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  • 101. Larsson, Anders
    et al.
    Tydén, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Johansson, Joakim
    Lipcsey, Miklos
    Bergquist, Maria
    Kultima, Kim
    Mandic-Havelka, Aleksandra
    Calprotectin is superior to procalcitonin as a sepsis marker and predictor of 30-day mortality in intensive care patients2019Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, ISSN 0036-5513, E-ISSN 1502-7686Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sepsis is the most frequent cause of death in the intensive care unit (ICU). A rapid and correct diagnosis and initiation of therapy is crucial for improving patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of calprotectin with the more widely used sepsis biomarker procalcitonin (PCT) in ICU patients. The performance of calprotectin and PCT as sepsis and prognostic markers for 30-d mortality was compared in a prospective, observational study in an eight-bed ICU. We investigated concentrations of the biomarkers in plasma collected at admission from all ICU patients admitted during a year (2012-2013, n = 271) together with simplified acute physiology 3 scores (SAPS3) and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed a higher area under the curve (AUC) value for calprotectin (0.79) than for PCT (0.49) when used as a sepsis marker. The calprotectin concentrations at admission were higher in non-survivors than in survivors at day 30. In our study, calprotectin was superior to PCT for distinguishing between ICU patients with sepsis and non-sepsis patients. Calprotectin also had higher predictive ability regarding 30-d mortality.

  • 102.
    Larsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Claesson Lingehall, Helena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Al Zaidi, Nefar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Claesson, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Jensen-Waern, Marianne
    Lehtipalo, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Percutaneously inserted long-term central venous catheters in pigs of different sizes2015Ingår i: Laboratory Animals. Journal of the Laboratory Animal Science Association, ISSN 0023-6772, E-ISSN 1758-1117, Vol. 49, nr 3, s. 215-219Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pigs are used for long-term biomedical experiments requiring repeated injections, infusions and collections of blood samples. Thus, it is necessary for vascular catheters to be indwelling to avoid undue stress to the animals and the use of restraints. We propose a refined model of percutaneous insertion of long-term central venous catheters to minimize the surgical trauma and postoperative complications associated with catheter insertion. Different sizes of needles (18 Ga versus 21 Ga) for initial puncture of the veins were compared. In conventional pigs weighing less than 30 kg, catheter insertion may be facilitated by using a microintroducer set with a 21 Ga needle. In pigs weighing 50 kg, a standard 18 Ga needle may be preferable.

  • 103. Lehtipalo, S
    et al.
    Winsö, O
    Koskinen, L O
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Neurovetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Johansson, G
    Biber, B
    Cutaneous sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes for the evaluation of interscalene brachial plexus block.2000Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 44, nr 8, s. 946-52Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Although signs of sympathetic blockade following interscalene brachial plexus block include Horner's syndrome, increased skin temperature and vasodilatation, the degree of sympathetic blockade is not easily determined. The aim of this study was, therefore, to use activation of cutaneous finger pad vasoconstrictor reflexes for description and quantification of the degree of sympathetic blockade following unilateral interscalene brachial plexus block.

    METHODS: Eight patients scheduled for acromioplasty under general anesthesia were studied. An interscalene plexus catheter was inserted preoperatively on the side to be operated upon and used postoperatively for administration of bupivacaine, given as a bolus (1.25 mg kg(-1)) followed by a continuous infusion (0.25 mg kg(-1) h(-1)). Skin blood flow (SBF) in the pad of the index finger was assessed by the laser Doppler technique, and regional skin vascular resistance (RVR) was calculated. The inspiratory gasp test (apnea at end-inspiration) or a local heat provocation were used as provocations of the cutaneous microcirculation.

    RESULTS: Interscalene brachial plexus block increased SBF and decreased RVR at rest, and produced satisfactory sensory and motor block. The inspiratory gasp test decreased SBF and increased RVR in the unblocked arm, while the opposite, increased SBF and decreased RVR, were observed during local heat provocation. In the blocked arm, these gasp-induced cutaneous vasoconstrictor and heat-induced vasodilator responses were attenuated.

    CONCLUSIONS: Interscalene brachial plexus block reduces regional sympathetic nervous activity, illustrated by increases in skin blood flow, skin temperature and attenuated vasoconstrictor responses to an inspiratory gasp. The inspiratory gasp vasoconstrictive response is a powerful and sensitive indicator for monitoring the sympathetic blockade following interscalene brachial plexus block.

  • 104.
    Lehtipalo, Stefan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Koskinen, Lars Ove
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Johansson, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Kolmodin, Jane
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Biber, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Continuous interscalene brachial plexus block for postoperative analgesia following shoulder surgery1999Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiol Scand, Vol. 43, nr 3, s. 258-64Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Severe postoperative pain is a well-known problem following shoulder surgery. This study evaluates the clinical efficacy of continuous interscalene brachial plexus block, patient-controlled analgesia, and morphine (i.v. and i.m.) for postoperative analgesia in this setting. METHODS: Thirty patients, scheduled for acromioplasty during general anesthesia, were randomly allocated to one of three different postoperative pain management groups. Group MO received morphine (5 mg i.m. and 2 mg i.v.) when visual analogue pain score (VAS) > 3, group PL received a continuous interscalene brachial plexus block with bupivacaine (1.25 mg kg-1 + 0.25 mg kg-1 h-1) and group PCA received patient-controlled analgesia with morphine (bolus 1 mg). Postoperative pain relief was assessed (24 h) by VAS, circulatory and respiratory stress parameters (heart rate, systemic arterial pressure and respiratory rate) and stress metabolites (glucose, lactate, glycerol by abdominal subcutaneous microdialysis). RESULTS: Pain relief in the PL group was effective (VAS < 3) and significantly more potent than in groups MO and PCA, except at 16 and 20 h. Lactate was significantly increased in the PL group, glucose was significantly increased in all groups, while glycerol showed a variable pattern. There were no significant stress metabolite differences among groups. VAS showed no statistical correlation with microdialysate, respiratory or circulatory data. CONCLUSION: Successful continuous interscalene brachial plexus block provides very good pain relief following shoulder surgery and is superior to the other methods studied. However, we were unable to demonstrate a correlation between VAS pain scores and stress indicators in metabolic, circulatory and respiratory parameters.

  • 105.
    Lehtipalo, Stefan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Winsö, Ola
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurokirurgi.
    Johansson, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Biber, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Cutaneous sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes for the evaluation of interscalene brachial plexus block2000Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 44, nr 8, s. 946-952Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Although signs of sympathetic blockade following interscalene brachial plexus block include Horner’s syndrome, increased skin temperature and vasodilatation, the degree of sympathetic blockade is not easily determined. The aim of this study was, therefore, to use activation of cutaneous finger pad vasoconstrictor reflexes for description and quantification of the degree of sympathetic blockade following unilateral interscalene brachial plexus block.

    Methods: Eight patients scheduled for acromioplasty under general anesthesia were studied. An interscalene plexus catheter was inserted preoperatively on the side to be operated upon and used postoperatively for administration of bupivacaine, given as a bolus (1.25 mg kg−1) followed by a continuous infusion (0.25 mg kg−1 h−1). Skin blood flow (SBF) in the pad of the index finger was assessed by the laser Doppler technique, and regional skin vascular resistance (RVR) was calculated. The inspiratory gasp test (apnea at end‐inspiration) or a local heat provocation were used as provocations of the cutaneous microcirculation.

    Results: Interscalene brachial plexus block increased SBF and decreased RVR at rest, and produced satisfactory sensory and motor block. The inspiratory gasp test decreased SBF and increased RVR in the unblocked arm, while the opposite, increased SBF and decreased RVR, were observed during local heat provocation. In the blocked arm, these gasp‐induced cutaneous vasoconstrictor and heat‐induced vasodilator responses were attenuated.

    Conclusions: Interscalene brachial plexus block reduces regional sympathetic nervous activity, illustrated by increases in skin blood flow, skin temperature and attenuated vasoconstrictor responses to an inspiratory gasp. The inspiratory gasp vasoconstrictive response is a powerful and sensitive indicator for monitoring the sympathetic blockade following interscalene brachial plexus block.

  • 106.
    Lindgren, Cecilia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Subarachnoid haemorrhage: clinical and epidemiological studies2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is a severe stroke that in 85% of all cases is caused by the rupture of a cerebral aneurysm. The median age at onset is 50-55 years and the overall mortality is approximately 45%.Sufficient cortisol levels are important for survival. After SAH hypothalamic/pituitary blood flow may be hampered this could result in inadequate secretion of cortisol. SAH is also associated with a substantial inflammatory response. Asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, mediates vasoconstriction and increased ADMA levels may be involved in inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Continuous electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring can be used to detect non-convulsive seizures, leading to ischemic insults in sedated SAH patients. Elevated ADMA levels are risk factors for vascular diseases. Vascular disease has been linked to stress, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. SAH possesses all those clinical features and theoretically SAH could thus induce vascular disease.

    Aims: 1. Assess cortisol levels after SAH, and evaluate associations between cortisol and clinical parameters. 2. Assess ADMA levels and arginine/ADMA ratios after SAH and evaluate associations between ADMA levels and arginine/ADMA ratios with severity of disease, co-morbidities, sex, age and clinical parameters. 3. Investigate occurrence of subclinical seizures in sedated SAH patients. 4. Evaluate if patients that survive a SAH ≥ one year have an increased risk of vascular causes of death compared to a normal population.

    Results: Continuous infusion of sedative drugs was the strongest predictor for a low (<200 nmol/L) serum cortisol. The odds ratio for a sedated patient to have a serum cortisol < 200 nmol/L was 18.0 times higher compared to an un-sedated patient (p < 0.001). Compared to admission values, 0-48 hours after SAH, CRP increased significantly already in the time-interval 49-72 hours (p<0.05), peaked in the time-interval 97-120 hours after SAH and thereafter decreased. ADMA started to increase in the time-interval 97-120 hours (p<0.05). ADMA and CRP levels were significantly higher, and arginine/ADMA ratios were significantly lower in patients with a more severe condition (p<0.05). Epileptic seizure activity, in sedated SAH patients, was recorded in 2/28 (7.1%) patients during 5/5468 (0.09%) hours of continuous EEG monitoring. Cerebrovascular disease was significantly more common as a cause of death in patients that had survived a SAH ≥ one year, compared to the population from the same area (p<0.0001).

    Conclusions: Continuous infusion of sedative drugs was associated with low (<200 nmol/L) cortisol levels. ADMA increased significantly after SAH, after CRP had peaked, indicating that endothelial dysfunction, with ADMA as a marker, is induced by a systemic inflammation. Patients with a more severe condition had significantly higher ADMA and CRP levels, and significantly lower arginine/ADMA ratio. Continuous sedation in sedated SAH patients seems to be beneficial in protecting from subclinical seizures. Cerebrovascular causes of death are more common in SAH survivors.

  • 107.
    Lindgren, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Dahlqvist, Per
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Lindvall, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Leif
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Naredi, Silvana
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Cortisol levels are influenced by sedation in the acute phase after subarachnoid haemorrhage2013Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 57, nr 4, s. 452-460Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is a life-threatening condition that may be aggravated by acute pituitary damage and cortisol insufficiency. Robust diagnostic criteria for critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of CIRCI in the acute phase (0-240 h) after SAH and to evaluate associations between cortisol levels and clinical parameters (sedation, circulatory failure, gender, age, severity of disease, treatment). CIRCI was defined as a single morning serum cortisol (mSC) < 200 nmol/L. The lower limit for calculated free cortisol (cFC) was set at < 22 nmol/L, and for saliva cortisol at < 7.7 nmol/L.

    METHODS: Fifty patients were included. Serum/saliva cortisol and corticosteroid-binding globulin were obtained every second morning. A logistic regression model was used for multivariate analysis comparing cortisol levels with clinical parameters.

    RESULTS: Of the patients, 21/50 (42%) had an mSC < 200 nmol/L and 30/50 (60%) had a cFC < 22 nmol/L. In patients with continuous intravenous sedation, the odds ratio for a mSC to be < 200 nmol/L was 18 times higher (95% confidence interval 4.2-85.0, P < 0.001), and the odds ratio for a cFC to be < 22 nmol/L was 2.4 times higher (95% confidence interval 1.2-4.7, P < 0.05) compared with patients with no continuous intravenous sedation.

    CONCLUSIONS: Continuous intravenous sedation was significantly associated with cortisol values under defined limits (mSC < 200, cFC < 22 nmol/L). The possibility that sedating drugs per se may influence cortisol levels should be taken into consideration before CIRCI is diagnosed.

  • 108.
    Lindgren, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Hultin, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Lindvall, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Borota, Ljubisa
    Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Naredi, Silvana
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    ADMA levels and arginine/ADMA ratios reflect severity of disease and extent of inflammation after subarachnoid hemorraghe2014Ingår i: Neurocritical Care, ISSN 1541-6933, E-ISSN 1556-0961, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 91-101Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is characterized by an inflammatory response that might induce endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate if ADMA and arginine/ADMA ratios after SAH (indicators of endothelial dysfunction) are related to clinical parameters, inflammatory response, and outcome.

    Methods: Prospective observational study. ADMA, arginine, C-reactive protein (CRP), and cytokines were obtained 0–240 h (h) after SAH. Definition of severe clinical condition was Hunt&Hess (H&H) 3–5 and less severe clinical condition H&H 1–2. Impaired cerebral circulation was assessed by clinical examination, transcranial doppler, CT-scan, and angiography. Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) evaluated the outcome.

    Results: Compared to admission, 0–48 h after SAH, the following was observed 49–240 h after SAH; (a) ADMA was significantly increased at 97–240 h (highest 217–240 h), (b) CRP was significantly increased at 49–240 h (highest 73–96 h), (c) interleukin-6 (IL-6) was significantly lower at 97–240 h (highest 49–96 h), p < 0.05. ADMA, CRP, and IL-6 were significantly lower and peak arginine/ADMA ratio was significantly higher in patients with H&H 1–2 compared to patients with H&H 3–5, p < 0.05. The peak ADMA or the nadir arginine/ADMA ratio did not differ significantly between patients with (55 %) or without (45 %) signs of impaired cerebral circulation. The peak ADMA or the nadir arginine/ADMA ratio did not differ significantly between patients with GOS 1–3 and patients with GOS 4–5.

    Conclusions: ADMA increased significantly after SAH, and the increase in ADMA started after the pro-inflammatory markers (CRP and IL-6) had peaked. This might indicate that endothelial dysfunction, with ADMA as a marker, is induced by a systemic inflammation.

  • 109.
    Lindgren, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Hultin, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Edvardsson, Ludwig
    Naredi, Silvana
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård. Göteborgs universitet.
    Long term survivors of subarachnoid haemorrhage have an increased risk of death due to cerebrovascular causesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 110.
    Lindgren, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Ssozi, Rashida
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Naredi, Silvana
    Cerebrospinal fluid lactate and neurological outcome after subarachnoid haemorrhage2019Ingår i: Journal of clinical neuroscience, ISSN 0967-5868, E-ISSN 1532-2653, Vol. 60, s. 63-67Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Increased lactate in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been regarded as a marker for cerebral ischemia and damage in the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate if CSF-lactate was associated with; impaired cerebral circulation, outcome, sex, age, clinical condition or treatment after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH).

    METHODS: This study consists of 33 patients (22 females, 11 males) with aneurysmal SAH treated at Umeå university hospital 2008-2009. Samples were obtained from external ventricular catheters 0-240 h after SAH. Normal CFS-lactate was defined as 1.2-2-1 mmol/L. Hunt & Hess scale assessed clinical condition. Impaired cerebral circulation was evaluated by clinical examination, transcranial doppler, CT-scan, and cerebral angiography. Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) evaluated outcome.

    RESULTS: Seventy-nine CSF-lactate samples were analysed. CSF-lactate >2.1 mmol/L was found in 25/33 (76%) patients and in 50/79 (63%) samples. No difference in CSF-lactate levels was found over time. No association was found between patients with CSF-lactate >2.1 mmol/L and; sex, severity of clinical condition, impaired cerebral circulation or outcome. CSF-lactate >2.1 mmol/L was more common in patients ≥61 years of age (p = 0.04) and in patients treated with endovascular coiling compared to surgical clipping (p = 0.0001).

    CONCLUSION: In patients with SAH, no association was found between increased CSF-lactate (>2.1 mmol/L) and severe clinical condition, impaired cerebral circulation or unfavourable outcome. Endovascular coiling and age ≥61 years was associated with CSF-lactate above >2.1 mmol/L.

  • 111.
    Lindgren, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Naredi, Silvana
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Kardiologi.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Hultin, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Leptin levels after subarachnoid haemorrhage are gender dependent2016Ingår i: SpringerPlus, E-ISSN 2193-1801, Vol. 5, artikel-id 667Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a neurological disease where the majority of the patients are critically ill. The adipokine leptin has in cerebral emergencies been related to severity of disease and to adverse outcome. The aim of this study was to examine leptin levels over time after SAH and associations to gender, age, body mass index, severity of disease, parenteral lipids, systemic organ failure and outcome.

    Methods: Prospective observational study in 56 patients. Leptin was obtained 0-240 h after SAH, in 48 h intervals. Severity of disease was assessed with the Hunt and Hess score, organ failure with the sequential organ failure assessment score, and outcome with Glasgow outcome scale. Leptin levels in the SAH group were compared with controls from the same geographical area.

    Results: At admission, Leptin was significantly higher in SAH patients compared to controls, both in female (28.6 +/- 25.6 vs 13.0 +/- 2.3 ng/mL, p = 0.001) and male patients (13.3 +/- 8.4 vs 4.3 +/- 0.7 ng/mL, p = 0.001). Leptin levels remained stable over time. Female patients had significantly higher leptin levels than male patients, and deceased female patients had higher leptin levels than female survivors (85.5 +/- 20.5 vs 50.5 +/- 34.6, n = 4/35, p < 0.05). Leptin levels did not differ between male survivors and non-survivors. Leptin levels were not associated with severity of disease, organ failure or parenteral lipids.

    Conclusion: Leptin levels were significantly higher in both male and female patients compared to controls. Higher leptin levels were related to outcome and organ failure in women but not in men. When analysing leptin levels gender-related differences should be considered.

  • 112.
    Lindgren, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Nordh, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Naredi, Silvana
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Olivecrona, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Frequency of non-convulsive Seizures and non-convulsive status Epilepticus in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage patients in need of controlled ventilation and sedation2012Ingår i: Neurocritical Care, ISSN 1541-6933, E-ISSN 1556-0961, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 367-373Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Non-convulsive seizures (NCSZ) can be more prevalent than previously recognized among comatose neuro-intensive care patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of NCSZ and non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) in sedated and ventilated subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients.

    METHODS: Retrospective study at a university hospital neuro-intensive care unit, from January 2008 until June 2010. Patients were treated according to a local protocol, and were initially sedated with midazolam or propofol or combinations of these sedative agents. Thiopental was added for treatment of intracranial hypertension. No wake-up tests were performed. Using NicoletOne((R)) equipment (VIASYS Healthcare Inc., USA), continuous EEG recordings based on four electrodes and a reference electrode was inspected at full length both in a two electrode bipolar and a four-channel referential montage.

    RESULTS: Approximately 5,500 h of continuous EEG were registered in 28 SAH patients (33 % of the patients eligible for inclusion). The median Glasgow Coma scale was 8 (range 3-14) and the median Hunt and Hess score was 4 (range 1-4). During EEG registration, no clinical seizures were observed. In none of the patients inter ictal epileptiform activity was seen. EEG seizures were recorded only in 2/28 (7 %) patients. One of the patients experienced 4 min of an NCSZ and one had a 5 h episode of an NCSE.

    CONCLUSION: Continuous EEG monitoring is important in detecting NCSZ in sedated patients. Continuous sedation, without wake-up tests, was associated with a low frequency of subclinical seizures in SAH patients in need of controlled ventilation.

  • 113.
    Lindgren, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Kardiologi.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Hultin, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Edvardsson, L.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Naredi, S,
    Anestesiologi, Sahlgrenska Akademin, Göteborg.
    Long-term subarachnoid haemorrhage survivors still die due to cerebrovascular causes2015Ingår i: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 132, nr 6, s. 410-416Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is associated with sympathetic nervous activation and inflammation. SAH could therefore theoretically be a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether long-term (>/=1 year) SAH survivors had an increased risk of death due to cardiovascular causes. MATERIAL & METHODS: SAH patients >/=18 years treated at Umea University Hospital between 1986 and 2006 were eligible for inclusion. Deceased patients were identified in the Swedish population register. Death certificates from long-term SAH survivors and causes of death in the general population were obtained from the National Board of Health and Welfare, Sweden. The prevalence of comorbidities at the time of SAH was compared with the distribution of cardiovascular risk factors in the northern Sweden MONICA (Multinational Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease) health survey. Analyses were stratified for age and sex. RESULTS: In the SAH patients, the median year of SAH was 1992 and the median year of death was 2001. The MONICA survey in 1994 and the distribution of deaths in the general population in 2001 were used for comparison. Long-term SAH survivors had, compared to the general population, a significantly increased risk for death due to cerebrovascular disease (P < 0.0001), but not for death due to cardiovascular disease. Hypertension was more common in SAH patients compared to survey participants (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Cerebrovascular causes of death were significantly more common in long-term survivors after SAH compared to the general population.

  • 114.
    Lindgren, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Hemodynamic instability as predictor of mortality in inter-hospital air transfer patients2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 115.
    Lindmark, Anita
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    Faktorer som påverkar överlevnad efter stroke2017Ingår i: Neurologi i Sverige, ISSN 2000-8538, nr 1, s. 46-49Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 116.
    Lindmark, Anita
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    Glader, Eva-Lotta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Asplund, Kjell
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Norrving, Bo
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Neurology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    Socioeconomic disparities in stroke case fatality: observations from Riks-Stroke, the Swedish stroke register2014Ingår i: International Journal of Stroke, ISSN 1747-4930, E-ISSN 1747-4949, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 429-436Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomic status (low education and income level) has been found to be associated with increased stroke mortality. However, findings from previous studies on the association between socioeconomic status and case fatality (survival) after stroke have been inconsistent.

    AIMS: The study aims to explore the association between socio-economic status and survival after stroke using Riks-Stroke, the Swedish Stroke Register, with emphasis on changes in survival (in)equality with time after stroke.

    METHODS: All 76 hospitals in Sweden admitting acute stroke patients participate in Riks-Stroke. Riks-Stroke data on 18- to 74-year-old patients with onset of first stroke during the years 2001-2009 were combined with data from other official Swedish registers. Case fatality was analyzed by socioeconomic status (education, income, country of birth, and cohabitation) and other patient characteristics.

    RESULTS: Of the 62 497 patients in the study, a total of 6094 (9·8%) died within the first year after stroke. Low income, primary school education, and living alone were independently associated with higher case fatality after the acute phase. Differences related to income and cohabitation were present already early, at 8-28 days after stroke, with the gaps expanding thereafter. The association between education and case fatality was not present until 29 days to one-year after stroke. Dissimilarities in secondary preventative medications prescribed on discharge from hospital had only a minor impact on these differences.

    CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic status had only a limited effect on acute phase case fatality, indicating minor disparities in acute stroke treatment. The survival inequality, present already in the subacute phase, increased markedly over time since the stroke event. The socioeconomic differences could not be explained by differences in secondary prevention at discharge from hospital. Large socioeconomic differences in long-term survival after stroke may exist also in a country with limited income inequity.

  • 117.
    Lundälv, Jörgen
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Stöd efter krasch2009Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 118.
    Löfqvist, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Oskarsson, Åsa
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Brändström, Helge
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Vuorio, Alpo
    Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Haney, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Evacuation preparedness in the event of fire in intensive care units in Sweden: more is needed2017Ingår i: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, ISSN 1049-023X, E-ISSN 1945-1938, Vol. 32, nr 3, s. 317-320Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Hospitals, including intensive care units (ICUs), can be subject to threat from fire and require urgent evacuation. Hypothesis: The hypothesis was that the current preparedness for ICU evacuation for fire in the national public hospital system in a wealthy country was very good, using Sweden as model. Methods: An already validated questionnaire for this purpose was adapted to national/local circumstances and translated into Swedish. It aimed to elicit information concerning fire response planning, personnel education, training, and exercises. Questionnaire results (yes/no answers) were collected and answers collated to assess grouped responses. Frequencies of responses were determined. Results: While a written hospital plan for fire response and evacuation was noted by all responders, personnel familiarity with the plan was less frequent. Deficiencies were reported concerning all categories: lack of written fire response plan for ICU, lack of personnel education in this, and lack of practical exercises to practice urgent evacuation in the event of fire. Conclusions: These findings were interpreted as an indication of risk for worse consequences for patients in the event of fire and ICU evacuation among the hospitals in the country that was assessed, despite clear regulations and requirements for these. The exact reasons for this lack of compliance with existing laws was not clear, though there are many possible explanations. To remedy this, more attention is needed concerning recognizing risk related to lack of preparedness. Where there exists a goal of high-quality work in the ICU, this should include general leadership and medical staff preparedness in the event of urgent ICU evacuation.

  • 119.
    Malmqvist, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap.
    Appelblad, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Fluid shifts due to the law of osmosis2019Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 120.
    Milton, A
    et al.
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schandl, A
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Soliman, I W
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Meijers, K
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden.
    van den Boogaard, M
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Larsson, I M
    Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Brorsson, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Östberg, U
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Östersund Hospital, Östersund, Sweden.
    Oxenbøll-Collet, M
    Department of Intensive Care, Rigshospitalet Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Savilampi, J
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Paskins, S
    Department of Intensive Care, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.
    Bottai, M
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sackey, P V
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Development of an ICU discharge instrument predicting psychological morbidity: a multinational study2018Ingår i: Intensive Care Medicine, ISSN 0342-4642, E-ISSN 1432-1238, Vol. 44, nr 12, s. 2038-2047Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To develop an instrument for use at ICU discharge for prediction of psychological problems in ICU survivors.

    METHODS: Multinational, prospective cohort study in ten general ICUs in secondary and tertiary care hospitals in Sweden, Denmark and the Netherlands. Adult patients with an ICU stay ≥ 12 h were eligible for inclusion. Patients in need of neurointensive care, with documented cognitive impairment, unable to communicate in the local language, without a home address or with more than one limitation of therapy were excluded. Primary outcome was psychological morbidity 3 months after ICU discharge, defined as Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) subscale score ≥ 11 or Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms Checklist-14 (PTSS-14) part B score > 45.

    RESULTS: A total of 572 patients were included and 78% of patients alive at follow-up responded to questionnaires. Twenty percent were classified as having psychological problems post-ICU. Of 18 potential risk factors, four were included in the final prediction model after multivariable logistic regression analysis: symptoms of depression [odds ratio (OR) 1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.50], traumatic memories (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.13-1.82), lack of social support (OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.47-7.32) and age (age-dependent OR, peak risk at age 49-65 years). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) for the instrument was 0.76 (95% CI 0.70-0.81).

    CONCLUSIONS: We developed an instrument to predict individual patients' risk for psychological problems 3 months post-ICU, http://www.imm.ki.se/biostatistics/calculators/psychmorb/ . The instrument can be used for triage of patients for psychological ICU follow-up.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02679157.

  • 121. Moller, M. H.
    et al.
    Granholm, A.
    Junttila, E.
    Haney, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Oscarsson-Tibblin, A.
    Haavind, A.
    Laake, J. H.
    Wilkman, E.
    Sverrisson, K. O.
    Perner, A.
    Scandinavian SSAI clinical practice guideline on choice of inotropic agent for patients with acute circulatory failure2018Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 62, nr 4, s. 420-450Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Adult critically ill patients often suffer from acute circulatory failure and those with low cardiac output may be treated with inotropic agents. The aim of this Scandinavian Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine guideline was to present patient-important treatment recommendations on this topic.

    METHODS: This guideline was developed according to GRADE. We assessed the following subpopulations of patients with shock: (1) shock in general, (2) septic shock, (3) cardiogenic shock, (4) hypovolemic shock, (5) shock after cardiac surgery, and (6) other types of shock, including vasodilatory shock. We assessed patient-important outcome measures, including mortality and serious adverse reactions.

    RESULTS: For all patients, we suggest against the routine use of any inotropic agent, including dobutamine, as compared to placebo/no treatment (very low quality of evidence). For patients with shock in general, and in those with septic and other types of shock, we suggest using dobutamine rather than levosimendan or epinephrine (very low quality of evidence). For patients with cardiogenic shock and in those with shock after cardiac surgery, we suggest using dobutamine rather than milrinone (very low quality of evidence). For the other clinical questions, we refrained from giving any recommendations or suggestions.

    CONCLUSIONS: We suggest against the routine use of any inotropic agent in adult patients with shock. If used, we suggest using dobutamine rather than other inotropic agents for the majority of patients, however, the quality of evidence was very low, implying high uncertainty on the balance between the benefits and harms of inotropic agents.

  • 122.
    Myers, J. A.
    et al.
    Occupational and Aviation Medicine Unit, University of Otago, Wellington, New Zeeland.
    Powell, D. M. C.
    Occupational and Aviation Medicine Unit, University of Otago, Wellington, New Zeeland.
    Aldington, S.
    Sim, D.
    Psirides, A.
    Hathaway, K.
    Haney, Michael F.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    The impact of fatigue on the non-technical skills performance of critical care air ambulance clinicians2017Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 61, nr 10, s. 1305-1313Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between fatigue-related risk and impaired clinical performance is not entirely clear. Non-technical factors represent an important component of clinical performance and may be sensitive to the effects of fatigue. The hypothesis was that the sum score of overall non-technical performance is degraded by fatigue.

    METHODS: Nineteen physicians undertook two different simulated air ambulance missions, once when rested, and once when fatigued (randomised crossover design). Trained assessors blinded to participants' fatigue status performed detailed structured assessments based on expected behaviours in four non-technical skills domains: teamwork, situational awareness, task management, and decision making. Participants also provided self-ratings of their performance. The primary endpoint was the sum score of overall non-technical performance.

    RESULTS: The main finding, the overall non-technical skills performance rating of the clinicians, was better in rested than fatigued states (mean difference with 95% CI, 2.8 [2.2-3.4]). The findings remained consistent across individual non-technical skills domains; also when controlling for an order effect and examining the impact of a number of possible covariates. There was no difference in self-ratings of clinical performance between rested and fatigued states.

    CONCLUSION: Non-technical performance of critical care air transfer clinicians is degraded when they are fatigued. Fatigued clinicians may fail to recognise the degree to which their performance is compromised. These findings represent risk to clinical care quality and patient safety in the dynamic and isolated environment of air ambulance transfer.

  • 123. Myers, Julia A
    et al.
    Haney, Michael F
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård. Occupational and Aviation Medicine, University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand.
    Griffiths, Robin F
    Pierse, Nevil F
    Powell, David M C
    Fatigue in air medical clinicians undertaking high-acuity patient transports2015Ingår i: Prehospital Emergency Care, ISSN 1090-3127, E-ISSN 1545-0066, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 36-43Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Fatigue is likely to be a significant issue for air medical transport clinicians due to the challenging nature of their work, but there is little published evidence for this. Objective: To prospectively assess the levels and patterns of fatigue in air medical transport teams and determine whether specific mission factors influenced clinician fatigue. Methods: Physicians and flight nurses from two intensive care interhospital transport teams routinely completed fatigue report forms before and after patient transport missions over a 4-month period. Data collected included subjective ratings of fatigue (Samn-Perelli and visual analog scale), mission difficulty and performance. Multivariate hierarchical logistic and linear models were used to evaluate the influence of various mission characteristics on post-mission fatigue. Results: Clinicians returned 403 fully complete fatigue report forms at an estimated overall return rate of 73%. Fatigue increased significantly over the course of missions, and on 1 of every 12 fatigue reports returned clinicians reported severe post-mission fatigue (that is, levels of 6 or 7 on the Samn-Perelli scale). Factors that impacted significantly on clinician fatigue were the pre-mission fatigue level of the clinician, night work, mission duration, and mission difficulty. Poorer self-rated performance was significantly associated with higher levels of fatigue (r = -0.4, 95% CI -0.5 to -0.3), and for the 6-month period leading up to the study clinicians reported a total of 22 occasions on which they should have declined a mission due to fatigue. Conclusions: These results suggest that clinicians undertaking interhospital transports of even moderate duration experience high levels of fatigue on a relatively frequent basis. In the unique and challenging environment of air medical transport, prior fatigue, long or difficult missions, and the disadvantageous effect of night work on normal circadian rhythms are a combination where there are minimal safety margins for clinicians' performance capacity. Fatigue prevention or fatigue resistance measures could positively affect air medical clinicians in this context.

  • 124. Myers, Julia A.
    et al.
    Powell, David M. C.
    Psirides, Alex
    Hathaway, Karyn
    Aldington, Sarah
    Haney, Michael F.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård. Occupational and Aviation Medicine Unit, University of Otago Wellington, Newtown, Wellington 6021, New Zealand.
    Non-technical skills evaluation in the critical care air ambulance environment: introduction of an adapted rating instrument - an observational study2016Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, ISSN 1757-7241, E-ISSN 1757-7241, Vol. 24, artikel-id 24Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In the isolated and dynamic health-care setting of critical care air ambulance transport, the quality of clinical care is strongly influenced by non-technical skills such as anticipating, recognising and understanding, decision making, and teamwork. However there are no published reports identifying or applying a non-technical skills framework specific to an intensive care air ambulance setting. The objective of this study was to adapt and evaluate a non-technical skills rating framework for the air ambulance clinical environment.

    Methods: In the first phase of the project the anaesthetists' non-technical skills (ANTS) framework was adapted to the air ambulance setting, using data collected directly from clinician groups, published literature, and field observation. In the second phase experienced and inexperienced inter-hospital transport clinicians completed a simulated critical care air transport scenario, and their non-technical skills performance was independently rated by two blinded assessors. Observed and self-rated general clinical performance ratings were also collected. Rank-based statistical tests were used to examine differences in the performance of experienced and inexperienced clinicians, and relationships between different assessment approaches and assessors.

    Results: The framework developed during phase one was referred to as an aeromedical non-technical skills framework, or AeroNOTS. During phase two 16 physicians from speciality training programmes in intensive care, emergency medicine and anaesthesia took part in the clinical simulation study. Clinicians with inter-hospital transport experience performed more highly than those without experience, according to both AeroNOTS non-technical skills ratings (p = 0.001) and general performance ratings (p = 0.003). Self-ratings did not distinguish experienced from inexperienced transport clinicians (p = 0.32) and were not strongly associated with either observed general performance (r(s) = 0.4, p = 0.11) or observed non-technical skills performance (r(s) = 0.4, p = 0.1).

    Discussion: This study describes a framework which characterises the non-technical skills required by critical care air ambulance clinicians, and distinguishes higher and lower levels of performance.

    Conclusion: The AeroNOTS framework could be used to facilitate education and training in non-technical skills for air ambulance clinicians, and further evaluation of this rating system is merited.

  • 125.
    Myrberg, Tomi
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Lindelöf, Linnea
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Hultin, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Effect of pre-operative fluid therapy on hemodynamic stability2019Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 63, nr 8, s. E17-E17Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 126.
    Myrberg, Tomi
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Lindelöf, Linnea
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Hultin, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Effect of pre-operative fluid therapy on hemodynamic stability during anesthesia induction: a randomized study2019Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 63, nr 9, s. 1129-1136Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Preserving perfusion pressure during anesthesia induction is crucial. Standardized anesthesia methods, alert fluid therapy and vasoactive drugs may help maintain adequate hemodynamic conditions throughout the induction procedure. In this randomized study, we hypothesized that a pre-operative volume bolus based on lean body weight would decrease the incidence of significant blood pressure drops (BPD) after induction with target-controlled infusion (TCI) or rapid sequence induction (RSI).

    METHODS: Eighty individuals scheduled for non-cardiac surgery were randomized to either a pre-operative colloid fluid bolus of 6 ml kg-1 lean body weight or no bolus, and then anesthetized by means of TCI or RSI. The main outcome measure was blood pressure drops below the mean arterial pressure 65 mm Hg during the first 20 minutes after anesthesia induction. ClinicalTrials.com Identifier: NCT03394833.

    RESULTS: Pre-operative fluid therapy decreased the incidence of BPDs fivefold, from 23 of 40 (57.5%) individuals without fluids to 5 of 40 (12.5%) with fluid management, P < .001. The mean BPD was greater in the groups without pre-operative fluids compared to the groups with fluid management; 53 ± 18 mm Hg vs 43 ± 14 mm Hg, P = .007. The overall mean volume of pre-operative fluid bolus infused was 387 ± 52 ml. There was no difference in hemodynamic stability between TCI and RSI. No correlation was shown between incidence of BPDs and increasing age, medication, hypertension, diabetes, renal failure, or low physical capacity.

    CONCLUSIONS: Pre-operative fluid bolus decreased the incidence of significant blood pressure drops during TCI and RSI induction of general anesthesia.

  • 127. Möller, M. H.
    et al.
    Claudius, C.
    Junttila, E.
    Haney, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Oscarsson-Tibblin, A.
    Haavind, A.
    Perner, A.
    Scandinavian SSAI clinical practice guideline on choice of first-line vasopressor for patients with acute circulatory failure2016Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 60, nr 10, s. 1347-1366Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Adult critically ill patients often suffer from acute circulatory failure, necessitating use of vasopressor therapy. The aim of the Scandinavian Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (SSAI) task force for Acute Circulatory Failure was to present clinically relevant, evidence-based treatment recommendations on this topic. METHODS: This guideline was developed according to standards for trustworthy guidelines, including a systematic review of the literature and use of the GRADE methodology for assessment of the quality of evidence and for moving from evidence to recommendations. We assessed the following subpopulations of patients with acute circulatory failure: 1) shock in general, 2) septic shock, 3) cardiogenic shock, 4) hypovolemic shock and 5) other types of shock, including vasodilatory shock. We assessed patient-important outcome measures, including mortality, serious adverse reactions and quality-of-life. RESULTS: For patients with shock in general and those with septic shock, we recommend using norepinephrine rather than dopamine, and we suggest using norepinephrine rather than epinephrine, vasopressin analogues, and phenylephrine. For patients with cardiogenic shock and those with hypovolemic shock, we suggest using norepinephrine rather than dopamine, and we provide no recommendations/suggestions of norepinephrine vs. epinephrine, vasopressin analogues, and phenylephrine. For patients with other types of shock, including vasodilatory shock, we suggest using norepinephrine rather than dopamine, epinephrine, vasopressin analogues, and phenylephrine. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend using norepinephrine rather than other vasopressors as first-line treatment for the majority of adult critically ill patients with acute circulatory failure.

  • 128. Naredi, S.
    et al.
    Olivecrona, M.
    Lindgren, C.
    Ostlund, A. L.
    Grände, P. O.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D.
    Anaesthesia and Intensive Care and Physiology, University and University Hospital of Lund, Sweden.
    An outcome study of severe traumatic head injury using the "Lund therapy" with low-dose prostacyclin2001Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 45, nr 4, s. 402-406Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: There are two independent head injury outcome studies using the "Lund concept", and both showed a mortality rate of about 10%, and a favourable outcome (Glasgow outcome scale, GOS 4 and 5) of about 70%. The Lund concept aims at controlling intracranial pressure, and improving microcirculation around contusions. Intracranial pressure is controlled by maintaining a normal colloid osmotic pressure and reducing the hydrostatic capillary pressure. Microcirculation is improved by ensuring strict normovolaemia and reducing sympathetic discharge. The endogenous substance prostacyclin with its antiaggregatory/antiadhesive effects may further improve microcirculation, which finds support from a microdialysis-based clinical study and an experimental brain trauma study. The present clinical outcome study aims at evaluating whether the previously obtained good outcome with the Lund therapy can be reproduced, and whether the addition of prostacyclin has any adverse side-effects.

    METHODS: All 31 consecutive patients with severe head injury, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) < or = 8, admitted to the University Hospital of Umeå during 1998 were included. The Lund therapy including prostacyclin infusion for the first three days at a dose of 0.5 ng kg(-1) min(-1). Outcome was evaluated according to the GOS >10 months after the injury.

    RESULTS: One patient died, another suffered vegetative state and 7 severe disability. Of the 22 patients with favourable outcome, 19 showed good recovery and 3 moderate disability. No adverse side-effects of prostacyclin were observed.

    CONCLUSION: The outcome results from previous studies using the Lund therapy were reproduced, and no adverse side-effects of low-dose prostacyclin were observed.

  • 129.
    Nath, Sherdil
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Häggmark, Sören
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Johansson, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Reiz, Sebastian
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Differential depressant and electrophysiologic cardiotoxicity of local anesthetics: an experimental study with special reference to lidocaine and bupivacaine1986Ingår i: Anesth Analg, Vol. 65, nr 12, s. 1263-70Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In 15 pigs lidocaine and bupivacaine were injected into the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery to investigate the cardiotoxic effects of these drugs. Anesthesia was maintained by a continuous intravenous pentobarbital infusion and ventilation was controlled. Aortic, pulmonary arterial, right atrial, and left ventricular pressures, a standard 12 lead ECG, cardiac output, and great cardiac venous blood flow were recorded. The local anesthetics were administered at body temperature over approximately 10 sec in a random, crossover fashion at the following equipotent anesthetic doses: bupivacaine, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 mg; lidocaine, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 mg. The hemodynamic effects were short-lived, peaking about 5 sec after drug infusion. At the highest dose, both drugs decreased left ventricular dP/dT by 28% (P less than 0.001) and aortic blood pressure by 12% (lidocaine) and 8% (bupivacaine) (P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.01). Heart rate, cardiac output, and coronary venous blood flow did not change. Thus, the cardiodepressant ratio between the two drugs was comparable with their local anesthetic the two drugs was comparable with their local anesthetic potency ratio (bupivacaine/lidocaine, 4:1). Seven animals died in ventricular fibrillation within 1 min after 4 mg bupivacaine dose. All animals given 16 mg lidocaine survived. Ventricular fibrillation was preceded by progressive widening of the QRS complexes recorded over the area perfused by the LAD. The ECG changes after 16 mg lidocaine were of the same magnitude as those recorded after 1 mg bupivacaine. In five of the surviving animals 32 and 64 mg lidocaine were injected intracoronarily after termination of the crossover study.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  • 130. Nelson, Axel
    et al.
    Johansson, Joakim
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård. Unit of Research, Education and Development, Östersund.
    Tydén, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård. Unit of Research, Education and Development, Östersund.
    Bodelsson, Mikael
    Circulating syndecans during critical illness2017Ingår i: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 125, nr 5, s. 468-475Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Circulating syndecans are proposed to be markers of glycocalyx degradation and previous investigations have found higher plasma levels of syndecan-1 among patients with different pathological conditions. We wanted to investigate if levels of other syndecans (-2,-3 and -4) are altered during critical illness and compare the levels to syndecan-1. In 137 consecutive intensive care unit (ICU) patients with sepsis, cardiac arrest, gastrointestinal bleeding, intoxication or trauma, plasma levels of syndecan-1, -2, -3 and -4 were measured using ELISA. Syndecan-1 and syndecan-3 levels were similar among the different ICU patient groups but higher than controls. No differences in plasma levels of syndecan-2 or syndecan-4 were found neither among the different ICU patient groups nor compared to controls. All syndecans showed an association with mortality and the levels of syndecan-1 and -3 and correlated with each other. The results indicate that syndecan release is triggered by the physiological stress of critical illness in general and involves several subtypes such as syndecan-1 and syndecan-3.

  • 131.
    Nilsson, Ida
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Åsa
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Lindgren, Lenita
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Bergenheim, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Ulrica
    The Efficacy of P6 Acupressure With Sea-Band in Reducing Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Undergoing Craniotomy: A Randomized, Double-blinded, Placebo-controlled Study2015Ingår i: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, ISSN 0898-4921, E-ISSN 1537-1921, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 42-50Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a multifactorial problem after general anesthesia. Despite antiemetic prophylaxis and improved anesthetic techniques, PONV still occurs frequently after craniotomies. P6 stimulation is described as an alternative method for preventing PONV. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether P6 acupressure with Sea-Band could reduce postoperative nausea after elective craniotomy. Secondary aims were to investigate whether the frequency of vomiting and the need for antiemetics could be reduced.

    Methods: In this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, patients were randomized into either a P6 acupressure group (n = 43) or a sham group (n = 52). Bands were applied unilaterally at the end of surgery, and all patients were administered prophylactic ondansetron. Postoperative nausea was evaluated with a Numerical Rating Scale, 0 to10, and the frequency of vomiting was recorded for 48 hours.

    Results: We found no significant effect from P6 acupressure with Sea-Band on postoperative nausea or vomiting in patients undergoing craniotomy. Nor was there any difference in the need for rescue antiemetics. Altogether, 67% experienced PONV, and this was especially an issue at >24 hours in patients recovering from infratentorial surgery compared with supratentorial surgery (55% vs. 26%; P = 0.014).

    Conclusions: Unilateral P6 acupressure with Sea-Band applied at the end of surgery together with prophylactic ondansetron did not significantly reduce PONV or the need for rescue antiemetics in patients undergoing craniotomy. Our study confirmed that PONV is a common issue after craniotomy, especially after infratentorial surgery.

  • 132.
    Nilsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Department of Paediatric Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Unit, The Queen Silvia Children’s Hospital, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg.
    Kosinsky, Eva
    Department of Paediatric Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Unit, The Queen Silvia Children’s Hospital, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg.
    Nilsson, Ulrica
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care and Centre for Health Care Sciences, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Sidenvall, Birgitta
    Department of Nursing Science, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping.
    Enskär, Karin
    Department of Nursing Science, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping.
    School-aged children’s experiences of postoperative music medicine on pain, distress and anxiety2009Ingår i: Pediatric Anesthesia, ISSN 1460-9592, Vol. 19, nr 12, s. 1184-1190Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:  To test whether postoperative music listening reduces morphine consumption and influence pain, distress, and anxiety after day surgery and to describe the experience of postoperative music listening in school-aged children who had undergone day surgery.

    Background:  Music medicine has been proposed to reduce distress, anxiety, and pain. There has been no other study that evaluates effects of music medicine (MusiCure®) in children after minor surgery.

    Methods:  Numbers of participants who required analgesics, individual doses, objective pain scores (Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability [FLACC]), vital signs, and administration of anti-emetics were documented during postoperative recovery stay. Self-reported pain (Coloured Analogue Scale [CAS]), distress (Facial Affective Scale [FAS]), and anxiety (short State-Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI]) were recorded before and after surgery. In conjunction with the completed intervention semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted.

    Results:  Data were recorded from 80 children aged 7–16. Forty participants were randomized to music medicine and another 40 participants to a control group. We found evidence that children in the music group received less morphine in the postoperative care unit, 1/40 compared to 9/40 in the control group. Children’s individual FAS scores were reduced but no other significant differences between the two groups concerning FAS, CAS, FLACC, short STAI, and vital signs were shown. Children experienced the music as ‘calming and relaxing.’

    Conclusions:  Music medicine reduced the requirement of morphine and decreased the distress after minor surgery but did not else influence the postoperative care.

  • 133.
    Nilsson, Ulrica
    et al.
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care and Centre for Healthcare Sciences, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Berg, Katarina
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Sweden.
    Unosson, Mitra
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Sweden.
    Brudin, Lars
    Kalmar County Council, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Idvall, Ewa
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Sweden.
    The relationship between personality and quality of postoperative recovery in day surgery patients2009Ingår i: European Journal of Anaesthesiology, ISSN 0265-0215, E-ISSN 1365-2346, Vol. 26, nr 8, s. 671-675Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objective: Personality factors have been found to influence long-term postoperative depressive symptoms, health and distress in inpatients. To our knowledge, no studies have analysed whether the personality traits of day surgery patients relate to postoperative recovery. Hence, this study aims to explore possible relationships between personality traits and the quality of postoperative recovery in patients undergoing day surgery.

    Methods: Our study used a consecutive sample of 260 day surgery patients to explore possible relationships between personal traits, measured by a short Big Five scale, and postoperative recovery, measured by modified Quality of Recovery-40, on postoperative days 1, 7 and 14.

    Results: We found a positive correlation in changes of ‘physical independence’ and ‘extroversion’ (r = 0.20; P = 0.010) and ‘intellect’ (r = 0.18; P = 0.021) on postoperative days 1 and 7. These correlations were not observed on postoperative day 14. With regard to the change between days 7 and 14, correlations were found between ‘physical interdependence’ and ‘agreeableness’ and between ‘physical interdependence’ and ‘conscientiousness’ (r = -0.17; P = 0.028–0.030 for both).

    Conclusion: Day surgery patients appear to be a homogenous group with stable personalities, demonstrating some minor correlations between personality traits and the quality of postoperative recovery on days 1, 7 and 14. However, further studies are needed.

  • 134.
    Nybo, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Incidence of perioperative hyperoxia in 2017 at Norrlands University Hospital2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 135.
    Ohlsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Winsö, Ola
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Assessment of the surgical apgar score in a Swedish setting2011Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 55, nr 5, s. 524-529Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Predicting major post-operative complications is an important task for which simple and reliable methods are lacking. A simple scoring system based on intraoperative heart rate, blood pressure and blood loss was recently developed to fill this gap. This system, the Surgical Apgar Score, shows promising results both in terms of validity and in terms of usefulness. The goal of this study was to study both these components in a Scandinavian setting. Methods: Pre-operative patient characteristics and intraoperative variables were recorded for 224 patients undergoing general and vascular surgery between 26 October and 17 December 2009. Major complications were evaluated during a 30-day follow-up. The relationship between Surgical Apgar Score and major complication was analysed using chi(2) -tests and the relative risk between different scoring patient groups was analysed. Results: The study showed a strong correlation between the Surgical Apgar Score and major complication (P<0.001). 61.5% of the lowest-scoring patients sustained a major complication compared with only 6.4% in the highest-scoring group. This is equivalent to a relative risk of 7.14 (95% CI: 2.88-17.5, P<0.001). Conclusions: The Surgical Apgar Score is valid in a Scandinavian setting. We also note that there were no practical issues in collecting the score. Together with patient pre-operative risk, the score has great potential to guide clinicians when making post-operative decisions and give immediate feedback about the surgical procedure. The next step should be to educate surgical staff about the score.

  • 136. Perner, A.
    et al.
    Junttila, E.
    Haney, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Hreinsson, K.
    Kvåle, R.
    Vandvik, P. O.
    Moller, M. H.
    Scandinavian clinical practice guideline on choice of fluid in resuscitation of critically ill patients with acute circulatory failure2015Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 59, nr 3, s. 274-285Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The task force on Acute Circulatory Failure of the Scandinavian Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine produced this guideline with recommendations concerning the use of crystalloid vs. colloid solutions in adult critically ill patients with acute circulatory failure. METHODS: Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology was used to grade the quality of evidence and to determine the strengths of the recommendations. As efficacy and harm may vary in different subpopulations of patients with acute circulatory failure, we produced recommendations for general intensive care unit (ICU) patients and those with sepsis, trauma and burn injury. RESULTS: For general ICU patients and those with sepsis, we recommend using crystalloids for resuscitation rather than hydroxyethyl starch and we suggest using crystalloids rather than gelatin and albumin. For patients with trauma we recommend to use crystalloids for resuscitation rather than colloid solutions. For patients with burn injury we provide no recommendations as there are very limited data from randomised trials on fluid resuscitation in this patient population. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend using crystalloid solutions rather than colloid solutions for resuscitation in the majority of critically ill patients with acute circulatory failure.

  • 137.
    Pettersson, Ronja
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    A follow up of intensive care patients in Umeå2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 138. Pischke, S. E.
    et al.
    Haugaa, H.
    Haney, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    A neglected organ in multiple organ failure - 'skin in the game'?2017Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 61, nr 1, s. 5-7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 139.
    Pösö, Tomi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Assessment and management of bariatric surgery patients2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In morbidly obese individuals (MO) cardiorespiratory comorbidities and body habitus challenge the perioperative management of anesthesia. To implement safe and reproducible routines for anesthesia and fluid therapy is the cornerstone in order to minimize anesthesia-related complications and to meet individual variability in rehydration needs.

    Methods: Paper I: Impact of rapid-weight-loss preparation prior to bariatric surgery was investigated. Prevalence of preoperative dehydration and cardiac function were assessed with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). Paper II: The anesthetic technique for rapid sequence induction (RSI) in MO based on a combination of volatile and i.v. anesthetics was developed. Pre- and post-induction oxygenation, blood pressure levels and feasibility of the method was evaluated. Paper III: The preoperative ideal body weight based rehydration regime was evaluated by TTE. Paper IV: Need of rehydration during bariatric surgery was evaluated by comparing conventional monitoring to a more advanced approach (i.e. preoperative TTE and arterial pulse wave analysis).

    Results: Rapid-weight-loss preparation prior to bariatric surgery may expose MO to dehydration. TTE was shown to be a robust modality for preoperative screening of the level of venous return, assessment of filling pressures and biventricular function of the heart in MO. The combination of sevoflurane, propofol, alfentanil and suxamethonium was demonstrated to be a safe method for RSI regardless of BMI. The preoperative rehydration regime implemented by colloids 6 ml/kg IBW was an adequate treatment to obtain euvolemia. In addition, preoperative rehydration seems to increase hemodynamic stability during intravenous induction of anesthesia and even intraoperatively.

    Conclusion: This thesis describes a safe and comprehensive perioperative management of morbidly obese individuals scheduled for bariatric surgery. Hemodynamic and respiratory stability can be achieved by implementation of strict and proven methods of anesthesia and fluid therapy. Much focus should be placed on feasible monitoring and preoperative optimization in morbidly obese individuals for increased perioperative safety.

  • 140.
    Pösö, Tomi
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Kesek, Doris
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Aroch, Roman
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Winsö, Ola
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Morbid obesity and optimization of preoperative fluid therapy2013Ingår i: Obesity Surgery, ISSN 0960-8923, E-ISSN 1708-0428, Vol. 23, nr 11, s. 1799-1805Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Preoperative venous return (VR) optimization and adequate blood volume is essential in management of morbidly obese patients (MO) in order to avoid perioperative circulatory instability. In this study, all subjects underwent a preoperative 3-week preparation by rapid-weight-loss-diet (RWL) as part of their treatment program for bariatric surgery.

    METHODS: This is a prospective, observational study of 34 morbidly obese patients consecutively scheduled for bariatric surgery at Sunderby County Hospital, Lulea, Sweden. Preoperative transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) was performed in the awake state before and after intravascular volume challenge (VC) of 6 ml colloids/kg ideal body weight (IBW). Effects of standardized VC were evaluated by TTE. Dynamic and non-dynamic echocardiographic indices for VC were studied. Volume responsiveness and level of VR before and after VC were assessed by TTE. An increase of stroke volume >/=13 % was considered as a volume responder.

    RESULTS: Twenty-nine out of 34 patients were volume responders. After VC, a majority of patients (23/34) were euvolemic, and only 2/34 were hypovolemic. Post-VC hypervolemia was observed in 9/34 of patients.

    CONCLUSIONS: The IBW-based volume challenge regime was found to be suitable for preoperative rehydration of RWL-prepared MO. Most of the patients were volume responders. Preoperative state of VR was not associated with volume responsiveness. IBW estimates and appropriate monitoring avoids potential hyperhydration in MO. For VC assessment, conventional Doppler indices were found to be more suitable compared to tissue Doppler, giving sufficient information on pressure-volume correlation of the left ventricle in morbidly obese.

  • 141.
    Pösö, Tomi
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap.
    Kesek, Doris
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Aroch, Roman
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Winsö, Ola
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Rapid weight loss is associated with preoperative hypovolemia in morbidly obese patients2013Ingår i: Obesity Surgery, ISSN 0960-8923, E-ISSN 1708-0428, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 306-313Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In morbidly obese patients (MO), adequate levels of venous return (VR) and left ventricular filling pressures (LVFP) are crucial in order to augment perioperative safety. Rapid weight loss (RWL) preparation with very low calorie diet is commonly used aiming to facilitate bariatric surgery. However, the impact of RWL on VR and LVFP is poorly studied.

    METHODS: In this prospective, controlled, single-center study, we hypothesized that RWL-prepared MO prior to bariatric surgery can be hypovolemic (i.e., low VR) and compared MO to lean controls with conventional overnight fasting. Twenty-eight morbidly obese patients were scheduled consecutively for bariatric surgery and 19 lean individuals (control group, CG) for elective general surgery. Preoperative assessment of VR, LVFP, and biventricular heart function was performed by a transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) protocol to all patients in the awake state. Assessment of VR and LVFP was made by inferior vena cava maximal diameter (IVCmax) and inferior vena cava collapsibility index- (IVCCI) derived right atrial pressure estimations.

    RESULTS: A majority of MO (71.4 %) were hypovolemic vs. 15.8 % of lean controls (p < 0.001, odds ratio = 13.3). IVCmax was shorter in MO than in CG (p < 0.001). IVCCI was higher in MO (62.1 +/- 23 %) vs. controls (42.6 +/- 20.8; p < 0.001). Even left atrium anterior-posterior diameter was shorter in MO compared to CG.

    CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative RWL may induce hypovolemia in morbidly obese patients. Hypovolemia in MO was more common vs. lean controls. TTE is a rapid and feasible tool for assessment of preload even in morbid obesity.

  • 142.
    Pösö, Tomi
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap.
    Kesek, Doris
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Winsö, Ola
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Andersson, Staffan
    Volatile rapid sequence induction in morbidly obese patients2011Ingår i: European Journal of Anaesthesiology, ISSN 0265-0215, E-ISSN 1365-2346, Vol. 28, nr 11, s. 781-787Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objective: The interest in bariatric surgery is growing. Morbidly obese patients have an increased risk of hypoxia and decreased blood pressure during rapid sequence induction (RSI). Alternate RSI methods that provide cardiovascular and respiratory stability are required. With this in mind, we evaluated a method for volatile RSI in morbidly obese patients.

    Design: Observational study.

    Methods: Thirty-four patients with mean BMI 42.4 kg m(-2) undergoing bariatric surgery (morbidly obese group) and 22 patients with mean BMI 25.6 kg m(-2) as a control group were included in the study. Anaesthesia was induced with sevoflurane, propofol, suxamethonium and alfentanil, designed to avoid respiratory and haemodynamic adverse events and to minimise depressing effect on the brain respiratory centre under ongoing RSI. Peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) and mean arterial blood pressure were registered before and after endotracheal intubation. In addition, two time periods were measured during RSI: spontaneous breathing time (SBT) and apnoea time.

    Results: We found no significant differences between the groups. No periods of desaturation were detected. SpO(2) was 100% before and after endotracheal intubation in all patients. Mean arterial pressure was maintained at a stable level in both groups. Mean SBT and apnoea time were 65.6 and 45.8 s in the morbidly obese group, and 70.7 and 47.7 s in the control group, respectively.

    Conclusion: A combination of sevoflurane, propofol, suxamethonium and alfentanil is a suitable method for RSI which maintains cardiovascular and respiratory stability in both morbidly obese and lean patients.

  • 143.
    Pösö, Tomi
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Winsö, Ola
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Aroch, Roman
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Kesek, Doris
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Perioperative fluid guidance with transthoracic echocardiography and pulse-contour device in morbidly obese patients2014Ingår i: Obesity Surgery, ISSN 0960-8923, E-ISSN 1708-0428, Vol. 24, nr 12, s. 2117-2125Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    In bariatric surgery, non-or mini-invasive modalities for cardiovascular monitoring are addressed to meet individual variability in hydration needs. The aim of the study was to compare conventional monitoring to an individualized goal-directed therapy (IGDT) regarding the need of perioperative fluids and cardiovascular stability. 

    Methods

    Fifty morbidly obese patients were consecutively scheduled for laparoscopic bariatric surgery (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01873183). The intervention group (IG, n=30) was investigated preoperatively with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and rehydrated with colloid fluids if a low level of venous return was detected. During surgery, IGDT was continued with a pulse-contour device (FloTrac (TM)). In the control group (CG, n=20), conventional monitoring was conducted. The type and amount of perioperative fluids infused, vasoactive/inotropic drugs administered, and blood pressure levels were registered. 

    Results

    In the IG, 213 +/- 204 mL colloid fluids were administered as preoperative rehydration vs. no preoperative fluids in the CG (p<0.001). During surgery, there was no difference in the fluids administered between the groups. Mean arterial blood pressures were higher in the IG vs. the CG both after induction of anesthesia and during surgery (p=0.001 and p=0.001). 

    Conclusions

    In morbidly obese patients suspected of being hypovolemic, increased cardiovascular stability may be reached by preoperative rehydration. The management of rehydration should be individualized. Additional invasive monitoring does not appear to have any effect on outcomes in obesity surgery.

  • 144. Rasmussen, L. S.
    et al.
    Haney, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Editorial: Looking back and also into the future of Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica2015Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 59, nr 10, s. 1209-1211Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 145.
    Reiz, S.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Häggmark, S.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Rydvall, A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Östman, M.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Beta-blockers and thoracic epidural analgesia. Cardioprotective and synergistic effects1982Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiol Scand Suppl, Vol. 76, s. 54-61Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Seven groups of patients with and without hypertension or with ischaemic heart disease, treated with different beta blockers were investigated to study the circulatory effects of neurolept anaesthesia alone or combined with thoracic epidural analgesia from T4 to T12/L2 during abdominal surgery. The combination of thoracic epidural analgesia and neurolept anaesthesia in hypertensive subjects treated with non-cardioselective beta blockers induced slightly lower blood pressure than measured in similar patients on cardioselective beta blockers with neurolept anaesthesia only. Patients on non-selective beta blockers with intrinsic stimulatory activity (ISA) had higher blood pressure and heart rate after neurolept anaesthesia induction than patients on cardioselective blockers. During surgery, heart rate remained at a higher level in the patients treated with ISA blockers, whereas blood pressure increased to the same level as in patients with cardioselective blockers. Cardiovascular stability was, however, best maintained in the epidural group, where myocardial energy expenditure during maximal surgical stress was comparable to that in a group of healthy subjects with the same format of anaesthesia and significantly lower than in healthy subjects with neurolept anaesthesia alone. No circulatory side effects of the combination of thoracic epidural analgesia and beta blockade were seen. In patients with ischaemic heart disease, with or without non-selective beta blockade, similar haemodynamic changes were recorded following neurolept anaesthesia. During maximal surgical stress, unmasking of alpha adrenergic activity with marked rise in blood pressure was seen in the beta-blocked patients. Despite the more accelerated haemodynamic changes in the blocked patients, a lower increase in myocardial oxygen consumption was recorded compared with the non-blocked patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  • 146.
    Reiz, S.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Rydvall, A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Häggmark, S.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Coronary haemodynamic effects of surgery during enflurane-nitrous oxide anaesthesia in patients with ischaemic heart disease1985Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiol Scand, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 106-12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The systemic and coronary haemodynamic effects of 1.5 MAC enflurane-nitrous oxide anaesthesia and abdominal surgery were investigated in nine patients with ischaemic heart disease. Anaesthesia decreased systemic blood pressure (-56%) by a combination of cardiodepression and peripheral vasodilation. A marked fall in myocardial oxygen extraction suggested a moderate coronary vasodilation. Surgery markedly increased the circulating levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline, manifested by increases in blood pressure (+76%) and systemic vascular resistance (+83%). Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure increased by 70% without any change in cardiac or stroke volume index, suggesting that the patients were performing at the horizontal part of their left ventricular function curve. Despite the marked rise in coronary perfusion pressure and a 62% increase in myocardial oxygen demand, coronary blood flow remained unaltered. This could be due either to coronary vasoconstriction overriding the normal coronary autoregulation or to an increase in coronary back pressure opposing the diastolic aortic pressure. When coronary blood flow could not increase to meet the demand for oxygen, the myocardium had to extract more oxygen to ensure appropriate oxygenation, demonstrating interference with coronary autoregulation. Surgery markedly increased myocardial extraction of adrenaline and noradrenaline. We could not find any relationship between myocardial adrenaline extraction and heart rate response to surgery or between myocardial noradrenaline extraction and changes in coronary blood flow, calculated coronary vascular resistance, incidence of myocardial ischaemia or cardiac dysrhythmias.

  • 147.
    Reiz, Sebastian
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Häggmark, Sören
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Johansson, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Nath, Sherdil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Cardiotoxicity of ropivacaine--a new amide local anaesthetic agent1989Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiol Scand, Vol. 33, nr 2, s. 93-8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaesthetically equipotent doses of lidocaine, bupivacaine and a new bupivacaine-like local anaesthetic agent, ropivacaine, were injected into the left anterior descending coronary artery of pentobarbital-anaesthetized pigs. The aim was to study the cardiotoxicity of ropivacaine in relation to the two other drugs. A random, crossover, dose response study design was used. The following doses of the drugs were administered: lidocaine (L): 1,2,4,8 and 16 mg, bupivacaine (B): 0.25, 0.5, 1,2 and 4 mg and ropivacaine (R): 0.33, 0.66 1.33, 2.66 and 5.33 mg. Systemic haemodynamics, left ventricular dP/dT and a 12-lead electrocardiogram were recorded continuously during the study period. The drugs depressed cardiac contractility in relation to their local anaesthetic potency on the isolated nerve-4:3:1 (B:R:L). The prolongation of the ECG QRS-interval was regarded as a measure of electrophysiologic toxicity. Comparable prolongation of the QRS-interval was recorded after 2 mg of bupivacaine, 4.5 mg of ropivacaine and 30 mg of lidocaine. Thus, the electrophysiological toxicity ratio was 15:6.7:1 (B:R:L). Provided local anaesthetic potency data can be extrapolated from the isolated nerve preparation to regional anaesthesia in humans, ropivacaine appears to provide a greater margin of safety than bupivacaine, if inadvertently injected into the venous circulation.

  • 148.
    Rhodin, Ylva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Fokuserad screening av vänsterkammarfunktion med hjälp av vävnadsdoppler2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 149.
    Rodling Wahlström, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård. Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurokirurgi.
    Severe cerebral emergency: aspects of treatment and outcome in the intensive care patient2009Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH) are severe cerebral emergencies. They are common reasons for extensive morbidity and mortality in young people and adults in the western world. This thesis, based on five clinical studies in patients with severe TBI (I-IV) and SAH (V), is concentrated on examination of pathophysiological developments and of evaluation of therapeutic approaches in order to improve outcome after cerebral emergency.

    The treatment for severe TBI patients at Umeå University Hospital, Sweden is an intracranial pressure (ICP)-targeted therapy according to “the Lund-concept”. This therapy is based on physiological principles for cerebral volume regulation, in order to preserve a normal cerebral microcirculation and a normal ICP. The main goal is to avoid development of secondary brain injuries, thus avoiding brain oedema and worsened microcirculation.

    Study I is evaluating retrospectively 41 children with severe TBI, from 1993 to 2002. The boundaries of the ICP-targeted protocol were obtained in 90%. Survival rate was 93%, and favourable outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale, score 4+5) was 80%.

    Study II is retrospectively analysing fluid administration and fluid balance in 93 adult patients with severe TBI, from 1998 to 2001.The ICP-targeted therapy used, have defined fluid strategies. The total fluid balance was positive day one to three, and negative day four to ten. Colloids constituted 40-60% of total fluids given/day. Severe organ failure was evident for respiratory insufficiency and observed in 29%. Mortality within 28 days was 11%.

    Study III is a prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 48 patients with severe TBI. In order to improve microcirculation and prevent oedema formation, prostacyclin treatment was added to the ICP-targeted therapy. Prostacyclin is endogenously produced, by the vascular endothelium, and has the ability to decrease capillary permeability and vasodilate cerebral capillaries. Prostacyclin is an inhibitor of leukocyte adhesion and platelet aggregation. There was no significant difference between prostacyclin or placebo groups in clinical outcome or in cerebral microdialysis markers such as lactatepyruvate ratio and brain glucose levels.

    Study IV is part of the third trial and focus on the systemic release of pro-inflammatory mediators that are rapidly activated by trauma. The systemically released pro-inflammatory mediators, interleukin-6 and CRP were significantly decreased in the prostacyclin group versus the placebo group.

    Study V is a prospective pilot study which analyses asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) concentrations in serum from SAH patients. Acute SAH patients have cerebral vascular, systemic circulatory and inflammatory complications. ADMA is a marker in vascular diseases which is correlated to endothelial dysfunction. ADMA concentrations in serum were significantly elevated seven days after the SAH compared to admission and were still elevated at the three months follow-up.

    Our results show overall low mortality and high favourable outcome compared to international reports on outcome in severe TBI patients. Prostacyclin administration does not improve cerebral metabolism or outcome but significantly decreases the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators. SAH seems to induce long-lasting elevations of ADMA in serum, which indicates persistent endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction may influence outcome after severe cerebral emergencies.

  • 150.
    Rodling Wahlström, Marie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Olivecrona, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Bengtsson, Anders
    The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Naredi, Silvana
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Hultin, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Effects of prostacyclin on the early inflammatory response in patients with traumatic brain injury: a randomised clinical study2014Ingår i: SpringerPlus, E-ISSN 2193-1801, Vol. 3, artikel-id 98Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: A prospective, randomised, double-blinded, clinical trial was performed at a level 1 trauma centre to determine if a prostacyclin analogue, epoprostenol (Flolan®), could attenuate systemic inflammatory response in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI).

    SUBJECTS: 46 patients with severe TBI, randomised to epoprostenol (n = 23) or placebo (n = 23).

    TREATMENT: Epoprostenol, 0.5 ng · kg(-1) · min(-1), or placebo (saline) was given intravenously for 72 hours and then tapered off over the next 24 hours.

    METHODS: Interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), C-reactive protein (CRP), and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels were measured over five days. Measurements were made at 24 h intervals ≤24 h after TBI to 97-120 h after TBI.

    RESULTS: A significantly lower CRP level was detected in the epoprostenol group compared to the placebo group within 73-96 h (p = 0.04) and within 97-120 h (p = 0.008) after trauma. IL-6 within 73-96 h after TBI was significantly lower in the epoprostenol group compared to the placebo group (p = 0.04). ADMA was significantly increased within 49-72 h and remained elevated, but there was no effect of epoprostenol on ADMA levels. No significant differences between the epoprostenol and placebo groups were detected for IL-8 or sICAM-1.

    CONCLUSIONS: Administration of the prostacyclin analogue epoprostenol significantly decreased CRP and, to some extent, IL-6 levels in patients with severe TBI compared to placebo. These findings indicate an interesting option for treatment of TBI and warrants future larger studies.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier, NCT01363583.

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