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  • 101.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Industry Strategies for Energy Transition in the Wake of the Oil Crisis2014Inngår i: Business and Economic History On-Line, ISSN 0894-6825, E-ISSN 1941-7349, Vol. 12, s. 1-18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper employs the Swedish pulp and paper sector in the 1970s and 1980s as a case study to explore industry strategies for accomplishing energy transition in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis. Over this period, the use of fossil fuels was reduced by 70 percent within the sector. The lion’s share of the reduction was achieved by the substitution of biofuels for oil. Besides cutting the cost of energy production, this substitution also resulted in significant environmental improvements. Substituting biofuels for oil proved to be the most reasonable way to decrease the use of oil, even though alternatives such as coal were considered. Initially, reductions in oil consumption and improvements in energy conservation were accomplished by relatively small measures, but there was a great need for long-term R&D to push technology development further. Inter-firm and state-firm collaborations therefore became strategically important. The strategies for substitution further interacted strongly with institutional changes in the energy policy field, the ongoing “greening” of the industry, as well as an urgent need to enhance international competitiveness. Our study concludes that the oil crises enforced more sustainable production in a dynamic way, where government strategies to support and push technology development further played a central role.

  • 102.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Svenska skogsindustrins samarbete i miljöfrågan: en framgångssaga?2012Inngår i: Nordisk pappershistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 1101-2056, nr 4, s. 3-6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 103.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Transition to greener pulp: regulation, industry responses and path dependency2015Inngår i: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 57, nr 6, s. 862-884Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the dioxin alarm broke at the same time in Sweden and the US in the mid-1980s, Swedish pulp and paper (P&P) firms led the way towards the new market for low-chlorine and chlorine-free P&P products. This study explores the transition in the Swedish P&P industry and contrasts the Swedish case to the US experience. We highlight the importance of already established technological paths to deal with pollution, paths which were strongly formed by the different national environmental policies since the 1970s. Thus while US P&P firms were technologically locked-in when the dioxin alarm broke, the strategy of Swedish P&P firms to proactively collaborate in environmental research and development (R&D) together with a national policy that favoured process integrated abatement technology, helped Swedish firms take technological leadership. This article particularly stresses the implications of technological path-dependency and different national regulatory styles in understanding the evolution of different modes of corporate environmental strategies.

  • 104.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Transition towards renewable energy: Co-ordination and technological strategies in the Swedish pulp and paper industry 1973-19902015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the transition towards renewable energy in the Swedish pulp and paper industry (PPI) during the 1970s and -80s. In the wake of the first Oil Crisis until the late 1980s, the use of fossil fuels was reduced by 70 percent in this sector. The lion’s share of the reduction was achieved by substituting oil by biofuels in terms of rest products from the pulp manufacturing process. The reduction was made possible also by efficiency improvements and increased internal production of electricity through back-pressure turbine power generation. Sweden was highly dependent on oil when the first Oil Crisis broke, and the run up in oil prices put pressure on the Swedish government and the energy intensive PPI to reduce dependency. Of central importance for the transition to be implemented was a highly collaborative strategy of the sector as well as between the sector and the corporatist Swedish state administration. The Swedish government chose a proactive strategy by emphasizing knowledge management and collaboration with industry along with the substitution of oil with biofuels. The transition was further fueled by the fact that focus was directed towards unutilized potentials in the sector, where a previous waste problem now could be transformed into energy savings, i.e., the strong version of the Porter hypothesis. Also energy taxes and fees played a major role as control agents in the Swedish energy policy of the 1970s and 80s. Thus, the study illustrates the central role of governments and their ability to push industries into new technological paths through a wide palette of interplaying policy instruments. The study further points at the importance of a more holistic understanding of the interplay between different policies and impacts in the longer run.

  • 105.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Kinneryd, Hanna
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Command-and-control revisited: environmental compliance and technological change in Swedish industry 1970–19902013Inngår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 85, s. 6-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the issue of environmental policy instrument choice for achieving deep emission reductions in the industrial sector. Specifically, it provides: (a) a theoretical and empirical review of the conditions under which performance standards can provide efficient incentives for deep emission reductions and technology adoption; and (b) an analysis of the design and the outcomes of the standards-based regulation of industrial pollutants in Sweden during the period 1970–1990. Our empirical findings suggest that the Swedish regulatory approach comprised many key elements of an efficient policy-induced transition towards radically lower emissions in the metal smelting and pulp and paper industries. The regulation relied solely on performance standards, thus granting flexibility to firms in terms of selecting the appropriate compliance measures. These standards were implemented in combination with extended compliance periods. R&D projects and the new knowledge that was advanced incrementally in interaction between the company, the environmental authorities and research institutions provided a direct catalyst to the regulatory process. In these ways the Swedish regulatory approach provided scope for creative solutions, environmental innovation, and permitted the affected companies to coordinate pollution abatement measures with productive investments.

  • 106.
    Bergström, Michaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Det vårdadministrativa yrket: En studie om utveckling och status ur ett genusperspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 107.
    Bergström, Stina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Om geografiska informationssystem (GIS) och dess tillämpningar inom barncancerforskning: Ett fokus på GIS i forskningen om barnleukemi och dess etiologi2011Student paper other, 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to summarize the literature about geographic information systems (GIS) and its applications in childhood cancer research. The main focus was to examine how GIS has been contributing to the research of childhood leukemia and its etiology. Since this is one of the diseases that can be connected to a public health issue, a thorough exploration of different areas outside the childhood cancer area had to be considered. Areas such as epidemiology and environmental health were two of the most relevant sources of literature. The etiology behind childhood leukemia has been studied for several decades, but the risk factors that cause this disease still remain largely unknown, and the results have been inconsistent. Since the 1990's, one of the methods to identify potential spatial clusters of childhood leukemia has been the use of GIS. This software has the ability to layer multiple risk factors in relation to the diagnosed children and thereafter visualize potential clusters on a map. The evaluation of the literature resulted in five topics which included most of the studies that has utilized GIS in their research of childhood leukemia. These five topics with its connected risk factors were: electromagnetic fields, ionizing radiation, air pollution, agricultural pesticides and hazardous waste sites. Even though few of the studies showed statistic significant clusters when connecting a potential risk factor with childhood leukemia, a majority of them didn't present any evidence about a causal relationship, which indicates a need of further research.   

  • 108.
    Bergström, Stina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Telemedicin i Västerbottens läns landsting: Vårdpersonalens behov av stöd inom administration, utbildning och teknik2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 109.
    Bergstén, Sabina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Feeling at Home from A Distance?: How Geographical Distance and Non-Residency Shape Sense of Place among Private Forest Owners2019Inngår i: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723, Vol. 32, nr 2, s. 184-203Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Out-migration from rural areas and generational shifts create conditions whereby increasing numbers of private forest owners live at a distance from their forestland. Geographical distance and non-residency have been raised as issues that may possibly weaken these owners’ relationships with their properties. Drawing on the “sense of place” concept as a frame of analysis for 51 qualitative interviews with resident and nonresident private forest owners from two areas in Sweden, this study provides in-depth understanding of how geographical distance and place of residency shape owners’ feelings about their forest properties. The study shows that sense of place is constructed in complex and multifaceted ways over time and that social and historical contexts and processes beyond the forest environment can make owners feel closeness to their distant properties. Thus, geographical distance or residency alone does not explain variations in these forest owners’ feelings of distance or closeness to their properties.

  • 110.
    Bergstén, Sabina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia. Faculty of Social Sciences, Nord University, Steinkjer, Norway.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Experiences and emotions among private forest owners versus public interests: why ownership matters2018Inngår i: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 79, s. 801-811Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    By adopting a qualitative approach and considering the case of Sweden, the aim of the paper is to investigate and analyse how private forest owners' experiences and emotions related to their private forest ownership manifest themselves in their relationship to public use of their forests and public planning for recreation and biodiversity on their land. The study incorporates and elaborates upon a conceptual framework related to the dimensions of property rights, feelings of ownership, and sense of place in its analysis of the private forest ownership context. Fifty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with forest owners owning land in two geographically different areas. The results demonstrate the important role of the 'social contract' of rights and responsibilities, which are associated with the concept of property rights, and are embedded in the relationship between private ownership and the Swedish custom of the Right of Public Access to nature in the broad acceptance of public use of private forestland. The forest owners' relationships with public planning are diverse and complex, illustrating the various dimensions of private forest ownership, the heterogeneous forest owner corps, and the different geographical contexts. The dimensions of ownership feelings and sense of place, and the interplay between them, are shown to contribute to enhanced sentiments linked to forest ownership, expressed in ambivalence or lack of conviction about public planning. An important point of resistance to public interests is owners' identity as stewards or long-term custodians of their particular forestland. The article ends with a set of recommendations for public policy and planning processes regarding public interests related to private forest ownership.

  • 111.
    Bern, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi, Transportforskningsenheten (TRUM). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Haugen, Katarina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi, Transportforskningsenheten (TRUM).
    Jansson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi, Transportforskningsenheten (TRUM). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi, Transportforskningsenheten (TRUM). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Olsson, Olof
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    ”Det är ju som vilken annan bil som helst”: röster om elbilar2015Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 112.
    Bern, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi, Transportforskningsenheten (TRUM).
    Jansson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi, Transportforskningsenheten (TRUM). RiseB.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi, Transportforskningsenheten (TRUM).
    Nyman, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi, Transportforskningsenheten (TRUM).
    Mobilitet och tillgänglighet – framtidens resande2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trafikverket har gett TRUM (Transportforskningsenheten vid Umeå Universitet) i uppdrag att utreda framtidens mobilitet innefattande frågor såsom privatpersoners attityder och normer till resande med bil och däribland självkörande bilar, betalningsvilja, syn på ägande inställning till individuellt resande gentemot kollektivt resande, samt intressenters förväntningar på ett framtida tillgängligt transportsystem. Därutöver önskar Trafikverket ökad förståelse kring arbetssätt och metoder för att möta teknikutveckling och framtida mobilitet. Syftet med föreliggande rapport är att svara på dessa frågeställningar utifrån litteraturstudier och intervjuer.

    Det huvudsakliga underlaget för rapporten är en genomgång av litteratur relaterad till transporter, mobilitet och historiska såväl som framtida trender. Fokus har varit på persontransporter kopplat till människors beteende, samt vad privatpersoner, framtidsspanare och företrädare för bil- och teknikbranschen tror kommer att hända med personresande i framtiden. Utöver litteraturstudien genomfördes sex intervjuer under januari och februari 2016. Intervjuerna gjordes med syfte att öka förståelsen för hur människor resonerar kring mobilitet och transporter i dagsläget och hur de tror att vi kommer att resa i framtiden. Utifrån litteraturgenomgången och intervjuerna kan konstateras att attityder till elbilar generellt sett är positiva. Hinder för ett bredare genombrott utgörs av uppfattade prisskillnader, räckviddsångest och uppfattad brist på laddinfrastruktur. Som drivkrafter kan nämnas ökat miljömedvetande och alltmer positiva attityder bland flera olika aktörer, till exempel teknikutvecklare. När det gäller självkörande bilar är attityderna mer varierande. Bland annat lyfts säkerhetsfaktorer, tillgänglighet och det faktum att flera bilmodeller redan idag utrustas med olika typer av autonomifunktioner. Enligt olika bedömningar kommer koncept såsom Mobility as a Service och liknande att leda till förändrade attityder och normer när det gäller både privat och kollektivt resande. Avslutningsvis lämnas förslag på hur dessa och andra förändringar kan följas och förstås utifrån ett planeringsperspektiv. Olika metoder och perspektiv är viktiga för att skapa en bild över framtida utveckling redan idag, framförallt kopplat till de miljöutmaningar samhället står inför.

  • 113.
    Bern, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi, Transportforskningsenheten (TRUM).
    Jansson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi, Transportforskningsenheten (TRUM).
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyman, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi, Transportforskningsenheten (TRUM).
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia. Dept. of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University.
    Mobilitet och tillgänglighet – framtidens resande.2016Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 114.
    Bertilsson, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Befolkningstillväxtens mosaik i Umeå kommun2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to present and analyze population developments within Umeå municipality during the period 1992 to 2012. The study also aims to discuss growth trends presented in previous papers to seek common factors and get a deeper understanding.

    Data for 1992, 2002 and 2012 on a sub area level supplied by Umeå municipality was used. The study shows a continued positive development across almost all sub areas, but a differing growth rate from centre to periphery, and also a diversified medium age among the inhabitants.

    While the city center continues to have the highest growth of population during the studied years, a recent trend seems to point to a growing popularity to settle in the outskirts of the municipality, primarily near the coast.

  • 115.
    Bertilsson, Harry
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Färdighängt på stan?En studie av ungdomars sociala och mentala geografier i Umeå2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 116.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    The Swedish forest sector's approach to a formalized forest policy within the EU2013Inngår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 26, s. 131-137Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the Swedish forest sector's approach to a formalized forest policy within the EU; utilizing a revisited neo-functional framework focusing on cultivated spillover and non-governmental forest stakeholders' preferences and strategies. The study is based on in-depth interviews with central non-governmental representatives divided into four categories: forest owners, forest industry, environmental representatives and other representatives. The paper shows that, in spite of lacking interest and engagement in this issue on the Swedish government's side, the Swedish forest owners and the forest industry have made a U-turn and now welcome some form of formalized forest policy in the EU, as it would benefit their interests. They also believe they can influence the content of the integration process. This confirms the theoretical premise that organized interests, in this case non-governmental forestry stakeholders in Sweden, can act as pressure groups for further coordination and integration. National and transnational elites and their work in transnational networks and associations seem particularly important in this context.

  • 117.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Keskitalo, Carina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    How to Influence Forest-Related Issues in the European Union? Preferred Strategies among Swedish Forest Industry2013Inngår i: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 693-709Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although forestry is not a regulated area in the European Union (EU), numerous decisions in other policy areas are related to forestry. However, its position outside of formal policy-making can result in the fact that actors, such as those within the forest industry, may have a larger role when compared to other policy sectors where the state system has an integrated role. This explorative study reviews the ways in which the forest industry in Sweden, one of the EU states with the most forest land, tries to protect and promote its interests on an EU-level. It concludes that a main way to influence  decision-making in the EU is through lobbying, through its own organisations and through the transnational trade association, The Confederation of European Paper Industries (CEPI). The study shows that collectively conducted lobbying is largely preferred which means that internal communication is important since lobbying at the EU-level is potentially limited by the diverging positions of trade association members as well as among the different trade associations themselves.

  • 118.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Thellbro, Camilla
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Svensson, Johan
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Sandström, Per
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Between protocol and reality: Swedish municipal comprehensive planning2018Inngår i: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 26, nr 1, s. 35-54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial planning using a landscape approach has been recognized as being essential for reconciling ecological, cultural and socioeconomic dimensions in sustainable development (SuD). Although embraced as a concept, there is a lack of planning tools capable of incorporating multi-level, multifunctional and multi-sectoral perspectives, especially in a rural context. The departure point in this paper is the legal requirements for municipal comprehensive planning (MCP) in Sweden and an e-mail survey about incentives, stakeholder involvement, policy integration and implementation in MCP in all 15 Swedish mountain municipalities. The purpose of this explorative study is to examine whether MCP could be a tool in planning for SuD. Results indicate a general lack of resources and a low status of MCP that affect, and even limit, stakeholder involvement, policy integration and implementation. However, legal requirements for MCP are targeted at SuD, and municipal personnel responsible for planning appreciate the potential of MCP. Therefore, there is potential to develop the MCP into an effective landscape planning tool. To accomplish this, the status of an active planning process has to be raised, the mandate of the local planning agency has to be secured, and residents and land users have to be involved throughout the planning process.

  • 119.
    Björk, Agnes
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Hemma och hemlängtan i det dagliga livet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate the concept of home and longing for home, and how these factors affect the interviewees. Focus is on the daily life of the respondents.The study is based on qualitative interviews with five respondents who are currently living in Umeå. They all have different backgrounds and vary in age. The interviews were transcribed and then analyzed using thematic analysis.The results show that home and homesickness are two very abstract concepts, which affects people in different ways. However, it emerged a clear picture of the concept of home home, which was strongly linked to relationships.Largely the variations between the respondents, where based on what phase the respondent was in the lifecycle. The main impact was in mobility. For example, the respondents chose to revisit a place that was considered to be home and they longed back to, or stay in one place because it was home and they would long to go back if they moved.

  • 120.
    Björnander, Niklas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi. 911213-2593.
    Trenden OCR, vad är det som lockar?: En studie om resemotiv för högt och lågt involverade människor inom OCR.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Sport tourism is one of the fastest growing segments in the tourism industry, and more and more people seek to have an active holiday. In the same time OCR (obstacle course race) is one of the fastest growing sports in the world. To sustain and develop this new phenomenon it is important to know why people are traveling to participate and what factors which are important to different groups.

    This thesis aim is to study the underlying motives underpinning for travel and participation in OCR races, and also link this to the destination where the OCR race takes place. More specifically, the study investigates if there are any differences in motives for traveling to participate in OCR amongst highly involved people and people with low involvement in OCR. The study is based on a questionnaire survey that have been distributed to people that are, more or less, involved in OCR. The study has been conducted by statistically analyzing data from the survey. The result showed that there are inner motives, such as challenge oneself, to feel connected to others and to create memories, rather than outer factors on the destination that drives people to travel to participate in OCR races. In terms of differences between the groups (hi and low involved people in OCR) it was social factors and identification that differ the most, where highly involved people appear to value fellowship, enjoyment and participation because of lifestyle to a greater degree than low involved people.  

  • 121.
    Björnsdotter, Emelie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Diktatens biljud: Om oönskade ljud i diktat och hur de påverkar vårdadministratörer2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 122.
    Blaauboer, Marjolein
    et al.
    Universiteit van Amsterdam, Planning and International Development Studies, Department of Geography.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Life course preferences, sibling ties and the geographical dispersion of sibling networks2013Inngår i: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 19, nr 5, s. 594-609Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using Swedish register data, we analyse how life course preferences and sibling ties are related to the geographical dispersion of siblings. We argue that life course preferences and siblings ties are influenced by siblings' socio-demographic characteristics, by similarities and differences between them, and by their family background. The measurement of geographical dispersion, the nearest neighbour index, allows us to go beyond dyadic relationships and investigate entire networks. Results from the OLS regression analysis show that life course preferences are related to the dispersion of siblings, and that differences between siblings are associated with a greater geographical dispersion than similarities are. Sibling ties developed during childhood also seem to be associated with the dispersion of sibling networks.

  • 123.
    Blomberg, Elin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    I globaliseringens vågrörelse; en etablering i Lycksele kommun.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes how a larger investment by a private company in the northern interior can affect a municipality’s economy. The mobility to the municipality is expected to increase and some of the direct and indirect effects that this investment can implicate on their economy are discussed.

     

    The method for this study is qualitative. Interviews have been made with the initiative owner of the company LHG Learning Center and with civil servants in the municipality of Lycksele.

     

    The conclusions drawn in this study are that the establishment of LHG Learning Centers in Lycksele will include both opportunities and risks for the municipality’s future. The indirect impact of LHG establishment on Lycksele economy is unknown today. Therefore the municipality can be vulnerable when a dependence is emerging, which make the community planning process hard. If the municipality of Lycksele can’t provide for LHG the needs, can the opportunities to develop be lost if the company choose to relocate.

  • 124. Blum, Matthias
    et al.
    Ducoing, Cristián
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    McLaughin, Eoin
    A sustainable century: genuine savings in developing and developed countries, 1900-20002017Inngår i: National wealth: what is missing, why it matters / [ed] Kirk Hamilton and Cameron Hepburn, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017, s. 89-113Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter traces the long-run development of genuine savings (GS) during the twentieth century using a panel of developed countries (Great Britain, Germany, Switzerland, France, the US, and Australia) and resource-abundant countries in Latin America (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico) representing approximately 50% of the world’s output in terms of GDP by 1950. It includes large economies and small open economies, and resource-rich and resource-scarce countries, allowing comparison of their historical experiences. Components of GS considered include physical and human capital as well as resource extraction and pollution damages. Generally, there is evidence of positive GS over the course of the twentieth century, although the two world wars and the Great Depression left considerable marks, but also striking differences between Latin American and developed countries when total factor productivity is included; this could be a signal of natural resource curse or technological gaps unnoticed in previous works.

  • 125.
    Blum, Matthias
    et al.
    Queen’s University Management School, Queen’s University Belfast.
    Ducoing Ruiz, Cristián
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    McLaughlin, Eoin
    Department of Geography and Sustainable Development, University of St. Andrews.
    A Sustainable Century?: Genuine Savings in developing and developed countries, 1900-20002016Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter traces the long-run development of Genuine Savings (GS) using a panel of eleven countries during the twentieth century. This panel covers a number of developed countries (Great Britain, Germany,Switzerland, France, the US, and Australia) as well as a set of resource-abundant countries in Latin America(Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico). These countries represent approximately 50 percentof the world’s output in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by 1950, and include large economies and small open economies, and resource-rich and resource-scarce countries, thus allowing us to compare their historical experiences. Components of GS considered include physical and human capital as well asresource extraction and pollution damages. Generally, we find evidence of positive GS over the course of the twentieth century, although the two World Wars and the Great Depression left considerable marks. Also, we found striking differences between Latin American and developed countries when Total Factor Productivity(TFP) is included; this could be a signal of natural resource curse or technological gaps unnoticed in previous works

  • 126.
    Boberg, William
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Konsekvenser av det tillgängliga friluftslivet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The increased accessibility of Storulvån has led to a conflict between outdoor recreation and the sami village of Handölsdalen. The month of may is the time of the year when reindeers are born and if the female gets scared or disturbed she may leave the newborn. The sami village of Handölsdalen has applied to Länsstyrelsen to close Storulvåvägen during this time. However, Trafikverket has appealed to Transportstyrelsen that the road should be open for public use, which is still the case. The purpose of this study is to take a deeper look into this conflict to see who are involved and what the different opionions are concerning Storulvåvägen.

     

    The method of collecting data has been thru interviews with the sami village and Svenska Turistföreningen. Documents from Länsstyrelsen Jämtlands län, Trafikverket and Transportstyrelsen has been analyzed to see what the different views of the problem and conflict are.

     

    The result show different oppinions regarding reindeer herding and outdoor recreation.

     

    Keywords: outdoor recreation, reindeer herding, conflict, accessibility, sami.

  • 127.
    Bohman, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Conditional crisis?: Ecological challenges and conditions of growth during the agricultural revolution in southern Sweden, c. 1700–19002017Inngår i: Economic history review, ISSN 0013-0117, E-ISSN 1468-0289, Vol. 70, nr 1, s. 171-186Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Was there an agro-ecological crisis in Europe which preceded and contributed to pushing forward the agricultural revolution? This article presents a new theoretical and empirical approach to this controversial perspective on agricultural transformation and relates to an ongoing debate on conditions of growth in pre-industrial societies. The results demonstrate that there were indeed indicators of a crisis, which grew stronger during the eighteenth century and culminated in the early nineteenth century. The crisis was, however, not general, but was rather restricted to areas that stand out due to poor natural conditions for agriculture. In other words, the crisis was conditional. Furthermore, the findings show that the crisis could push forward changes that were important for enabling agricultural transformation and growth. However, both the emergence and reversal of the crisis were connected to new opportunities opened up by market development. Enough differences were found between different types of regions to suggest that there were many development paths within the agricultural transformation process, and that they were not necessarily linear.

  • 128.
    Bohman, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Deal with it!: The emergence and reversal of an agro-ecological crisis, Southern Sweden in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries2017Inngår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 65, nr 2, s. 206-220Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Early Modern period provides examples of stagnating and even declining production and energy consumption per capita, which can be interpreted as indicators of an emerging crisis. With a focus on agriculture sector, some have suggested that the crisis was ‘conditional’ – meaning that a crisis can only be observed in some cases. This article investigates one such case, a village in Southern Sweden during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and investigates the mechanisms that mediate population growth to deteriorating living standards and environmental degradation. It provides new insights into the conditions of pre-industrial agriculture, particularly as regards the consequences of intensified demand pressure in ecologically fragile areas, and argues that human societies must be studied in tandem with their natural surroundings.

  • 129.
    Bohman, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Matnyttigt om 1500-talets storhushåll.: Biskop Brasks måltider. Svensk mat mellan medeltid och renässans.2016Inngår i: Populär historia, ISSN 1102-0822, nr 9, s. 68-Artikkel, omtale (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 130.
    Bohman, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    The road to modern forestry: dealing with deforestation in nineteenth-century southern Sweden2018Inngår i: Agricultural History Review, ISSN 0002-1490, Vol. 66, nr 2, s. 199-214Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has connected progressive deforestation in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries with an increase in the demand for timber for building and wood for fuel and a failure to replant. This paper investigates a southern Swedish region during the nineteenth century, where a tendency to deforestation and a low standard of forestry had prevailed for a long time despite restrictions on felling and attempts to promote replanting. We show that a new type of agricultural organization – the Hushållningssällskapet – encouraged the replanting of woodland and the improvement of forestry practice. It supported the enforcement of State policy, but also protected the interests of farmers, not all of whom were persuaded that replanting woodland was a good use of their land. The paper provides new evidence for the state of forestry and the active role of agricultural organizations during a crucial period of agricultural transformation. 

  • 131.
    Bohman, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Tiondet rejält tillskott i prästens kassa2012Inngår i: Populär Historia, nr 2Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 132.
    Boman, Mattias
    et al.
    SLU.
    Fredman, Peter
    MIUN.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Ericsson, Göran
    SLU.
    Outdoor recreation – A necessity or a luxury?: Estimation of Engel curves for Sweden2013Inngår i: Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, ISSN 2213-0780, Vol. 3-4, s. 49-56Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Income constitutes one important constraint for the degree of participation in outdoor recreation. The effect of this constraint can be measured by the income elasticity of outdoor recreation demand, which is of policy interest when the distribution of recreation opportunities across socio economic groups is a concern. This study investigated income elasticity of expenditures for three types of outdoor recreation in Sweden, at the individual level: outdoor recreation as an aggregated composite good, outdoor recreation close to home (less than 100km away from the permanent residence), and hunting. The findings indicated that outdoor recreation as a composite is a luxury good with elasticity in excess of unity (i.e. a relative increase in income will lead to a greater relative increase in demand). The elasticities of the specific activities were found to be lower. Outdoor recreation close to home was characterized as a necessity with elasticity less than unity (i.e. a relative increase in income will lead to a smaller relative increase in demand). The results further suggested that an increase in income could lead to either a decrease or an increase in the demand for hunting, indicating that hunting might be an inferior good or possibly a necessity.

  • 133.
    Borggren, Jonathan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    ‘A place without living standards’ - Defining creativity amongst ‘talents’ and ‘creatives’ in Gothenburg, Sweden.2014Inngår i: Tourism, ISSN 1332-7461, Vol. 62, nr 2, s. 201-216Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on previous research concerning the location preferences of human capital (Niedomysl and Hansen, 2010; Borggren & Eriksson 2014) talents (Hansen & Winther, 2010), milieu (Buttimer, 1969; Drake, 2003) and the ‘creative class’ (Florida 2002), this paper studies creative milieu from the perspective of individuals engaged in different creative occupations in Gothenburg, Sweden. Drawing on the background of structural economic change, the key competitive asset of attracting skilled workers and place-marketing to promote regional development, the aim of this study is to ‘take a step back’ and let representatives of these individuals first define a creative milieu, and second to investigate, in retrospect, whether this creative milieu has exercised any significant influence on residence and location choices by way of in-depth interviews. Results show that the creative milieu as described by the respondents constitutes a space containing human interaction, the possibility to think freely and having the option of choosing to participate in various activities. It is suggested that further understandings of creative milieu would be based on the social context, or more precisely the social space (Buttimer, 1969), of the observer and of how said person ‘justifies’ creative milieu from a professional standpoint, i.e. from the perspective of one’s occupation.

  • 134.
    Borggren, Jonathan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Eriksson, Rikard H
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Human capital, skills and uneven intra-urban employment growth: The case of Göteborg, Sweden 1990-20082014Inngår i: Urban Studies Research, ISSN 2090-4185, E-ISSN 2090-4193, Vol. 2014, artikkel-id 260813Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has elucidated the role of talents to explain urban growth differences but it remains to be shown whether urban dynamics, such as human capital and a mixed local population, can be linked to intra-urban employment growth. By use of a unique longitudinal database, we track the economic development through the lens of intra-urban employment growth of a number of primary urban areas (PUA) in Göteborg, Sweden. Regarding factors influencing employment growth we find that relative concentrations of human capital protect areas from rising unemployment during severe recession (1990-1993) and recovery (1990-2000) while the composition of skills is beneficial during recovery (1990-2000) and long-term growth (1990-2008). Our findings suggest that neither too high concentrations of creative occupations, nor too low, is beneficial. Thus, human capital drives much of the employment changes in relation to the recession and early transition from manufacturing to service but composition of skills is more relevant for explaining long-term intra-urban employment growth.

  • 135.
    Borggren, Jonathan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Knowledge flows in high-impact firms: how does relatedness influence survival, acquisition and exit?2016Inngår i: Journal of Economic Geography, ISSN 1468-2702, E-ISSN 1468-2710, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 637-665Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the impact on regional renewal and employment ascribed to rapidly growing firms (high-impactfirms, HIFs), this paper argues that little is still known in economic geography and business studies todayregarding the mechanisms influencing growth of such firms and, hence, the potential impact on regionalemployment. The aim of this paper is thus to explore how the qualitative content of skills (i.e. the degree ofsimilarity, relatedness and unrelatedness) recruited to a firm during a period of fast growth influences itsfuture success. Our findings, based on a sample of 1,589 HIFs in the Swedish economy, suggest that it is notonly the number of people employed that matters in aiding the understanding of the future destiny of the firms– but also, more importantly, it is the scope of the skills recruited and their proximity to related industries.

  • 136.
    Borggren, Jonathan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Ström, Patrik
    On the waterfront: studying the development of residences and work-places at Norra Älvstranden, Gothenburg, Sweden2014Inngår i: Local Economy, ISSN 0269-0942, E-ISSN 1470-9325, Vol. 29, nr 4-5, s. 429-452Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Following economic restructuring, waterfront redevelopment emerges as a post-industrial option for struggling cities and regions that will boost economic growth. If functioning according to plan, publicly initiated and privately executed waterfront redevelopment will attract educated and high-income earning residents as it simultaneously transforms derelict industrial grounds into residential areas and science parks. The recent financial crisis of 2008 has seen severe turbulence in the urban economy resulting in for example foreclosures and drops in real-estate value. Drawn on this background, the aim of this paper is to shed light on whether a specific place-based activity: the establishment of a redeveloped waterfront in Gothenburg, Sweden facilitating residences and workplaces, has attracted human capital in the form of residents and workers often termed ‘talented’ and ‘creative’. This paper uses a unique longitudinal micro database (GILDA) containing information on residence, work, age etc. covering the entire Swedish population between the years 1990 and 2008 and focuses on flows of in- and out-migration of two human capital sub-groups; the arts-educated bohemians and the engineering-educated consultants. Results show that the waterfront attracts resident consultants and not bohemians, while the growth of workplaces stagnate and decline following the global economic recession of 2008. The paper contributes to knowledge on the complexity of redevelopment and how difficult it is to manage this process.

  • 137.
    Boschma, Ron
    et al.
    CIRCLE, Lund University / Utrecht University.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Labour market externalities and regional growth in Sweden: the importance of labour mobility between skill-related industries2014Inngår i: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 48, nr 10, s. 1669-1690Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the relationship between labour market externalities and regional growth based on real labour flows. In particular, we test for the importance of labour mobility across so-called skill-related industries. We make use of a sophisticated indicator that measures the degree of skill-relatedness between all industries, and we employ actual labour flows between 435 4-digit industries within 72 Swedish functional labour market regions to estimate how labour market externalities are related to regional growth in the period 1998-2002. Both our fixed effect models and GMM-estimates demonstrate that a strong intensity of intra-regional labour flows between skill-related industries impacts positively on regional productivity growth, but less so on regional employment growth. Labour mobility between unrelated industries tends to dampen regional unemployment growth while a high degree of intra-industry labour flows is only found to be associated with rising regional unemployment.

  • 138.
    Boschma, Ron
    et al.
    Utrecht University.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Labour mobility, related variety and the performance of plants: A Swedish study2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the impact of skill portfolios and labour mobility on plant performance by means of a unique database that connects attributes of individuals to features of plants for the whole Swedish economy. We found that a portfolio of related competences at the plant level increases significantly productivity growth of plants, in contrast to plant portfolios consisting of either similar or unrelated competences. Based on the analysis of 101,093 job moves, we found that inflows of skills that are related to the existing knowledge base of the plant had a positive effect on plant performance, while the inflow of new employees with skills that are already present in the plant had a negative impact. Our analyses show that inflows of unrelated skills only contribute positively to plant performance when these are recruited in the same region. Labour mobility across regions only has a positive effect on productivity growth of plants when this concerns new employees with related skills.

  • 139.
    Brandt, Amanda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Nyanländas Arbetsmarknad: En tematisk analys om nyanlända som en arbetskraft för hotell i Umeå2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, Sweden has experienced an increase in number of immigrants. In the north of Sweden, Umeå is one of the municipalities with most constant increases. Their working situation is often related to businesses with lower thresholds and the hotel industry is one of these branches. The hotel market is at the same time rising which makes it of interest to describe the hotel industries attitude towards immigrants as working labor.

     

    The aim of this study is to see how immigrants are treated by a service-based labor market in Sweden. This will be examined through semi- structured interviews with support from previous studies and theories. The respondents will be recruitment staffs from hotels in Umeå municipality and the interviews will focus on their point of view.

     

    The results indicate what an immigrant is facing in the Swedish labor market and has been divided into four themes: part time workers labor market, treatment at the working place, cooperation and competence. The study also compares Sweden with England, as previous studies have shown that England has a large number of immigrants working in hotel business.

  • 140.
    Brandén, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Sandqvist, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Tjänstesektorns storlek: sysselsättning, produktivitet, förädlingsvärde, andel av BNP, andel av export med särskilt fokus på KIBS2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 141.
    Brouder, Patrick
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Staying Power: What Influences Micro-Firm Survival in Tourism?2013Inngår i: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 125-144Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how previous experience and location of entrepreneurs influence the survival of new tourism firms. The paper departs from recent evolutionary economic geography advancements, highlighting the importance of routines and skills as well as location-specific knowledge for firm success. While having been well-researched for manufacturing industries characterized by high entry barriers, little knowledge is currently available on the factors influencing survival rates in service sectors with low entry barriers. A quantitative approach applies hazard models to investigate the survival rates over a seven-year period of a total of 133 new micro-tourism firms started between 1999 and 2001 in the four northernmost counties of Sweden. The geo-referenced micro-database ASTRID links information on firm features (e.g. firm births and deaths, spatial coordinates and industry codes) to characteristics of entrepreneurs (e.g. age, education, previous experience). The main finding is that entrepreneurs with previous work experience in related sectors are more likely to survive and, in this case, entrepreneurs without local experience tend to be less successful. We find no evidence that new firms operating in regions specialized in tourism have a survival advantage. Our analysis also indicates that surviving firms improve performance over time. The paper thus contributes new knowledge on the determinants of micro-firm survival in tourism.

  • 142.
    Brouder, Patrick
    et al.
    Mid-Sweden University.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Tourism Evolution: On the Synergies of Tourism Studies and Evolutionary Economic Geography2013Inngår i: Annals of Tourism Research, ISSN 0160-7383, E-ISSN 1873-7722, Vol. 43, s. 370-389Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary Economic Geography (EEG) is receiving increasing interest from tourism scholars. EEG has proven to be a useful explanatory paradigm in other sectors, e.g., high-technology and creative sectors. There remains, however, a lack of theoretical discussion on evolutionary principles of economic change within relatively low-technology service sectors, of which tourism is a prime example. This paper introduces EEG to a wider tourism audience by presenting the core principles of EEG and how they relate to tourism studies. A selection of new research paths combining EEG and tourism studies is highlighted together with a number of latent research synergies which can progress both EEG and tourism studies. The paper calls for further empirical and conceptual engagement with EEG by tourism scholars.

  • 143.
    Brouder, Patrick
    et al.
    University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Karlsson, Svante
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Hyper-production: a new metric of multifinctionality2015Inngår i: European Countryside, ISSN 1803-8417, E-ISSN 1803-8417, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 134-143Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Multifunctionality has emerged as the dominant framework for understanding rural socioeconomic landscapes. The central claim of multifunctionality – that rural regions need to be understood as being made up of more than just traditional uses – has led to the incorporation of new rural activities into regional development plans, e.g., tourism. In some places, such post-productive activity is perceived to be slowly replacing productive uses of the land, e.g., agriculture/forestry. However, there is limited empirical evidence to support such claims. Drawing on previous research and data from the Swedish countryside this paper shows that, even as the number of persons employed within traditional activities decreases, the economic output per areal unit and per labour hour is increasing over time and traditional uses still occupy the majority of rural space. Hyper-production is introduced as a new metric for understanding multifunctional regions going forward. The complementary union of economic mainstays, such as agriculture, and newer activities with more quality-of-life benefits, such as tourism, is highlighted in terms of economic diversification, job creation and local social capital development, while the conflict-prone intersection of these two modes is also acknowledged. Understanding hyper-production as a key metric of multifunctionality is thus argued as integral to planning and developing resilient rural regions now and for the future. 

  • 144.
    Brändström, Isak
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Tillgänglighet med kollektivtrafik - GIS-analys av Umeåregionen2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine the accessibility with public transportation in the case of the Umeå Region in northern Sweden. This is done by GIS network analysis where both access to transit stops, as well as access by public transport from stops to destinations is examined. An accessibility index is created from transit frequency and travel times to destinations. The results is compared with population register data to calculate what shares of the population has which levels of accessibility with public transportation. In the Umeå Region there are different levels of accessibility by public transport for different parts of the region, where transit stops in the most densely populated areas has the highest levels of accessibility, as well as stations along the railroads. The share of the population with access to public transportation is considerably smaller than with car. To make buses and trains more competitive their accessibility will have to increase. Access to public services is also examined in relation to transit stops. Information about accessibility with public transportation, access to transit stops and the amount of public services provided is used to find suitable locations for commuter parking. The study provides information needed for local transport planning and urban planning to increase the accessibility with public transportation as well as it proposes a methodology to analyze public transportation accessibility by GIS. 

  • 145.
    Brännlund, David
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Doktrinskifte: En studie av Bo Södersten, i jämförelse med Gustav Cassel2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att studera hur nya ekonomiska doktriner och idéer sprids via

    enskilda ekonomer som medverkar i den ekonomiskpolitiska debatten. Debattörerna som

    studeras är Bo Södersten i en jämförelse med Gustav Cassel eftersom båda dessa väldigt

    aktiva ekonomer glidit höger ut på den ideologiska skalan. Men också att glidningen högerut

    för båda debattörer kan ha sammanfallit med kriser. Frågorna som ställs är: hur förändrades

    deras doktrinära synsätt? Med ett extra fokus på deras syn på staten, samt även på vad

    bakgrunden till förändringen kan ha berott på. Vilka idéer dessa individer hade vid olika

    tidsperioder, hur deras åsikter förändrades och vilka idéströmningar både inhemska och

    utländska som utövat inflytande på debattörerna.

    Metoden som används är av relativistisk (mesologisk) karaktär. Något som innebär att

    studiens tillvägagångssätt är att studera samband mellan ekonomisk historiska idéer i relation

    till de socio-ekonomiska kontexter ur vilka de har uppkommit. Teorin som studien utgår ifrån

    är Joseph Schumpeters teori angående ekonomisk historiska idéers fortskridande genom en

    serie av epoker av revolution och konsolidering.

    Resultatet ger ett tydligt stöd för Schumpeters syn på ekonomisk historiska idéers

    fortskridande. Både Cassel och Södersten har genomgått ett doktrinskifte i samband med

    kriser. Cassels doktrin skifte skedde 1918 under industrins uppgång. Söderstens doktrinskifte

    skedde 1982-1983 under övergång från industrisamhälle till tjänstesamhälle och 1970-tals

    krisens efterspel. Båda har för övrigt sett sig själva som reformister, åtminstone tidigare i sin

    karriär. Både Södersten och Cassel präglades av en känsla av att en ekonomisk katastrof var

    nära och kom efter doktrinskiftet att gå över till att attackera allting socialistiskt. Kriserna

    verkar ha utlöst en rädsla för den växande välfärdsstaten hos båda debattörer. Deras starka

    antimarxism har troligen åtminstone medfört att deras ideologiska färd högerut fick extra fart.

    Cassel betonade tidigare balansen mellan fördelning och tillväxt, Södersten var extra noga

    med fördelning, men efter deras doktrinskifte gick de mot ett synsätt där endast tillväxt kom

    att stå i fokus. Efter doktrinskiftet kom de båda debattörerna att betona statens klumpighet och

    inkompetens och de menar att staten borde krympas och dess inflytande på ekonomin tas bort.

  • 146.
    Brännström, Madelen
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Psykosocial arbetsmiljö för medicinska sekreterare: En kvantitativ studie om den psykosociala arbetsmiljön inom primärvården och inom den specialiserade vården i Skellefteå kommun2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 147. Bullock, Ryan C. L.
    et al.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Vuojala-Magga, Terhi
    Ambjornsson, Emmeline Laszlo
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Forestry administrator framings of responses to socioeconomic disturbance: Examples from northern regions in Canada, Sweden, and Finland2016Inngår i: Environment and Planning. C, Government and Policy, ISSN 0263-774X, E-ISSN 1472-3425, Vol. 34, nr 5, s. 945-962Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As the global forest sector endures rapid crises and more gradually evolving social, political, and environmental influences, little attention has been paid to how forest administrators view changing sectoral conditions and response measures. We analyze policy frames mobilized by 27 senior actors within major private and state-owned companies, and government agencies in northern forest regions of Canada, Sweden, and Finland. Results show that four intervening theme areas are engaged by forest administrators to frame sectoral changes and responses, namely, the role of international markets; timber pricing and supply; the role of the state; and environmental policies. However, perceived regional differences in the level of impact of the international market changes, public versus private wood supply dependence, and satisfaction with forestry institutions lead actors to frame problems and solutions differently. While forest policy discourse is relatively consistent across these regions, responses are specified to regional contexts.

  • 148.
    Burlin, Annika
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Förtätning som strategi för hållbar stadsutveckling: En diskursanalys av förtätning i Umeå kommun2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    The urban planning paradigm of today consists of one particularly prominent concept; Sustainable development. The concept takes a holistic approach on how we can act, build and arrange the world around us, to avoid ruin the conditions for future generations to do the same. This is a matter of long-term resource management and democracy. The question around the discourse of sustainable urban development is not if, but how. Urban densification is one approach, which has gained a strong foothold in the planning of Umeå municipality this past decade.

    This paper aims to explore and uncover the discourse around densification as a strategy for urban sustainable development, in Umeå. The content in and the relations of two key detailed comprehensive plans (fördjupad översiktsplan) to the consultation report (samrådsgedogörelse) and the written words in media on the subject densification, has been analyzed. The study was conducted through a critical discourse analysis of this material and linked to urban planning practices and theories.

    The findings in this study suggest that sustainable development in Umeå aims to enable demographic and economic growth, based on the underlying assumptions and rhetoric’s in the material. The concept of sustainable development is difficult to define, generally and in the case of Umeå. The identity and shaping of the discourse around densification is dependent on the persons and the interests involved.

    Keywords: Urban planning, Infill, Urban densification, Sustainable urban planning, Discourse, Umeå

  • 149.
    Bwalya-Umar, Bridget
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia. Geography and Environmental Studies Department, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia.
    Mubanga, Kabwe H.
    Do locals benefit from being in the "tourist capital'?: Views from Livingstone, Zambia2018Inngår i: Tourism and Hospitality Research, ISSN 1467-3584, E-ISSN 1742-9692, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 333-345Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study used 268 household and 13 key informant interviews to get the views of Livingstone city residents on economic, environmental and sociocultural effects of tourism on local households and the city. Results show very few economic benefits at household level with residents perceiving big tourism-related businesses, the state and its officials to be the main beneficiaries. Although tourists were commended for helping vulnerable residents, they were blamed for contributing to prostitution and diseases by local residents; and were targeted for petty thefts by unemployed youths. Sociocultural effects of tourism are significant for residents but are routinely ignored or glossed over by tourism development practitioners. Tourism had resulted in a general improvement in the city environs. It is concluded that tourism development projects must target increased benefits for residents to increase benevolent attitudes from them towards tourism in their city, and to ensure a more sustainable variant of tourism is achieved in the tourist capital.

  • 150. Bylin, Frida
    et al.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi, Transportforskningsenheten (TRUM).
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi, Transportforskningsenheten (TRUM).
    Trafikstarten på Botniabanan: En studie om tjuvstartsresenärernas upplevelser2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
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