
    El-Rabaa, Saleem
    Chan, Zoe
    Hassan, Zaffar
    Makinde, Misty
    Hemingway, David
    Dean, Ramzana
    Boddy, Alexander
    Aber, Ahmed
    Patel, Vijay
    Kotecha, Deevia
    Ubhi, Harmony Kaur
    Hosein, Simon-Peter
    Ward, Simon
    Malik, Kamran
    Jennings, Leifa
    Newton, Tom
    Alkhouri, Mirna
    Kang, Min Kyu
    Houlden, Christopher
    Barry, Jonathan
    Wilson, Michael S. J.
    Neo, Yan Ning
    Ibrahim, Ibrahim
    Chan, Emily
    Peck, Fraser S.
    Lim, Pei J.
    North, Alexander S.
    Blundell, Rebecca
    Williamson, Adam
    Fouad, Dina
    Minocha, Ashish
    Mccarthy, Kathryn
    Court, Emma
    Chambers, Alice
    Yee, Jenna
    Tham, Ji Chung
    Beaton, Ceri
    Walsh, Una
    Lockey, Joseph
    Bokhari, Salman
    Howells, Lara
    Griffiths, Megan
    Yallop, Laura
    Singh, Shailinder
    Nasher, Omar
    Jackson, Paul
    Ramzi, Saed
    Zeidan, Shady
    Doughty, Jennifer
    Sinha, Sidhartha
    Davenport, Ross
    Lewis, Jason
    Duffy, Leo
    Mcaleer, Elizabeth
    Williams, Eleanor
    Obute, Rhalumi Daniel
    Glover, Thomas E.
    Clark, David J.
    Boshnaq, Mohamed
    Akhtar, Mansoor
    Capleton, Pascale
    Doughan, Samer
    Rabie, Mohamed
    Mohamed, Ismail
    Samuel, Duncan
    Dickson, Lauren
    Kennedy, Matthew
    Dempster, Eleanor
    Brown, Emma
    Maple, Natalie
    Monaghan, Eimear
    Wolf, Bernhard
    Garland, Alicia
    Lund, Jonathan
    Boereboom, Catherine
    Murphy, Jennifer
    Tierney, Gillian
    Tou, Samson
    Zimmermann, Eleanor Franziska
    Smart, Neil James
    Warwick, Andrea Marie
    Stasinou, Theodora
    Daniels, Ian
    Findlay-Cooper, Kim
    Mitrasinovic, Stefan
    Ray, Swayamjyoti
    Varcada, Massimo
    D'souza, Rovan
    Omara, Sharif
    Boyce, Tamsin
    Whewell, Harriet
    Jones, Elin
    Ma, Jennifer
    Abington, Emily
    Ramcharn, Meera
    Williams, Gethin
    Winstanley, Joseph
    Kennedy, Ewan D.
    Yeung, Emily N. W.
    Fergusson, Stuart J.
    Jones, Catrin
    O'neill, Stephen
    Lim, Shujing Jane
    Liew, Ignatius
    Nair, Hari
    Fairfield, Cameron
    Oh, Julia
    Koh, Samantha
    Wilson, Andrew
    Fairfield, Catherine
    Th'ng, Francesca
    Robertson, Nichola
    Anandkumar, Delran
    Kirupagaran, Ashok
    Jones, Timothy F.
    Torrance, Hew D.
    Fowler, Alexander J.
    Chandrakumar, Charmilie
    Patel, Priyank
    Ashraf, Syed Faaz
    Lakhani, Sonam M.
    Mclean, Aaron Lawson
    Basson, Sonia
    Batt, Jeremy
    Bowman, Catriona
    Stoddart, Michael
    Benons, Natasha
    Barker, Tom
    Summerour, Virginia
    Harper, Edward
    Smith, Caroline
    Hampton, Matthew
    Mckechnie, Doug
    Farah, Ayaan
    Chun, Anita
    Pereira, Bernadette
    Nemeth, Kristof
    Decker, Emily
    Giuliani, Stefano
    Shalaby, Aly
    Szczap, Aleksandra
    Chidambaram, Swathikan
    Chen, Chee Yang
    Kulasabanathan, Kavian
    Chhabra, Srishti
    Kostov, Elisabeth
    Harbord, Philippe
    Barnacle, James
    Palliyil, Madan Mohan
    Zikry, Mina
    Porter, Johnathan
    Raslan, Charef
    Hafiz, Shazia
    Soltani, Niksa
    Baillie, Katie
    Mirza, Ahmad
    Saeed, Haroon
    Galloway, Simon
    Elena, Gia
    Afzal, Mohammad
    Zakir, Mohamed
    Sodde, Peter
    Hand, Charles
    Sriram, Aiesha
    Clark, Tamsyn
    Holton, Patrick
    Livesey, Amy
    Sinha, Yashashwi
    Iqbal, Fahad Mujtaba
    Bharj, Indervir Singh
    Rotundo, Adriana
    Jenvey, Cara
    Slade, Robert
    Golding, David
    Haines, Samuel
    Abdullah, Ali Adel Ne'ma
    Tilston, Thomas W.
    Loughran, Dafydd
    Donoghue, Danielle
    Giacci, Lorenzo
    Sherif, Mohamed Ashur
    Harrison, Peter
    Tang, Alethea
    Elshaer, Mohamed
    Urbonas, Tomas
    Riaz, Amjid
    Chapman, Annie
    Acharya, Parisha
    Shalhoub, Joseph
    Grossart, Cathleen
    McMorran, David
    Mlotshwa, Makhosini
    Hawkins, William
    Loizides, Sofronis
    Thomson, Peter
    Khan, Shahab
    Taylor, Fiona
    Shukla, Jalak
    Howie, Emma Elizabeth
    Macdonald, Linda
    Komolafe, Olusegun
    Mcintyre, Neil
    Cragg, James
    Parker, Jody
    Stewart, Duncan
    Lintin, Luke
    Tracy, Julia
    Farooq, Tahir
    Sion, Melanie
    Weinstein, Michael S.
    Punja, Viren
    Bugaev, Nikolay
    Goodstein, Monica
    Razmdjou, Shadi
    Determinants of morbidity and mortality following emergency abdominal surgery in children in low-income and middle-income countries2016Inngår i: BMJ Global Health, ISSN 2059-7908, Vol. 1, nr 4, artikkel-id e000091Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Child health is a key priority on the global health agenda, yet the provision of essential and emergency surgery in children is patchy in resource-poor regions. This study was aimed to determine the mortality risk for emergency abdominal paediatric surgery in low-income countries globally.

    Methods: Multicentre, international, prospective, cohort study. Self-selected surgical units performing emergency abdominal surgery submitted prespecified data for consecutive children aged <16 years during a 2-week period between July and December 2014. The United Nation's Human Development Index (HDI) was used to stratify countries. The main outcome measure was 30-day postoperative mortality, analysed by multilevel logistic regression.

    Results: This study included 1409 patients from 253 centres in 43 countries; 282 children were under 2 years of age. Among them, 265 (18.8%) were from low-HDI, 450 (31.9%) from middle-HDI and 694 (49.3%) from high-HDI countries. The most common operations performed were appendectomy, small bowel resection, pyloromyotomy and correction of intussusception. After adjustment for patient and hospital risk factors, child mortality at 30 days was significantly higher in low-HDI (adjusted OR 7.14 (95% CI 2.52 to 20.23), p<0.001) and middle-HDI (4.42 (1.44 to 13.56), p=0.009) countries compared with high-HDI countries, translating to 40 excess deaths per 1000 procedures performed.

    Conclusions: Adjusted mortality in children following emergency abdominal surgery may be as high as 7 times greater in low-HDI and middle-HDI countries compared with high-HDI countries. Effective provision of emergency essential surgery should be a key priority for global child health agendas.

  • 113. Aden, A S
    et al.
    Brännström, Inger
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Mohamud, K A
    Persson, Lars-Åke
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Wall, Stig
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och folkhälsovetenskap.
    The growth chart - a road to health chart?: Maternal comprehension of the growth chart in two Somali villages1990Inngår i: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, ISSN 0269-5022, E-ISSN 1365-3016, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 340-350Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Growth monitoring is so far not implemented on a large scale in the Somali health services. Available reports indicate that growth faltering is common. However, the use of growth charts as a tool for health education has been questioned. This study examines the ability of 199, predominantly illiterate, rural Somali mothers to understand the growth chart message after an intensive period of growth chart use and education. During a home-based interview the mothers were asked to combine a set of four growth curves with a set of four pictures, showing the corresponding developments of four children. The mothers managed significantly better to interpret the charts than could be expected by chance alone. Maternal age, number of children and literacy did not differ much between those who correctly and incorrectly combined pictures and charts. Almost all mothers recognised the value of the growth chart as being good for the control and promotion of their children's health and/or growth. We conclude that the growth chart may be an applicable and appropriate tool even with illiterate mothers, provided that other prerequisites for successful growth monitoring, e.g. appropriate health services, are available.

  • 114.
    Aden, Hassan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Apotekssystem i Kanada och Storbritannienrelaterat till Sveriges utveckling i enomreglerad apoteksmarknad2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 115.
    Aden, Jamila Ahmed
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa. Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, East Africa University, Bosaso, Puntland State of Somalia, Somalia; Social Medicine and Global Health, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Ahmed, Hinda Jama
    Östergren, Per-Olof
    Causes and contributing factors of maternal mortality in Bosaso District Somalia. A retrospective study of 30 cases using a Verbal Autopsy proach2019Inngår i: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 12, nr 1, artikkel-id 1672314Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Somali women suffer from one of the highest maternal mortality rates in the world. Somalia characterises a specific low-income country situation with a mix of newly urbanized and nomadic culture combined with a frail health care infrastructure set in a post-conflict era. Very little is known about the effects that these contextual factors can have on maternal mortality.

    Objectives: To explore and describe causes and contributing factors concerning maternal deaths in the Bosaso District, Puntland State of Somalia.

    Methods: Data was collected using an adapted Verbal Autopsy tool. In 2017 30 cases of maternal deaths occurring in 2016 in the Bosaso District were reviewed. Information was assessed by three independent reviewers who classified the cause of death and the contributing factors. The Three Delay Model was employed to identify socio-cultural and economic and health system factors that may have contributed to these maternal deaths.

    Results: Direct obstetric deaths accounted for 28 cases. Among these, haemorrhage was the leading cause, followed by eclampsia, sepsis and obstructed labour. Two cases were indirect obstetric deaths, caused by anaemia. All three types of delay were frequent among the studied cases. Delay in deciding to seek care was found in 25 cases, delay in reaching care in 22 cases and delay in receiving health care in 24 cases. Lack of knowledge, money, transportation, poor access and availability of adequate services, as well as substandard management by health care providers, were all underlying the delays.

    Conclusion: A comprehensive intervention programme is needed in order to decrease maternal mortality among Somali women. Such a programme must include health education, improved referral systems and strategic upgrading of care services.

  • 116.
    Ader, Ulla
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykoterapi.
    Lundblad Danielsson, Inga
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykoterapi.
    Att lyssna till tonårsröster: Psykisk hälsa hos ungdomar med funktionsnedsättning2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med fördjupningsarbetet har varit att via en pilotstudie öka kunskapen om ungdomar med funktionsnedsättning i Umeå, med avseende på psykisk hälsa, och på hur de upplever sin vardag i skolan, med kamrater och i familjen. Psykisk hälsa undersöktes genom att ungdomar med funktionsnedsättning som går i specialklasser (grundsärskolans högstadium, högstadium för ungdomar med Asperger, högstadium för ungdomar med rörelsenedsättningar), fick besvara en enkät under skoltid. För att kunna relatera till den undersökning som Statens Folkhälsoinstitut genomförde hos ungdomar i Sverige 2009 har samma enkät använts.

     

    Resultatet visar att de flesta ungdomar har angett att de mår bra, trivs i skolan, har bra kontakt med sina lärare och med sina föräldrar. Majoriteten mår lika bra som de flesta ungdomar i landet och t.om bättre än de ungdomar i Folkhälsoinstitutets undersökning, som angett att de hade någon funktionsnedsättning.

     

    Inom några områden visades dock lägre resultat. Ungdomarna i vår undersökning uppgav att deras svårigheter påverkade deras vardag i familjen och vid fritidsaktiviteter. De umgås mer sällan med kamrater, motionerar mindre och har färre fritidsaktiviteter. Ungdomar med Asperger skiljer ut sig mest i vår undersökning, de är mindre nöjda med livet och med sig själva, känner sig mer ensamma,  umgås mer sällan med kamrater och har mindre kul, jämfört med ungdomar i grundsärskolan.

     

    Det finns områden där stödet ifrån Barn- och ungdomshabiliteringen kan förbättras, som att utveckla metoder för socialt samspel och stärka ungdomarnas identitet och i samarbete med andra aktörer öka delaktigheten till en mer aktiv fritid.

  • 117.
    Adhikari, Deepak
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Flohr, Gilian
    Hogeschool Leiden, Zernikedreef 11,2333 CK Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Gorre, Nagaraju
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Shen, Yan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Yang, Hairu
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Lundin, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Lan, Zijian
    University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, Kentucky, USA.
    Liu, Kui
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Disruption of Tsc2 in oocytes leads to overactivation of the entire pool of primordial follicles2009Inngår i: Molecular human reproduction, ISSN 1360-9947, E-ISSN 1460-2407, Vol. 15, nr 12, s. 765-770Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To maintain the length of reproductive life in a woman, it is essential that most of her ovarian primordial follicles are maintained in a quiescent state to provide a continuous supply of oocytes. However, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control the quiescence and activation of primordial follicles is still in its infancy. In this study, we provide some genetic evidence to show that the tumor suppressor tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (Tsc2), which negatively regulates mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), functions in oocytes to maintain the dormancy of primordial follicles. In mutant mice lacking the Tsc2 gene in oocytes, the pool of primordial follicles is activated prematurely due to elevated mTORC1 activity in oocytes. This results in depletion of follicles in early adulthood, causing premature ovarian failure (POF). Our results suggest that the Tsc1-Tsc2 complex mediated suppression of mTORC1 activity is indispensable for maintenance of the dormancy of primordial follicles, thus preserving the follicular pool, and that mTORC1 activity in oocytes promotes follicular activation. Our results also indicate that deregulation of Tsc/mTOR signaling in oocytes may cause pathological conditions of the ovary such as infertility and POF.

  • 118.
    Adhikari, Deepak
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Zheng, Wenjing
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Chem & Mol Biol, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Shen, Yan
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Chem & Mol Biol, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gorre, Nagaraju
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Ning, Yao
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Chem & Mol Biol, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Halet, Guillaume
    Univ Rennes 1, CNRS, UMR 6061, Inst Genet & Dev Rennes, F-35043 Rennes, France .
    Kaldis, Philipp
    NUS, A STAR, IMCB, Singapore 138673, Singapore.
    Liu, Kui
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Chem & Mol Biol, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Cdk1, but not Cdk2, is the sole Cdk that is essential and sufficient to drive resumption of meiosis in mouse oocytes2012Inngår i: Human Molecular Genetics, ISSN 0964-6906, E-ISSN 1460-2083, Vol. 21, nr 11, s. 2476-2484Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mammalian oocytes are arrested at the prophase of meiosis I during fetal or postnatal development, and the meiosis is resumed by the preovulatory surge of luteinizing hormone. The in vivo functional roles of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) during the resumption of meiosis in mammalian oocytes are largely unknown. Previous studies have shown that deletions of Cdk3, Cdk4 or Cdk6 in mice result in viable animals with normal oocyte maturation, indicating that these Cdks are not essential for the meiotic maturation of oocytes. In addition, conventional knockout of Cdk1 and Cdk2 leads to embryonic lethality and postnatal follicular depletion, respectively, making it impossible to study the functions of Cdk1 and Cdk2 in oocyte meiosis. In this study, we generated conditional knockout mice with oocyte-specific deletions of Cdk1 and Cdk2. We showed that the lack of Cdk1, but not of Cdk2, leads to female infertility due to a failure of the resumption of meiosis in the oocyte. Re-introduction of Cdk1 mRNA into Cdk1-null oocytes largely resumed meiosis. Thus, Cdk1 is the sole Cdk that is essential and sufficient to drive resumption of meiosis in mouse oocytes. We also found that Cdk1 maintains the phosphorylation status of protein phosphatase 1 and lamin A/C in oocytes in order for meiosis resumption to occur.

  • 119.
    Adjeiwaah, Mary
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Quality assurance for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in radiotherapy2017Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) utilizes the magnetic properties of tissues to generate image-forming signals. MRI has exquisite soft-tissue contrast and since tumors are mainly soft-tissues, it offers improved delineation of the target volume and nearby organs at risk. The proposed Magnetic Resonance-only Radiotherapy (MR-only RT) work flow allows for the use of MRI as the sole imaging modality in the radiotherapy (RT) treatment planning of cancer. There are, however, issues with geometric distortions inherent with MR image acquisition processes. These distortions result from imperfections in the main magnetic field, nonlinear gradients, as well as field disturbances introduced by the imaged object. In this thesis, we quantified the effect of system related and patient-induced susceptibility geometric distortions on dose distributions for prostate as well as head and neck cancers. Methods to mitigate these distortions were also studied.

    In Study I, mean worst system related residual distortions of 3.19, 2.52 and 2.08 mm at bandwidths (BW) of 122, 244 and 488 Hz/pixel up to a radial distance of 25 cm from a 3T PET/MR scanner was measured with a large field of view (FoV) phantom. Subsequently, we estimated maximum shifts of 5.8, 2.9 and 1.5 mm due to patient-induced susceptibility distortions. VMAT-optimized treatment plans initially performed on distorted CT (dCT) images and recalculated on real CT datasets resulted in a dose difference of less than 0.5%.

     The magnetic susceptibility differences at tissue-metallic,-air and -bone interfaces result in local B0 magnetic field inhomogeneities. The distortion shifts caused by these field inhomogeneities can be reduced by shimming.  Study II aimed to investigate the use of shimming to improve the homogeneity of local  B0 magnetic field which will be beneficial for radiotherapy applications. A shimming simulation based on spherical harmonics modeling was developed. The spinal cord, an organ at risk is surrounded by bone and in close proximity to the lungs may have high susceptibility differences. In this region, mean pixel shifts caused by local B0 field inhomogeneities were reduced from 3.47±1.22 mm to 1.35±0.44 mm and 0.99±0.30 mm using first and second order shimming respectively. This was for a bandwidth of 122 Hz/pixel and an in-plane voxel size of 1×1 mm2.  Also examined in Study II as in Study I was the dosimetric effect of geometric distortions on 21 Head and Neck cancer treatment plans. The dose difference in D50 at the PTV between distorted CT and real CT plans was less than 1.0%.

    In conclusion, the effect of MR geometric distortions on dose plans was small. Generally, we found patient-induced susceptibility distortions were larger compared with residual system distortions at all delineated structures except the external contour. This information will be relevant when setting margins for treatment volumes and organs at risk.  

    The current practice of characterizing MR geometric distortions utilizing spatial accuracy phantoms alone may not be enough for an MR-only radiotherapy workflow. Therefore, measures to mitigate patient-induced susceptibility effects in clinical practice such as patient-specific correction algorithms are needed to complement existing distortion reduction methods such as high acquisition bandwidth and shimming.

  • 120.
    Adjeiwaah, Mary
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Quality assurance for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in radiotherapy2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in the radiotherapy (RT) treatment planning workflow is increasing. MRI offers superior soft-tissue contrast compared to Computed Tomography (CT) and therefore improves the accuracy in target volume definitions. There are, however concerns with inherent geometric distortions from system- (gradient nonlinearities and main magnetic field inhomogeneities) and patient-related sources (magnetic susceptibility effect and chemical shift). The lack of clearly defined quality assurance (QA) procedures has also raised questions on the ability of current QA protocols to detect common image quality degradations under radiotherapy settings. To fully implement and take advantage of the benefits of MRI in radiotherapy, these concerns need to be addressed.

    In Papers I and II, the dosimetric impact of MR distortions was investigated. Patient CTs (CT) were deformed with MR distortion vector fields (from the residual system distortions after correcting for gradient nonlinearities and patient-induced susceptibility distortions) to create distorted CT (dCT) images. Field parameters from volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment plans initially optimized on dCT data sets were transferred to CT data to compute new treatment plans. Data from 19 prostate and 21 head and neck patients were used for the treatment planning. The dCT and CT treatment plans were compared to determine the impact of distortions on dose distributions. No clinically relevant dose differences between distorted CT and original CT treatment plans were found. Mean dose differences were < 1.0% and < 0.5% at the planning target volume (PTV) for the head and neck, and prostate treatment plans, respectively. 

    Strategies to reduce geometric distortions were also evaluated in Papers I and II. Using the vendor-supplied gradient non-linearity correction algorithm reduced overall distortions to less than half of the original value. A high acquisition bandwidth of 488 Hz/pixel (Paper I) and 488 Hz/mm (Paper II) kept the mean geometric distortions at the delineated structures below 1 mm. Furthermore, a patient-specific active shimming method implemented in Paper II significantly reduced the number of voxels with distortion shifts > 2 mm from 15.4% to 2.0%.

    B0 maps from patient-induced magnetic field inhomogeneities obtained through direct measurements and by simulations that used MR-generated synthetic CT (sCT) data were compared in Paper III. The validation showed excellent agreement between the simulated and measured B0 maps.

    In Paper IV, the ability of current QA methods to detect common MR image quality degradations under radiotherapy settings were investigated. By evaluating key image quality parameters, the QA protocols were found to be sensitive to some of the introduced degradations. However, image quality issues such as those caused by RF coil failures could not be adequately detected.

    In conclusion, this work has shown the feasibility of using MRI data for radiotherapy treatment planning as distortions resulted in a dose difference of less than 1% between distorted and undistorted images. The simulation software can be used to produce accurate B0 maps, which could then be used as the basis for the effective correction of patient-induced field inhomogeneity distortions and for the QA verification of sCT data. Furthermore, the analysis of the strengths and weaknesses in current QA tools for MRI in RT contribute to finding better methods to efficiently identify image quality errors.

  • 121.
    Adjeiwaah, Mary
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Bylund, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Lundman, Josef A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Söderström, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Zackrisson, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Jonsson, Joakim H.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Garpebring, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Nyholm, Tufve
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Dosimetric Impact of MRI Distortions: A Study on Head and Neck Cancers2019Inngår i: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, ISSN 0360-3016, E-ISSN 1879-355X, Vol. 103, nr 4, s. 994-1003Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI) geometric distortions on head and neck radiation therapy treatment planning (RTP) for an MRI-only RTP. We also assessed the potential benefits of patient-specific shimming to reduce the magnitude of MR distortions for a 3-T scanner.

    Methods and Materials: Using an in-house Matlab algorithm, shimming within entire imaging volumes and user-defined regions of interest were simulated. We deformed 21 patient computed tomography (CT) images with MR distortion fields (gradient nonlinearity and patient-induced susceptibility effects) to create distorted CT (dCT) images using bandwidths of 122 and 488 Hz/mm at 3 T. Field parameters from volumetric modulated arc therapy plans initially optimized on dCT data sets were transferred to CT data to compute a new plan. Both plans were compared to determine the impact of distortions on dose distributions.

    Results: Shimming across entire patient volumes decreased the percentage of voxels with distortions of more than 2 mm from 15.4% to 2.0%. Using the user-defined region of interest (ROI) shimming strategy, (here the Planning target volume (PTV) was the chosen ROI volume) led to increased geometric for volumes outside the PTV, as such voxels within the spinal cord with geometric shifts above 2 mm increased from 11.5% to 32.3%. The worst phantom-measured residual system distortions after 3-dimensional gradient nonlinearity correction within a radial distance of 200 mm from the isocenter was 2.17 mm. For all patients, voxels with distortion shifts of more than 2 mm resulting from patient-induced susceptibility effects were 15.4% and 0.0% using bandwidths of 122 Hz/mm and 488 Hz/mm at 3 T. Dose differences between dCT and CT treatment plans in D-50 at the planning target volume were 0.4% +/- 0.6% and 0.3% +/- 0.5% at 122 and 488 Hz/mm, respectively.

    Conclusions: The overall effect of MRI geometric distortions on data used for RTP was minimal. Shimming over entire imaging volumes decreased distortions, but user-defined subvolume shimming introduced significant errors in nearby organs and should probably be avoided.

  • 122.
    Adjeiwaah, Mary
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Bylund, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Lundman, Josef A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Thellenberg Karlsson, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Jonsson, Joakim H.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Nyholm, Tufve
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Quantifying the Effect of 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging Residual System Distortions and Patient-Induced Susceptibility Distortions on Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning for Prostate Cancer2018Inngår i: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, ISSN 0360-3016, E-ISSN 1879-355X, Vol. 100, nr 2, s. 317-324Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of magnetic resonance system- and patient-induced susceptibility distortions from a 3T scanner on dose distributions for prostate cancers.

    Methods and Materials: Combined displacement fields from the residual system and patient-induced susceptibility distortions were used to distort 17 prostate patient CT images. VMAT dose plans were initially optimized on distorted CT images and the plan parameters transferred to the original patient CT images to calculate a new dose distribution.

    Results: Maximum residual mean distortions of 3.19 mm at a radial distance of 25 cm and maximum mean patient-induced susceptibility shifts of 5.8 mm were found using the lowest bandwidth of 122 Hz per pixel. There was a dose difference of <0.5% between distorted and undistorted treatment plans. The 90% confidence intervals of the mean difference between the dCT and CT treatment plans were all within an equivalence interval of (−0.5, 0.5) for all investigated plan quality measures.

    Conclusions: Patient-induced susceptibility distortions at high field strengths in closed bore magnetic resonance scanners are larger than residual system distortions after using vendor-supplied 3-dimensional correction for the delineated regions studied. However, errors in dose due to disturbed patient outline and shifts caused by patient-induced susceptibility effects are below 0.5%.

  • 123.
    Adjeiwaah, Mary
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Garpebring, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Nyholm, Tufve
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Radiofysik.
    Quality Assurance for MRI in Radiotherapy: Sensitivity Analysis of Current MethodsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 124.
    Adjeiwaah, Mary
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Lundman, Josef A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Garpebring, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Nyholm, Tufve
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Radiofysik.
    Bylund, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Technical Note: Comparison between simulated and measured B0 field maps of head and neck MRIManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 125. Adlard, B.
    et al.
    Donaldson, S. G.
    Odland, J. O.
    Weihe, P.
    Berner, J.
    Carlsen, A.
    Bonefeld-Jorgensen, E. C.
    Dudarev, A. A.
    Gibson, J. C.
    Krümmel, E. M.
    Olafsdottir, K.
    Abass, K.
    Rautio, A.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Mulvad, G.
    Future directions for monitoring and human health research for the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme2018Inngår i: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikkel-id 1480084Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For the last two and a half decades, a network of human health experts under the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP) has produced several human health assessment reports. These reports have provided a base of scientific knowledge regarding environmental contaminants and their impact on human health in the Arctic. These reports provide scientific information and policy-relevant recommendations to Arctic governments. They also support international agreements such as the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and the Minamata Convention on Mercury. Key topics discussed in this paper regarding future human health research in the circumpolar Arctic are continued contaminant biomonitoring, health effects research and risk communication. The objective of this paper is to describe knowledge gaps and future priorities for these fields.

  • 126.
    Adler, Sara
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Cryptosporidium hominis in children-symptoms and risk factors. Data from a large water-borne outbreak in Sweden.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 127. Adler, Sara
    et al.
    Widerström, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Lindh, Johan
    Lilja, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Symptoms and risk factors of Cryptosporidium hominis infection in children: data from a large waterborne outbreak in Sweden2017Inngår i: Parasitology Research, ISSN 0932-0113, E-ISSN 1432-1955, Vol. 116, nr 10, s. 2613-2618Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cryptosporidium is a major cause of diarrheal disease worldwide. In developing countries, this infection is endemic and in children, associated with growth faltering and cognitive function deficits, with the most severe impact on those aged <2 years. Little has been reported about symptoms and risk factors for children in industrialized countries, although the disease incidence is increasing in such regions. In November 2010, a large waterborne outbreak of C. hominis occurred in the city of Östersund in Sweden. Approximately 27,000 of the 60,000 inhabitants were symptomatic. We aimed to describe duration of symptoms and the risk factors for infection with C. hominis in children aged <15 years in a Western setting. Within 2 months after a boil water advisory, a questionnaire was sent to randomly selected inhabitants of all ages, including 753 children aged <15 years. Those with ≥3 loose stools/day were defined as cases of diarrhoea. The response rate was 70.3%, and 211 children (39.9%) fulfilled the case definition. Mean duration of diarrhoea was 7.5 days (median 6, range 1-80 days). Recurrence, defined as a new episode of diarrhoea after ≥2 days of normal stools, occurred in 52.5% of the cases. Significant risk factors for infection, besides living within the distribution area of the contaminated water plant, included a high level of water consumption, male sex, and a previous history of loose stools. The outbreak was characterized by high attack and recurrence rates, emphasizing the necessity of water surveillance to prevent future outbreaks.

  • 128.
    Adolfsson, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Berggren Nylund, Inga
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Upplevelser av primärvården hos vuxna med Neurofibromatos typ 12015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Att beskriva upplevelsen av mötet med primärvården hos vuxna personer med diagnosen Neurofibromatos typ 1 Bakgrund: Neurofibromatos 1 (NF1) är en autosomalt dominant sjukdom med symtom som café au lait fläckar på huden och flera godartade tumörer som växer från perifera nerver. Svårighetsgraden varierar mellan individer. Smärtor och sjukdomens oförutsägbarhet kan orsaka oro och medföra att patienter ofta besöker hälsocentraler. Omvårdnaden vid NF1 kan vara problematisk eftersom den innefattar en rad olika symtom och att få en helhetssyn på patienten kan vara en utmaning. Trots att en av 3000 har sjukdomen är den relativt okänd. Få studier beskriver hur primärvården upplevs av personer med NF1. Design: En kvantitativ tvärsnittsstudie. Metod: År 2015 deltog 30 personer i en enkätundersökning, med flervalsfrågor och utrymme för egna kommentarer, om upplevelser av primärvården. Resultat: Hälften av deltagare upplevde primärvården generellt som bra eller mycket bra. Däremot upplevde 93 % av deltagarna att vårdpersonalen hade dåliga eller mycket dåliga kunskaper om NF1. Slutsats: De flesta studiedeltagarna upplevde att många yrkesgrupper i primärvården hade bristfälliga kunskaper om och förståelse för NF1. Ett behov av bättre omhändertagande och djupare insikt i patienters problem framträder. Upprättande av centrum för sällsynta diagnoser bör eftersträvas. Likaså skulle vårdprogram om NF1 vid hälsocentraler förbättra omhändertagandet. Det finns ett behov av mer omvårdnadsforskning om informationsförmedling vid sällsynta diagnoser.            

  • 129.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Clinical studies and chemical pathology in normal aging and dementia of Alzheimer type1980Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 130. Adrian, L.
    et al.
    Svanes, C.
    Johannessen, A.
    Lodge, C.
    Bertelsen, R.
    Dratva, J.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Gislason, T.
    Benedikstdottir, B.
    Holm, M.
    Jogi, R.
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Norback, D.
    Omenaas, E.
    Real, F.
    Schlunssen, V
    Sigsgaard, T.
    Skorge, T.
    Timm, S.
    Wieslander, G.
    Janson, C.
    Dharmage, S.
    Early life parental exposure to cats and dogs reduces the risk of allergic disease in their children: possible intergenerational effect2014Inngår i: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0105-4538, E-ISSN 1398-9995, Vol. 69, nr Supplement: 99, s. 577-578Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 131.
    af Bjerkén, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Åslund, Mia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Anestesisjuksköterskors erfarenheter av vård av patienter med missbruksproblem: En intervjustudie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 poäng / 60 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att beskriva anestesisjuksköterskors strategier kring omvårdnaden av patienter med missbruksproblem inom anestesiologisk omvårdnad.Bakgrund Anestesisjuksköterskan möter dagligen patienter med olika bakgrund, förutsättningar och behov. Personer med missbruksproblem har ofta andra fysiologiska och psykologiska faktorer som påverkar anestesin och den anestesiologiska omvårdnaden än personer utan liknade problem. Faktorer som spelar in är t.ex. ökad tolerans mot läkemedel, försämrad förmåga att bryta ner läkemedel i kroppen, ökad blödningsbenägenhet samt stress och oro hos patienterna. Anestesisjuksköterskans kunskap och förståelse för nämnda faktorer är av högsta vikt för att kunna utföra god och optimal anestesiologisk omvårdnad.Design Studien genomfördes med kvalitativ design med semistrukturerade intervjuer.Metod Deltagarna valdes ut med ändamålsenligt urval. Datainsamlingen bestod av semistrukturerade intervjuer med anestesisjuksköterskor på fem sjukhus i mellersta och norra Sverige. Intervjuerna skrevs ut och analyserades med kvalitativ innehållsanalys.Resultat Tolv intervjuer genomfördes under hösten 2016. Analysen av materialet resulterade i tre kategorier med titlarna "Att ha handlingsberedskap", "Att kommunicera med patienten" och "Att vara säkerhetsmedveten". Kategorierna utgjordes av åtta subkategorier som fick benämningarna "Att vara beredd att anpassa doserna", "Att välja rätt läkemedel", "Att hantera blödningsrisk", "Att hantera sticksvårigheter", "Att etablera förtroende", "Att vara tydlig", "Att se till personalens säkerhet" och "Att se till patientens säkerhet".Slutsats Anestesisjuksköterskor är medvetna om de fysiologiska och psykologiska faktorer som påverkar anestesin hos patienter med missbruksproblem. De har en uttänkt strategi för planering av anestesin och för att förhindra att problem uppstår. Läkemedelsrelaterade åtgärder som dosanpassning och läkemedelsval var övervägande. Det var olika åsikter huruvida ett PM eller en generell rutin skulle öka säkerheten eller förbättra handläggandet av personer med missbruksproblemNyckelord: Anestesisjuksköterska; M

  • 132.
    af Bjerkén, Sara
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Integrativ medicinsk biologi.
    On dopamine neurons: nerve fiber outgrowth and L-DOPA effects2008Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Parkinson’s disease is a disorder mainly characterized by progressive degeneration of dopamine producing neurons in the substantia nigra of the midbrain. The most commonly used treatment strategy is to pharmacologically restore the lost function by the administration of the dopaminergic precursor L-DOPA. Another treatment strategy is to replace the degenerated neurons with immature fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue, or ultimately stem cell-derived tissue. Grafting trials have, however, revealed poor reinnervation capacity of the grafts, leaving much of the striata dopamine-denervated. An additional drawback is the upcoming of dyskinesia (involuntary movements), a phenomenon also observed during L-DOPA treatment of Parkinson’s disease patients. Attempts to characterize nerve fiber formation from dopamine neurons have demonstrated that the nerve fibers are formed in two morphologically diverse outgrowth patterns, one early outgrowth seen in the absence of astrocytes and one later appearing outgrowth seen in co-existence with astrocytes.

    The overall objective of this thesis has been to study the dopaminergic outgrowth including guidance of nerve fiber formation, and to look into the mechanisms of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. The first paper in this thesis characterizes the different outgrowth patterns described above and their relation to different glial cells. The study demonstrated the two different outgrowth patterns to be a general phenomenon, applying not only to dopamine neurons. Attempts of characterization revealed no difference of origin in terms of dopaminergic subpopulations, i.e. A9 or A10, between the outgrowth patterns. Furthermore, the “roller-drum” technique was found optimal for studying the dual outgrowth sequences.

    The second and the third paper also utilized the “roller-drum” technique in order to promote both patterns of neuronal fiber formation. The effects of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on the formation of dopamine nerve fibers, was investigated. Cultures prepared from gdnf knockout mice revealed that dopaminergic neurons survive and form nerve fiber outgrowth in the absence of GDNF. The dopaminergic nerve fibers exhibited an outgrowth pattern consistent with that previous observed in rat. GDNF was found to exert effect on the glial-associated outgrowth whereas the non-glial-associated was not affected. Astrocytic proliferation was inhibited using cytosine β-D-arabinofuranoside, resulting in reduced glial-associated outgrowth. The non-glial-associated dopaminergic outgrowth was on the other hand promoted, and was retained over longer time in culture. Furthermore, the non-glial-associated nerve fibers were found to target the fetal frontal cortex. Different developmental stages were shown to promote and affect the outgrowths differently. Taken together, these data indicate and state the importance of astrocytes and growth factors for neuronal nerve fiber formation and guidance. It also stresses the importance of fetal donor age at the time for transplantation.

    The fourth and fifth studies focus on L-DOPA dynamics and utilize in vivo chronoamperometry. In study four, 6-OHDA dopamine-depleted rats were exposed to chronic L-DOPA treatment and then rated as dyskinetic or non-dyskinetic. The electrochemical recordings demonstrated reduced KCl-evoked release in the intact striatum after chronic L-DOPA treatment. Time for maximal dopamine concentration after L-DOPA administration was found to be shorter in dyskinetic animals than in non-dyskinetic animals. The serotonergic nerve fiber content in the striatum was evaluated and brains from dyskinetic animals were found to exhibit significantly higher nerve fiber density compared to non-dyskinetic animals. Furthermore, the mechanisms behind the conversion of L-DOPA to dopamine in 6-OHDA dopamine-depleted rats were studied. Local administration of L-DOPA in the striatum increased the KCl-evoked dopamine release in the intact striatum. Acute application of L-DOPA resulted sometimes in a rapid conversion to dopamine, probably without vesicle packaging. This type of direct conversion is presumably occurring in non-neuronal tissue. Furthermore, KCl-evoked dopamine releases were present upon local application of L-DOPA in the dopamine-depleted striatum, suggesting that the conversion to dopamine took place elsewhere, than in dopaminergic nerve fibers. In conclusion, these studies state the importance of astrocytes for neuronal nerve fiber formation and elucidate the complexity of L-DOPA conversion in the brain.

  • 133.
    af Bjerkén, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Stenmark Persson, Rasmus
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Barkander, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Karalija, Nina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Pelegrina-Hidalgo, Noelia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Gerhardt, Greg A
    Virel, Ana
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Strömberg, Ingrid
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Noradrenaline is crucial for the substantia nigra dopaminergic cell maintenance2019Inngår i: Neurochemistry International, ISSN 0197-0186, E-ISSN 1872-9754, Vol. 131, artikkel-id 104551Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Parkinson's disease, degeneration of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons is accompanied by damage on other neuronal systems. A severe denervation is for example seen in the locus coerulean noradrenergic system. Little is known about the relation between noradrenergic and dopaminergic degeneration, and the effects of noradrenergic denervation on the function of the dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra are not fully understood. In this study, N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4) was injected in rats, whereafter behavior, striatal KCl-evoked dopamine and glutamate releases, and immunohistochemistry were monitored at 3 days, 3 months, and 6 months. Quantification of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase-immunoreactive nerve fiber density in the cortex revealed a tendency towards nerve fiber regeneration at 6 months. To sustain a stable noradrenergic denervation throughout the experimental timeline, the animals in the 6-month time point received an additional DSP4 injection (2 months after the first injection). Behavioral examinations utilizing rotarod revealed that DSP4 reduced the time spent on the rotarod at 3 but not at 6 months. KCl-evoked dopamine release was significantly increased at 3 days and 3 months, while the concentrations were normalized at 6 months. DSP4 treatment prolonged both time for onset and reuptake of dopamine release over time. The dopamine degeneration was confirmed by unbiased stereology, demonstrating significant loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in the substantia nigra. Furthermore, striatal glutamate release was decreased after DSP4. In regards of neuroinflammation, reactive microglia were found over the substantia nigra after DSP4 treatment. In conclusion, long-term noradrenergic denervation reduces the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and affects the functionality of the nigrostriatal system. Thus, locus coeruleus is important for maintenance of nigral dopaminergic neurons.

  • 134.
    af Klinteberg, Ingvar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Airway management and safety aspects during induction of anaesthesia. - A comparison between Rapid sequence induction and Target controlled infusion in non-cardiac surgery2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 135.
    Afaag, Ali
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Tandläkarutbildning.
    Sandelin, Benjamin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Tandläkarutbildning.
    Polymerization Shrinkage of Dental Composites Registered by a Video-imaging Device. A pilot study2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The use of composite materials for dental fillings has become more common due to demands for more esthetic filling materials and a national ban against using mercury-containing products, among others dental amalgam. However, one of the drawbacks with composites is their polymerization shrinkage. Filler particles are incorporated into composites among other things to minimize the shrinkage. The sizes of the filler particles have in recent years become smaller and most composites have nano-particles incorporated.

    The aims of the study were to investigate if a) the filler load, b) the curing time and c) tested after "best-before date" will affect the polymerization shrinkage of commercial dental composites. The hypotheses are that high filler loads will result in low shrinkage, and that different curing times and tested after "best-before date" will not significantly affect the shrinkage.

    The polymerization shrinkage of ten commercial composites was studied and three different curing times were used. 150 specimens were manually formed and AcuVol was used to register the volumetric shrinkage.

    The mean volumetric polymerization shrinkage values of the composites ranged between 1.8% and 5.0% for the recommended curing times. The composite with the highest filler load (Kalore) had the lowest mean shrinkage, and the composite with the lowest filler load (SDR) had the highest mean shrinkage.

    The video-imaging device could be used to register the polymerization shrinkage of dental composites. The composites polymerization shrinkage was related to the filler loads when the composites were arranged in groups based on their type. No conclusion could be made about the effect of different curing times and "best-before date".

  • 136. Afari-Asiedu, Samuel
    et al.
    Kinsman, John
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Boamah-Kaali, Ellen
    Abdulai, Martha Ali
    Gyapong, Margaret
    Sankoh, Osman
    Hulscher, Marlies
    Asante, Kwaku Poku
    Wertheim, Heiman
    To sell or not to sell; the differences between regulatory and community demands regarding access to antibiotics in rural Ghana2018Inngår i: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice, E-ISSN 2052-3211, Vol. 11, artikkel-id 30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Ghana, there is extensive over-the-counter dispensing of antibiotics, resulting in high levels of inappropriate use, and an increase in antibiotic resistance. Regulations prevent Licenced Chemical Sellers (LCS, Over-the-Counter Medicine Sellers) from selling antibiotics other than Cotrimoxazole. In practice, however, these sellers sell a variety of antibiotics. This paper aims to provide insight into the differences between regulatory and community demands on the sale of antibiotics, and to explore how these differences in demand could be resolved to facilitate safe and appropriate use of antibiotics in rural Ghana.

    Methods: A total of 32 in-depth interviews were conducted in the Kintampo North and South Districts in Ghana; 16 among antibiotic suppliers, predominantly LCS, and 16 among community members. Six focus group discussions were also conducted among 40 community members. Data were coded using Nvivo 10 and thematically analyzed in line with study objectives. The results are presented as narratives with quotes to illustrate the findings.

    Results: Generally, antibiotic suppliers were aware that regulations prevent LCS from selling antibiotics except Cotrimoxazole. However, LCS sell all types of antibiotics because of community demand, economic motivations of LCS, and the poor implementation of regulations that are intended to prevent them from selling these medications. Factors that influence community demand for antibiotics include previous knowledge of effectiveness of some antibiotics, delays in seeking care at health facilities, financial constraints, and distance to health facilities. LCS suggested that they should be trained and allowed to sell some types of antibiotics instead of being prevented completely from selling. Community members also suggested that Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) compounds should be equipped to dispense antibiotics.

    Conclusion: The sale of antibiotics by LCS at the community level is influenced by both structural and individual contextual factors. There is a need to educate community members on the appropriate access and use of antibiotics in rural Ghana. In addition, rather than enforcing rules that go against practice, it may be more effective to regulate the sale of antibiotics by LCS and train them to make their dispensing more appropriate. CHPS compound could also be equipped to dispense some antibiotics to improve appropriate antibiotic access at the community level.

  • 137. Affognon, H.
    et al.
    Mburu, P.
    Hassan, Osama Ahmed
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Virologi.
    Kingori, S.
    Ahlm, C.
    Sang, R.
    Evander, M.
    Sociocultural differences affect Rift Valley fever exposureManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 138. Affognon, Hippolyte
    et al.
    Mburu, Peter
    Hassan, Osama Ahmed
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Virologi.
    Kingori, Sarah
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Sang, Rosemary
    Evander, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Virologi.
    Ethnic groups' knowledge, attitude and practices and Rift Valley fever exposure in Isiolo County of Kenya2017Inngår i: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, ISSN 1935-2727, E-ISSN 1935-2735, Vol. 11, nr 3, artikkel-id e0005405Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging mosquito-borne viral hemorrhagic fever in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, affecting humans and livestock. For spread of infectious diseases, including RVF, knowledge, attitude and practices play an important role, and the understanding of the influence of behavior is crucial to improve prevention and control efforts. The objective of the study was to assess RVF exposure, in a multiethnic region in Kenya known to experience RVF outbreaks, from the behavior perspective. We investigated how communities in Isiolo County, Kenya were affected, in relation to their knowledge, attitude and practices, by the RVF outbreak of 2006/2007. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 698 households selected randomly from three different ethnic communities. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitudes and practices that could affect the spread of RVF. In addition, information was collected from the communities regarding the number of humans and livestock affected during the RVF outbreak. This study found that better knowledge about a specific disease does not always translate to better practices to avoid exposure to the disease. However, the high knowledge, attitude and practice score measured as a single index of the Maasai community may explain why they were less affected, compared to other investigated communities (Borana and Turkana), by RVF during the 2006/2007 outbreak. We conclude that RVF exposure in Isiolo County, Kenya during the outbreak was likely determined by the behavioral differences of different resident community groups. We then recommend that strategies to combat RVF should take into consideration behavioral differences among communities.

  • 139. Afif, Haitham
    et al.
    Mukka, Sebastian
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Ortopedi. Sundsvall Hospital.
    Sjödén, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Ortopedi. Sundsvall Hospital.
    Sayed-Noor, Arkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Ortopedi. Sundsvall Hospital.
    Do bisphosphonate-related atypical femoral fractures and osteonecrosis of the jaw affect the same group of patients?: a pilot study2014Inngår i: Orthopedic Reviews, ISSN 2035-8237, E-ISSN 2035-8164, Vol. 6, artikkel-id 5067Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are commonly used drugs in clinical practice. In this pilot study, we investigated whether bisphosphonate-related atypical femoral fractures (AFF) and osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) occurred simultaneously in the same group of patients. Six ONJ patients were examined by an orthopedic surgeon and 5 AFF patients were examined by a dentist to look for manifestations of simultaneous occurrence of AFF in ONJ patients and vice versa. The required radiological investigations and previous medical and dental records were available. No simultaneous occurrence of AFF and ONJ was found in the examined patients. In this pilot study with limited sample size, no manifestations of simultaneous occurrence of AFF and ONJ were found. This could be an indication that these complications have different pathophysiologies and affect different subgroups of patients on long-term BP treatment.

  • 140. Afset, J. E.
    et al.
    Larssen, K. W.
    Bergh, K.
    Larkeryd, A.
    Sjodin, A.
    Johansson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk bakteriologi.
    Forsman, M.
    Phylogeographical pattern of Francisella tularensis in a nationwide outbreak of tularaemia in Norway, 20112015Inngår i: Eurosurveillance, ISSN 1025-496X, E-ISSN 1560-7917, Vol. 20, nr 19, s. 9-14, artikkel-id 21125Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2011, a nationwide outbreak of tularaemia occurred in Norway with 180 recorded cases. It was associated with the largest peak in lemming density seen in 40 years. Francisella tularensis was isolated from 18 patients. To study the geographical distribution of F. tularensis genotypes in Norway and correlate genotype with epidemiology and clinical presentation, we performed whole genome sequencing of patient isolates. All 18 genomes from the outbreak carried genetic signatures of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica and were assigned to genetic clades using canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms. Ten isolates were assigned to major genetic clade B.6 (subclade B.7), seven to clade B.12, and one to clade B.4. The B.6 subclade B.7 was most common in southern and central Norway, while clade B.12 was evenly distributed between the southern, central and northern parts of the country. There was no association between genotype and clinical presentation of tularaemia, time of year or specimen type. We found extensive sequence similarity with F. tularensis subsp. holarctica genomes from high-endemic tularaemia areas in Sweden. Finding nearly identical genomes across large geographical distances in Norway and Sweden imply a life cycle of the bacterium without replication between the outbreaks and raise new questions about long-range migration mechanisms.

  • 141. Afshin, Ashkan
    et al.
    Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.
    Reitsma, Marissa B.
    Sur, Patrick
    Estep, Kara
    Lee, Alex
    Marczak, Laurie
    Mokdad, Ali H.
    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Salama, Joseph S.
    Vos, Theo
    Abate, Kalkidan H.
    Abbafati, Cristiana
    Ahmed, Muktar B.
    Al-Aly, Ziyad
    Alkerwi, Ala'a
    Al-Raddadi, Rajaa
    Amare, Azmeraw T.
    Amberbir, Alemayehu
    Amegah, Adeladza K.
    Amini, Erfan
    Amrock, Stephen M.
    Anjana, Ranjit M.
    Arnlov, Johan
    Asayesh, Hamid
    Banerjee, Amitava
    Barac, Aleksandra
    Baye, Estifanos
    Bennett, Derrick A.
    Beyene, Addisu S.
    Biadgilign, Sibhatu
    Biryukov, Stan
    Bjertness, Espen
    Boneya, Dube J.
    Campos-Nonato, Ismael
    Carrero, Juan J.
    Cecilio, Pedro
    Cercy, Kelly
    Ciobanu, Liliana G.
    Cornaby, Leslie
    Damtew, Solomon A.
    Dandona, Lalit
    Dandona, Rakhi
    Dharmaratne, Samath D.
    Duncan, Bruce B.
    Eshrati, Babak
    Esteghamati, Alireza
    Feigin, Valery L.
    Fernandes, Joao C.
    Furst, Thomas
    Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye T.
    Gold, Audra
    Gona, Philimon N.
    Goto, Atsushi
    Habtewold, Tesfa D.
    Hadush, Kokeb T.
    Hafezi-Nejad, Nima
    Hay, Simon I.
    Horino, Masako
    Islami, Farhad
    Kamal, Ritul
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Katikireddi, Srinivasa V.
    Kengne, Andre P.
    Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan N.
    Khader, Yousef S.
    Khang, Young-Ho
    Khubchandani, Jagdish
    Kim, Daniel
    Kim, Yun J.
    Kinfu, Yohannes
    Kosen, Soewarta
    Ku, Tiffany
    Defo, Barthelemy Kuate
    Kumar, G. Anil
    Larson, Heidi J.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Liang, Xiaofeng
    Lim, Stephen S.
    Liu, Patrick
    Lopez, Alan D.
    Lozano, Rafael
    Majeed, Azeem
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Malta, Deborah C.
    Mazidi, Mohsen
    McAlinden, Colm
    McGarvey, Stephen T.
    Mengistu, Desalegn T.
    Mensah, George A.
    Mensink, Gert B. M.
    Mezgebe, Haftay B.
    Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.
    Mueller, Ulrich O.
    Noubiap, Jean J.
    Obermeyer, Carla M.
    Ogbo, Felix A.
    Owolabi, Mayowa O.
    Patton, George C.
    Pourmalek, Farshad
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Rafay, Anwar
    Rai, Rajesh K.
    Ranabhat, Chhabi L.
    Reinig, Nikolas
    Safiri, Saeid
    Salomon, Joshua A.
    Sanabria, Juan R.
    Santos, Itamar S.
    Sartorius, Benn
    Sawhney, Monika
    Schmidhuber, Josef
    Schutte, Aletta E.
    Schmidt, Maria I.
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Shamsizadeh, Moretza
    Sheikhbahaei, Sara
    Shin, Min-Jeong
    Shiri, Rahman
    Shiue, Ivy
    Roba, Hirbo S.
    Silva, Diego A. S.
    Silverberg, Jonathan I.
    Singh, Jasvinder A.
    Stranges, Saverio
    Swaminathan, Soumya
    Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael
    Tadese, Fentaw
    Tedla, Bemnet A.
    Tegegne, Balewgizie S.
    Terkawi, Abdullah S.
    Thakur, J. S.
    Tonelli, Marcello
    Topor-Madry, Roman
    Tyrovolas, Stefanos
    Ukwaja, Kingsley N.
    Uthman, Olalekan A.
    Vaezghasemi, Masoud
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Vasankari, Tommi
    Vlassov, Vasiliy V.
    Vollset, Stein E.
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Werdecker, Andrea
    Wesana, Joshua
    Westerman, Ronny
    Yano, Yuichiro
    Yonemoto, Naohiro
    Yonga, Gerald
    Zaidi, Zoubida
    Zenebe, Zerihun M.
    Zipkin, Ben
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity in 195 Countries over 25 Years2017Inngår i: New England Journal of Medicine, ISSN 0028-4793, E-ISSN 1533-4406, Vol. 377, nr 1, s. 13-27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND Although the rising pandemic of obesity has received major attention in many countries, the effects of this attention on trends and the disease burden of obesity remain uncertain. METHODS We analyzed data from 68.5 million persons to assess the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adults between 1980 and 2015. Using the Global Burden of Disease study data and methods, we also quantified the burden of disease related to high body-mass index (BMI), according to age, sex, cause, and BMI in 195 countries between 1990 and 2015. RESULTS In 2015, a total of 107.7 million children and 603.7 million adults were obese. Since 1980, the prevalence of obesity has doubled in more than 70 countries and has continuously increased in most other countries. Although the prevalence of obesity among children has been lower than that among adults, the rate of increase in childhood obesity in many countries has been greater than the rate of increase in adult obesity. High BMI accounted for 4.0 million deaths globally, nearly 40% of which occurred in persons who were not obese. More than two thirds of deaths related to high BMI were due to cardiovascular disease. The disease burden related to high BMI has increased since 1990; however, the rate of this increase has been attenuated owing to decreases in underlying rates of death from cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS The rapid increase in the prevalence and disease burden of elevated BMI highlights the need for continued focus on surveillance of BMI and identification, implementation, and evaluation of evidence-based interventions to address this problem. 

  • 142. Afshin, Ashkan
    et al.
    Sur, Patrick John
    Fay, Kairsten A.
    Cornaby, Leslie
    Ferrara, Giannina
    Salama, Joseph S.
    Mullany, Erin C.
    Abate, Kalkidan Hassen
    Abbafati, Cristiana
    Abebe, Zegeye
    Afarideh, Mohsen
    Aggarwal, Anju
    Agrawal, Sutapa
    Akinyemiju, Tomi
    Alahdab, Fares
    Bacha, Umar
    Bachman, Victoria F.
    Badali, Hamid
    Badawi, Alaa
    Bensenor, Isabela M.
    Bernabe, Eduardo
    Biryukov, Stan H.
    Biadgilign, Sibhatu Kassa K.
    Cahill, Leah E.
    Carrero, Juan J.
    Cercy, Kelly M.
    Dandona, Lalit
    Dandona, Rakhi
    Dang, Anh Kim
    Degefa, Meaza Girma
    Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed
    Esteghamati, Alireza
    Esteghamati, Sadaf
    Fanzo, Jessica
    Farinha, Carla Sofia E. Sa
    Farvid, Maryam S.
    Farzadfar, Farshad
    Feigin, Valery L.
    Fernandes, Joao C.
    Flor, Luisa Sorio
    Foigt, Nataliya A.
    Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.
    Ganji, Morsaleh
    Geleijnse, Johanna M.
    Gillum, Richard F.
    Goulart, Alessandra C.
    Grosso, Giuseppe
    Guessous, Idris
    Hamidi, Samer
    Hankey, Graeme J.
    Harikrishnan, Sivadasanpillai
    Hassen, Hamid Yimam
    Hay, Simon I.
    Hoang, Chi Linh
    Horino, Masako
    Islami, Farhad
    Jackson, Maria D.
    James, Spencer L.
    Johansson, Lars
    Jonas, Jost B.
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Khader, Yousef Saleh
    Khalil, Ibrahim A.
    Khang, Young-Ho
    Kimokoti, Ruth W.
    Kokubo, Yoshihiro
    Kumar, G. Anil
    Lallukka, Tea
    Lopez, Alan D.
    Lorkowski, Stefan
    Lotufo, Paulo A.
    Lozano, Rafael
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Marz, Winfried
    Meier, Toni
    Melaku, Yohannes A.
    Mendoza, Walter
    Mensink, Gert B. M.
    Micha, Renata
    Miller, Ted R.
    Mirarefin, Mojde
    Mohan, Viswanathan
    Mokdad, Ali H.
    Mozaffarian, Dariush
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Nguyen, Cuong Tat
    Nixon, Molly R.
    Ong, Kanyin L.
    Pereira, David M.
    Poustchi, Hossein
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Rai, Rajesh Kumar
    Razo-Garcia, Christian
    Rehm, Colin D.
    Rivera, Juan A.
    Rodriguez-Ramirez, Sonia
    Roshandel, Gholamreza
    Roth, Gregory A.
    Sanabria, Juan
    Sanchez-Pimienta, Tania G.
    Sartorius, Benn
    Schmidhuber, Josef
    Schutte, Aletta Elisabeth
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Shin, Min-Jeong
    Sorensen, Reed J. D.
    Springmann, Marco
    Szponar, Lucjan
    Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.
    Thrift, Amanda G.
    Touvier, Mathilde
    Tran, Bach Xuan
    Tyrovolas, Stefanos
    Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna
    Ullah, Irfan
    Uthman, Olalekan A.
    Vaezghasemi, Masoud
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Vasankari, Tommi Juhani
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    Vos, Theo
    Vu, Giang Thu
    Vu, Linh Gia
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Werdecker, Andrea
    Wijeratne, Tissa
    Willett, Walter C.
    Wu, Jason H.
    Xu, Gelin
    Yonemoto, Naohiro
    Yu, Chuanhua
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Health effects of dietary risks in 195 countries, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20172019Inngår i: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 393, nr 10184, s. 1958-1972Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Suboptimal diet is an important preventable risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs); however, its impact on the burden of NCDs has not been systematically evaluated. This study aimed to evaluate the consumption of major foods and nutrients across 195 countries and to quantify the impact of their suboptimal intake on NCD mortality and morbidity.

    Methods: By use of a comparative risk assessment approach, we estimated the proportion of disease-specific burden attributable to each dietary risk factor (also referred to as population attributable fraction) among adults aged 25 years or older. The main inputs to this analysis included the intake of each dietary factor, the effect size of the dietary factor on disease endpoint, and the level of intake associated with the lowest risk of mortality. Then, by use of diseasespecific population attributable fractions, mortality, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), we calculated the number of deaths and DALYs attributable to diet for each disease outcome.

    Findings: In 2017, 11 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 10-12) deaths and 255 million (234-274) DALYs were attributable to dietary risk factors. High intake of sodium (3 million [1-5] deaths and 70 million [34-118] DALYs), low intake of whole grains (3 million [2-4] deaths and 82 million [59-109] DALYs), and low intake of fruits (2 million [1-4] deaths and 65 million [41-92] DALYs) were the leading dietary risk factors for deaths and DALYs globally and in many countries. Dietary data were from mixed sources and were not available for all countries, increasing the statistical uncertainty of our estimates.

    Interpretation: This study provides a comprehensive picture of the potential impact of suboptimal diet on NCD mortality and morbidity, highlighting the need for improving diet across nations. Our findings will inform implementation of evidence-based dietary interventions and provide a platform for evaluation of their impact on human health annually.

  • 143.
    Agarkova, Irina
    et al.
    ETH-Zurich Hoenggerberg.
    Schoenauer, Roman
    ETH-Zurich Hoenggerberg.
    Ehler, Elisabeth
    King×s College London,.
    Carlsson, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Carlsson, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Perriard, Jean-Claude
    ETH-Zurich Hoenggerberg.
    The molecular composition of the sarcomeric M-band correlates with muscle fiber type2004Inngår i: European Journal of Cell Biology, ISSN 0171-9335, Vol. 83, nr 5, s. 193-204Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The M-band is the transverse structure that cross-links the thick filaments in the center and provides a perfect alignment of the A-band in the activated sarcomere. The molecular composition of the M-bands in adult mouse skeletal muscle is fiber-type dependent. All M-bands in fast fibers contain M-protein while M-bands in slow fibers contain a significant proportion of the EH-myomesin isoform, previously detected only in embryonic heart muscle. This fiber-type specificity develops during the first postnatal weeks. However, the ratio between the amounts of myosin and of myomesin, taken as sum of both isoforms, remains nearly constant in all studied muscles. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrates that some of the soleus fibers show a diffuse appearance of the M-band, resembling the situation in the embryonic heart. A model is proposed to explain the functional consequence of differential M-band composition for the physiological and morphological properties of sarcomeres in different muscle types.

  • 144. Agborsangaya, Calypse
    et al.
    Toriola, Adetunji T
    Grankvist, Kjell
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Klinisk kemi.
    Surcel, Heljia-Marja
    Holl, Katsiaryna
    Parkkila, Seppo
    Tuohimaa, Pentti
    Lukanova, Annekatrin
    Lehtinen, Matti
    The effects of storage time and sampling season on the stability of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D and androstenedione2010Inngår i: Nutrition and Cancer, ISSN 0163-5581, E-ISSN 1532-7914, Vol. 62, nr 1, s. 51-57Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the stability of serum samples stored in large biobanks is pivotal for reliable assessment of hormone-dependent disease risks. We studied the effects of sample storage time and season of serum sampling on the stability of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) and androstenedione in a stratified random sample of 402 women, using paired sera from the Finnish Maternity Cohort. Serum samples selected were donated between 6 and 24 yr ago. The storage time did not affect serum 25-OHD and androstenedione levels. However, there was a significant mean difference in the 25-OHD levels of sera withdrawn during winter (first sample) vs. during summer (second sample; -18.4 nmol/l, P ≤ 0.001). Also at the individual level, there were significant differences in average 25-OHD levels between individuals with the paired sera taken at winter–winter compared with other alternatives (summer–winter, winter–summer, and summer–summer). The androstenedione levels showed no such differences. Long-term storage does not affect serum 25-OHD and androstenedione levels, but sampling season is an important determinant of 25-OHD levels. Stored serum samples can be used to study disease associations with both hormones. However, sampling season needs to be taken into account for 25-OHD by considering matching and stratification and, if possible, serial sampling.

  • 145. Agca, R.
    et al.
    Heslinga, S. C.
    Rollefstad, S.
    Heslinga, M.
    McInnes, B.
    Peters, M. J. L.
    Kvien, T. K.
    Dougados, M.
    Radner, H.
    Atzeni, F.
    Primdahl, J.
    Södergren, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Reumatologi.
    Wållberg Jonsson, Solveig
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Reumatologi.
    van Rompay, J.
    Zabalan, C.
    Pedersen, T. R.
    Jacobsson, L.
    de Vlam, K.
    Gonzalez-Gay, M. A.
    Semb, A. G.
    Kitas, G. D.
    Smulders, Y. M.
    Szekanecz, Z.
    Sattar, N.
    Symmons, D. P. M.
    Nurmohamed, M. T.
    EULAR recommendations for cardiovascular disease risk management in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other forms of inflammatory joint disorders: 2015/2016 update2017Inngår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 76, nr 1, s. 17-28Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other inflammatory joint disorders (IJD) have increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk compared with the general population. In 2009, the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) taskforce recommended screening, identification of CVD risk factors and CVD risk management largely based on expert opinion. In view of substantial new evidence, an update was conducted with the aim of producing CVD risk management recommendations for patients with IJD that now incorporates an increasing evidence base. A multidisciplinary steering committee (representing 13 European countries) comprised 26 members including patient representatives, rheumatologists, cardiologists, internists, epidemiologists, a health professional and fellows. Systematic literature searches were performed and evidence was categorised according to standard guidelines. The evidence was discussed and summarised by the experts in the course of a consensus finding and voting process. Three overarching principles were defined. First, there is a higher risk for CVD in patients with RA, and this may also apply to ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis. Second, the rheumatologist is responsible for CVD risk management in patients with IJD. Third, the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids should be in accordance with treatment-specific recommendations from EULAR and Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society. Ten recommendations were defined, of which one is new and six were changed compared with the 2009 recommendations. Each designated an appropriate evidence support level. The present update extends on the evidence that CVD risk in the whole spectrum of IJD is increased. This underscores the need for CVD risk management in these patients. These recommendations are defined to provide assistance in CVD risk management in IJD, based on expert opinion and scientific evidence.

  • 146. Agewall, Stefan
    et al.
    Rydén, Lars
    Perk, Joep
    Rosengren, Annika
    Boman, Kurt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin. Skellefteå Research Unit.
    Hellénius, Mai-Lis
    Ros, Inger
    Efterlyses: politik mot hjärtinfarkt2013Inngår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 110, nr 13-14, s. 664-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 147. Aggett, Peter
    et al.
    Nordberg, Gunnar F
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nordberg, Monica
    Essential metals: assessing risks from dificiency and toxicity2015Inngår i: Handbook on the toxicology of metals: Volume I: General considerations / [ed] Gunnar F. Nordberg, Bruce A. Fowler, Monica Nordberg, Academic Press, 2015, 4, s. 281-297Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recommendations aimed at protecting the public from toxicity of essential elements including essential metals have usually been developed separately from those recommendations aimed at protection from deficiency. Because of the uncertainties involved in the evaluations, these recommendations have sometimes been in conflict, emphasizing the need for a new approach, including a balanced consideration of nutritional and toxicological data. In developing these new principles of evaluation, some basic concepts based on interindividual variability in sensitivity to deficiency and toxicity must be considered. Such variation translates into one interval of (low) daily intakes, at which there is a risk of developing deficiency, and another interval of (high) dietary intakes at which toxicity may occur. In most instances, there is a third set of intakes in between, which represents the acceptable range of oral intake (AROI), in which no adverse effects occur. It must be noted, however, that a range cannot be found that protects all persons from adverse effects. Those persons with genetically determined sensitivity may require higher intakes to avoid deficiency or lower intakes to avoid toxicity than those defined by the AROI. The AROI is defined as protecting 95% of an unselected human population from minimal adverse effects of deficiency or toxicity.

  • 148.
    Agharbi, Mariam
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Hva ønsker den norske kunden seg av helsetjenester i apotek?: Kartlegging og utforming av blodtrykksmåling som en etterspurt helsetjeneste i norske apotek.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 149.
    Aghester, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Hyperspektral bildanalys av pulverblandningar innehållande mannitol och natriumsalicylat: Effekt av partikelstorlek och blandningstid2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 150. Aglago, Elom K.
    et al.
    Huybrechts, Inge
    Murphy, Neil
    Casagrande, Corinne
    Nicolas, Genevieve
    Pischon, Tobias
    Fedirko, Veronika
    Severi, Gianluca
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Fournier, Agnès
    Katzke, Verena
    Kühn, Tilman
    Olsen, Anja
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Dahm, Christina C.
    Overvad, Kim
    Lasheras, Cristina
    Agudo, Antonio
    Sánchez, Maria-Jose
    Amiano, Pilar
    Huerta, José Maria
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Perez-Cornago, Aurora
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Karakatsani, Anna
    Martimianaki, Georgia
    Palli, Domenico
    Pala, Valeria
    Tumino, Rosario
    Naccarati, Alessio
    Panico, Salvatore
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    May, Anne
    Derksen, Jeroen W. G.
    Hellstrand, Sophie
    Ohlsson, Bodil
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    van Guelpen, Bethany
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Skeie, Guri
    Brustad, Magritt
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Cross, Amanda J.
    Ward, Heather
    Riboli, Elio
    Norat, Teresa
    Chajes, Veronique
    Gunter, Marc J.
    Consumption of Fish and Long-chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Is Associated With Reduced Risk of Colorectal Cancer in a Large European Cohort2019Inngår i: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, ISSN 1542-3565, E-ISSN 1542-7714Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is an unclear association between intake of fish and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) and colorectal cancer (CRC). We examined the association between fish consumption, dietary and circulating levels of n-3 LC-PUFAs, and ratio of n-6:n-3 LC-PUFA with CRC using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

    METHODS: Dietary intake of fish (total, fatty/oily, lean/white) and n-3 LC-PUFA were estimated by food frequency questionnaires given to 521,324 participants in the EPIC study; among these, 6291 individuals developed CRC (median follow up, 14.9 years). Levels of phospholipid LC-PUFA were measured by gas chromatography in plasma samples from a sub-group of 461 CRC cases and 461 matched individuals without CRC (controls). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards and conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and odds ratios (ORs), respectively, with 95% CIs.

    RESULTS: Total intake of fish (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.80-0.96; Ptrend = .005), fatty fish (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82-0.98; Ptrend = .009), and lean fish (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.83-1.00; Ptrend = .016) were inversely associated with CRC incidence. Intake of total n-3 LC-PUFA (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78-0.95; Ptrend = .010) was also associated with reduced risk of CRC, whereas dietary ratio of n-6:n-3 LC-PUFA was associated with increased risk of CRC (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.18-1.45; Ptrend < .001). Plasma levels of phospholipid n-3 LC-PUFA was not associated with overall CRC risk, but an inverse trend was observed for proximal compared with distal colon cancer (Pheterogeneity = .026).

    CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of dietary patterns of participants in the EPIC study, we found regular consumption of fish, at recommended levels, to be associated with a lower risk of CRC, possibly through exposure to n-3 LC-PUFA. Levels of n-3 LC-PUFA in plasma were not associated with CRC risk, but there may be differences in risk at different regions of the colon.

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