umu.sePublikasjoner
Endre søk
Begrens søket
1234567 101 - 150 of 3457
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Treff pr side
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
Merk
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 101.
    Arkad, Emelie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    ISO 26000, en standard för socialt ansvarstagande: Ett arbete om standarden ISO 26000 och det sociala ansvarstagandet hos dess användarföretag2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the work of ISO 26000 leads to increased social responsibility among its user companies and how these may indicate improvement. The report examines companies internal advantages, market advantages and expectations of the new Swedish self-declaration, SIS:SP 2:2013, based on ISO 26000. This study was performed by interviews with user companies and an accountant at SP responsible for ISO 26000 and included a survey on social responsibility among businesses in general using ISO 14001. The only materials used were the current standards, books and internet. Results of the study shows that user companies of ISO 2600o in one way or another become more socially responsible by their work and that the main benefits is an increased awareness, improved texture and clarity of the work. Follow-up and improvement is shown as important to continually evolve. The difficult parts were measuring social responsibility, finding suitable indicators and to show improvements. Advantages for enterprises through the process of ISO 2600 include: making it easier to see the connections between social, environmental and economic perspectives and making them more attractive workplaces. The market benefits greatly depend on the interests of customers and therefore vary a lot, but many do not value social responsibility in their purchases. Overall both customers and business value social responsibility high, although ISO 26000 and the new self-declaration is not as well known yet. Customers and suppliers don’t request the standard, but all companies interviewed feel that the work has been positively responded.

  • 102.
    Arkad, Emelie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    ISO 26000, vägledning för socialt ansvarstagande: Ett arbete om standardens utveckling och metoder för implementering2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    There is a fairly new standard for social responsibility available, called ISO 26000, but so far there are only a few companies that actively work according to it. The purpose of this study was to examine why it is not used by more companies, what the difficulties are and how companies with active sustainability work considers themselves benefits from implementation. Consideration was made whether the web tool Worldfavor can make work with implementation easier. Methods of implementation were highlighted based on a practical study and an analysis interviewing 17 different actors related to social responsibility and sustainability. The main difficulties and disadvantages that participants experienced with ISO 26000 is that it is comprehensive, not certifiable, new, requires a lot of knowledge and resources and that the standard language and the interpretation of the standard can be difficult. This was also suggested as an explanation of why people choose not to work actively with the standard. Many participants saw the benefits in; a reference, a good tool, the structure provided, a holistic approach as well as to create better communication. Participants who are familiar with the tool believes that Worldfavor can make work with ISO 26000 easier and that it may get more companies to adapt to the standard. Participants are positive about the future development of both ISO 26000 and Worldfavor. The development of ISO 26000 seems to start to take off and there are many initiatives and opportunities for development of this standard and sustainability issues.

  • 103. Arndt, D. S.
    et al.
    Blunden, J.
    Hartfield, G.
    Ackerman, Steven A.
    Adler, Robert
    Alfaro, Eric J.
    Allan, Richard P.
    Allan, Rob
    Alves, Lincoln M.
    Amador, Jorge A.
    Andreassen, L. M.
    Argueez, Anthony
    Arndt, Derek S.
    Azorin-Molina, Cesar
    Baez, Julian
    Bardin, M. U.
    Barichivich, Jonathan
    Baringer, Molly O.
    Barreira, Sandra
    Baxter, Stephen
    Beck, H. E.
    Becker, Andreas
    Bedka, Kristopher M.
    Bell, Gerald D.
    Belmont, M.
    Benedetti, Angela
    Berrisford, Paul
    Berry, David I.
    Bhatt, U. S.
    Bissolli, Peter
    Bjerke, J.
    Blake, Eric S.
    Bosilovich, Michael G.
    Boucher, Olivier
    Box, J. E.
    Boyer, Tim
    Braathen, Geir O.
    Bromwich, David H.
    Brown, R.
    Buehler, S.
    Bulygina, Olga N.
    Burgess, D.
    Calderon, Blanca
    Camargo, Suzana J.
    Campbell, Jayaka D.
    Cappelen, J.
    Carrea, Laura
    Carter, Brendan R.
    Chambers, Don P.
    Cheng, Ming-Dean
    Christiansen, Hanne H.
    Christy, John R.
    Chung, E. -S
    Clem, Kyle R.
    Coelho, Caio A. S.
    Coldewey-Egbers, Melanie
    Colwell, Steve
    Cooper, Owen R.
    Copland, L.
    Crouch, Jake
    Davis, Sean M.
    de Eyto, Elvira
    de Jeu, Richard A. M.
    de Laat, Jos
    DeGasperi, Curtis L.
    Degenstein, Doug
    Demircan, M.
    Derksen, C.
    Di Girolamo, Larry
    Diamond, Howard J.
    Dlugokencky, Ed J.
    Dohan, Kathleen
    Dokulil, Martin T.
    Dolman, A. Johannes
    Domingues, Catia M.
    Donat, Markus G.
    Dong, Shenfu
    Dorigo, Wouter A.
    Drozdov, D. S.
    Dunn, Robert J. H.
    Dutton, Geoff S.
    ElKharrim, M.
    Elkins, James W.
    Epstein, H. E.
    Espinoza, Jhan C.
    Famiglietti, James S.
    Farrell, S.
    Fausto, R. S.
    Feely, Richard A.
    Feng, Z.
    Fenimore, Chris
    Fettweis, X.
    Fioletov, Vitali E.
    Flemming, Johannes
    Fogt, Ryan L.
    Folland, Chris
    Forbes, B. C.
    Foster, Michael J.
    Francis, S. D.
    Franz, Bryan A.
    Frey, Richard A.
    Frith, Stacey M.
    Froidevaux, Lucien
    Ganter, Catherine
    Gerland, S.
    Gilson, John
    Gobron, Nadine
    Goldenberg, Stanley B.
    Goni, Gustavo
    Grooss, J. -U
    Gruber, Alexander
    Guard, Charles
    Gupta, S. K.
    Gutierrez, J. M.
    Haas, C.
    Hagos, S.
    Hahn, Sebastian
    Haimberger, Leo
    Hall, Brad D.
    Halpert, Michael S.
    Hamlington, Benjamin D.
    Hanna, E.
    Hanssen-Bauer, I
    Harris, Ian
    Heidinger, Andrew K.
    Heim, Richard R., Jr.
    Hendricks, S.
    Hernandez, Marieta
    Hernandez, Rafael
    Hidalgo, Hugo G.
    Ho, Shu-peng
    Hobbs, William R.
    Huang, Boyin
    Hurst, Dale F.
    Ialongo, I.
    Ijampy, J. A.
    Inness, Antje
    Isaksen, K.
    Ishii, Masayoshi
    Jevrejeva, Svetlana
    Jimenez, C.
    Xiangze, Jin
    John, Viju
    Johns, William E.
    Johnsen, B.
    Johnson, Bryan
    Johnson, Gregory C.
    Johnson, Kenneth S.
    Jones, Philip D.
    Jumaux, Guillaume
    Kabidi, Khadija
    Kaiser, J. W.
    Kato, Seiji
    Kazemi, A.
    Keller, Linda M.
    Kennedy, John
    Kerr, Kenneth
    Kholodov, A. L.
    Khoshkam, Mahbobeh
    Killick, Rachel
    Kim, Hyungjun
    Kim, S. -J
    Klotzbach, Philip J.
    Knaff, John A.
    Kohler, J.
    Korhonen, Johanna
    Korshunova, Natalia N.
    Kramarova, Natalya
    Kratz, D. P.
    Kruger, Andries
    Kruk, Michael C.
    Krumpen, T.
    Lakatos, M.
    Lakkala, K.
    Lander, Mark A.
    Landschuetzer, Peter
    Landsea, Chris W.
    Lankhorst, Matthias
    Lazzara, Matthew A.
    Leuliette, Eric
    L'Heureux, Michelle
    Lieser, Jan L.
    Lin, I-I
    Liu, Hongxing
    Liu, Yinghui
    Locarnini, Ricardo
    Loeb, Norman G.
    Long, Craig S.
    Lorrey, Andrew M.
    Loyola, Diego
    Lumpkin, Rick
    Luo, Jing-Jia
    Luojus, K.
    Lyman, John M.
    Macias-Fauria, M.
    Malkova, G. V.
    Manney, G.
    Marchenko, S. S.
    Marengo, Jose A.
    Marra, John J.
    Marszelewski, Wlodzimierz
    Martens, B.
    Martinez-Gueingla, Rodney
    Massom, Robert A.
    May, Linda
    Mayer, Michael
    Mazloff, Matthew
    McBride, Charlotte
    McCabe, M. F.
    McCarthy, M.
    McVicar, Tim R.
    Mears, Carl A.
    Meier, W.
    Mekonnen, A.
    Mengistu Tsidu, G.
    Menzel, W. Paul
    Merchant, Christopher J.
    Meredith, Michael P.
    Merrifield, Mark A.
    Miralles, Diego G.
    Mitchum, Gary T.
    Mitro, Srkani
    Monselesan, Didier
    Montzka, Stephen A.
    Mora, Natalie
    Morice, Colin
    Mote, T.
    Mudryk, L.
    Muehle, Jens
    Mullan, A. Brett
    Mueller, R.
    Nash, Eric R.
    Nerem, R. Steven
    Newman, Louise
    Newman, Paul A.
    Nieto, Juan Jose
    Noetzli, Jeannette
    O'Neel, S.
    Osborn, Tim J.
    Overland, J.
    Oyunjargal, Lamjav
    Park, E-hyung
    Pasch, Richard J.
    Pascual-Ramirez, Reynaldo
    Paterson, Andrew M.
    Pearce, Petra R.
    Pelto, Mauri S.
    Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Sarah E.
    Perovich, D.
    Petropavlovskikh, Irina
    Pezza, Alexandre B.
    Phillips, C.
    Phillips, David
    Phoenix, G.
    Pinty, Bernard
    Rajeevan, Madhavan
    Rayner, Darren
    Raynolds, M. K.
    Reagan, James
    Reid, Phillip
    Reimer, Christoph
    Remy, Samuel
    Revadekar, Jayashree V.
    Richter-Menge, J.
    Rimmer, Alon
    Robinson, David A.
    Rodell, Matthew
    Romanovsky, Vladimir E.
    Ronchail, Josyane
    Rosenlof, Karen H.
    Roth, Chris
    Rusak, James A.
    Sallee, Jean-Bapiste
    Sanchez-Lugo, Ahira
    Santee, Michelle L.
    Sawaengphokhai, P.
    Sayouri, Amal
    Scambos, Ted A.
    Schladow, S. Geoffrey
    Schmid, Claudia
    Schmid, Martin
    Schreck, Carl J., III
    Schuur, Ted
    Selkirk, H. B.
    Send, Uwe
    Sensoy, Serhat
    Sharp, M.
    Shi, Lei
    Shiklomanov, Nikolai I.
    Shimaraeva, Svetlana V.
    Siegel, David A.
    Signorini, Sergio R.
    Sima, Fatou
    Simmons, Adrian J.
    Smeed, David A.
    Smeets, C. J. P. P.
    Smith, Adam
    Smith, Sharon L.
    Soden, B.
    Spence, Jaqueline M.
    Srivastava, A. K.
    Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.
    Stammerjohn, Sharon
    Steinbrecht, Wolfgang
    Stella, Jose L.
    Stephenson, Tannecia S.
    Strahan, Susan
    Streletskiy, Dimitri A.
    Sun-Mack, Sunny
    Swart, Sebastiaan
    Sweet, William
    Tamar, Gerard
    Taylor, Michael A.
    Tedesco, M.
    Thoman, R. L.
    Thompson, L.
    Thompson, Philip R.
    Timmermans, M. -L
    Tobin, Skie
    Trachte, Katja
    Trewin, Blair C.
    Trotman, Adrian R.
    Tschudi, M.
    van As, D.
    van de Wal, R. S. W.
    van der Schalie, Robin
    van der Schrier, Gerard
    van der Werf, Guido R.
    van Meerbeeck, Cedric J.
    Velicogna, I.
    Verburg, Piet
    Vincent, Lucie A.
    Voemel, Holger
    Vose, Russell S.
    Wagner, Wolfgang
    Walker, D. A.
    Walsh, J.
    Wang, Bin
    Wang, Chunzai
    Wang, Junhong
    Wang, Lei
    Wang, M.
    Wang, Sheng-Hung
    Wanninkhof, Rik
    Watanabe, Shohei
    Weber, Mark
    Weller, Robert A.
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Whitewood, Robert
    Wiese, David N.
    Wijffels, Susan E.
    Wilber, Anne C.
    Wild, Jeanette D.
    Willett, Kate M.
    Willis, Josh K.
    Wolken, G.
    Wong, Takmeng
    Wood, E. F.
    Woolway, R. Iestyn
    Wouters, B.
    Xue, Yan
    Yin, Xungang
    Yu, Lisan
    Zambrano, Eduardo
    Zhang, Huai-Min
    Zhang, Peiqun
    Zhao, Guanguo
    Zhao, Lin
    Ziemke, Jerry R.
    Abernethy, R.
    Albanil, Encarnacion Adelina
    Aldeco, Laura S.
    Aliaga-Nestares, Vannia
    Anderson, John
    Armitage, C.
    Avalos, Grinia
    Behe, Carolina
    Bellouin, Nicolas
    Bernhard, G. H.
    Blenkinsop, Stephen
    Bolmgren, K.
    Bouchon, Marilu
    Campbell, Ethan C.
    Castro, Anabel
    Costanza, Carol
    Covey, Curt
    Coy, Lawrence
    Cronin, T.
    Cruzado, Luis
    Daniel, Raychelle
    Davletshin, S. G.
    De La Cour, Jacqueline L.
    Deline, P.
    Dewitte, Boris
    Dhurmea, R.
    Dickerson, C.
    Domingues, Ricardo
    Durre, Imke
    Eakin, C. Mark
    Farmer, J.
    Fauchald, P.
    Geiger, Erick F.
    Gomez, Andrea M.
    Gugliemin, Mario
    Hansen, K.
    Helfrich, S.
    Hemming, D. L.
    Heron, Scott F.
    Heuze, C.
    Horstkotte, Tim
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hubert, Daan
    Hueuze, Celine
    Ibrahim, M. M.
    Isaac, Victor
    Jacobs, Stephanie J.
    Jeffries, Martin O.
    Karakoylu, Erdem M.
    Khan, M. S.
    Ladd, C.
    Lavado-Casimiro, Waldo
    Lee, S. -E
    Lee, T. C.
    Li, Bailing
    Li, Tim
    Lopez, Luis A.
    Luthcke, S.
    Marcellin, Vernie
    Marin, Dora
    Marsh, Benjamin L.
    Martin, A.
    Martinez, Alejandra G.
    Martinez-Sanchez, Odalys
    Meijers, Andrew J. S.
    Miller, Ben
    Moat, Ben
    Mochizuki, Y.
    Mosquera-Vasquez, Kobi
    Mostafa, Awatif E.
    Nielsen-Gammon, John W.
    Noll, Ben E.
    Osborne, Emily
    Pastor, Saavedra Maria Asuncion
    Paulik, Christoph
    Peltier, Alexandre
    Pinzon, J.
    Po-Chedley, S.
    Polashenski, C.
    Purkey, Sarah G.
    Quispe, Nelson
    Rakotoarimalala, C.
    Richardson, A. D.
    Ricker, R.
    Rodriguez, Camino Ernesto
    Rosner, Benjamin
    Roth, David Mark
    Rutishauser, T.
    Sasgen, L.
    Sayad, T. A.
    Scanlon, T.
    Schenzinger, Verena
    Silow, Eugene
    Skirving, William J.
    Sofieva, Viktoria
    Sparks, T. H.
    Spillane, Sandra
    Stanitski, Diane M.
    Stengel, M.
    Stephenson, Kimberly
    Strong, Alan E.
    Sutton, Adrienne J.
    Takahashi, Kenneth S.
    Thackeray, S. J.
    Thomson, LThorsteinsson T.
    Timbal, Bertrand
    TImofeyev, Maxim A.
    Tirak, Kyle, V
    Togawa, H.
    Tommervik, H.
    Tourpali, Kleareti
    Trinanes, Joaquin A.
    Tucker, C. J.
    Tye, Mari R.
    van der A, Ronald J.
    Velden, Christopher S.
    Vickers, H.
    Webster, M.
    Westberry, Toby K.
    Widlansky, Matthew J.
    Wood, K.
    Yoon, Huang
    York, A.
    Zhu, Zhiwei
    Ziel, R.
    Ziese, Markus G.
    STATE OF THE CLIMATE IN 20172018Inngår i: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 99, nr 8, s. S1-S310Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 104.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Sexual selection and intersexual conflicts in water striders1992Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 105. Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Edvardsson, Martin
    Friberg, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Tina
    Sexual conflict promotes speciation in insects2000Inngår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0027-8424, Vol. 97, nr 19, s. 10460-10464Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 106.
    Arnqvist, Per
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Bigler, Christian
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Renberg, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Sjöstedt de Luna, Sara
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Functional clustering of varved lake sediment to reconstruct past seasonal climate2016Inngår i: Environmental and Ecological Statistics, ISSN 1352-8505, E-ISSN 1573-3009, Vol. 23, nr 4, s. 513-529Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Annually laminated (varved) lake sediments constitutes excellent environmental archives, and have the potential to play an important role for understanding past seasonal climate with their inherent annual time resolution and within-year seasonal patterns. We propose to use functional data analysis methods to extract the relevant information with respect to climate reconstruction from the rich but complex information in the varves, including the shapes of the seasonal patterns, the varying varve thickness, and the non-linear sediment accumulation rates. In particular we analyze varved sediment from lake Kassjon in northern Sweden, covering the past 6400 years. The properties of each varve reflect to a large extent weather conditions and internal biological processes in the lake the year that the varve was deposited. Functional clustering is used to group the seasonal patterns into different types, that can be associated with different weather conditions. The seasonal patterns were described by penalized splines and clustered by the k-means algorithm, after alignment. The observed (within-year) variability in the data was used to determine the degree of smoothing for the penalized spline approximations. The resulting clusters and their time dynamics show great potential for seasonal climate interpretation, in particular for winter climate changes.

  • 107.
    Arthington, Angela H
    et al.
    Australian Rivers Institute and eWater Co-operative Research Centre, Griffith University, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    Naiman, Robert J
    School of Aquatic & Fishery Sciences, University of Washington-355020, Seattle, WA, U.S.A..
    McClain, Michael E
    UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft, The Netherlands and Department of Earth and Environment, Florida International University, Miami, FL, U.S.A..
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Preserving the biodiversity and ecological services of rivers: new challenges and research opportunities2010Inngår i: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 55, nr 1, s. 1-16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural biogeochemical processes and diverse communities of aquatic biota regulate freshwater quantity and quality in ways that are not sufficiently acknowledged nor appreciated by the water resources management community. The establishment and enforcement of environmental flow requirements offer promising means to improve and care for these critical environmental services. This Special Issue provides new insights and novel techniques to determine, protect and restore ecologically and socially sustainable flow regimes, and thereby help achieve the water-related goals of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.

    Whilst alteration of flow, sediment, organic matter and thermal regimes interact to reduce biological diversity and the ecological integrity of freshwater ecosystems - and thereby degrade the properties and ecological services most valued by humans - ‘environmental flows' left in rivers, or restored to developed rivers, will sustain many ecological and societal values. The success of river protection and rehabilitation ⁄ restoration depends upon understanding and accurately modelling relationships between hydrological patterns, fluvial disturbance and ecological responses in rivers and floodplains.

    This Special Issue presents new analytical and modelling approaches to support the development of hydro-ecological models and environmental flow standards at multiple spatial scales - applicable to all rivers in any economic and societal setting. Examples include the new framework Ecological Limits of Hydrologic Alteration (ELOHA) founded on hydrological classification and gradient analysis; ecological trait analysis; Bayesian hierarchical modelling; Bayesian Decision Networks; and Integrated Basin Flow Assessment (IBFA).

    Advances in the allocation of flood flows along the River Murray in Australia, an Ecosystems Function Model (HEC-EFM) for the Bill Williams River restoration programme in Arizona (U.S.A), the European Water Framework Directive, and improved management of hydroelectric dams demonstrate the potential for significant ecological recovery following partial restoration of natural river flow regimes.

    Based on contributions to this Special Issue, the action agenda of the 2007 Brisbane Declaration on environmental flows and the wider literature, we propose an invigorated global research programme to construct and calibrate hydro-ecological models and to quantify the ecological goods and services provided by rivers in contrasting hydro-climatic settings across the globe. A major challenge will be to find acceptable ways to manage rivers for multiple uses. Climate change intensifies the urgency. Environmental flows help to preserve the innate resilience of aquatic ecosystems, and thereby offer the promise of improved sustainability and wellbeing for people as well as for ecosystems.

  • 108.
    Ashbourne- Larsson, Moa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Naturum Vålådalen i samarbete med lokala turistföretag?: Om erfarenheter från naturum Kullaberg, ekoturism och eventuell certifiering2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Naturum Vålådalen in cooperation with locally based tourism companies Experiences from Kullaberg, ecotourism and a possible certification

     

    Moa Ashbourne Larsson

     

    This study aimed to examine how the visitor center naturum Kullaberg managed to implement a cooperation with the commercial guide company Kullabergsguiderna and to see if it was possible to apply that working model on the visitor center naturum Vålådalen and the surrounding ecotourism companies. Furthermore this report tried to define the concept of ecotourism and look closer on the certification system. The main method of this study was based on interviews with relevant parties. The result showed that theoretically it's possible to implement a cooperation between local ecotourism companies and naturum Vålådalen. To manage a cooperation between an authority and an external commercial company you will need to do a public procurement or make sure that there will be no competition or financial compensation. The study of ecotourism and certification showed that the definition has and still is being reinterpreted and that it is hard to maintain a credible certification. The results showed that in most cases, there is a difference between ecotourism and sustainability, this reports means that ecotourism should contain sustainability and also preservation and interpretation of the local community. This reports definition of ecotourism is: a sustainable activity that both support and anchor its operation in the local area, where both its nature and culture values are being preserved, managed and mediated. The three pillars of sustainability should be reoccurring in the business and something that every visitor should be able to take part of.

  • 109.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Carbon metabolism in clear-water and brown-water lakes2010Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The trophic state of lakes is commonly defined by the concentration of nutrients in the water column. High nutrient concentrations generate high phytoplankton production, and lakes with low nutrient concentrations are considered low-productive. This simplified view of lake productivity ignores the fact that benthic primary producers and heterotrophic bacteria can be important basal producers in lake ecosystems.

    In this thesis I have studied clear-water and brown-water lakes with respect to primary production, respiration and bacterial production based on allochthonous organic carbon. These processes were quantified in pelagic and benthic habitats on temporal and spatial scales. I also calculated the net ecosystem production of the lakes, defined as the difference between gross primary production (GPP) and respiration (R). The net ecosystem production indicates whether a lake is net heterotrophic (GPP < R), net autotrophic (GPP > R) or in metabolic balance (GPP = R). Net heterotrophic lakes are sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere since respiration in these lakes, by definition, is subsidized by an external organic carbon source. External organic carbon is transported to lakes from the terrestrial environment via inlets, and can serve as a carbon source for bacteria but it also limits light availability for primary producers by absorbing light.

    On a seasonal scale, four of the clear-water lakes studied in this thesis were dominated by primary production in the soft-bottom benthic habitat and by respiration in the pelagic habitat. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were low in the lakes, but still high enough to cause the lakes to be net heterotrophic. However, the lakes were not low-productive due to the high production in the benthic habitat. One of the clear-water lakes was studied also during the winter and much of the respiration under ice was supported by the benthic primary production from the previous summer. This is in contrast to brown-water lakes where winter respiration is suggested to be supported by allochthonous organic carbon.

    By studying lakes in a DOC gradient (i.e. from clear-water to brown-water lakes) I could draw two major conclusions. The lakes became less productive since benthic primary production decreased with increasing light extinction, and the lakes became larger sources of CO2 to the atmosphere since pelagic respiration was subsidized by allochthonous organic carbon. Thus, lake carbon metabolism can have an important role in the global carbon cycle due to their processing of terrestrial organic carbon and to their possible feedback effects on the climate system.

  • 110.
    Ask, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Net ecosystem production in clear-water and brown-water lakes2012Inngår i: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 26, s. GB1017-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied 15 lakes in northern Sweden with respect to primary production and respiration in benthic and pelagic habitats. The lakes were characterized by different concentrations of colored dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of terrestrial origin, forming a gradient ranging from clear-water to brown-water lakes. Primary production decreased and respiration increased on a whole-lake scale along the gradient of increasing DOC. Thus, the lakes became more net heterotrophic, i.e., had lower net ecosystem production (NEP = gross primary production - community respiration), with increasing terrestrial DOC and this change coincided with increasing partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO(2)) in the surface waters. The single most important process for the increasing net heterotrophy along the DOC gradient was pelagic respiration of terrestrial organic carbon. In spite of high metabolic activity in the benthic habitat, benthic primary production and benthic respiration decreased simultaneously with increasing DOC, showing that the benthic habitat was in metabolic balance throughout the gradient. Therefore, the net heterotrophic states of the lakes depended on the terrestrial DOC export to lakes and the concomitant respiration of terrestrial organic carbon in the pelagic habitat.

  • 111.
    Ask, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Ask, Per
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Terrestrial organic matter and light penetration: Effects on bacterial and primary production in lakes2009Inngår i: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 54, nr 6, s. 2034-2040Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated productivity at the basal trophic level in 15 unproductive lakes in a gradient ranging from clear-water to brown-water (humic) lakes in northern Sweden. Primary production and bacterial production in benthic and pelagic habitats were measured to estimate the variation in energy mobilization from external energy sources (primary production plus bacterial production on allochthonous organic carbon) along the gradient. Clear-water lakes were dominated by autotrophic energy mobilization in the benthic habitat, whereas humic lakes were dominated by heterotrophic energy mobilization in the pelagic habitat. Whole-lake (benthic + pelagic) energy mobilization was negatively correlated to the light-extinction coefficient, which was determined by colored terrestrial organic matter in the lake water. Thus, variation in the concentration of terrestrial organic matter and its light-absorbing characteristics exerts strong control on the magnitude, as well as on the processes and pathways, of energy mobilization in unproductive lakes. We suggest that unproductive lakes in general are sensitive to input of terrestrial organic matter because of its effects on basal energy mobilization in both benthic and pelagic habitats.

  • 112.
    Ask, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Ask, Per
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Whole-lake estimates of carbon flux through algae and bacteria in benthic and pelagic habitats of clear-water lakes2009Inngår i: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 90, nr 7, s. 1923-1932Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study quantified new biomass production of algae and bacteria in both benthic and pelagic habitats of clear-water lakes to contrast how carbon from the atmosphere and terrestrial sources regulates whole-lake metabolism. We studied four small unproductive lakes in subarctic northern Sweden during one summer season. The production of new biomass in both benthic and pelagic habitats was calculated as the sum of autotrophic production by algae and heterotrophic production by bacteria using allochthonous organic carbon (OC). Whole-lake production of new biomass was dominated by the benthic habitat (86% +/- 4% [mean +/- SD]) and by primary production (77% +/- 9%). Still, heterotrophic bacteria fueled by allochthonous OC constituted a significant portion of the new biomass production in both benthic (19% +/- 11%) and pelagic habitats (51% +/- 24%). In addition, overall net production (primary production minus respiration) was close to zero in the benthic habitats but highly negative (-163 +/- 81 mg C.m(-2).d(-1)) in pelagic regions of all lakes. We conclude (1) that allochthonous OC supported a significant part of total production of new biomass in both pelagic and benthic habitats, (2) that benthic habitats dominated the whole-lake production of new biomass, and (3) that respiration and net CO2 production dominated the carbon flux of the pelagic habitats and biomass production dominated the benthic carbon flux. Taken together, these findings suggest that previous investigations have greatly underestimated the productivity of clear-water lakes when benthic autotrophic production and metabolism of allochthonous OC have not been measured.

  • 113.
    Ask, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Reinikainen, Marko
    Båmstedt, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Variation in hatching success and egg production of Eurytemora affinis (Calanoida, Copepoda). from the Gulf of Bothnia, Baltic Sea, in relation to abundance and clonal differences of diatoms2006Inngår i: Journal of Plankton Research, Vol. 28, nr 7, s. 683-694Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 114.
    Ask, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Rowe, Owen
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Brugel, Sonia
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Strömgren, Mårten
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Importance of coastal primary production in the northern Baltic Sea2016Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, nr 6, s. 635-648Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we measured depth-dependent benthic microalgal primary production in a Bothnian Bay estuary to estimate the benthic contribution to total primary production. In addition, we compiled data on benthic microalgal primary production in the entire Baltic Sea. In the estuary, the benthic habitat contributed 17 % to the total annual primary production, and when upscaling our data to the entire Bothnian Bay, the corresponding value was 31 %. This estimated benthic share (31 %) is three times higher compared to past estimates of 10 %. The main reason for this discrepancy is the lack of data regarding benthic primary production in the northern Baltic Sea, but also that past studies overestimated the importance of pelagic primary production by not correcting for system-specific bathymetric variation. Our study thus highlights the importance of benthic communities for the northern Baltic Sea ecosystem in general and for future management strategies and ecosystem studies in particular.

  • 115.
    Ask, Per
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Invasion of top and intermediate consumers in a size structured fish community2010Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis I have investigated the effects of invading top and intermediate consumers in a size-structured fish community, using a combination of field studies, a lake invasion experiment and smaller scale pond and aquaria experiments.

    The lake invasion experiment was based on introductions of an intermediate consumer, ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius L.), in to allopatric populations of an omnivorous top predator, Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus L.). The invasion experiment was performed in two tundra lakes and in two birch forest lakes to investigate the effect of climate on the invasion success. I found that the effect of sticklebacks on char was size dependent. Small char suffered reduced growth from resource competition with sticklebacks whereas the maximum size of adult char increased from the addition of a larger prey resource, stickleback. The negative effect of sticklebacks on the growth of small char suggests that sticklebacks may be a better resource competitor than char, which was also supported by the pond and aquaria experiments. The pond experiments also suggested that char were more efficient cannibals than interspecific predators on sticklebacks. Cannibalism in char may limit the recruitment of char and decrease both their predatory and competitive effect on coexisting species and thereby also promote the coexistence of char and sticklebacks. The successful invasion by sticklebacks and their subsequent increases in density suggest that the absence of sticklebacks in char lakes in this region is not caused by biotic interactions with char. Instead, it may be suggested that co-occurrence of sticklebacks and char in the region is limited by dispersal.

    The char – stickleback system resembles an intraguild predation system with char as the top consumer and stickleback as the intermediate consumer. The effects of the stickleback invasion is also contrasted with a field study of a northern pike (Esox lucius L.) invasion into a system with coexisting char and stickleback, where pike can be viewed as the top consumer and char as the intermediate consumer both feeding on sticklebacks. In this case pike excluded char. The identity of the invading species and the relative strength of the predatory and competitive interactions in the two contrasting systems are discussed in relation to coexistence in intraguild predation systems. I found that the identity of the invading species is of crucial importance for the response at the ecosystem level, and that the inherent size dependency of competitive and predatory interactions in fish communities is important for attaining a mechanistical understanding of the effects of invasive species in lake ecosystems.

  • 116.
    Ask, Per
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Competition mediated coexistence of invading intermediate consumer, ninespine stickleback, and a resident omnivorous top predator, Arctic charManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change results in changes in the geographical distribution of species. Species invasion success into a new area is dependent both on the dispersal ability of species as well as the strength and identity of biotic interactions between resident and invading species. Coexistence in intraguild predation (IGP) systems depends on the relative strength of predation and competition interactions which in turn are temperature dependent. We investigated the effects of introducing an intermediate consumer, ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius), into allopatric populations of the omnivorous top predator Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). Introductions were performed in lakes with different climate regimes, two tundra lakes and two forest lakes that differed in average summer temperatures with 1.4 ± 0.5 ºC (average ± 1SD). We found that sticklebacks were able to invade and increase in density in both tundra and forest lakes. Sticklebacks had strong negative effects on resource densities which also was reflected in a decreased growth of small char. Increasing stickleback density had a positive effect on growth of large adults and on the maximum size of char. We conclude that stickleback presence is not limited by biological interactions in these systems but rather by dispersion ability. We suggest that the size dependency in the response of char to the invasion of sticklebacks is fundamental for the successful invasion of sticklebacks, and that size dependent interactions including cannibalism play important roles for coexistence in natural IGP-systems.

  • 117.
    Ask, Per
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Temperature mediated effects on top consumer populations in subarctic lakesManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of temperature on top consumer populations in subarctic lake communities were studied by contrasting two lake pairs in different climate regimes: one pair on the low alpine tundra and one pair in the subalpine birch forest. We measured zooplankton and macroinvertebrate biomasses over the season and estimated population density and size structure of the top consumer Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). Furthermore, we modelled char growth using literature data on temperature dependent search rate, handling time and metabolic demands. The forest lakes were warmer than the tundra lakes. Char in the forest lakes were larger and had a higher individual growth compared to char in the tundra lakes, while population density and biomasses of char were not different between the forest and the tundra lakes. There were no differences in macroinvertebrate and zooplankton resource levels available for char between lake pairs. Our modeling of char growth revealed that higher temperature increased growth of char at the observed resource densities, suggesting that the higher temperature in the forest lakes was primarily the cause of the higher growth of char in these lakes. We suggest that cannibalism in char may regulate char recruitment and thereby population density and biomass of char leading to effects of increasing temperature on consumer biomass and consumer individual growth different from what is expected in pure consumer-resource systems. Our results emphasize the importance of feedbacks within ecosystems when addressing effects of climate change and increasing temperature on lake communities.

  • 118. Asplund, Johan
    et al.
    Johansson, Otilia
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Nybakken, Line
    Palmqvist, Kristin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Gauslaa, Yngvar
    Simulated nitrogen deposition influences gastropod grazing in lichens2010Inngår i: Ecoscience, ISSN 1195-6860, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 83-89Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Lichens are often important photosynthetic organisms in oligotrophic environments where high-quality fodder plants are rare. A strong herbivore defence and/or low nutritional quality allows the accumulation of a high lichen biomass in such areas. However, it is not known how N deposition influences lichen palatability. This study analyzes possible changes in gastropod grazing preference after 3 months simulated N deposition on 3 foliose (Lobaria scrobiculata, Platismatia glauca, and Xanthoria aureola) and 1 pendulous lichen species (Alectoria sarmentosa). Lichens were daily irrigated in the field with rainwater containing 1.625 mM NH4NO3 from June to September, equivalent to a deposition of 50 kg N·ha-1·y-1. Irrigations applied at night, morning, or noon simulated different C-gain regimes. Afterwards in the lab, we offered 2 common lichen-feeding gastropods the choice between N-fertilized thalli and control thalli irrigated with artificial rainwater. The gastropods clearly preferred the unfertilized thalli of the 3 foliose species. For the pendulous A. sarmentosa, the gastropods preferred N-enriched thalli (irrigated at night) to controls. In conclusion, N-enrichment changes the palatability of lichens in species-specific ways.

  • 119. Audisio, Paolo
    et al.
    Alonso Zarazaga, Miguel-Angel
    Slipinski, Adam
    Nilsson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jelinek, Josef
    Taglianti, Augusto Vigna
    Turco, Federica
    Otero, Carlos
    Canepari, Claudio
    Kral, David
    Liberti, Gianfranco
    Sama, Gianfranco
    Nardi, Gianluca
    Lobl, Ivan
    Horak, Jan
    Kolibac, Jiri
    Hava, Jiri
    Sapiejewski, Maciej
    Jaech, Manfred
    Bologna, Marco Alberto
    Biondi, Maurizio
    Nikitsky, Nikolai B.
    Mazzoldi, Paolo
    Zahradnik, Petr
    Wegrzynowicz, Piotr
    Constantin, Robert
    Gerstmeier, Roland
    Zhantiev, Rustem
    Fattorini, Simone
    Tomaszewska, Wioletta
    Ruecker, Wolfgang H.
    Vazquez-Albalate, Xavier
    Cassola, Fabio
    Angelini, Fernando
    Johnson, Colin
    Schawaller, Wolfgang
    Regalin, Renato
    Baviera, Cosimo
    Rocchi, Saverio
    Cianferoni, Fabio
    Beenen, Ron
    Schmitt, Michael
    Sassi, David
    Kippenberg, Horst
    Zampetti, Marcello Franco
    Trizzino, Marco
    Chiari, Stefano
    Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria
    Sabatelli, Simone
    de Jong, Yde
    Fauna Europaea: Coleoptera 2 (excl. series Elateriformia, Scarabaeiformia, Staphyliniformia and superfamily Curculionoidea)2015Inngår i: Biodiversity Data Journal, ISSN 1314-2836, E-ISSN 1314-2828, Vol. 3, nr 1, artikkel-id e4750Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Coleoptera represent a huge assemblage of holometabolous insects, including as a whole more than 200 recognized families and some 400,000 described species worldwide. Basic information is summarized on their biology, ecology, economic relevance, and estimated number of undescribed species worldwide. Little less than 30,000 species are listed from Europe. The Coleoptera 2 section of the Fauna Europaea database (Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga and Polyphaga excl. the series Elateriformia, Scarabaeiformia, Staphyliniformia and the superfamily Curculionoidea) encompasses 80 families (according to the previously accepted family-level systematic framework) and approximately 13,000 species. Tabulations included a complete list of the families dealt with, the number of species in each, the names of all involved specialists, and, when possible, an estimate of the gaps in terms of total number of species at an European level. A list of some recent useful references is appended. Most families included in the Coleoptera 2 Section have been updated in the most recent release of the Fauna Europaea index, or are ready to be updated as soon as the FaEu data management environment completes its migration from Zoological Museum Amsterdam to Berlin Museum fur Naturkunde.

  • 120.
    Auffret, Alistair G
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Meineri, Eric
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bruun, Hans Henrik
    Ejrnaes, Rasmus
    Graae, Bente J
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Ontogenetic niche shifts in three Vaccinium species on a sub-alpine mountain side2010Inngår i: Plant Ecology & Diversity, ISSN 1755-0874, E-ISSN 1755-1668, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 131-139Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Climate warming in arctic and alpine regions is expected to result in the altitudinal migration of plant species, but current predictions neglect differences between species' regeneration niche and established niche.

    Aims: To examine potential recruitment of Vaccinium myrtillus, V. uliginosum and V. vitis-idaea on a mountain slope in northern Sweden in relation to current adult occurrence.

    Methods: We combined a seed-sowing experiment in seven community types with adult occurrence observations and species distribution mapping. Results: Emergence of V. myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea seedlings was significantly related to community type, while V. uliginosum was indifferent, but exhibited the highest average emergence. Adult occurrence was related to community, and ontogenetic niche shifts were observed for all three study species. V. myrtillus was shown to have the highest potential recruitment in habitats at altitudes above its current populations.

    Conclusions: The potential for migration exists, but incongruence between regenerative and established niches presents a challenge for colonisers, as well as for plant migration modelling.

  • 121. Aufgebauer, Anne
    et al.
    Panagiotopoulos, Konstantinos
    Wagner, Bernd
    Schaebitz, Frank
    Viehberg, Finn A.
    Vogel, Hendrik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Zanchetta, Giovanni
    Sulpizio, Roberto
    Leng, Melanie J.
    Damaschke, Magret
    Climate and environmental change in the Balkans over the last 17 ka recorded in sediments from Lake Prespa (Albania/FYR of Macedonia/Greece)2012Inngår i: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 274, s. 122-135Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents sedimentological, geochemical, and biological data from Lake Prespa (Albania/Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia/Greece). The 320 cm core sequence (Co1215) covers the last 17 ka calBP and reveals significant change in climate and environmental conditions on a local and regional scale. The sediment record suggests typical stadial conditions from 17.1 to 15.7 ka calBP, documented through low lake productivity, well-mixed conditions, and cold-resistant steppe catchment vegetation. Warming is indicated from 15.7 ka calBP with slightly increased in-lake productivity, gradual expansion of trees, and decreasing erosion through disappearance of local ice caps. Between 14.5 and 11.5 ka calBP relatively stable hydrological conditions are documented. The maximum in tree taxa percentages during the Bolling/Allerod interstadial (14.5-13.2 ka calBP) indicates increased temperatures and moisture availability, whereas the increase of cold-resistant open steppe vegetation taxa percentages during the Younger Dryas (13.2-11.5 ka calBP) is coupled with distinct colder and drier conditions. The Holocene sequence from 11.5 ka calBP indicates ice-free winters, stratification of the water column, a relatively high lake trophic level and dense vegetation cover over the catchment. A strong climate related impact on the limnology and physical parameters in Lake Prespa is documented around 8.2 ka through a significant decrease in productivity, enhanced mixing, strong decomposition and soil erosion, and a coeval expansion of herbs implying cool and dry climate conditions. Intensive human activity in the catchment is indicated from around 1.9 ka calBP. This multiproxy approach improves our understanding of short- and long-term climate fluctuations in this area and their impact on catchment dynamics, limnology, hydrology, and vegetation. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. All rights reserved.

  • 122.
    Auland, Clara
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Konstsnö och dess effekter på vegetationen: Skillnader mellan konstsnö och natursnö2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Increased temperatures, changed snow conditions, increasing demand for skiing and other winter sports lead to increased demand and production of artificial snow. Besides the positive aspects of artificial snow, it is important to understand potentially negative effects of artificial snow on the environment and vegetation. This study investigated the differences between artificial snow and natural snow in two adjacent ski slopes. This was done by measuring and comparing the snow depth, duration of the snow cover, snow density, and ground vegetation between the slopes. Snow depth and density showed differences between artificial snow and natural snow. The artificial snow cover stayed about 11 days longer than the natural snow. A few variations in the vegetation were also found; earlier flowering and more species and colors in the natural snow slope compared to in the slope using artificial snow. Therefore, it is clear that there is a difference between artificial snow and natural snow, and that this results in effects on the environment, but it is difficult to assess to what extent and how large the negative impact is. For more general conclusions, I think it is important to study the vegetation under artificial snow during a longer period and in several areas.

  • 123.
    Aunapuu, Maano
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Dahlgren, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Oksanen, Tarja
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Grellmann, Doris
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Oksanen, Lauri
    Olofsson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Rammul, Ullar
    Schneider, Michael
    Johansen, Bernt
    Hygen, Hans Olav
    Spatial patterns and dynamic responses of arctic food webs corroborate the exploitation ecosystems hypothesis (EEH)2008Inngår i: American Naturalist, ISSN 0003-0147, E-ISSN 1537-5323, Vol. 171, nr 2, s. 249-262Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the exploitation ecosystems hypothesis (EEH), productive terrestrial ecosystems are characterized by community‐level trophic cascades, whereas unproductive ecosystems harbor food‐limited grazers, which regulate community‐level plant biomass. We tested this hypothesis along arctic‐alpine productivity gradients at the Joatka field base, Finnmark, Norway. In unproductive habitats, mammalian predators were absent and plant biomass was constant, whereas herbivore biomass varied, reflecting the productivity of the habitat. In productive habitats, predatory mammals were persistently present and plant biomass varied in space, but herbivore biomass did not. Plant biomass of productive tundra scrublands declined by 40% when vegetation blocks were transferred to predation‐free islands. Corresponding transfer to herbivore‐free islands triggered an increase in plant biomass. Fertilization of an unproductive tundra heath resulted in a fourfold increase in rodent density and a corresponding increase in winter grazing activity, whereas the total aboveground plant biomass remained unchanged. These results corroborate the predictions of the EEH, implying that the endotherm community and the vegetation of the North European tundra behaves dynamically as if each trophic level consisted of a single population, in spite of local co‐occurrence of >20 plant species representing different major taxonomic groups, growth forms, and defensive strategies.

  • 124.
    Aunapuu, Maano
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Oksanen, Lauri
    Department of Biology, Section of Ecology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Department of Natural Sciences, Finnmark University College, Alta, Norway.
    Oksanen, Tarja
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Korpimaki, Erkki
    Department of Biology, Section of Ecology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Intraguild predation and interspecific co-existence between predatory endotherms2010Inngår i: Evolutionary Ecology Research, ISSN 1522-0613, E-ISSN 1937-3791, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 151-168Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: According to the current predominant view, intraguild predation leads to the replacement of intermediate predators from highly productive habitats, whereas top predators and intermediate predators can co-exist in habitats with intermediate primary productivity. These predictions are contradicted by the observed abundance of intermediate predators in productive environments. But the predictions are derived by modelling interactions in food chains where the top predator is primarily adapted to exploit intermediate predators but also has some capacity to exploit the resources of the intermediate predators. We call this 'food chain omnivory'. In contrast, 'genuine intraguild predation' is the case where the two predators have shared tactics of resource acquisition, resulting in broadly overlapping prey preferences that is, the interacting predators belong to the same guild as defined by Root (1967).

    Questions: What are the effects of productivity on genuine intraguild predation? Do the predictions for food chain omnivory apply also to genuine intraguild predation'?

    Methods: We modelled genuine intraguild predation by using parameter values such that the intermediate predator and the basal prey were equally valuable to the top predator. We assumed that the basal prey was a herbivore, with a carrying capacity directly proportional to primary productivity and a habitat-specific intrinsic rate of population growth that increases asymptotically in response to increasing primary productivity.

    Results: With the above premises, intermediate predators can prevail even in highly productive habitat. Also, a priority effect is possible. Predictable replacement of intermediate predators by top predators requires that intermediate predators are much easier to find than basal prey. Stable co-existence requires biologically implausible parameter values.

    Conclusions: Genuine intraguild predation is a destabilizing force in food webs. The dynamics of genuine intraguild predation systems differ from those in food chain omnivory systems where the intermediate and top predators have different feeding tactics and, therefore, different prey preferences.

  • 125.
    Aune, K
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, B G
    Moen, J
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Isolation and edge effects among woodland key habitats in Sweden: is forest policy promoting fragmentation?2005Inngår i: Biological Conservation, Vol. 124, s. 89-95Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 126.
    Avenius, Joel
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Agricultural history and its effect on Lake Ekoln, central Sweden: A study based on historical maps and the use of sediment as a proxy for lake-water phosphorus2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Agriculture and the use of arable land have long been assumed to be one of the key drivers behind eutrophication of lakes. However, little is known about how early agriculture has affected lakes in the past. The aims of this study were: i) quantify the within-region variability in historical land use and its linkage to soil cover and ii) test if the sediment geochemistry could be used to reconstruct inputs of phosphorus from early agricultural activities. The within-region variability was determined by digitalizing historical maps covering four centuries from the 18th to the 21st century for six selected regions across Sweden. To assess historical changes in lake-water phosphorus, a 6 m long 14C-dated sediment core from Ekoln was analyzed. The core was analyzed for 24 elements by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) together with the total concentration of nitrogen and carbon and their isotopes (δ13C, δ15N). Results show that there was a statistically significant difference (P<0.05) in agricultural activities between regions with soils rich in fine texture classes compared to soils with a more coarse texture. Agriculture also became less dependent on fine-grained soils due to new technological implements following the industrialization. The reconstructed long term-trend in Ekoln indicate limited inputs of phosphorus from early farming and that the lake had higher concentrations of phosphorus throughout the last millennia. Therefore, early farming was unlikely to be the prime driver of high phosphorus loadings, and that other factors should be considered, e.g. extensive urbanization and inputs of wastewater effluent.

  • 127.
    Avenius, Joel
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Sänkta sjöars inverkan på ytvatten i Västerbottens kustland: Samband mellan sänkningsnivåer och vattenkemi i sjöar på sulfidrika sedimentjordar2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Lake lowering in sulphide-rich areas is currently a major environmental impact for surface water. This study focuses on whether there is a relationship between a gradient of lake lowering and surface water impacts in areas of sulphide-rich sediments, in order to better understand their contribution of heavy metals and sulfuric acid. Also, is it a reasonable method to use the reduced lake area in order to quantify the gradient? The survey was conducted by collecting water samples from reference lakes and lowered lakes from south to north in coastal areas within the county of Västerbotten. Water samples were then analyzed for TOC, pH, conductivity, anions, base cations, alkalinity, acidity, sulfate, Al, Cd, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Pb. These parameters were then compared statistically using regression analysis and t-tests. The results show that no gradient was discernible in response to the reduced lake area. However, significant differences (p < 0,05) between the reference lakes and all the reduced lakes were visible for pH, conductivity, Cd, Cu, Zn and Al. The study shows that there is a correlation between lake lowering and negative impacts on surface water. However, to calculate a gradient from the reduced lake area is deficient as it is limited by the lakes volume reduction, and how the area around the lake has been affected. Further studies on the subject are therefore necessary.

  • 128.
    Axel, Högberg
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    The significance of age, plant density and proximity of young Silene dioica populations on the incidence and prevalence of anther-smut disease (Microbotryum silenes-diocae)2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Most life forms, including plants, are more or less susceptible to infection by pathogens. Whereas plant-pathogen interactions are well studied in human-managed systems they are less known in natural ecosystems. In this thesis the interactions between the sterilising anther-smut fungus Microbotryum silenes-dioicae and the host plant Silene dioica were studied in natural habitats in the Skeppsvik archipelago in northern Sweden. The purpose was to study some population characteristics that can potentially influence the colonization of anther-smut (Microbotryum silenes-dioicae) in young Silene dioica populations. Specifically, it was tested whether the population age, floral-  and total density, population size and distances to nearest diseased populations affect incidence of disease (presence of disease) and prevalence of disease (proportion of diseased individuals in populations) in younger host populations. It was found that incidence and prevalence of disease increased with host population age and size. In addition, it was seen that distances to diseased populations could not explain incidence or prevalence of disease. These results can potentially be used to predict disease risk in similar plant-pathogen systems. 

  • 129. Axelsson, E. Petter
    et al.
    Hjalten, Joakim
    LeRoy, Carri J.
    Whitham, Thomas G.
    Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta
    Wennström, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Leaf litter from insect-resistant transgenic trees causes changes in aquatic insect community composition2011Inngår i: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 48, nr 6, s. 1472-1479Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Recent research has addressed how transgenic residues fromarable crops may influence adjacent waterways, aquatic consumers and important ecosystem processes such as litter breakdown rates. With future applications of transgenic plants in forestry, such concerns may apply to forest stream ecosystems. Before any large-scale release of genetically modified (GM) trees, it is therefore imperative to evaluate the effects of genetic modifications in trees on such ecosystems. 2. We conducted decomposition experiments under natural stream conditions using leaf litter from greenhouse grown GM trees (Populus tremula x Populus tremuloides) that express Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins (cry3Aa; targeting coleopteran leaf-feeding beetles) to examine the hypothesis that GM trees would affect litter decomposition rates and/or the aquatic arthropod community that colonizes and feeds on leaf litter in streams. 3. We show that two independent transformations of isogenic Populus trees to express Bt toxins caused similar changes to the composition of aquatic insects colonizing the leaf litter, ultimately manifested in a 25% and 33% increases in average insect abundance. 4. Measurements of 24 phenolic compounds as well as nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) in the litter did not significantly differ among modified and wild-type trees and were thus not sufficient to explain these differences in the insect assemblage. 5. Decomposition rates were comparable among litter treatments suggesting that the normal suite of leaf traits influencing decomposition was similar among litter treatments and that the shredding functions of the community were maintained despite the changes in insect community composition. 6. Synthesis and applications. We report that leaf litter from GM trees affected the composition of aquatic insect communities that colonized litter under natural stream conditions. This suggests that forest management using GM trees may affect adjacent waterways in unanticipated ways, which should be considered in future commercial applications of GM trees. We also argue that studies at different scales (e.g. species, communities and ecosystems) will be needed for a full understanding of the environmental effects of Bt plants.

  • 130. Axelsson, E. Petter
    et al.
    Hjalten, Joakim
    Whitham, Thomas G.
    Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta
    Pilate, Gilles
    Wennström, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Leaf ontogeny interacts with Bt modification to affect innate resistance in GM aspens2011Inngår i: Chemoecology, ISSN 0937-7409, E-ISSN 1423-0445, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 161-169Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioassays with a non-target slug (Deroceras spp.) and chemical analyses were conducted using leaf tissue from already existing genetically modified insect-resistant aspen trees to examine whether genetic modifications to produce Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins could affect plant phytochemistry, which in turn might influence plant-herbivore interactions. Three major patterns emerged. First, two independent modifications for Bt resistance affected the phytochemical profiles of leaves such that both were different from the isogenic wild-type (Wt) control leaves, but also different from each other. Among the contributors to these differences are substances with a presumed involvement in resistance, such as salicortin and soluble condensed tannins. Second, bioassays with one Bt line suggest that the modification somehow affected innate resistance ("Innate" is used here in opposition to the "acquired" Bt resistance) in ways such that slugs preferred Bt over Wt leaves. Third, the preference test suggests that the innate resistance in Bt relative to Wt plants may not be uniformly expressed throughout the whole plant and that leaf ontogeny interacts with the modification to affect resistance. This was manifested through an ontogenetic determined increase in leaf consumption that was more than four times higher in Bt compared to Wt leaves. Our result are of principal importance, as these indicate that genetic modifications can affect innate resistance and thus non-target herbivores in ways that may have commercial and/or environmental consequences. The finding of a modification-ontogeny interaction effect on innate resistance may be especially important in assessments of GM plants with a long lifespan such as trees.

  • 131. Axelsson, E Petter
    et al.
    Hjältén, Joakim
    LeRoy, Carri J
    Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta
    Wennström, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Pilate, Gilles
    Can leaf litter from genetically modified trees affect aquatic ecosystems?2010Inngår i: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 13, nr 7, s. 1049-1059Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In addition to potential benefits, biotechnology in silviculture may also be associated with environmental considerations, including effects on organisms associated with the living tree and on ecosystems and processes dependent on tree residue. We examined whether genetic modification of lignin characteristics (CAD and COMT) in Populus sp. affected leaf litter quality, the decomposition of leaf litter, and the assemblages of aquatic insects colonizing the litter in three natural streams. The decomposition of leaf litter from one of the genetically modified (GM) lines (CAD) was affected in ways that were comparable over streams and harvest dates. After 84 days in streams, CAD-litter had lost approximately 6.1% less mass than the non-GM litter. Genetic modification also affected the concentration of phenolics and carbon in the litter but this only partially explained the decomposition differences, suggesting that other factors were also involved. Insect community analyses comparing GM and non-GM litter showed no significant differences, and the two GM litters showed differences only in the 84-day litterbags. The total abundance and species richness of insects were also similar on GM and non-GM litter. The results presented here suggest that genetic modifications in trees can influence litter quality and thus have a potential to generate effects that can cross ecosystem boundaries and influence ecosystem processes not directly associated with the tree. Overall, the realized ecological effects of the GM tree varieties used here were nevertheless shown to be relatively small.

  • 132.
    Back, Isabella
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Do pike and running water induce phenotypic changes in body shape of crucian carp?2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 133. Backhouse, Amy
    et al.
    Sait, Steven M.
    Cameron, Tom C.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Multiple mating in the traumatically inseminating Warehouse pirate bug, Xylocoris flavipes: effects on fecundity and longevity2012Inngår i: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 8, nr 5, s. 706-709Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimal mating frequencies differ between sexes as a consequence of the sexual differentiation of reproductive costs per mating, where mating is normally more costly to females than males. In mating systems where sexual reproduction is costly to females, sexual conflict may cause both direct (i.e. by reducing female fecundity or causing mortality) and indirect (i.e. increased risk of mortality, reduced offspring viability) reductions in lifetime reproductive success of females, which have individual and population consequences. We investigated the direct and indirect costs of multiple mating in a traumatically inseminating (TI) predatory Warehouse pirate bug, Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), where the male penetrates the female's abdomen during copulation. This study aimed to quantify the effects of TI on female fecundity, egg viability, the lifetime fecundity schedule, longevity and prey consumption in this cosmopolitan biocontrol agent. We found no difference in the total reproductive output between mating treatments in terms of total eggs laid or offspring viability, but there were significant differences found in daily fecundity schedules and adult longevity. In terms of lifetime reproduction, female Warehouse pirate bugs appear to be adapted to compensate for the costs of TI mating to their longevity.

  • 134.
    Backlund, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Inomhusmijlö och hälsobesvär på förskolor i Umeå2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 135.
    Backlund, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Inomhusmijö och hälsobesvär på förskolor i Umeå2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 136.
    Backlund, Per
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Återvinning av dryckeskartonger: En studie som syftar till att öka återvinningsgraden av Tetra Paks förpackningar i Indonesien2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    People of the modern world consume more than they ever used to do. Because of the close correlation between consumption and the amount of waste, the waste volume is also expected to increase. The purpose of this study is to examine if some measures in the recycling process from Sweden could be implemented in Indonesia. In fact, Indonesia is one of the countries in which the waste management system is struggling. Tetra Pak, one of the world leading producer of food packaging, is studied in this report. Tetra Paks recycling rate of their beverage cartons is relatively low, 8.42 %, in Indonesia compared with their recycling rate in other countries. To answer the purpose, information was collected from scientific reports, by interviews carried out in both Sweden and Indonesia and by study visits in Indonesia. The results of the study shows that there are measures which could be made in the recycling process to increase the recycling rate in Indonesia. School projects and deposit systems could increase the collection rate and a drumscreen and a buffertank could make the recycling process more profitable for the papermills. There is also some alternative end products which could make the whole recycling process more public visible. One of the conclusions of this study is that the paper mills should adjust their drumscreens, this to increase the fibre yield which is crucial for the recycling value. Another conclusions is that Tetra Pak should consider to initiate a recycling business by their own, in order to reduce the burden on the environment.

  • 137.
    Backman, Sofie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Zooplankton community respiration in the surface thermocline and deep water masses of Gulf och Maine2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 138. Backstrom, Tobias
    et al.
    Heynen, Martina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Brannas, Eva
    Nilsson, Jan
    Winberg, Svante
    Magnhagen, Carin
    Anaesthesia and handling stress effects on pigmentation and monoamines in Arctic charr2017Inngår i: Environmental Biology of Fishes, ISSN 0378-1909, E-ISSN 1573-5133, Vol. 100, nr 5, s. 471-480Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress responsiveness differs between individuals and is often categorized into different stress coping styles. Using these stress coping styles for selection in fish farming could be beneficial, since stress is one main factor affecting welfare. In Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) carotenoid pigmentation is associated with stress responsiveness and stress coping styles. Thus this could be an important tool to use for selection of stress resilient charr. However, anaesthetics seem to affect carotenoid pigmentation, and it would be better if the method for selection could be implemented during normal maintenance, which usually includes anaesthetics. Therefore, this study investigated how the use of anaesthetics affected carotenoid pigmentation, i.e. number of spots, over time compared to no-anaesthetic treatment. Additionally, the stress indicators monoamines and glucocorticoids were investigated. The results indicate that the anaesthetic MS-222 affects number of spots on the right side. This anaesthetic also increased dopaminergic activity in the telencephalon. Both brain dopaminergic and serotonergic activity was associated with spottiness. Further, behaviour during anaesthetization was associated with spots on the left side, but not the right side. Repetition of the same treatment seemed to affect spot numbers on the right side. In conclusion, this study shows that inducing stress in charr affects the carotenoid spots. Thus, it is possible to use anaesthetics when evaluating spottiness although careful planning is needed.

  • 139.
    Backteman, Greta
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Förebyggande bostadstillsyn: utveckling av en arbetsmetod2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 140. Baeten, L
    et al.
    De Frenne, Piete
    Verheyn, Kris
    Graae, Bente J
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hermy, Martin
    Forest herbs in the face of global change: a single-species-multiple-threats approach for Anemone nemorosa2010Inngår i: Plant Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2032-3913, Vol. 143, s. 19-30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 141. Baison, John
    et al.
    Vidalis, Amaryllis
    Zhou, Linghua
    Chen, Zhi-Qiang
    Li, Zitong
    Sillanpaeae, Mikko J.
    Bernhardsson, Carolina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Scofield, Douglas
    Forsberg, Nils
    Grahn, Thomas
    Olsson, Lars
    Karlsson, Bo
    Wu, Harry
    Ingvarsson, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Lundqvist, Sven-Olof
    Niittylae, Totte
    Garcia-Gil, M. Rosario
    Genome-wide association study identified novel candidate loci affecting wood formation in Norway spruce2019Inngår i: The Plant Journal, ISSN 0960-7412, E-ISSN 1365-313X, Vol. 100, nr 1, s. 83-100Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Norway spruce is a boreal forest tree species of significant ecological and economic importance. Hence there is a strong imperative to dissect the genetics underlying important wood quality traits in the species. We performed a functional genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 17 wood traits in Norway spruce using 178 101 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) generated from exome genotyping of 517 mother trees. The wood traits were defined using functional modelling of wood properties across annual growth rings. We applied a Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO-based) association mapping method using a functional multilocus mapping approach that utilizes latent traits, with a stability selection probability method as the hypothesis testing approach to determine a significant quantitative trait locus. The analysis provided 52 significant SNPs from 39 candidate genes, including genes previously implicated in wood formation and tree growth in spruce and other species. Our study represents a multilocus GWAS for complex wood traits in Norway spruce. The results advance our understanding of the genetics influencing wood traits and identifies candidate genes for future functional studies.

  • 142. Bakker, Elisabeth S.
    et al.
    Sarneel, Judith
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Gulati, Ramesh D.
    Liu, Zhengwen
    van Donk, Ellen
    Restoring macrophyte diversity in shallow temperate lakes: biotic versus abiotic constraints2013Inngår i: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 710, nr 1, s. 23-37Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although many lake restoration projects have led to decreased nutrient loads and increased water transparency, the establishment or expansion of macrophytes does not immediately follow the improved abiotic conditions and it is often unclear whether vegetation with high macrophyte diversity will return. We provide an overview of the potential bottlenecks for restoration of submerged macrophyte vegetation with a high biodiversity and focus on the biotic factors, including the availability of propagules, herbivory, plant competition and the role of remnant populations. We found that the potential for restoration in many lakes is large when clear water conditions are met, even though the macrophyte community composition of the early 1900s, the start of human-induced large-scale eutrophication in Northwestern Europe, could not be restored. However, emerging charophytes and species rich vegetation are often lost due to competition with eutrophic species. Disturbances such as herbivory can limit dominance by eutrophic species and improve macrophyte diversity. We conclude that it is imperative to study the role of propagule availability more closely as well as the biotic interactions including herbivory and plant competition. After abiotic conditions are met, these will further determine macrophyte diversity and define what exactly can be restored and what not.

  • 143. Bakker, Elisabeth S.
    et al.
    Veen, Ciska G. F.
    Ter Heerdt, Gerard J. N.
    Huig, Naomi
    Sarneel, Judith M
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Ecology and Biodiversity Group, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands; Plant Ecophysiology Group, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    High grazing pressure of geese threatens conservation and restoration of reed belts2018Inngår i: Frontiers in Plant Science, ISSN 1664-462X, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 9, artikkel-id 1649Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.) beds are important habitat for marsh birds, but are declining throughout Europe. Increasing numbers of the native marsh bird, the Greylag goose (Anser anser L.), are hypothesized to cause reed bed decline and inhibit restoration of reed beds, but data are largely lacking. In this study, we experimentally tested the effect of grazing by Greylag geese on the growth and expansion of reed growing in belts along lake shorelines. After 5 years of protecting reed from-grazing with exclosures, reed stems were over 4-fold denser and taller than in the grazed plots. Grazing pressure was intense with 50-100% of the stems being grazed among years in the control plots open to grazing. After 5 years of protection we opened half of the exclosures and the geese immediately grazed almost 100% of the reed stems. Whereas this did not affect the reed stem density, the stem height was strongly reduced and similar to permanently grazed reed. The next year geese were actively chased away by management from mid-March to mid-June, which changed the maximum amount of geese from over 2300 to less than 50. As a result, reed stem density and height increased and the reed belt had recovered over the full 6 m length of the experimental plots. Lastly, we introduced reed plants in an adjacent lake where no reed was growing and geese did visit this area. After two years, the density of the planted reed was six to nine-fold higher and significantly taller in exclosures compared to control plots where geese had access to the reed plants. We conclude that there is a conservation dilemma regarding how to preserve and restore reed belts in the presence of high densities of Greylag geese as conservation of both reed belts and high goose numbers seems infeasible. We suggest that there are three possible solutions for this dilemma: (1) effects of the geese can be mediated by goose population management, (2) the robustness of the reed marshes can be increased, and (3) at the landscape level, spatial planning can be used to configure landscapes with large reed bed reserves surrounded by unmown, unfertilized meadows.

  • 144. Balint, Miklos
    et al.
    Pfenninger, Markus
    Grossart, Hans-Peter
    Taberlet, Pierre
    Vellend, Mark
    Leibold, Mathew A.
    Englund, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bowler, Diana
    Environmental DNA time series in ecology2018Inngår i: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 33, nr 12, s. 945-957Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecological communities change in time and space, but long-term dynamics at the century-to-millennia scale are poorly documented due to lack of relevant data sets. Nevertheless, understanding long-term dynamics is important for explaining present-day biodiversity patterns and placing conservation goals in a historical context. Here, we use recent examples and new perspectives to highlight how environmental DNA (eDNA) is starting to provide a powerful new source of temporal data for research questions that have so far been overlooked, by helping to resolve the ecological dynamics of populations, communities, and ecosystems over hundreds to thousands of years. We give examples of hypotheses that may be addressed by temporal eDNA biodiversity data, discuss possible research directions, and outline related challenges.

  • 145. Baloch, E
    et al.
    Gilenstam, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Wedin, M
    Phylogeny and classification of Cryptodiscus, with a taxonomic synopsis of the Swedish species2009Inngår i: Fungal diversity, ISSN 1560-2745, E-ISSN 1878-9129, Vol. 38, s. 51-68Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The phylogeny, taxonomy and classification of Cryptodiscus are examined. The current generic and species deliminations, and the relationship of the genus within the Ostropomycetidae, are tested by molecular phylogenetic analyses of the nuclear ITS and LSU rDNA and the mitochondrial SSU rDNA. In our new circumscription Cryptodiscus is a monophyletic group of saprotrophic and lichenized fungi characterized by small, urceolate apothecia, mostly hyaline ascomatal walls without any embedded crystals, no clear periphysoids, and with oblong to narrow-cylindrical septate ascospores. Cryptodiscus forms a well-supported clade together with Absconditella and the remaining Stictidaceae. Paschelkiella and Bryophagus are synonymised with Cryptodiscus. Species excluded from Cryptodiscus are Cryptodiscus anguillosporus, C. angulosus, C. microstomus, and C. rhopaloides. Cryptodiscus in Sweden is revised and six species are accepted, of which one is newly described: C. foveolaris, C. gloeocapsa comb. nov. (equivalent to Bryophagus gloeocapsa), C. incolor sp. nov., C. pallidus, C. pini comb. nov. (equivalent to Paschelkiella pini), and the rediscovered species C. tabularum. The additional new combinations Cryptodiscus similis comb. nov. and C. minutissimus comb. nov. are coined for the remaining former Bryophagus species. Lectotypes are designated for Bryophagus gloeocapsa Arnold, Odontotrema pini Romell and Stictis foveolaris Rehm.

  • 146. Baloch, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Gilenstam, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Wedin, Mats
    The relationships of Odontotrema (Odontotremataceae) and the resurrected Sphaeropezia (Stictidaceae)-new combinations and three new Sphaeropezia species2013Inngår i: Mycologia, ISSN 0027-5514, E-ISSN 1557-2536, Vol. 105, nr 2, s. 384-397Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Odontotremataceae is polyphyletic and constitutes two distantly related clades, the true Odontotremataceae and a segregate group within Stictidaceae including "Odontotrema" cassiopes, "O." diffindens, lichenicolous "Odontotrema" species and "Bryodiscus" arctoalpinus. Sphaeropezia here is accepted as the name for this latter group. An updated phylogeny of the Stictidaceae based on mtSSU, nuLSU and the protein coding gene RPB2 is presented together with a taxonomic revision of Swedish taxa of Odontotrema and Sphaeropezia. Bryodiscus and Lethariicola are synonymized under Sphaeropezia, and three new Sphaeropezia species are described: the lignicolous S. capreae, the fungicolous S. lyckselensis and the lichenicolous S. mycoblasti. The new species are distinguished from other species by molecular and morphological characters, and substrate preferences. The new combinations Sphaeropezia arctoalpina, S. cassiopes, S. grimmiae, S. hepaticarum, S. melaneliae, S. ochrolechiae and S. thamnoliae are proposed. The morphology of these species was studied in detail. We further propose to combine the remaining lichenicolous Odontotrema species, exept O. stereocaulicola, in Sphaeropezia based on their close relationship to the studied lichenicolous taxa. These additional new combinations include Sphaeropezia bryoriae, S. cucularis, S. figulina, S. intermedia, S. japewiae, S. lecanorae, S. navarinoi, S. pertusariae, S. rhizocarpicola, S. santessonii, and S. sipei. A lectotype is designated for the name Odontotrema diffindens Nyl.

  • 147. Balogianni, Vasiliki G.
    et al.
    Blume-Werry, Gesche
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Wilson, Scott D.
    Root production in contrasting ecosystems: the impact of rhizotron sampling frequency2016Inngår i: Plant Ecology, ISSN 1385-0237, E-ISSN 1573-5052, Vol. 217, nr 11, s. 1359-1367Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite their critical role in every terrestrial ecosystem, fine root production and mortality have not been widely compared among systems due to the practical difficulties of belowground research. We examined fine root production and mortality among five contrasting sites: native and invaded grassland in eastern Montana, USA, aspen forest in southern Saskatchewan, Canada, and birch forest and tundra in northern Sweden. Additionally, we investigated the importance of minirhizotron sampling interval on measures of root production and mortality by comparing measures produced from 1-, 7-, 14-, and 21-day sample intervals. Root length and mortality varied significantly among sites, with invaded grassland having the greatest root length (> 2 x than any other site) and significantly greater root mortality than native grassland (54 %). In contrast, there were no significant differences in root production among the sites. Sample interval had no significant influence on root production or mortality. Minirhizotron sampling intervals up to 3 weeks did not underestimate the measures of root production and mortality in comparison to measures derived from shorter sampling intervals, regardless of the site studied. The results suggest that 3 weeks can be an accurate and efficient sample interval when studying root production and mortality with minirhizotrons.

  • 148. Barker, Hilary L.
    et al.
    Riehl, Jennifer F.
    Bernhardsson, Carolina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Rubert-Nason, Kennedy F.
    Holeski, Liza M.
    Ingvarsson, Pär K.
    Lindroth, Richard L.
    Linking plant genes to insect communities: Identifying the genetic bases of plant traits and community composition2019Inngår i: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 28, nr 19, s. 4404-4421Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Community genetics aims to understand the effects of intraspecific genetic variation on community composition and diversity, thereby connecting community ecology with evolutionary biology. Thus far, research has shown that plant genetics can underlie variation in the composition of associated communities (e.g., insects, lichen and endophytes), and those communities can therefore be considered as extended phenotypes. This work, however, has been conducted primarily at the plant genotype level and has not identified the key underlying genes. To address this gap, we used genome‐wide association mapping with a population of 445 aspen (Populus tremuloides) genets to identify the genes governing variation in plant traits (defence chemistry, bud phenology, leaf morphology, growth) and insect community composition. We found 49 significant SNP associations in 13 Populus genes that are correlated with chemical defence compounds and insect community traits. Most notably, we identified an early nodulin‐like protein that was associated with insect community diversity and the abundance of interacting foundation species (ants and aphids). These findings support the concept that particular plant traits are the mechanistic link between plant genes and the composition of associated insect communities. In putting the “genes” into “genes to ecosystems ecology”, this work enhances understanding of the molecular genetic mechanisms that underlie plant–insect associations and the consequences thereof for the structure of ecological communities.

  • 149. Barr, Camille M
    et al.
    Keller, Stephen R
    Ingvarsson, Pär K
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Sloan, Daniel B
    Taylor, Douglas R
    Variation in mutation rate and polymorphism among mitochondrial genes of Silene vulgaris.2007Inngår i: Mol Biol Evol, ISSN 0737-4038, Vol. 24, nr 8, s. 1783-91Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 150. Barrio, I. C.
    et al.
    Bueno, C. G.
    Gartzia, M.
    Soininen, E. M.
    Christie, K. S.
    Speed, J. D. M.
    Ravolainen, V. T.
    Forbes, B. C.
    Gauthier, G.
    Horstkotte, Tim
    Hoset, K. S.
    Høye, T. T.
    Jónsdóttir, I. S.
    Lévesque, E.
    Mörsdorf, M. A.
    Olofsson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Wookey, P. A.
    Hik, D. S.
    Biotic interactions mediate patterns of herbivore diversity in the Arctic2016Inngår i: Global Ecology and Biogeography, ISSN 1466-822X, E-ISSN 1466-8238, Vol. 25, nr 9, s. 1108-1118Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Understanding the forces shaping biodiversity patterns, particularly for groups of organisms with key functional roles, will help predict the responses of ecosystems to environmental changes. Our aim was to evaluate the relative role of different drivers in shaping the diversity patterns of vertebrate herbivores, a group of organisms exerting a strong trophic influence in terrestrial Arctic ecosystems. This biome, traditionally perceived as homogeneous and low in biodiversity, includes wide variation in biotic and physical conditions and is currently undergoing major environmental change. Location: The Arctic (including the High Arctic, Low Arctic and Subarctic) MethodsWe compiled available data on vertebrate (birds and mammals) herbivore distribution at a pan-Arctic scale, and used eight variables that represent the most relevant hypotheses for explaining patterns of species richness. We used range maps rasterized on a 100kmx100km equal-area grid to analyse richness patterns of all vertebrate herbivore species combined, and birds and mammalian herbivores separately. Results: Overall, patterns of herbivore species richness in the Arctic were positively related to plant productivity (measured using the normalized difference vegetation index) and to the species richness of predators. Greater species richness of herbivores was also linked to areas with a higher mean annual temperature. Species richness of avian and mammalian herbivores were related to the distance from the coast, with the highest avian richness in coastal areas and mammalian richness peaking further inland. Main conclusions: Herbivore richness in the Arctic is most strongly linked to primary productivity and the species richness of predators. Our results suggest that biotic interactions, with either higher or lower trophic levels or both, can drive patterns of species richness at a biome-wide scale. Rapid ongoing environmental changes in the Arctic are likely to affect herbivore diversity through impacts on both primary productivity and changes in predator communities via range expansion of predators from lower latitudes.

1234567 101 - 150 of 3457
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf