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  • 101.
    Kalpouzos, Gregoria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Memory Self-Efficacy Beliefs Modulate Brain Activity when Encoding Real-World Future Intentions2013Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 9, s. e73850-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: While the use of different cognitive strategies when encoding episodic memory information has been extensively investigated, modulation of brain activity by memory self-efficacy beliefs has not been studied yet.

    Methodology/Principal Findings: Sixteen young adults completed the prospective and retrospective metamemory questionnaire, providing individual subjective judgments of everyday memory function. The day after, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the participants had to memorize real-world intentions (e. g., return a book to the library), which were performed later on in a virtual environment. Participants also performed offline cognitive tasks evaluating executive functions, working memory, and attention. During encoding, activity was found in medial temporal lobe, left prefrontal cortex, medial parietal regions, occipital areas, and regions involved in (pre) motor processes. Based on results from the questionnaire, the group was split into low and high memory self-efficacy believers. Comparison of encoding-related brain activity between the 2 groups revealed that the low memory self-efficacy believers activated more the hippocampus bilaterally, right posterior parahippocampal cortex, precuneus, and left lateral temporal cortex. By contrast, more activity was found in dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus for the high-memory believers. In addition, the low-memory believers performed more poorly at feature binding and (at trend) manipulating visuospatial information in working memory.

    Conclusion/Significance: Overall, these findings indicate that memory self-efficacy beliefs modulate brain activity during intentional encoding. Low memory self-efficacy believers activated more brain areas involved in visuospatial operations such as the hippocampus. Possibly, this increase reflects attempts to compensate for poor performance of certain neurocognitive processes, such as feature binding. By contrast, high-memory believers seemed to rely more on executive-like processes involved in cognitive control.

  • 102. Kalpouzos, Gregoria
    et al.
    Garzon, Benjamin
    Sitnikov, Rouslan
    Heiland, Carmel
    Salami, Alireza
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; .
    Persson, Jonas
    Backman, Lars
    Higher Striatal Iron Concentration is Linked to Frontostriatal Underactivation and Poorer Memory in Normal Aging2017Inngår i: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 27, nr 6, s. 3427-3436Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the brain, intracellular iron is essential for cellular metabolism. However, an overload of free iron is toxic, inducing oxidative stress and cell death. Although an increase of striatal iron has been related to atrophy and impaired cognitive performance, the link between elevated iron and altered brain activity in aging remains unexplored. In a sample of 37 younger and older adults, we examined whether higher striatal iron concentration could underlie age-related differences in frontostriatal activity induced by mental imagery of motor and non-motor scenes, and poorer recall of the scenes. Higher striatal iron concentration was linked to underrecruitment of frontostriatal regions regardless of age and striatal volume, the iron-activity association in right putamen being primarily driven by the older adults. In older age, higher striatal iron was related to poorer memory. Altered astrocytic functions could account for the link between brain iron and brain activity, as astrocytes are involved in iron buffering, neurovascular coupling, and synaptic activity. Our preliminary findings, which need to be replicated in a larger sample, suggest a potential frontostriatal target for intervention to counteract negative effects of iron accumulation on brain function and cognition.

  • 103.
    Kalpouzos, Grégoria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Sjölie, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Molin, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Neurocognitive systems related to real-world prospective memory2010Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 5, nr 10, s. e13304-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Taken together, these findings show how brain systems complementary interact during real-world PM, and support a more complete model of PM that can be applied to naturalistic PM tasks and that we named PROspective MEmory DYnamic (PROMEDY) model because of its dynamics on both multi-phase iteration and the interactions of distinct neurocognitive networks.

  • 104.
    Karalija, Nina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Jonassson, Lars
    Johansson, Jarkko
    Papenberg, Goran
    Salami, Alireza
    Andersson, Micael
    Riklund, Katrine
    Nyberg, Lars
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    High long-term test-retest reliability for extrastriatal C-11-raclopride binding in healthy older adults2019Inngår i: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, ISSN 0271-678X, E-ISSN 1559-7016, artikkel-id UNSP 0271678X19874770Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In vivo dopamine D2-receptor availability is frequently assessed with C-11-raclopride and positron emission tomography. Due to low signal-to-noise ratios for C-11-raclopride in areas with low D2 receptor densities, the ligand has been considered unreliable for measurements outside the dopamine-dense striatum. Intriguingly, recent studies show that extrastriatal C-11-raclopride binding potential (BPND) values are (i) reliably higher than in the cerebellum (where D2-receptor levels are negligible), (ii) correlate with behavior in the expected direction, and (iii) showed good test-retest reliability in a sample of younger adults. The present work demonstrates high seven-month test-retest reliability of striatal and extrastriatal C-11-raclopride BPND values in healthy, older adults (n = 27, age: 64-78 years). Mean C-11-raclopride BPND values were stable between test sessions in subcortical nuclei, and in frontal and temporal cortices (p > 0.05). Across all structures analyzed, intraclass correlation coefficients were high (0.85-0.96), absolute variability was low (mean: 4-8%), and coefficients of variance ranged between 9 and 25%. Furthermore, regional C-11-raclopride BPND values correlated with previously determined F-18-fallypride BPND values (rho = 0.97 and 0.92 in correlations with and without striatal values, respectively, p < 0.01) and postmortem determined D2-receptor densities (including striatum: rho = 0.92; p < 0.001; excluding striatum: rho = 0.75; p = 0.067). These observations suggest that extrastriatal C-11-raclopride measurements represent a true D2 signal.

  • 105.
    Karalija, Nina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Wåhlin, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Ek, Jesper
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Rieckmann, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Papenberg, Goran
    Salami, Alireza
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Wallenberg centrum för molekylär medicin vid Umeå universitet (WCMM). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet & Stockholm University, Tomtebodavägen 18A,S-17165, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brandmaier, Andreas M.
    Köhncke, Ylva
    Johansson, Jarkko
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Axelsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Orädd, Greger
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Lövdén, Martin
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    Bäckman, Lars
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Cardiovascular factors are related to dopamine integrity and cognition in aging2019Inngår i: Annals of clinical and translational neurology, E-ISSN 2328-9503, Vol. 6, nr 11, s. 2291-2303Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aging brain undergoes several changes, including reduced vascular, structural, and dopamine (DA) system integrity. Such brain changes have been associated with age‐related cognitive deficits. However, their relative importance, interrelations, and links to risk factors remain elusive.

    Methods: The present work used magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography with 11C‐raclopride to jointly examine vascular parameters (white‐matter lesions and perfusion), DA D2‐receptor availability, brain structure, and cognitive performance in healthy older adults (n = 181, age: 64–68 years) from the Cognition, Brain, and Aging (COBRA) study.

    Results: Covariance was found among several brain indicators, where top predictors of cognitive performance included caudate and hippocampal integrity (D2DR availability and volumes), and cortical blood flow and regional volumes. White‐matter lesion burden was negatively correlated with caudate DA D2‐receptor availability and white‐matter microstructure. Compared to individuals with smaller lesions, individuals with confluent lesions (exceeding 20 mm in diameter) had reductions in cortical and hippocampal perfusion, striatal and hippocampal D2‐receptor availability, white‐matter microstructure, and reduced performance on tests of episodic memory, sequence learning, and processing speed. Higher cardiovascular risk as assessed by treatment for hypertension, systolic blood pressure, overweight, and smoking was associated with lower frontal cortical perfusion, lower putaminal D2DR availability, smaller grey‐matter volumes, a larger number of white‐matter lesions, and lower episodic memory performance.

    Interpretation: Taken together, these findings suggest that reduced cardiovascular health is associated with poorer status for brain variables that are central to age‐sensitive cognitive functions, with emphasis on DA integrity.

  • 106.
    Karlsson Wirebring, Linnea
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Liljekvist, Yvonne
    Karlstad, Sweden.
    Norqvist, Mathias
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Learning mathematics without a suggested solution method: durable effects on performance and brain activity2015Inngår i: Trends in Neuroscience and Education, ISSN 2211-9493, Vol. 4, nr 1-2, s. 6-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A dominant mathematics teaching method is to present a solution method and let pupils repeatedly practice it. An alternative method is to let pupils create a solution method themselves. The current study compared these two approaches in terms of lasting effects on performance and brain activity. Seventythree participants practiced mathematics according to one of the two approaches. One week later, participants underwent fMRI while being tested on the practice tasks. Participants who had created the solution method themselves performed better at the test questions. In both conditions, participants engaged a fronto-parietal network more when solving test questions compared to a baseline task. Importantly, participants who had created the solution method themselves showed relatively lower brain activity in angular gyrus, possibly reflecting reduced demands on verbal memory. These results indicate that there might be advantages to creating the solution method oneself, and thus have implications for the design of teaching methods.

  • 107.
    Karlsson Wirebring, Linnea
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Stillesjö, Sara
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Juslin, Peter
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    A Similarity-Based Process for Human Judgment in the Parietal Cortex2018Inngår i: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 12, artikkel-id 481Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One important distinction in psychology is between inferences based on associative memory and inferences based on analysis and rules. Much previous empirical work conceive of associative and analytical processes as two exclusive ways of addressing a judgment task, where only one process is selected and engaged at a time, in an either-or fashion. However, related work indicate that the processes are better understood as being in interplay and simultaneously engaged. Based on computational modeling and brain imaging of spontaneously adopted judgment strategies together with analyses of brain activity elicited in tasks where participants were explicitly instructed to perform similarity-based associative judgments or rule-based judgments (n = 74), we identified brain regions related to the two types of processes. We observed considerable overlap in activity patterns. The precuneus was activated for both types of judgments, and its activity predicted how well a similarity-based model fit the judgments. Activity in the superior frontal gyrus predicted the fit of a rule-based judgment model. The results suggest the precuneus as a key node for similarity-based judgments, engaged both when overt responses are guided by similarity-based and rule-based processes. These results are interpreted such that similarity-based processes are engaged in parallel to rule-based-processes, a finding with direct implications for cognitive theories of judgment.

  • 108.
    Karlsson Wirebring, Linnea
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Lesser neural pattern similarity across repeated tests is associated with better long-term memory retention2015Inngår i: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 35, nr 26, s. 9595-9602Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Encoding and retrieval processes enhance long-term memory performance. The efficiency of encoding processes has recently been linked to representational consistency: the reactivation of a representation that gets more specific each time an item is further studied. Here we examined the complementary hypothesis of whether the efficiency of retrieval processes also is linked to representational consistency. Alternatively, recurrent retrieval might foster representational variability—the altering or adding of underlying memory representa- tions. Human participants studied 60 Swahili–Swedish word pairs before being scanned with fMRI the same day and 1 week later. On Day 1, participants were tested three times on each word pair, and on Day 7 each pair was tested once. A BOLD signal change in right superior parietal cortex was associated with subsequent memory on Day 1 and with successful long-term retention on Day 7. A representational similarity analysis in this parietal region revealed that beneficial recurrent retrieval was associated with representational variability, such that the pattern similarity on Day 1 was lower for retrieved words subsequently remembered compared with those subsequently forgot- ten. This was mirrored by a monotonically decreased BOLD signal change in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on Day 1 as a function of repeated successful retrieval for words subsequently remembered, but not for words subsequently forgotten. This reduction in prefrontal response could reflect reduced demands on cognitive control. Collectively, the results offer novel insights into why memory retention benefits from repeated retrieval, and they suggest fundamental differences between repeated study and repeated testing. 

  • 109. Kaufmann, Tobias
    et al.
    van der Meer, Dennis
    Doan, Nhat Trung
    Schwarz, Emanuel
    Lund, Martina J.
    Agartz, Ingrid
    Alnaes, Dag
    Barch, Deanna M.
    Baur-Streubel, Ramona
    Bertolino, Alessandro
    Bettella, Francesco
    Beyer, Mona K.
    Boen, Erlend
    Borgwardt, Stefan
    Brandt, Christine L.
    Buitelaar, Jan
    Celius, Elisabeth G.
    Cervenka, Simon
    Conzelmann, Annette
    Cordova-Palomera, Aldo
    Dale, Anders M.
    de Quervain, Dominique J. F.
    Carlo, PasqualeDi
    Djurovic, Srdjan
    Dorum, Erlend S.
    Eisenacher, Sarah
    Elvsashagen, Torbjorn
    Espeseth, Thomas
    Fatouros-Bergman, Helena
    Flyckt, Lena
    Franke, Barbara
    Frei, Oleksandr
    Haatveit, Beathe
    Haberg, Asta K.
    Harbo, Hanne F.
    Hartman, Catharina A.
    Heslenfeld, Dirk
    Hoekstra, Pieter J.
    Hogestol, Einar A.
    Jernigan, Terry L.
    Jonassen, Rune
    Jonsson, Erik G.
    Kirsch, Peter
    Ktoszewska, Iwona
    Kolskar, Knut K.
    Landro, Nils Inge
    Hellard, StephanieLe
    Lesch, Klaus-Peter
    Lovestone, Simon
    Lundervold, Arvid
    Lundervold, Astri J.
    Maglanoc, Luigi A.
    Malt, Ulrik F.
    Mecocci, Patrizia
    Melle, Ingrid
    Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas
    Moberget, Torgeir
    Norbom, Linn B.
    Nordvik, Jan Egil
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Oosterlaan, Jaap
    Papalino, Marco
    Papassotiropoulos, Andreas
    Pauli, Paul
    Pergola, Giulio
    Persson, Karin
    Richard, Genevieve
    Rokicki, Jaroslav
    Sanders, Anne-Marthe
    Selbaek, Geir
    Shadrin, Alexey A.
    Smeland, Olav B.
    Soininen, Hilkka
    Sowa, Piotr
    Steen, Vidar M.
    Tsolaki, Magda
    Ulrichsen, Kristine M.
    Vellas, Bruno
    Wang, Lei
    Westman, Eric
    Ziegler, Georg C.
    Zink, Mathias
    Andreassen, Ole A.
    Westlye, Lars T.
    Farde, Lars
    Flyckts, Lena
    Engberg, Goran
    Erhardt, Sophie
    Fatouros-Bergmann, Helena
    Schwieler, Lilly
    Piehl, Fredrik
    Collste, Karin
    Victorsson, Pauliina
    Malmqvist, Anna
    Hedberg, Mikael
    Orhan, Funda
    Common brain disorders are associated with heritable patterns of apparent aging of the brain2019Inngår i: Nature Neuroscience, ISSN 1097-6256, E-ISSN 1546-1726, Vol. 22, nr 10, s. 1617-+Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Common risk factors for psychiatric and other brain disorders are likely to converge on biological pathways influencing the development and maintenance of brain structure and function across life. Using structural MRI data from 45,615 individuals aged 3-96 years, we demonstrate distinct patterns of apparent brain aging in several brain disorders and reveal genetic pleiotropy between apparent brain aging in healthy individuals and common brain disorders.

  • 110.
    Kauppi, Karolina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Eriksson, Elias
    Gothenburg University.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    KIBRA polymorphism is related to enhanced memory and elevated hippocampal processing2011Inngår i: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 31, nr 40, s. 14218-14222Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have linked the KIBRA rs17070145 T polymorphism to superior episodic memory in healthy humans. One study investigated the effect of KIBRA on brain activation patterns (Papassotiropoulos et al., 2006) and observed increased hippocampal activation in noncarriers of the T allele during retrieval. Noncarriers were interpreted to need more hippocampal activation to reach the same performance level as T carriers. Using large behavioral (N = 2230) and fMRI (N = 83) samples, we replicated the KIBRA effect on episodic memory performance, but found increased hippocampal activation in T carriers during episodic retrieval. There was no evidence of compensatory brain activation in noncarriers within the hippocampal region. In the main fMRI sample, T carriers performed better than noncarriers during scanning but, importantly, the difference in hippocampus activation remained after post hoc matching according to performance, sex, and age (N = 64). These findings link enhanced memory performance in KIBRA T allele carriers to elevated hippocampal functioning, rather than to neural compensation in noncarriers.

  • 111.
    Kauppi, Karolina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Lundquist, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Eriksson, Elias
    Gothenburg University.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Decreased medial temporal lobe activation in BDNF 66Met allele carriers during memory encoding2013Inngår i: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 51, nr 12, s. 2462-2468Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Met allele of the Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val(66)Met polymorphism has been associated with impaired activity-dependent secretion of BDNF protein and decreased memory performance. Results from imaging studies relating Val(66)Met to brain activation during memory processing have been inconsistent, with reports of both increased and decreased activation in the Medial Temporal Lobe (MTL) in Met carriers relative to Val homozygotes. Here, we extensively studied BDNF Val(66)Met in relation to brain activation and white matter integrity as well as memory performance in a large imaging (n=194) and behavioral (n=2229) sample, respectively. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate MTL activation in healthy participants in the age of 55-75 years during a face-name episodic encoding and retrieval task. White matter integrity was measured using diffusion tensor imaging.

    BDNF Met allele carriers had significantly decreased activation in the MTL during encoding processes, but not during retrieval processes. In contrast to previous proposals, the effect was not modulated by age and the polymorphism was not related to white matter integrity. Met carriers had lower memory performance than Val homozygotes, but differences were subtle and not significant. In conclusion, the BDNF Met allele has a negative influence on MTL functioning, preferentially during encoding processes, which might translate into impaired episodic memory function.

  • 112.
    Kauppi, Karolina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University,106 91 Stockholm, Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden.
    Persson, Jonas
    Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet, Gävlegatan 16, SE-11330 Stockholm, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Additive genetic effect of APOE and BDNF on hippocampus activity2014Inngår i: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 89, nr 1, s. 306-313Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Human memory is a highly heritable polygenic trait with complex inheritance patterns. To study the genetics of memory and memory-related diseases, hippocampal functioning has served as an intermediate phenotype. The importance of investigating gene-gene effects on complex phenotypes has been emphasized, but most imaging studies still focus on single polymorphisms. APOE ε4 and BDNF Met, two of the most studied gene variants for variability in memory performance and neuropsychiatric disorders, have both separately been related to poorer episodic memory and altered hippocampal functioning. Here, we investigated the combined effect of APOE and BDNF on hippocampal activation (N=151). No non-additive interaction effects were seen. Instead, the results revealed decreased activation in bilateral hippocampus and parahippocampus as a function of the number of APOE ε4 and BDNF Met alleles present (neither, one, or both). The combined effect was stronger than either of the individual effects, and both gene variables explained significant proportions of variance in BOLD signal change. Thus, there was an additive gene-gene effect of APOE and BDNF on medial temporal lobe (MTL) activation, showing that a larger proportion of variance in brain activation attributed to genetics can be explained by considering more than one gene variant. This effect might be relevant for the understanding of normal variability in memory function as well as memory-related disorders associated with APOE and BDNF.

  • 113. Koehncke, Ylva
    et al.
    Papenberg, Goran
    Jonasson, Lars S.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Karalija, Nina
    Wåhlin, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Salami, Alireza
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Axelsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Bäckman, Lars
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    Lövdén, Martin
    Self-rated intensity of habitual physical activities is positively associated with dopamine D-2/3 receptor availability and cognition2018Inngår i: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 181, s. 605-616Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Between-person differences in cognitive performance in older age are associated with variations in physical activity. The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) contributes to cognitive performance, and the DA system deteriorates with advancing age. Animal data and a patient study suggest that physical activity modulates DA receptor availability, but data from healthy humans are lacking. In a cross-sectional study with 178 adults aged 64-68 years, we investigated links among self-reported physical activity, D(2/3)DA receptor (D2/3DR) availability, and cognitive performance. D2/3DR availability was measured with [C-11]raclopride positron emission tomography at rest. We used structural equation modeling to obtain latent factors for processing speed, episodic memory, working memory, physical activity, and D2/3DR availability in caudate, putamen, and hippocampus. Physical activity intensity was positively associated with D2/3DR availability in caudate, but not putamen and hippocampus. Frequency of physical activity was not related to D2/3DR availability. Physical activity intensity was positively related to episodic memory and working memory. D2/3DR availability in caudate and hippocampus was positively related to episodic memory. Taken together, our results suggest that striatal DA availability might be a neurochemical correlate of episodic memory that is also associated with physical activity.

  • 114.
    Kompus, Kristiina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Default mode network gates the retrieval of task-irrelevant incidental memories2011Inngår i: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 487, nr 3, s. 318-321Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Episodic memories can be retrieved by an intentional search for certain information. Alternatively, a past episode may enter our consciousness without any intention to retrieve it, prompted by a stimulus in our surroundings. Incidental retrieval does not occur upon each encounter with a familiar stimulus, suggesting that a gating mechanism exists which regulates incidental retrieval activity. We analyzed data from a functional magnetic resonance imaging study on incidental retrieval in healthy young adults and found that failure to incidentally retrieve was selectively associated with reduced activation of lateral and medial parietal regions as well as ventromedial frontal cortex, areas implicated in default mode network. This is the first demonstration that relative deactivation of the brain regions associated with the default mode gates the consciousness from currently irrelevant memories.

  • 115.
    Kompus, Kristiina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Eichele, Tom
    University of Bergen.
    Hugdahl, Kenneth
    University of Bergen.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Multimodal imaging of incidental retrieval: the low route to memory2011Inngår i: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, E-ISSN 1530-8898, Vol. 23, nr 4, s. 947-960Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Memories of past episodes frequently come to mind incidentally, without directed search. It has remained unclear how incidental retrieval processes are initiated in the brain. Here we used fMRI and ERP recordings to find brain activity that specifically correlates with incidental retrieval, as compared to intentional retrieval. Intentional retrieval was associated with increased activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. By contrast, incidental retrieval was associated with a reduced fMRI signal in posterior brain regions, including extrastriate and parahippocampal cortex, and a modulation of a posterior ERP component 170 ms after the onset of visual retrieval cues. Successful retrieval under both intentional and incidental conditions was associated with increased activation in hippocampus, precuneus and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, as well as increased amplitude of the P600 ERP component. These results demonstrate how early bottom-up signals from the posterior cortex can lead to reactivation of episodic memories in the absence of strategic retrieval attempts.

  • 116.
    Kompus, Kristiina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Hugdahl, Kenneth
    Öhman, Arne
    Marklund, Petter
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Distinct control networks for cognition and emotion in the prefrontal cortex2009Inngår i: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 467, nr 2, s. 76-80Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) has been suggested to reflect the engagement of a control mechanism for top-down biasing of context processing in resource-demanding memory tasks. Here we tested the hypothesis that the dlPFC subserves a similar function also in attention and emotion tasks. 18 healthy young adults were tested in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study where the demands for context processing were manipulated in three different cognitive domains: auditory attention, episodic retrieval, and emotion regulation. We found that the right dlPFC was jointly sensitive to increased cognitive demands in the attention and memory tasks. By contrast, increased demands in the emotion task (reappraisal) were associated with increased activity in ventromedial PFC along with decreased amygdala activity. Our findings of divergent prefrontal control networks for cognitive and emotional control extend previous separations of cognition and emotion in the anterior cingulate cortex.

  • 117.
    Kompus, Kristiina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). University of Bergen.
    Kalpouzos, Gregoria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Stockholm University.
    Westerhausen, Rene
    University of Bergen.
    The size of the anterior corpus callosum correlates with the strength of hemispheric encoding-retrieval asymmetry in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex2011Inngår i: Brain Research, ISSN 0006-8993, E-ISSN 1872-6240, Vol. 1419, s. 61-67Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional lateralization of episodic memory processes in the frontal lobe is an area of intense study in the field of cognitive neuroimaging. Yet, to date there is insufficient knowledge of what role the interhemispheric structural connectivity plays in this lateralized organization. We analyzed functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging data from healthy adult volunteers who performed an associative encoding and retrieval task. We examined the relationship between functional voxel-based relative asymmetry of encoding and retrieval in the frontal lobes and the size of the anterior corpus callosum (antCC; corrected for brain size). The size of the antCC was strongly associated to the relative encoding-retrieval asymmetry in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 47). These findings show that the functional asymmetry of episodic memory processes in the frontal lobes is associated with the structural connectivity between the hemispheres. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 118.
    Kompus, Kristiina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Olsson, Carl-Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Larsson, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Radiofysik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Dynamic switching between semantic and episodic memory systems2009Inngår i: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 47, nr 11, s. 2252-2260Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that episodic and semantic long-term memory systems interact during retrieval. Here we examined the flexibility of memory retrieval in an associative task taxing memories of different strength, assumed to differentially engage episodic and semantic memory. Healthy volunteers were pre-trained on a set of 36 face-name pairs over a 6-week period. Another set of 36 items was shown only once during the same time period. About 3 months after the training period all items were presented in a randomly intermixed order in an event-related fMRI study of face-name memory. Once presented items differentially activated anterior cingulate cortex and a right prefrontal region that previously have been associated with episodic retrieval mode. High-familiar items were associated with stronger activation of posterior cortices and a left frontal region. These findings fit a model of memory retrieval by which early processes determine, on a trial-by-trial basis, if the task can be solved by the default semantic system. If not, there is a dynamic shift to cognitive control processes that guide retrieval from episodic memory.

  • 119. Kubik, Veit
    et al.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Aging Research Center, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Effects of testing on subsequent re-encoding and long-term forgetting of action-relevant materials: On the influence of recall type2015Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 56, nr 5, s. 475-481Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Testing one's memory of previously studied information reduces the rate of forgetting, compared to restudy. However, little is known about how this direct testing effect applies to action phrases (e.g., "wash the car") - a learning material relevant to everyday memory. As action phrases consist of two different components, a verb (e.g., "wash") and a noun (e.g., "car"), testing can either be implemented as noun-cued recall of verbs or verb-cued recall of nouns, which may differently affect later memory performance. In the present study, we investigated the effect of testing for these two recall types, using verbally encoded action phrases as learning materials. Results showed that repeated study-test practice, compared to repeated study-restudy practice, decreased the forgetting rate across 1 week to a similar degree for both noun-cued and verb-cued recall types. However, noun-cued recall of verbs initiated more new subsequent learning during the first restudy, compared to verb-cued recall of nouns. The study provides evidence that testing has benefits on both subsequent restudy and long-term retention of action-relevant materials, but that these benefits are differently expressed with testing via noun-cued versus verb-cued recall.

  • 120. Kubik, Veit
    et al.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Jonsson, Fredrik U.
    Putting action memory to the test: testing affects subsequent restudy but not long-term forgetting of action events2016Inngår i: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 209-219Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Testing memory typically enhances subsequent re-encoding of information (indirect testing effect) and, as compared to restudy, it also benefits later long-term retention (direct testing effect). We investigated the effect of testing on subsequent restudy and 1-week retention of action events (e.g. water the plant). In addition, we investigated if the type of recall practice (noun-cued vs. verb-cued) moderates these testing benefits. The results showed an indirect testing effect that increased following noun-cued recall of verbs as compared to verb-cued recall of nouns. In contrast, a direct testing effect on the forgetting rate of performed actions was not reliably observed, neither for noun- nor verb-cued recall. Thus, to the extent that this study successfully dissociated direct and indirect testing-based enhancements, they seem to be differentially effective for performed actions, and may rely on partially different mechanisms.

  • 121. Lebedeva, A
    et al.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lindgren, Lenita
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Stomby, A
    Stomby, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för medicin. Jönköping County Hospital, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Aarsland, D
    Westman, E
    Winblad, B
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för medicin.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Longitudinal relationships among depressive symptoms, cortisol, and brain atrophy in the neocortex and the hippocampus2018Inngår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, Vol. 167, nr 6, s. 491-502Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Depression is associated with accelerated aging and age-related diseases. However, mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. The aim of this study was to longitudinally assess the link between depressive symptoms, brain atrophy, and cortisol levels.

    METHOD: Participants from the Betula prospective cohort study (mean age = 59 years, SD = 13.4 years) underwent clinical, neuropsychological and brain 3T MRI assessments at baseline and a 4-year follow-up. Cortisol levels were measured at baseline in four saliva samples. Cortical and hippocampal atrophy rates were estimated and compared between participants with and without depressive symptoms (n = 81) and correlated with cortisol levels (n = 49).

    RESULTS: Atrophy in the left superior frontal gyrus and right lingual gyrus developed in parallel with depressive symptoms, and in the left temporal pole, superior temporal cortex, and supramarginal cortex after the onset of depressive symptom. Depression-related atrophy was significantly associated with elevated cortisol levels. Elevated cortisol levels were also associated with widespread prefrontal, parietal, lateral, and medial temporal atrophy.

    CONCLUSION: Depressive symptoms and elevated cortisol levels are associated with atrophy of the prefrontal and limbic areas of the brain.

  • 122.
    Lindgren, Lenita
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Clinical Dentistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, UIT - The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Longitudinal Evidence for Smaller Hippocampus Volume as a Vulnerability Factor for Perceived Stress2016Inngår i: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 26, nr 8, s. 3527-3533Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hippocampal volume has been found to be smaller in individuals with stress-related disorders, but it remains unclear whether smaller volume is a consequence of stress or rather a vulnerability factor. Here, we examined this issue by relating stress levels to hippocampal volumes in healthy participants examined every 5 years in a longitudinal population-based study. Based on scores of 25- to 60-year-old participants on the perceived stress questionnaire, we defined moderately to high (n = 35) and low (n = 76) stress groups. The groups were re-examined after 5 years (at the 6th study wave). Historical data on subjective stress were available up to 10 years prior to Wave 5. At the first MRI session, the moderately to high stress group had a significantly smaller hippocampal volume, as measured by FreeSurfer (version 5.3), compared with the low-stress group. At follow-up, group differences in stress levels and hippocampal volume remained unchanged. In retrospective analyses of subjective stress, the observed group difference in stress was found to be stable. The long-term stability of group differences in perceived stress and hippocampal volume suggests that a small hippocampal volume may be a vulnerability factor for stress-related disorders.

  • 123.
    Lindgren, Lenita
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Westling, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Brulin, Christine
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Lehtipalo, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Pleasant human touch is represented in pregenual anterior cingulate cortex2012Inngår i: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 59, nr 4, s. 3427-3432Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Touch massage (TM) is a form of pleasant touch stimulation used as treatment in clinical settings and found to improve well-being and decrease anxiety, stress, and pain. Emotional responses reported during and after TM have been studied, but the underlying mechanisms are still largely unexplored. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that the combination of human touch (i.e. skin-to-skin contact) with movement is eliciting a specific response in brain areas coding for pleasant sensations. The design included four different touch conditions; human touch with or without movement and rubber glove with or without movement. Force (2.5N) and velocity (1.5cm/s) were held constant across conditions. The pleasantness of the four different touch stimulations was rated on a visual analog scale (VAS-scale) and human touch was rated as most pleasant, particularly in combination with movement. The fMRI results revealed that TM stimulation most strongly activated the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC). These results are consistent with findings showing pgACC activation during various rewarding pleasant stimulations. This area is also known to be activated by both opioid analgesia and placebo. Together with these prior results, our finding furthers the understanding of the basis for positive TM treatment effects.

  • 124. Lindner, Philip
    et al.
    Flodin, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; .
    Budhiraja, Meenal
    Savic, Ivanka
    Jokinen, Jussi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tiihonen, Jari
    Hodgins, Sheilagh
    Associations of Psychopathic Traits With Local and Global Brain Network Topology in Young Adult Women2018Inngår i: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, ISSN 2451-9022, Vol. 3, nr 12, s. 1003-1012Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Psychopathic traits vary dimensionally in the population and are associated with multiple negative outcomes. The impaired integration theory (IIT) proposes that psychopathic traits are associated with abnormal neural network topology, such that disturbed integration of neural networks results in a self-perpetuating impairment in rapid integration and learning from multiple components of information. The IIT is based on findings from male offenders presenting high scores on all psychopathic traits. The present study investigated whether IIT predictions of topology abnormalities were associated with psychopathic traits, measured dimensionally, in young adult women with subsyndromal scores.

    METHODS: Seventy-three women, with an average age of 25 years, were assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised and completed resting-state magnetic resonance imaging. Preprocessed time series from 90 anatomical regions were extracted to form connectivity matrices and used to calculate network topology based on graph theory. Correlations between total psychopathy and factor scores with both the raw connectivity matrix and global and local graph theory measures were computed.

    RESULTS: Total psychopathy scores and behavioral factor scores were related to connectivity between several pairs of regions, primarily limbic/paralimbic. Psychopathic traits were not associated with global topology measures. Topology abnormalities, robust across network formation thresholds, were found in nodes of the default mode network and in hubs connecting several resting-state networks.

    CONCLUSIONS: IIT predictions of abnormal topology of hubs and default mode network nodes with dimensionally measured psychopathic traits were confirmed in a sample of young women. Regional abnormalities, accompanied by preserved global topology, may underlie context-specific abnormal information processing and integration.

  • 125. Lindner, Philip
    et al.
    Flodin, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Larm, Peter
    Budhiraja, Meenal
    Savic-Berglund, Ivanka
    Jokinen, Jussi
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tiihonen, Jari
    Hodgins, Sheilagh
    Amygdala-orbitofrontal structural and functional connectivity in females with anxiety disorders, with and without a history of conduct disorder2018Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, s. 1-12, artikkel-id 1101Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Conduct disorder (CD) and anxiety disorders (ADs) are often comorbid and both are characterized by hyper-sensitivity to threat, and reduced structural and functional connectivity between the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Previous studies of CD have not taken account of ADs nor directly compared connectivity in the two disorders. We examined three groups of young women: 23 presenting CD and lifetime AD; 30 presenting lifetime AD and not CD; and 17 with neither disorder (ND). Participants completed clinical assessments and diffusion-weighted and resting-state functional MRI scans. The uncinate fasciculus was reconstructed using tractography and manual dissection, and structural measures extracted. Correlations of resting-state activity between amygdala and OFC seeds were computed. The CD + AD and AD groups showed similarly reduced structural integrity of the left uncinate compared to ND, even after adjusting for IQ, psychiatric comorbidity, and childhood maltreatment. Uncinate integrity was associated with harm avoidance traits among AD-only women, and with the interaction of poor anger control and anxiety symptoms among CD + AD women. Groups did not differ in functional connectivity. Reduced uncinate integrity observed in CD + AD and AD-only women may reflect deficient emotion regulation in response to threat, common to both disorders, while other neural mechanisms determine the behavioral response.

  • 126.
    Lindén, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    Qvarlander, Sara
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Jóhannesson, Gauti
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    Johansson, Elias
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Östlund, Fanny
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    Malm, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Eklund, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Normal-Tension Glaucoma Has Normal Intracranial Pressure: A Prospective Study of Intracranial Pressure and Intraocular Pressure in Different Body Positions2018Inngår i: Ophthalmology (Rochester, Minn.), ISSN 0161-6420, E-ISSN 1549-4713, Vol. 125, nr 3, s. 361-368Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) is caused by an increased pressure difference across the lamina cribrosa (LC) related to a low intracranial pressure (ICP).

    DESIGN: Prospective case-control study.

    PARTICIPANTS: Thirteen NTG patients (9 women; median 71 [range: 56-83] years) were recruited for investigation with the same protocol as 11 healthy volunteers (8 women; 47 [30-59] years). A larger control group (n = 51; 30 women; 68 [30-81] years) was used only for ICP comparison in supine position.

    METHODS: ICP and intraocular pressure (IOP) were simultaneously measured in supine, sitting, and 9° head-down tilt (HDT) positions. Trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference (TLCPD) was calculated using ICP and IOP together with geometric distances estimated from magnetic resonance imaging to adjust for hydrostatic effects.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ICP, IOP, and TLCPD in different body positions.

    RESULTS: Between NTG patients and healthy volunteers, there were no differences in ICP, IOP, or TLCPD in supine, sitting, or HDT (P ≥ 0.11), except for IOP in HDT (P = 0.04). There was no correlation between visual field defect and TLCPD, IOP, or ICP and in any body position (P ≥ 0.39). Mean ICP in supine was 10.3 mmHg (SD = 2.7) in the NTG group (n = 13) and 11.3 (2.2) mmHg in the larger control group (n = 51) (P = 0.24).

    CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence of reduced ICP in NTG patients as compared with healthy controls, either in supine or in upright position. Consequently, the hypothesis that NTG is caused by an elevated TLCPD from low ICP was not supported.

  • 127.
    Lindén, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    Qvarlander, Sara
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Jóhannesson, Gauti
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    Johansson, Elias
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Östlund, Fanny
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    Malm, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Eklund, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Re: Linden et al.: Normal-tension glaucoma has normal intracranial pressure: a prospective study of intracranial pressure and intraocular pressure in different body positions (Ophthalmology. 2018;125:361-368) REPLY2018Inngår i: Ophthalmology (Rochester, Minn.), ISSN 0161-6420, E-ISSN 1549-4713, Vol. 125, nr 6, s. e43-e44Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 128.
    Lindén, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    Qvarlander, Sara
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Radiofysik.
    Jóhannesson, Gauti
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    Johansson, Elias
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Östlund, Fanny
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    Malm, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Eklund, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Re: Linden et al.: Normal-tension glaucoma has normal intracranial pressure: a prospective study of intracranial pressure and intraocular pressure in different body positions (Ophthalmology. 2018;125:361-368) REPLY2018Inngår i: Ophthalmology (Rochester, Minn.), ISSN 0161-6420, E-ISSN 1549-4713, Vol. 125, nr 10, s. E74-E75Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 129. Lövdén, Martin
    et al.
    Karalija, Nina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Wåhlin, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Axelsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Köhncke, Ylva
    Jonasson, Lars S.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Rieckmann, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Papenberg, Goran
    Garrett, Douglas D.
    Guitart-Masip, Marc
    Salami, Alireza
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Bäckman, Lars
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    Latent-profile analysis reveals behavioral and brain correlates of dopamine-cognition associations2018Inngår i: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 28, nr 11, s. 3894-3907Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence suggests that associations between the neurotransmitter dopamine and cognition are nonmonotonic and open to modulation by various other factors. The functional implications of a given level of dopamine may therefore differ from person to person. By applying latent-profile analysis to a large (n = 181) sample of adults aged 64-68 years, we probabilistically identified 3 subgroups that explain the multivariate associations between dopamine D2/3R availability (probed with C-11-raclopride-PET, in cortical, striatal, and hippocampal regions) and cognitive performance (episodic memory, working memory, and perceptual speed). Generally, greater receptor availability was associated with better cognitive performance. However, we discovered a subgroup of individuals for which high availability, particularly in striatum, was associated with poor performance, especially for working memory. Relative to the rest of the sample, this subgroup also had lower education, higher body-mass index, and lower resting-state connectivity between caudate nucleus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We conclude that a smaller subset of individuals induces a multivariate non-linear association between dopamine D2/3R availability and cognitive performance in this group of older adults, and discuss potential reasons for these differences that await further empirical scrutiny.

  • 130.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Gilthorpe, Jonathan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elgh, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Virologi.
    Reactivated herpes simplex infection increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease2015Inngår i: Alzheimer's & Dementia, ISSN 1552-5260, E-ISSN 1552-5279, Vol. 11, nr 6, s. 593-599Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested a link between herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD).

    METHODS: The present analysis included 3432 persons (53.9% women, mean age at inclusion 62.7 ± 14.4 years) with a mean follow-up time of 11.3 years. The number of incident AD cases was 245. Serum samples were analyzed for anti-HSV antibodies (immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    RESULTS: The presence of anti-HSV IgG antibodies was not associated with an increased risk for AD, controlled for age and sex (hazard ratio, HR, 0.993, P = .979). However, the presence of anti-HSV IgM at baseline was associated with an increased risk of developing AD (HR 1.959, P = .012).

    CONCLUSION: Positivity for anti-HSV IgM, a sign of reactivated infection, was found to almost double the risk for AD, whereas the presence of anti-HSV IgG antibodies did not affect the risk.

  • 131.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Norman, Tove
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Weidung, Bodil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatric Medicine, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Olsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Avdelningen för virologi.
    Josefsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Elgh, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Avdelningen för virologi.
    Herpes Simplex Virus, APOE ɛ4, and Cognitive Decline in Old Age: Results from the Betula Cohort Study2019Inngår i: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, ISSN 1387-2877, E-ISSN 1875-8908, Vol. 67, nr 1, s. 211-220Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has been suggested to play a role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) development.

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the early AD-related symptom episodic memory decline in relation to HSV and carriage of allele 4 of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE ɛ4) in a large population-based cohort with a long follow-up time.

    Methods: The study included 3,413 persons, with longitudinal data available for 1,293 persons with a mean follow-up time of 11.6 years. The associations between HSV carriage, APOE ɛ4 carriage, and episodic memory was investigated at baseline, as well as in longitudinal analyses where individuals with and without HSV antibodies (HSV1/2 non-specific) were matched and episodic memory decline compared.

    Results: Cross-sectional analyses revealed an age-dependent association of HSV carriage with lower episodic memory function, particularly among APOE ɛ4 carriers (p = 0.008). Longitudinal analyses showed an increased risk of episodic memory decline in HSV carriers (≥65 years: p < 0.001, all ages: non-significant), and a significant interaction between HSV and APOE ɛ4 for episodic memory decline (p < 0.001).

    Conclusion: In this large population-based cohort study, both cross-sectional and longitudinal results support an association between HSV carriage and declining episodic memory function, especially among APOE ɛ4 carriers. The results strengthen the hypothesis that HSV is associated with AD development.

  • 132.
    Malmberg Gavelin, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Stenlund, Therese
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Lisbeth, Slunga Järvholm
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Karlstad University.
    Effects of a process-based cognitive training intervention for patients with stress-related exhaustion2015Inngår i: Stress, ISSN 1025-3890, E-ISSN 1607-8888, Vol. 18, nr 5, s. 578-588Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress-related exhaustion has been linked to a pattern of selective cognitive impairments, mainly affecting executive functioning, attention and episodic memory. Little is known about potential treatments of these cognitive deficits. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a process-based cognitive training intervention, designed to target the specific cognitive impairments associated with stress-related exhaustion. To this end, patients diagnosed with exhaustion disorder (ED) were randomized to either a multimodal stress rehabilitation program with the addition of a process-based cognitive training intervention (training group, n = 27) or a treatment-as-usual control condition, consisting of multimodal stress rehabilitation with no additional training (control group, n = 32). Treatment effects were evaluated through an extensive cognitive test battery, assessing both near- and far transfer effects, as well as self-report forms regarding subjective cognitive complaints and burnout levels. Results showed pronounced training-related improvements on the criterion updating task (p < 0.001). Further, evidence was found of selective near transfer effects to updating (p = 0.01) and episodic memory (p = 0.04). Also, the trained group reported less subjective memory complaints (p = 0.02) and levels of burnout decreased for both groups, but more so for the trained group (p = 0.04), following the intervention. These findings suggest that process-based cognitive training may be a viable method to address the cognitive impairments associated with ED.

  • 133.
    Malmberg Gavelin, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Stenlund, Therese
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Slunga Järvholm, Lisbeth
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Karlstad University.
    Effects of a process-based cognitive training intervention for patients with stress-related exhaustion: a randomized clinical trial2015Inngår i: International Convention of Psychological Science, Amsterdam, 2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study evaluated whether a computerized process-based cognitive training program improves cognitive function in patients with stress-related exhaustion (n=59). Results showed training effects that were generalizable beyond the specific training tasks, suggesting that cognitive training may be a viable part of the rehabilitation of stress-related exhaustion.

  • 134.
    Malmberg Gavelin, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Social and Psychological Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Eskilsson, Therese
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Slunga Järvholm, Lisbeth
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Neural activation in stress-related exhaustion: cross-sectional observations and interventional effects2017Inngår i: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, ISSN 0925-4927, E-ISSN 1872-7506, Vol. 269, s. 17-25Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the association between burnout and neural activation during working memory processing in patients with stress-related exhaustion. Additionally, we investigated the neural effects of cognitive training as part of stress rehabilitation. Fifty-five patients with clinical diagnosis of exhaustion disorder were administered the n-back task during fMRI scanning at baseline. Ten patients completed a 12-week cognitive training intervention, as an addition to stress rehabilitation. Eleven patients served as a treatment-as-usual control group. At baseline, burnout level was positively associated with neural activation in the rostral prefrontal cortex, the posterior parietal cortex and the striatum, primarily in the 2-back condition. Following stress rehabilitation, the striatal activity decreased as a function of improved levels of burnout. No significant association between burnout level and working memory performance was found, however, our findings indicate that frontostriatal neural responses related to working memory were modulated by burnout severity. We suggest that patients with high levels of burnout need to recruit additional cognitive resources to uphold task performance. Following cognitive training, increased neural activation was observed during 3-back in working memory-related regions, including the striatum, however, low sample size limits any firm conclusions.

  • 135.
    Malmberg Gavelin, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier, Karlstads Universitet.
    Stenlund, Therese
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Slunga Järvholm, Lisbeth
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Effects of a Process-based Cognitive Training Intervention for Patients With Stress-related Exhaustion - an fMRI study2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 136.
    Mansson, Kristoffer N.
    et al.
    Linköping, Sweden.
    Salami, Alireza
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Stockholm, Sweden.
    Frick, Andreas
    Uppsala, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm, Sweden.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala, Sweden.
    Olsson, Carl-Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping, Sweden; Stockholm, Sweden.
    Interrelated Functional and Structural Amygdala Plasticity Following Internet-delivered Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder2015Inngår i: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 77, nr 9 Suppl., s. 51S-51SArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 137. Mansson, Kristoffer N. T.
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Frick, Andreas
    Engman, Jonas
    Olsson, Carl-Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Bodlund, Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Amygdala Changes After Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Attention Bias Modification via the Internet: An fMRI-Study2013Inngår i: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 73, nr 9, s. 72S-72SArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 138. Martensson, Johan
    et al.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Bodammer, Nils Christian
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Johansson, Mikael
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Lovden, Martin
    Growth of language-related brain areas after foreign language learning2012Inngår i: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 63, nr 1, s. 240-244Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of adult foreign-language acquisition on human brain organization is poorly understood. We studied cortical thickness and hippocampal volumes of conscript interpreters before and after three months of intense language studies. Results revealed increases in hippocampus volume and in cortical thickness of the left middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and superior temporal gyrus for interpreters relative to controls. The right hippocampus and the left superior temporal gyrus were structurally more malleable in interpreters acquiring higher proficiency in the foreign language. Interpreters struggling relatively more to master the language displayed larger gray matter increases in the middle frontal gyrus. These findings confirm structural changes in brain regions known to serve language functions during foreign-language acquisition. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 139. Martinsen, S.
    et al.
    Flodin, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Berrebi, J.
    Lofgren, M.
    Bileviciute-Ljungar, I.
    Mannerkorpi, K.
    Ingvar, M.
    Fransson, P.
    Kosek, E.
    The role of long-term physical exercise on performance and brain activation during the Stroop colour word task in fibromyalgia patients2018Inngår i: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, ISSN 1475-0961, E-ISSN 1475-097X, Vol. 38, nr 3, s. 508-516Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Stroop colour word test (SCWT) has been widely used to assess changes in cognitive performance such as processing speed, selective attention and the degree of automaticity. Moreover, the SCWT has proven to be a valuable tool to assess neuronal plasticity that is coupled to improvement in performance in clinical populations. In a previous study, we showed impaired cognitive processing during SCWT along with reduced task-related activations in patients with fibromyalgia. In this study, we used SCWT and functional magnetic resonance imagingFMRI to investigate the effects of a 15-week physical exercise intervention on cognitive performance, task-related cortical activation and distraction-induced analgesia (DIA) in patients with fibromyalgia and healthy controls. The exercise intervention yielded reduced fibromyalgia symptoms, improved cognitive processing and increased task-related activation of amygdala, but no effect on DIA. Our results suggest beneficial effects of physical exercise on cognitive functioning in FM.

  • 140.
    Mejtoft, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för medicinsk teknik och fysik (CMTF).
    Andersson, Britt M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för medicinsk teknik och fysik (CMTF).
    Pommer, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för medicinsk teknik och fysik (CMTF).
    Karolina, Jonzén
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för medicinsk teknik och fysik (CMTF).
    Kerstin, Ramser
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för medicinsk teknik och fysik (CMTF).
    Wåhlin, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för medicinsk teknik och fysik (CMTF).
    Eklund, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för medicinsk teknik och fysik (CMTF).
    Lindahl, Olof A
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för medicinsk teknik och fysik (CMTF). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Hallberg, Per
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för medicinsk teknik och fysik (CMTF). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Radiofysik.
    Kan en branschspecifik innovationsmodell öka ”success rate” för medicintekniska innovationer?2019Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 141. Myrum, Craig
    et al.
    Giddaluru, Sudheer
    Jacobsen, Kaya
    Espeseth, Thomas
    Nyberg, Lars
    Lundervold, Astri J.
    Haavik, Jan
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Reinvang, Ivar
    Steen, Vidar M.
    Johansson, Stefan
    Wibrand, Karin
    Le Hellard, Stephanie
    Bramham, Clive R.
    Common variants in the ARC gene are not associated withcognitive abilities2015Inngår i: Brain and Behavior, ISSN 2162-3279, E-ISSN 2162-3279, Vol. 5, nr 10, artikkel-id e00376Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The Activity-Regulated Cytoskeleton-associated (ARC) gene encodes a protein that is critical for the consolidation of synaptic plasticity and long-term memory formation. Given ARC's key role in synaptic plasticity, we hypothesized that genetic variations in ARC may contribute to interindividual variability in human cognitive abilities or to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) susceptibility, where cognitive impairment often accompanies the disorder. Methods: We tested whether ARC variants are associated with six measures of cognitive functioning in 670 healthy subjects in the Norwegian Cognitive NeuroGenetics (NCNG) by extracting data from its Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS). In addition, the Swedish Betula sample of 1800 healthy subjects who underwent similar cognitive testing was also tested for association with 19 tag SNPs. Results: No ARC variants show association at the study-wide level, but several markers show a trend toward association with human cognitive functions. We also tested for association between ARCSNPs and ADHD in a Norwegian sample of cases and controls, but found no significant associations. Conclusion: This study suggests that common genetic variants located in ARC do not account for variance in human cognitive abilities, though small effects cannot be ruled out.

  • 142.
    Månsson, Kristoffer NT
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University.
    Frick, Andreas
    Uppsala University.
    Engman, Jonas
    Uppsala University.
    Olsson, Carl-Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Bodlund, Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Furmark, Thomas
    Uppsala University.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University.
    Altered neural correlates of affective processing after internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder2013Inngår i: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, ISSN 0925-4927, E-ISSN 1872-7506, Vol. 214, nr 3, s. 229-237Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Randomized controlled trials have yielded promising results for internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT) forpatients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). The present study investigated anxiety-related neural changes after iCBT for SAD. The amygdala is a critical hub in the neural fear network, receptive to change using emotion regulation strategies and a putative target for iCBT.

    Twenty-two subjects were included in pre- and post-treatment functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3T assessingneural changes during an affective face processing task. Treatment outcome was assessed using social anxiety self-reports and the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scale.

    ICBT yielded better outcome than ABM (66% vs. 25% CGI-I responders). A significant differential activation of the left amygdala was found with relatively decreased reactivity after iCBT. Changes in the amygdala were related to a behavioral measure of social anxiety. Functional connectivity analysis in the iCBT group showed that the amygdala attenuation was associated with increased activity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and decreased activity in the right ventrolateral and dorsolateral (dlPFC) cortices. Treatment-induced neural changes with iCBT were consistent with previously reported studies on regular CBT and emotion regulation in general.

  • 143.
    Månsson, Kristoffer NT
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Frick, Andreas
    Uppsala University.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Marquand, AF
    Donders Institute, Radboud University.
    Williams, SCR
    King's College London.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala University.
    Predicting long-term outcome of Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder using fMRI and support vector machine learning2015Inngår i: Translational Psychiatry, ISSN 2158-3188, E-ISSN 2158-3188, Vol. 5, artikkel-id e530Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for social anxiety disorder (SAD), but many patients do not respond sufficiently and a substantial proportion relapse after treatment has ended. Predicting an individual's long-term clinical response therefore remains an important challenge. This study aimed at assessing neural predictors of long-term treatment outcome in participants with SAD 1 year after completion of Internet-delivered CBT (iCBT). Twenty-six participants diagnosed with SAD underwent iCBT including attention bias modification for a total of 13 weeks. Support vector machines (SVMs), a supervised pattern recognition method allowing predictions at the individual level, were trained to separate long-term treatment responders from nonresponders based on blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses to self-referential criticism. The Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale was the main instrument to determine treatment response at the 1-year follow-up. Results showed that the proportion of long-term responders was 52% (12/23). From multivariate BOLD responses in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) together with the amygdala, we were able to predict long-term response rate of iCBT with an accuracy of 92% (confidence interval 95% 73.2–97.6). This activation pattern was, however, not predictive of improvement in the continuous Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale—Self-report version. Follow-up psychophysiological interaction analyses revealed that lower dACC–amygdala coupling was associated with better long-term treatment response. Thus, BOLD response patterns in the fear-expressing dACC–amygdala regions were highly predictive of long-term treatment outcome of iCBT, and the initial coupling between these regions differentiated long-term responders from nonresponders. The SVM-neuroimaging approach could be of particular clinical value as it allows for accurate prediction of treatment outcome at the level of the individual.

  • 144. Månsson, Kristoffer NT
    et al.
    Frick, Andreas
    Olsson, Carl-Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Carlbring, Per
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Furmark, Tomas
    Multi-voxel Patterns in Fear Network Regions Predict Clinical Outcome One-year after Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder: A Support Vector Machine fMRI Study2014Inngår i: Biological Psychiatry, Elsevier, 2014, s. 83S-84SKonferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has yielded robust treatment effects for social anxiety disorder (SAD) but still many patients do not respond fully to treatment, and a substantial proportion relapse after treatment has ended. Identification of robust predictors of sustained treatment responses could be of high clinical importance. Methods: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI; 3T General Electric) to assess 26 patients (85% women, mean age 32.3 years) with SAD. Blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) responses to self-referential criticism, i.e. reading sentences such as “Nobody likes you” were compared to criticism referring to other individuals. Responses in the fear network, i.e. the amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and insula, were evaluated in a Support Vector Machine (SVM) approach to predict treatment outcome one-year after Internet-delivered CBT. We applied leave-one-out cross-validation to increase the generalizability of the data. Results: At one-year follow-up, three patients had dropped out. Twelve (52%) of the assessed patients met the response criteria, i.e. very much or much improved according to the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale (CGI-I). SVM on initial BOLD response, accurately classified patients according to responder status, based on multi-voxel patterns in the ACC (balanced accuracy of 91.7%, p=.001, Figure 1), and the ACC together with the amygdala (83.0%, p=.004) as well as the hippocampus (73.9%, p=.032). Conclusions: We demonstrate that initial multi-voxel BOLD response patterns to self-referential criticism in the ACC, amygdala, and hippocampus are highly predictive of long-term improvement of CBT in patients with SAD.

  • 145. Månsson, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Salami, Alireza
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Furmark, Tomas
    Structural but not functional neuroplasticity one year after effective cognitive behaviour therapy for social anxiety disorder2017Inngår i: Behavioural Brain Research, ISSN 0166-4328, E-ISSN 1872-7549, Vol. 318, s. 45-51Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective psychiatric treatments ameliorate excessive anxiety and induce neuroplasticity immediately after the intervention, indicating that emotional components in the human brain are rapidly adaptable. Still, the interplay between structural and functional neuroplasticity is poorly understood, and studies of treatment-induced long-term neuroplasticity are rare. Functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (using 3 T MRI) was performed in 13 subjects with social anxiety disorder on 3 occasions over 1 year. All subjects underwent 9 weeks of Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy in a randomized cross-over design and independent assessors used the Clinically Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scale to determine treatment response. Gray matter (GM) volume, assessed with voxel-based morphometry, and functional blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responsivity to self-referential criticism were compared between treatment responders and non-responders using 2 × 2 (group × time; pretreatment to follow-up) ANOVA. At 1-year follow-up, 7 (54%) subjects were classified as CGI-I responders. Left amygdala GM volume was more reduced in responders relative to non-responders from pretreatment to 1-year follow-up (Z = 3.67, Family-Wise Error corrected p = 0.02). In contrast to previous short-term effects, altered BOLD activations to self-referential criticism did not separate responder groups at follow-up. The structure and function of the amygdala changes immediately after effective psychological treatment of social anxiety disorder, but only reduced amygdala GM volume, and not functional activity, is associated with a clinical response 1 year after CBT.

  • 146. Månsson, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Salami, Alireza
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Frick, Andreas
    Carlbring, Per
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Furmark, Tomas
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Neuroplasticity in response to cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder2016Inngår i: Translational Psychiatry, ISSN 2158-3188, E-ISSN 2158-3188, Vol. 6, artikkel-id e727Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients with anxiety disorders exhibit excessive neural reactivity in the amygdala, which can be normalized by effective treatment like cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Mechanisms underlying the brain's adaptation to anxiolytic treatments are likely related both to structural plasticity and functional response alterations, but multimodal neuroimaging studies addressing structure-function interactions are currently missing. Here, we examined treatment-related changes in brain structure (gray matter (GM) volume) and function (blood-oxygen level dependent, BOLD response to self-referential criticism) in 26 participants with social anxiety disorder randomly assigned either to CBT or an attention bias modification control treatment. Also, 26 matched healthy controls were included. Significant time x treatment interactions were found in the amygdala with decreases both in GM volume (family-wise error (FWE) corrected P-FWE = 0.02) and BOLD responsivity (P-FWE = 0.01) after successful CBT. Before treatment, amygdala GM volume correlated positively with anticipatory speech anxiety (P-FWE = 0.04), and CBT-induced reduction of amygdala GM volume (pre-post) correlated positively with reduced anticipatory anxiety after treatment (P-FWE <= 0.05). In addition, we observed greater amygdala neural responsivity to self-referential criticism in socially anxious participants, as compared with controls (P-FWE = 0.029), before but not after CBT. Further analysis indicated that diminished amygdala GM volume mediated the relationship between decreased neural responsivity and reduced social anxiety after treatment (P = 0.007). Thus, our results suggest that improvement-related structural plasticity impacts neural responsiveness within the amygdala, which could be essential for achieving anxiety reduction with CBT.

  • 147.
    Naghavi, Hamid Reza
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Larsson, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Radiofysik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Cortical regions underlying successful encoding of semantically congruent and incongruent associations between common auditory and visual objects.2011Inngår i: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 505, nr 2, s. 191-195Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies implicate regions in the frontal, temporal and occipital cortices of the brain in audio-visual (AV) integration of familiar objects. It remains unclear, however, which brain regions contribute to the creation of object-related AV memories, and whether activation of these regions is affected by crossmodal congruency. Here we used event-related functional MRI in a subsequent memory paradigm to investigate the neural substrates of successful encoding of semantically congruent and incongruent AV memories. Creation of both types of memories activated a region in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). In addition, successful encoding of semantically related and unrelated AV pairs was correlated with increased activity in regions within the right lateral occipital cortex and bilateral lateral temporal cortex, respectively. These results may highlight a common role of IFG in retrieval of semantic information during encoding and suggest that the occipital and temporal cortices differentially process perceptual versus conceptual associations of AV memories.

  • 148.
    Naghavi, Hamid Reza
    et al.
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Institute for Cognitive Science Studies, Tehran, Iran.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Larsson, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Radiofysik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    The claustrum/insula region integrates conceptually related sounds and pictures2007Inngår i: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 422, nr 1, s. 77-80Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The brain is able to create coherent percepts from multisensory input. This phenomenon, known as multisensory integration (MSI), is a ubiquitous feature of everyday life and has been found to be essential for a reliable interaction with the environment. Recent functional neuroimaging studies suggest that several different networks are engaged in various forms of MSI depending on the nature of information being integrated. However, little is known about the neural basis of a fundamental form of MSI in natural conditions; integration of common auditory and visual objects which are conceptually related, such as when we look at a cat and hear a meowing sound. Here we used event-related fMRI to compare the brain response to conceptually related and unrelated pairs of audio-visual stimuli denoting common objects. Our protocol was designed to preclude contamination of the results by cognitive processes additional to those needed for MSI. The results indicate that higher-order temporal and occipital areas respond to coincident sounds and pictures regardless of their semantic relationship; whereas, the right claustrum/insula region is differentially activated in association with multisensory integration of conceptually related common objects. This observation has important implications for understanding how multimodal information about common objects is represented in the brain.

  • 149.
    Nevalainen, Nina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Axelsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Ögren, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Lövdén, M
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet & Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Lindenberger, U
    Center for Lifespan Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin, Germany.
    Bäckman, L
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet & Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    COBRA: A prospective multimodal imaging study of dopamine, brain structure and function, and cognition.2015Inngår i: Brain Research, ISSN 0006-8993, E-ISSN 1872-6240, Vol. 1612, s. 83-103Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive decline is a characteristic feature of normal human aging. Previous work has demonstrated marked interindividual variability in onset and rate of decline. Such variability has been linked to factors such as maintenance of functional and structural brain integrity, genetics, and lifestyle. Still, few, if any, studies have combined a longitudinal design with repeated multimodal imaging and a comprehensive assessment of cognition as well as genetic and lifestyle factors. The present paper introduces the Cognition, Brain, and Aging (COBRA) study, in which cognitive performance and brain structure and function are measured in a cohort of 181 older adults aged 64 to 68 years at baseline. Participants will be followed longitudinally over a 10-year period, resulting in a total of three equally spaced measurement occasions. The measurement protocol at each occasion comprises a comprehensive set of behavioral and imaging measures. Cognitive performance is evaluated via computerized testing of working memory, episodic memory, perceptual speed, motor speed, implicit sequence learning, and vocabulary. Brain imaging is performed using positron emission tomography with [(11)C]-raclopride to assess dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used for assessment of white and gray-matter integrity and cerebrovascular perfusion, and functional MRI maps brain activation during rest and active task conditions. Lifestyle descriptives are collected, and blood samples are obtained and stored for future evaluation. Here, we present selected results from the baseline assessment along with a discussion of sample characteristics and methodological considerations that determined the design of the study.

  • 150.
    Nilsson, Ida
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Åsa
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Lindgren, Lenita
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Bergenheim, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Ulrica
    The Efficacy of P6 Acupressure With Sea-Band in Reducing Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Undergoing Craniotomy: A Randomized, Double-blinded, Placebo-controlled Study2015Inngår i: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, ISSN 0898-4921, E-ISSN 1537-1921, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 42-50Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a multifactorial problem after general anesthesia. Despite antiemetic prophylaxis and improved anesthetic techniques, PONV still occurs frequently after craniotomies. P6 stimulation is described as an alternative method for preventing PONV. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether P6 acupressure with Sea-Band could reduce postoperative nausea after elective craniotomy. Secondary aims were to investigate whether the frequency of vomiting and the need for antiemetics could be reduced.

    Methods: In this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, patients were randomized into either a P6 acupressure group (n = 43) or a sham group (n = 52). Bands were applied unilaterally at the end of surgery, and all patients were administered prophylactic ondansetron. Postoperative nausea was evaluated with a Numerical Rating Scale, 0 to10, and the frequency of vomiting was recorded for 48 hours.

    Results: We found no significant effect from P6 acupressure with Sea-Band on postoperative nausea or vomiting in patients undergoing craniotomy. Nor was there any difference in the need for rescue antiemetics. Altogether, 67% experienced PONV, and this was especially an issue at >24 hours in patients recovering from infratentorial surgery compared with supratentorial surgery (55% vs. 26%; P = 0.014).

    Conclusions: Unilateral P6 acupressure with Sea-Band applied at the end of surgery together with prophylactic ondansetron did not significantly reduce PONV or the need for rescue antiemetics in patients undergoing craniotomy. Our study confirmed that PONV is a common issue after craniotomy, especially after infratentorial surgery.

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