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  • 101.
    Keskitalo, E.Carina H.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Georgi, Birgit
    Isoard, Stephane
    Kurnik, Blaz
    Foltescu, Valentin Leonard
    Uhel, Ronan
    Jol, André
    Swart, Rob
    Marinova, Natasha
    Kazmierczak, Alexandra
    Peltonen, Lasse
    Kopperoinen, Leena
    Oinonen, Kari
    Havranék, Miroslav
    Cruz, Maria Joao
    Gregor, Mirko
    Fons-Esteve, Jaume
    Juhola, Sirkku
    Krellenberg, Kerstin
    van Bree, Leendert
    Urban adaptation to climate change in Europe: Challenges and opportuinities for cities together with supportive national and European policies.2012Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 102.
    Keskitalo, E.Carina H.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Juhola, Sirkku
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Westerhoff, Lisa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Climate change as governmentality: Technologies of government for adaptation in three European countries2012Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 55, nr 4, s. 435-452Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the Foucauldian theoretical framework of governmentality, this paper examines the role of regulative ‘technologies of government’ in climate change adaptation. The paper examines such technologies and underlying rationalities in a multi-level context, in three European countries that represent different stages of adaptation policy development: the UK, Finland and Sweden. Drawing upon policy documents and interviews at different levels, the paper illustrates differences in technologies of government for adaptation between the relatively ‘regulative’ UK state system and Finland and Sweden's traditional legalistic and welfarist systems. The study illustrates that, while the treatment of adaptation as an issue on a national level coheres with national rationalities, local and regional levels show a diversity in the development of bottom-up adaptation technologies.

  • 103.
    Keskitalo, E.Carina H.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Pettersson, M
    Forest invasive species relating to climate change: the EU and Swedish regulatory framework2012Inngår i: Environmental Policy and Law, ISSN 0378-777X, E-ISSN 1878-5395, Vol. 43, nr 1, s. 63-73Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 104.
    Keskitalo, E.Carina.H
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Moore, C.
    Braathen, J.
    The Power of Perceptions in and of the North2003Inngår i: Arctic Economic Development and Self-Government / [ed] Duhaime, G. and N. Bernard, Quebec: University of Laval , 2003, s. 297-314Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 105. Klapwijk, M. J.
    et al.
    Boberg, J.
    Bergh, J.
    Bishop, K.
    Björkman, C.
    Ellison, D.
    Felton, A.
    Lidskog, R.
    Lundmark, T.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Sonesson, J.
    Nordin, A.
    Nordström, E.-M.
    Stenlid, J.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Capturing complexity: Forests, decision-making and climate change mitigation action2018Inngår i: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 52, s. 238-247Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Managed forests can play an important role in climate change mitigation due to their capacity to sequester carbon. However, it has proven difficult to harness their full potential for climate change mitigation. Managed forests are often referred to as socio-ecological systems as the human dimension is an integral part of the system. When attempting to change systems that are influenced by factors such as collective knowledge, social organization, understanding of the situation and values represented in society, initial intentions often shift due to the complexity of political, social and scientific interactions. Currently, the scientific literature is dispersed over the differentfactorsrelated tothe socio-ecological system. Toexamine thelevelofdispersion andtoobtainaholistic view, we review climate change mitigation in the context of Swedish forest research. We introduce a heuristic framework to understand decision-making connected to climate change mitigation. We apply our framework to two themes which span different dimensions in the socio-ecological system: carbon accounting and bioenergy. A key finding in the literature was the perception that current uncertainties regarding the reliability of different methods of carbon accounting inhibits international agreement on the use of forests for climate change mitigation. This feeds into a strategic obstacle affecting the willingness of individual countries to implement forestrelated carbon emission reduction policies. Decisions on the utilization of forests for bioenergy are impeded by a lack of knowledge regarding the resultant biophysical and social consequences. This interacts negatively with the development of institutional incentives regarding the production of bioenergy using forest products. Normative disagreement about acceptable forest use further affects these scientific discussions and therefore is an over-arching influence on decision-making. With our framework, we capture this complexity and make obstacles to decision-making more transparent to enable their more effective resolution. We have identified the main research areas concerned with the use of managed forest in climate change mitigation and the obstacles that are connected to decision making.

  • 106.
    Koivurova, Timo
    et al.
    Arctic Center, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Bankes, Nigel
    Fac. Law, University of Calgary, Canada.
    Preface and Acknowledgements2009Inngår i: Climate Governance in the Arctic / [ed] Timo Koivurova, E. Carina H. Keskitalo, Nigel Bankes, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2009, Vol. 50, s. V-VIKapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 107.
    Koivurova, Timo
    et al.
    Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority Law/ Arctic Centre, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland.
    Keskitalo, E.Carina H.Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.Bankes, NigelFaculty of Law, University of Calgary, AB, Canada.
    Climate governance in the Arctic2009Collection/Antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 108. Lajus, D.
    et al.
    Stogova, D.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    The implementation of Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) certification in Russia: achievements and considerations2018Inngår i: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 90, s. 105-114Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) certification program in Russia is now well established and, in addition to fishery clients and stakeholders, involves environmental NGOs and experts familiar with the local management system. The present study aims to analyze the current status of the program and constitutes the first study covering all Russian MSC certifications. Based on certification reports and twenty semi-structured interviews with stakeholders, it was shown that problems with certification vary among fisheries. The most advanced in terms of management are the Barents Sea codfish fisheries, which are co-managed by Russia and Norway. The main concern of these fisheries is the use of bottom trawls, which may seriously affect bottom communities. The Alaska pollock fishery in the Sea of Okhotsk experienced serious pressure from rival fisheries during the certification process. In the Far East, interviewees dealing with the salmon fisheries note a high level of illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing and insufficient scientific data for comprehensive stock assessment. For small-scale inland perch fisheries from the central part of the country, recreational and illegal fishing are important problems that are difficult to quantify. Many interviewees repeatedly mentioned communication issues, difficulties with access to scientific and management information, and the overall complexity of the MSC certification process. The study shows that important preconditions to expanding certification are making the process manageable for export-oriented companies and developing a national market for sustainable seafood.

  • 109.
    Larsson, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Åkermark, Jenny
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Climate Change Adaptation and Vulnerability Planning within the Municipal and Regional System: Examples from Northern Sweden2016Inngår i: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 67-90Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration or mainstreaming of adaptation to climate change, while highly emphasized in the literature, is often operationally both very complex and places high requirements on resources for coordination in organizational units. This study reviews the development of integration of adaptation in the regional and local risk and vulnerability analysis processes, in the cases of the counties of Norrbotten and Västerbotten in Northern Sweden. The study concludes that adaptation as a non-binding and not specifically resourced policy area risks limited integration with existing measures. The Swedish distribution of authority and resourcing on adaptation, focusing on integrating adaptation within the municipal authority without specific funding, will thus constitute a limitation to integration and mainstreaming in particular in sparsely populated municipalities that despite limited tax bases are required to maintain the same municipal services as a larger municipality.

  • 110.
    Larsson, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi. Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    Wiberg, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi. Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    Keskitalo, E Carina H
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi. Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    Contrasting territorial policy perspectives for Northern Sweden2015Inngår i: Barents Studies, ISSN 1651-0534, E-ISSN 2324-0652, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 11-33Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Northern Sweden is increasingly influenced by competing social interests striving for advantages and claiming territorial influence through "scalar politics". The strategic deployment of scalar conceptions is an integral part of policy making and implementation. Increasing use of varying scalar conceptions follows from "new spatial planning" practices. Set territorial delineations and administrative responsibilities are opened up to complex associational relationships with varying spatial claims. Focusing on territorial policies, this paper examines what orientations there are in territorial policy development in and for northern Sweden. The 29 municipalities embraced by the two northernmost counties Norrbotten and Västerbotten are the geographical delimitation of the study. As the analysis shows, the dominating scalar constructs relate to national and EU territorial policies rather than to competing constructs focused on Nordic, Barents and Arctic territorialization.

  • 111.
    Laszlo Ambjörnsson, Emmeline
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Karlsson, Svante
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Forest discourses and the role of planning-related perspectives: the case of Sweden2016Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 31, nr 1, s. 111-118Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest use in Sweden may be seen as constituting an essentially conflicted area, in which a number of actors positionthemselves. Based on a review of policy documents, this study reviews discourses on forest amongst majororganisational actors between 2001 and 2011, with the aim of discussing the ways in which discourse may havechanged following increasing criticism of the previously dominating production paradigm during the period. Thestudy also discusses the ways in which forest discourses at present may also exclude areas that are relevant to forestplanning. Results illustrates the continuous role of, on the one hand, production and private ownership discoursesamong the forest industry, and, on the other, conservation and public access discourses, among environmental andother NGOs. Large differences thus continue to exist despite the double aim towards production and protection inSwedish forest law. Areas that are not directly related to this nexus although related to land use at large, such asmunicipal planning, on the other hand, are largely absent from discourse even if, for instance, shore planning andwind power issues that are related to municipal planning are taken up.

  • 112.
    Lidestav, Gun
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Poudyal, Mahesh
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Holmgren, Eva
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Shareholder perceptions of individual and common benefits in Swedish forest commons2013Inngår i: International Journal of the Commons, ISSN 1875-0281, E-ISSN 1875-0281, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 164-182Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the period 1861 to 1918, thirty-three commons were established in Northern Sweden. This was linked to the finalisation of the Great Redistribution of Forest Holdings in Dalarna and the delimitation process in Västerbotten and Norrbotten. They were intended to serve as an instrument for improved and sustained forest production, the viability of farmers and the liveability of the rural communities in the areas where they were established. The aim of this paper is to describe the results of a study examining how three of these forest commons, one from each region, have benefitted the local shareholders and their community. The perceptions among forest common shareholders were assessed using a questionnaire. The study also assessed economic impact on shareholders in terms of extent and use of the dividend from each of the commons for the period 1958-2007, highlighting the extent of the economic support to individual shareholders and to the local community. Results reveal large differences between the three cases; there was a positive correlation between the extent of the economic support and contentment among the shareholders.

  • 113.
    Liljenfeldt, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Keskitalo, Carina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Kriterier och indikatorer på hållbar utveckling: exempel från teori och praktik2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns inte något universalt sätt att varken definiera hållbarhet eller att försöka mäta framstegen mot eller att hållbarhet uppnåtts. Tankar kring hållbar utveckling har varit en del av samhällsdebatten och politiken speciellt sedan år 1980, då begreppet introducerades i IUCN-rapporten

    World Conservation Strategy: Living resources for sustainable development (Olsson et al, 2004). Den definition som oftast citeras idag är dock den som slogs fast i Brundtland-rapporten år 1987: "Hållbar utveckling är en utveckling som tillfredsställer dagens behov utan att äventyra kommande generationers möjligheter att tillfredsställa sina behov" (NE, Internet, 2009-05-25). Idag anses hållbar utveckling oftast omfatta tre olika aspekter. För det första innebär hållbar utveckling att olika dimensioner av utveckling måste vägas samman. I allmänhet nämns här sociala, ekonomiska och ekologiska dimensioner i första hand. För det andra dyker ofta tids- och rumsförhållanden upp i diskussioner om hållbarhet. Vad gäller tidsaspekten är det här frågan om det ansvar som samhället har för kommande generationer och för att det som görs idag inte bara skall vara hållbart nu utan även leda till en hållbar framtid. Rumsförhållandet handlar om det ansvar för och påverkan som ett samhälle har på ett annat samhälles möjlighet att få en hållbar utveckling. Den tredje dimensionen som hållbarhetsbegreppet oftast innefattar relaterar till delaktighet. Detta handlar om att en hållbar utveckling bör utgå från och vara förankrad i en bred allmänhet. Det vill säga ingen enskild beslutsfattare bör på egen hand besluta om hur ett samhälles strategier för hållbarhet skall se ut. Istället kräver detta arbete att exempelvis medborgare, intresseorganisationer, privat- och offentligsektor skall samverka i detta arbete.Målet med den här rapporten är att beskriva kriterier för och indikatorer på hållbar utveckling. Studien beskriver därmed de processer och innehållsindikatorer som kan användas för att i ett praktiskt fall bedöma vilka delar och aktörer som inkluderas och prioriteras i processerna. Rapporten beskriver och sammanställer olika teoretiska och praktiska modeller med relevans för att tillämpa hållbarhetskriterier lokalt och regionalt, med målet att inkludera en bredd av hållbarhetsprocesser och exempel från mätbara och certifierbara system till generella principer. Studien lägger också specifik vikt vid system med relevans för den svenska kontexten speciellt i kommuner och regioner.

    2Med ovanstående i åtanken kommer upplägget i den här texten därför inte att vara att försöka ge svar på vad exakt hållbar utveckling eller indikatorer på det samma är. Istället kommer här att presenteras hur begreppen mer allmänt definieras samt ges förslag på hur man kan se på och kategorisera hållbar utveckling samt på hur man kan se på, kategorisera och ta fram indikatorer för hållbar utveckling (HUT-indikatorer). Ett axplock från den stora skara av lednings- och styrsystem som finns idag kommer även att beskrivas.

  • 114.
    Liljenfeldt, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Keskitalo, Carina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Regionala och kommunala mål för hållbarhetsarbete i Umeåregionen2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under 2008-2010 samverkade sex kommuner i Umeåregionen ("Hållbara Umeåregionen") runt försök att genomföra Ålborgåtagandena om hållbar utveckling – en process som kommunerna och kommunförbundet inbjudit forskning om. Inom ramen för projektet har de sex kommunerna antagit lokala hållbarhetsstrategier med kommunvisa prioriteringar. Dessa prioriteringar diskuterades inom Umeåregionssamarbetet för att eventuellt samordnas och för att nå prioriteringar som ses som lämpliga både i individuella kommuner och i regionen som helhet. Förutom arbetet på kommunal nivå och inom samarbetet existerar också regionala mål i Västerbottens län samt inom den privata sektorn (Tillväxtalliansen).

    Sammanvägningen och prioriteringen av hållbarhetsmål är komplex både i termer av vilka aktörer som ska ingå och vilka roller dessa tar, samt genom arbetet med de breda sociala, ekonomiska och miljömässiga mål som Ålborgåtagandena ställer. Detta möjliggör ett stort antal olika prioriteringar, med olika nivå av regionalisering av beslut, där även andra teoretiska och praktiska kriterier för hållbarhet kan spela in.

    Målet med den här rapporten är att undersöka och beskriva

    regionens och kommunernas förutsättningar samt arbete med Ålborgåtagandena inom Hållbara Umeåregionsprocessen.

    Vilka prioriteringsdokument existerar på regional samt kommunal nivå angående hållbarhetsfrågor?

    Vilka prioriteringar inom hållbarhetsarbete utvecklades under Hållbara Umeåregionsprojektet?

    Studien beskriver därmed ett komplext fall av regionalt arbete med hållbar utveckling i praktiken. Rapporten beskriver existerande mål och prioriteringar i olika dokument på regionala nivåer, kommunal nivå och slutligen under Ålborgsamarbetet. 

  • 115.
    Lindkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Mineur, Eva
    The Swedish Research Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Olsson, Olof
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Keskitalo, Carina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Attitudes on intensive forestry: an investigation into perceptions of increased production requirements in Swedish forestry2012Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 27, nr 5, s. 438-448Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2008, the Swedish government launched an inquiry into the possibilities, benefits and requirements for conducting intensive forestry in part of the Swedish countryside, including fertilization, genetically improved plant material and fastgrowing species beyond what is currently allowed in Swedish legislation. Drawing upon part of that governmental investigation, this paper analyzes attitudes toward intensive forestry over time. The study draws upon studies of points of conflict written in the 1970s and 1980s, attitudes among different stakeholder groups, and interviews with forest owners and stakeholder groups potentially affected by intensive forestry. The study concludes that the diverging opinions as to what constitutes acceptable forest use have remained largely the same over the years. Radical landscape change is generally not seen as desirable, but views diverge over the use of novel tree species and the use of fertilization.

  • 116.
    Mackay, Heather
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Getting invasive species on the political agenda: agenda setting and policy formulation in the case of ash dieback in the UK2017Inngår i: Biological Invasions, ISSN 1387-3547, E-ISSN 1573-1464, Vol. 19, nr 7, s. 1953-1970Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reviews how the issue of ash dieback has been placed on the political agenda in the UK, a country where the disease has affected one of the largest national extents, thus representing a particularly severe case. Comparisons are made between how the scientific community framed the ash dieback threat and the resulting response strategy and how both the media and the British government framed the problem. Representing one example of media framing, the study analyses one British newspaper’s coverage of the disease and the response strategies (the Daily Telegraph). The analysis highlights a gap between the biologically rooted perspective and the perspective of policymakers, where policy must manoeuvre between disparate viewpoints and needs. Crucially, none of Pautasso et al.’s (Biol Conserv 158:37–49, 2013) five plant-science-based solutions were explicitly adopted by the British Government in their response strategy to ash dieback disease. The same is true of the biological control recommendations offered by Kirisits et al. (J Agric Ext Rural Dev 4(9):230–235, 2012). Instead, the government adopted a broader, more comprehensive approach than that recommended by plant scientists. The present analysis thus provides an example of a holistic perspective on the multiple competing factors that policymakers must navigate in their attempts to delineate action. It highlights instances in which proposed biological responses were rendered less applicable by a failure to understand the agenda-setting process and the policy-making arena. The present findings suggest that an improved understanding of the factors influencing agenda setting and policy action is essential to arriving at a more effective and integrated understanding of responses to biological threats.

  • 117. Marzano, Mariella
    et al.
    Allen, W.
    Haight, R. G.
    Holmes, T. P.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Langer, E. R. Lisa
    Shadbolt, M.
    Urquhart, J.
    Dandy, N.
    The role of the social sciences and economics in understanding and informing tree biosecurity policy and planning: a global summary and synthesis2017Inngår i: Biological Invasions, ISSN 1387-3547, E-ISSN 1573-1464, Vol. 19, nr 11, s. 3317-3332Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased global biosecurity threats to trees, woods and forests have been strongly linked to the upsurge in worldwide trade and the expansion of tourism. A whole range of social, economic and political actors are implicated and affected by the movement of pests and diseases along these international pathways. A number of factors affect the actions of stakeholders, and wider public, including their values and motivations, how risks are perceived and acted upon, their ability to act, as well as the existing regulatory and economic environment. Understanding these factors is key to any future attempts to improve biosecurity policy and practice, and we present available evidence on six key dimension: (1) the role of different stakeholders and the broader public within tree health; (2) levels of knowledge and awareness of tree pests and diseases amongst the variety of end-user 'stakeholder' groups, and influences on their attitudes and practices; (3) social acceptability of management approaches; (4) the impact of formal and informal governance arrangements; (5) risk communication; (6) economic analyses on the impact of tree pests. We conclude by identifying evidence gaps and emphasising the need for better integration within the social sciences and between the social and natural sciences to promote effective interdisciplinary and policy-relevant contributions to tree health.

  • 118. Meijerink, Sander
    et al.
    Stiller, Sabina
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Scholten, Peter
    Smits, Robert
    van Lamoen, Frank
    The role of leadership in regional climate change adaptation: a comparison of adaptation practices initiated by governmental and non-governmental actors2015Inngår i: Journal of Water and Climate, ISSN 2040-2244, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 25-37Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to better understand the role of leadership in regional climate change adaptation. We first present a framework, which distinguishes five functions of leadership within inter-organizational networks: the connective, enabling, adaptive, political-administrative and dissemination functions. Next, we compare the role of leadership in two examples of regional adaptation practices which were initiated by governmental actors with two examples which were initiated by non-governmental actors. The case studies are located in the Netherlands, Germany and the UK. Our research question is twofold: to what extent can the five functions of leadership be identified in practices of climate change adaptation, and are there differences in the patterns of leadership between adaptation practices which are initiated by governmental and by non-governmental actors? The study shows that although all leadership functions were fulfilled in all four cases, patterns of leadership were different and the fulfilment of leadership functions posed different challenges to non-governmental actors and governmental actors.

  • 119.
    Moen, Jon
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Keskitalo, E Carina H
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Interlocking panarchies in multi-use boreal forests in Sweden2010Inngår i: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 15, nr 3, artikkel-id 17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses northern Sweden as a case study of a multi-use social-ecological system, in which forestry and reindeer husbandry interact as different land use forms in the same area. We aim to describe the timeline of main events that have influenced resource use in northern Sweden, that is, to attempt a historical profiling of the system, and to discuss these trends in the system in terms of adaptive cycles and resilience. The study shows that key political decisions have created strong path dependencies and a situation in which forestry today is characterized by low flexibility and low resilience due to the highly optimized harvesting of tree resources. Since forestry is the overwhelmingly strongest actor, trends in forestry from the mid-19th century forward are, to a large part, driving dynamics in reindeer husbandry and environmental protection, resulting in a system of interlocking panarchies with large implications for the competing land uses.

  • 120.
    Mårald, Erland
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Annika, Nordin
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Sténs, Anna ()
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Beland Lindahl, Karin ()
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika ()
    Kungl. Tekniska Högskolan, KTH.
    Johansson, Johanna ()
    Södertörns högskola.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H. ()
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Laudon, Hjalmar ()
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Lidskog, Rolf ()
    Örebro universitet.
    Lämås, Tomas ()
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Lundmark, Tomas ()
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Nilsson, Urban ()
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Nordström, Eva-Maria ()
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel ()
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Sonesson, Johan ()
    Skogforsk.
    Forest governance and management across time: developing a new forest social contract2017Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of the past, and of the future on current-time tradeoffs in the forest arena are particularly relevant given the long-term successions in forest landscapes and the hundred years' rotations in forestry. Historically established path dependencies and conflicts determine our present situation and delimit what is possible to achieve. Similarly, future trends and desires have a large influence on decision making. Nevertheless, decisions about forest governance and management are always made in the present – in the present-time appraisal of the developed situation, future alternatives and in negotiation between different perspectives, interests, and actors.

    This book explores historic and future outlooks as well as current tradeoffs and methods in forest governance and management. It emphasizes the generality and complexity with empirical data from Sweden and internationally. It first investigates, from a historical perspective, how previous forest policies and discourses have influenced current forest governance and management. Second, it considers methods to explore alternative forest futures and how the results from such investigations may influence the present. Third, it examines current methods of balancing tradeoffs in decision-making among ecosystem services. Based on the findings the authors develop an integrated approach – Reflexive Forestry – to support exchange of knowledge and understandings to enable capacity building and the establishment of common ground. Such societal agreements, or what the authors elaborate as forest social contracts, are sets of relational commitment between involved actors that may generate mutual action and a common directionality to meet contemporary challenges.

  • 121.
    Nilsson, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Vlassova, Tatiana
    Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.
    Sutinen, Marja-Liisa
    The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi, Finland.
    Moen, Jon
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Chapin III, F. Stuart
    Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA.
    Challenges to adaptation in northernmost Europe as a result of global climate change2010Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 81-84Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 122. Pashkevich, Albina
    et al.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Representations and uses of indigenous areas in tourism experiences in the Russian Arctic2017Inngår i: Polar Geography, ISSN 1088-937X, E-ISSN 1939-0513, Vol. 40, nr 2, s. 85-101Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares the representation of indigenous tourism experiences in advertisement materials with representations gathered from site visits and tourism sector interviews in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug (NAO) in northern Russia. The study shows that a majority of the visual images and text used for marketing of the area construct a picture of an indigenous people living 'in harmony' with nature, representing a romanticized and historical image of indigenous communities. In contrast with these marketing images, large variations exist in everyday practices and among the numerous practical considerations related to the recent and limited development of tourism in the NAO.

  • 123.
    Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia. Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Keskitalo, E Carina H
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Adaptive capacity of legal and policy frameworks for biodiversity protection considering climate change2013Inngår i: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 34, s. 213-222Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Protection of biodiversity under conditions of climate change is likely to place large requirements on existing frameworks for biodiversity protection at both EU and national level. While these systems are not perfectly adapted today, the inclusion of climate change concerns will require revision and addition of new issues, such as species migration corridors and buffers, as well as proactive strategies in areas that may not be protected today. Biodiversity in forest is particularly important as forest range over large areas that include also other land uses; this holds particularly true for the large forested areas in northern Europe. Illustrating complexities regarding biodiversity protection, this study reviews the applicable legal framework related to biodiversity in forests on EU and national level in Sweden, one of the countries with the largest forest areas in the EU. Mainly drawing on a policy and legal study, the paper concludes that adapting the legislative and policy system to a future with large uncertainties in terms of extent of change poses a problem for what are largely reactive systems in particular in terms of legislation.

  • 124.
    Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    The role of participation in the planning process: examples from Sweden2017Inngår i: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 22, nr 8, s. 986-997Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Participation in decision-making has successively developed into a guiding principle at both EU and national level. However, diverse perspectives exist on what the role of different interests in participative processes should be, and the legal rules regarding participation varies between different sectors; from clearly defined to virtually non-existent requirements. This may have adverse effects on the legitimacy of decisions and decision-making. This paper reviews the role of participation in the planning process in relation to natural resource development in Sweden, as guided by EU and international law. Based on the notion of effective participation, the study illustrates the potential clashes that may result from different conceptions of participation, for instance, at various levels of governance, as well as from disparate principles for implementation in different sectors. 

  • 125. Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Strömberg, Caroline
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Possibility to implement invasive species control in Swedish forests2016Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, s. 214-222Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Invasive alien species constitute an increasing risk to forestry, as indeed to natural systems in general. This study reviews the legislative framework governing invasive species in the EU and Sweden, drawing upon both a legal analysis and interviews with main national level agencies responsible for implementing this framework. The study concludes that EU and Sweden are limited in how well they can act on invasive species, in particular because of the weak interpretation of the precautionary principle in the World Trade Organisation and Sanitary and Phytosanitary agreements. In the Swedish case, this interpretation also conflicts with the stronger interpretation of the precautionary principle under the Swedish Environmental Code, which could in itself provide for stronger possibilities to act on invasive species.

  • 126.
    Schilar, Hannelene
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Keskitalo, E Carina H
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Ethnicboundaries and boundary-making in handicrafts: examples from northern Norway,Sweden and Finland2018Inngår i: Acta Borealia, ISSN 0800-3831, E-ISSN 1503-111X, Vol. 35, nr 1, s. 29-48Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When ethnicity is said to be manifest and practised through handicrafts, these seemingly innocent objects become political. They raise questions concerning who can do what handicraft, who can use what symbols or what developments are“allowed”. They illustrate the continuous production of ethnic norms and boundaries, especially when global tourism enters into the equation. Taking a social constructivist perspective, our study addresses ethnic boundaries and boundary-making in handicrafts in northern Sweden, Norway and Finland. Our findings are based on fieldwork (35 interviewees) with people of diverse local backgrounds making and selling handicrafts. Methodologically, we avoid preselecting people based on ethnicity, but instead contribute to an understanding of the constitutive processes of ethnicity by looking at how ethnic talk comes into conversations about handicrafts. Our findings demonstrate that the interviewees draw an ethnic divide between“Sámi”/“non-Sámi”, while other ethnic-choices move to the background. This divide can be seen to be amplified by tourism. The boundary for who can make a Sámi handicraft or use Sámi symbols remains significant, yet also fluid. The article deepens the understanding of the Sámi/non-Sámi ethnic categorization, here in relation to handicrafts. It also helps unravel the complexities between tourism, ethnicities and handicrafts more broadly.

  • 127.
    Schilar, Hannelene
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Keskitalo, E Carina H
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Tourism activity as an expression of place attachment: place perceptions among tourism actors in the Jukkasjärvi area of northern Sweden2018Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 18, s. S42-S59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Thus far, the relation between place attachment and lifestyle entrepreneurship has received limited attention in tourism studies. Our study addresses tourism actors' relationship to the place of their engagement, here the Jukkasjärvi area of northern Sweden. Using a qualitative approach, we analyse their place attachment with particular attention to their perceptions of nature. Thereby, we contribute to a deeper understanding of the theoretical linkage between place attachment and lifestyle entrepreneurship in rural nature-based tourism. We find that all actors have strong bonds to the places of their engagement, which we suggest is a key motivator for their professional engagement with tourism. Furthermore, our findings highlight that not only the functional dimension of the environment, but particularly emotional attachment to the environment allows people to perceive places as "ideal" for their activities. All actors speak of their strong appreciation of the natural environment, in particular the climate and seasons, and they embody their attachment through diverse outdoor activities. They claim they wish to "share their lifestyle" with tourists and pursue work-related activities in the same ways and in the same places as their private activities. Hence, we propose that positive perceptions of the natural environment and particularly enthusiasm for different outdoor activities foster as well as promote tourism activity more than other factors do. Hence, our findings illustrate that place attachment may stimulate and promote tourism activity in different ways as well as that tourism activity itself can be seen as an expression of place attachment. This has significant implications both for successful tourism entrepreneurship and industry, or possibly entrepreneurship in rural areas more broadly, as well as for rural development and the promotion of active decisions to "stay".

  • 128.
    Scholten, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Meijerink, S.
    Bottom-up initiatives toward climate change adaptation in cases in the Netherlands and the UK: a complexity leadership perspective2015Inngår i: Environment and Planning. C, Government and Policy, ISSN 0263-774X, E-ISSN 1472-3425, Vol. 33, nr 5, s. 1024-1038Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change will result in large challenges that require societies to adapt to and manage increased risks. Regional practices of climate adaptation often take shape within multilevel governance networks in which representatives of different levels of government, policy sectors, public and private parties may discuss and negotiate potential measures. This paper aims to explore the role of leadership in enhancing the adaptive capacity of multilevel governance networks and in supporting regional practices of climate adaptation. The paper reviews two initiatives toward climate adaptation, the WaalWeelde initiative in the Netherlands and the Manhood Peninsula Partnership in the UK, based on policy documentation and analysis of in total 17 semistructured interviews with public and private actors. The study illustrates both the large differences in organization of water management, spatial planning, and flood risk policies, as well as strong similarities in the way in which leadership may contribute to the development of initiatives.

  • 129.
    Solbär, Tiina Lovisa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    A role for authority supervision in impact assessment? Examples from Finnish EIA reviews.2017Inngår i: Arctic Review on Law and Politics, ISSN 1891-6252, E-ISSN 2387-4562, Vol. 8, s. 52-72Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With the boom in mining in Fennoscandia, reconciliation of competing land use interests in governance procedures such as impact assessment has come to the fore. One of the functions that has been applied to varying degrees in national frameworks is supervision of the procedure by a responsible authority. This paper examines review statements issued in the context of mining project assessments in northern Finland, one of the countries implementing authority supervision. The study shows that third-party review may play a role in highlighting the importance of competing land use interest such as reindeer herding. Attention to such interests, however, remains limited by the application of spatial planning in the case and by consent processing, up until the end of the period examined. Among the lessons for impact assessment is the need for methodologies for accommodating anticipatory types of (practice-based and non-scientific) information. Unless these types of sources are considered valid, the possibility of substantializing anticipation and finding solutions along those lines will be missed, with the risk of making things on the ground worse before the need for mitigation measures is comprehended in the face of materializing impacts.

  • 130.
    Starominski-Uehara, Marvin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    How Does Natural Hazard Insurance Literature Discuss the Risks of Climate Change?2016Inngår i: Journal of Insurance Regulation, ISSN 0736-248X, Vol. 35, nr 6, s. 1-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural hazard insurance has been increasingly considered in the literature of climate change. Based on a comprehensive literature review, this paper reviews how peer-reviewed literature on natural hazard insurance discusses the risks of climate change. The study highlights the increasing role of natural hazard insurance as a business opportunity contributing to adaptation and working in cooperation with governmental sectors. In response to these challenges, the insurance industry has started to develop adaptation strategies and measures to adjust data collection, catastrophe modelling and risk analysis despite the limitations of these strategies and difficulties arising from the requirement of considering a significant number of partners and systems.

  • 131. Tennberg, M
    et al.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Global change and institutional responses: discourse analytic approaches2002Inngår i: Understanding the global system: The Finnish perspective / [ed] Käyhkö, J. and L. Talve, Turku: Finnish Global Change Research Programme , 2002, s. 225-228Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 132.
    Turi, Ellen Inga
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia. Arctic Ealat Institute at International Centre for Reindeer Husbandry, Guovdageaidnu, Norway.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Governing reindeer husbandry in western Finnmark: barriers for incorporating traditional knowledge in local-level policy implementation2014Inngår i: Polar Geography, ISSN 1088-937X, E-ISSN 1939-0513, Vol. 37, nr 3, s. 234-251Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Norway, recent policy reforms for indigenous reindeer husbandry incorporate traditional social organizational units into the governance regime, and are intended to induce greater internal autonomy through self-regulation. Implementation of the reforms have, however, proved challenging, both in terms of achieving policy goals and for incorporating internal autonomy. This article explores how reindeer herders' traditional knowledge and social organization are incorporated into policy implementation through legislative, economic, institutional, and informational means, focusing on western Finnmark, where implementation challenges have been most pronounced. By drawing upon an analysis of policy documents in combination with semi-structured interviews, this paper highlights barriers to knowledge integration induced by the design of supportive policy instruments of information and institution building, where traditional knowledge is de-prioritized in relation to scientific knowledge and notions of rationality and practicality. As such, this study draws attention to the importance of considering the design of supportive policy instruments from a traditional knowledge perspective, and in particular, to asymmetrical power relations between ways of knowing.

  • 133.
    Turi, Ellen Inga
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Keskitalo, E Carina H
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Ravna, Ø.
    Kryachkov, V.
    Klokov, K.
    Oskal, N
    Cross-Scale interactions of traditional knowledge and Law: cases from reindeer herding in western Finnmark and YamalInngår i: Adaptation to a Changing Arctic: Taking Knowledge to Action in Reindeer Husbandry / [ed] Mathiesen, S.D., Burgess, P., Corell, R. & Oskal, A., Alberta: University of Alberta PressKapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 134.
    Westerhoff, Lisa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Juhola, Sirkku
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Capacities across scales: local to national adaptation policy in four European countries2011Inngår i: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 1071-1085Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A framework of adaptive capacity and prerequisites for planned adaptation are used to identify the resources and conditions that have enabled or constrained the development of planned adaptation at national to local levels in Italy, Sweden, Finland and the UK. Drawing on 94 semi-structured interviews with climate change actors at each scale, the study demonstrates that planned adaptation measures occur as a result of several inter-relating factors, including the existence of political will, public support (and relevant media portrayal of climate change), adequate financial resources, the ability to produce or access climate and other information, and the extent of stakeholder involvement in the design and application of adaptation measures. Specific national adaptation measures affect local capacities to implement planned adaptations, but in some cases have been complemented or substituted by internal and external networks that connect local authorities to information and resources. The study demonstrates that opportunities to engage in planned adaptation at local levels may occur given adequate interest and resources; however, both national authorities and non-governmental organizations continue to play an important role in fostering local capacities.

  • 135.
    Westerhoff, Lisa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    McKay, Heather
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Wolf, Johanna
    Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.
    Ellison, David
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Botetzagias, Iosif
    Department of Environment, University of the Aegean, Centre for Environmental Policy & Strategic Environmental Management, University Hill, Mytilini, Greece.
    Reysset, Bertrand
    Observatoire National sur les effets du réchauffement du climatique (ONERC) Grande Arche, Tour Pascal A et B, La Défense CEDEX, France.
    Planned adaptation measures in industrialised countries: a comparison of select countries within and outside the EU2010Inngår i: Developing Adaptation Policy and Pracitce in Europe: Multi-level Governance of Climate Change / [ed] Keskitalo E.C.H., Berlin: Springer , 2010, s. 271-338Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides a context for the discussion on the emergence of adaptation measures in the four case studies presented in this volume through a brief discussion of the ways in which planned adaptations are being developed in eight European countries Adaptation actions at different levels in Austria, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway and Spain are described in order to provide an illustration of adaptation measures in a range of countries representing differing structural contexts, modes of decentralisation and histories of engagement in environmental policy An additional section on planned adaptation as it has manifested in Canada and Australia is also presented to provide further ground for comparison with countries outside the European context Results show a tenuous link between the extent to which countries have engaged in adaptation and their environmental policy implementation record, though some interesting links between environmental policy institutions and adaptation can be made The extent to which unitary and federal nations have decentralised responsibility to sub-national tiers is shown to have an impact on the way in which regions and local authorities have engaged in adaptation The role of both NGOs and the European Union is shown to be of significance to regional and local governments, as well as those countries who have not yet extensively engaged in adaptation at the national scale.

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