umu.sePublikationer
Ändra sökning
Avgränsa sökresultatet
1234567 101 - 150 av 847
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Träffar per sida
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
Markera
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 101.
    Bylund, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap.
    Rolfsman, Ewa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    Saveman, Britt-Inger
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Injuries before and after the implementation of traffic safety countermeasures: a case study of a pedestrian and bicycle bridge2013Ingår i: Safety Science Monitor, ISSN 1443-8844, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 5-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The implementation of community injury prevention programs in order to reduce injuries caused by road traffic incidents has been a public health priority for many years. The purpose of this case-study was to investigate whether the implementation of traffic safety countermeasures on a bridge for bicyclists and pedestrians was effective in reducing the number and severity of injuries. The study was based on data from the injury database at the University Hospital of Umeå and includes data from 74 injured persons. Injury incidence, injury severity and the circumstances associated with injury incidences are reported. There was an increase in the incidence of both moderate and more serious injuries, such as brain injuries and fractures of upper extremities, after the safety countermeasures were put in place. Falls due to overturning with the bicycle dominated among single crashes. Collisions and crashes caused by giving way to pedestrians or other bicyclists were the most common types of crash. The main finding is that the modification of the bridge, which aimed to reduce injuries, has not been successful, in particular with reference to the incidence of severe injuries.

  • 102.
    Béguin, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Hales, Simon
    University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand.
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Åström, Christofer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Louis, Valérie R
    Institute for Public Health, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Sauerborn, Rainer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    The opposing effects of climate change and socio-economic development on the global distribution of malaria2011Ingår i: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 21, nr 4, s. 1209-1214Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The current global geographic distribution of malaria results from a complex interaction between climatic and non-climatic factors. Over the past century, socio-economic development and public health measures have contributed to a marked contraction in the distribution of malaria. Previous assessments of the potential impact of global changes on malaria have not quantified the effects of non-climate factors. In this paper, we describe an empirical model of the past, present and future-potential geographic distribution of malaria which incorporates both the effects of climate change and of socio-economic development. A logistic regression model using temperature, precipitation and gross domestic product per capita (GDPpc) identifies the recent global geographic distribution of malaria with high accuracy (sensitivity 85% and specificity 95%). Empirically, climate factors have a substantial effect on malaria transmission in countries where GDPpc is currently less than US$20,000. Using projections of future climate, GDPpc and population consistent with the IPCC A1B scenario, we estimate the potential future population living in areas where malaria can be transmitted in 2030 and 2050. In 2050, the projected population at risk is approximately 5.2 billion when considering climatic effects only, 1.95 billion when considering the combined effects of GDP and climate, and 1.74 billion when considering GDP effects only. Under the A1B scenario, we project that climate change has much weaker effects on malaria than GDPpc increase. This outcome is, however, dependent on optimistic estimates of continued socioeconomic development. Even then, climate change has important effects on the projected distribution of malaria, leading to an increase of over 200 million in the projected population at risk.

  • 103. Cai, Yutong
    et al.
    Schikowski, Tamara
    Adam, Martin
    Buschka, Anna
    Carsin, Anne-Elie
    Jacquemin, Benedicte
    Marcon, Alessandro
    Sanchez, Margaux
    Vierkötter, Andrea
    Al-Kanaani, Zaina
    Beelen, Rob
    Birk, Matthias
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Cirach, Marta
    Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise
    Declercq, Christophe
    de Hoogh, Kees
    de Nazelle, Audrey
    Ducret-Stich, Regina E.
    Valeria Ferretti, Virginia
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Gerbase, Margaret W.
    Hardy, Rebecca
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Hoek, Gerard
    Jarvis, Debbie
    Keidel, Dirk
    Kuh, Diana
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.
    Ragettli, Martina S.
    Ranzi, Andrea
    Rochat, Thierry
    Schindler, Christian
    Sugiri, Dorothea
    Temam, Sofia
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Varraso, Raphaëlle
    Kauffmann, Francine
    Krämer, Ursula
    Sunyer, Jordi
    Künzli, Nino
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole
    Hansell, Anna L.
    Cross-sectional associations between air pollution and chronic bronchitis: an ESCAPE meta-analysis across five cohorts2014Ingår i: Thorax, ISSN 0040-6376, E-ISSN 1468-3296, Vol. 69, nr 11, s. 1005-1014Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess associations of outdoor air pollution on prevalence of chronic bronchitis symptoms in adults in five cohort studies (Asthma-E3N, ECRHS, NSHD, SALIA, SAPALDIA) participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) project.

    METHODS: Annual average particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, PMabsorbance, PMcoarse), NO2, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and road traffic measures modelled from ESCAPE measurement campaigns 2008-2011 were assigned to home address at most recent assessments (1998-2011). Symptoms examined were chronic bronchitis (cough and phlegm for ≥3 months of the year for ≥2 years), chronic cough (with/without phlegm) and chronic phlegm (with/without cough). Cohort-specific cross-sectional multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted using common confounder sets (age, sex, smoking, interview season, education), followed by meta-analysis.

    RESULTS: 15 279 and 10 537 participants respectively were included in the main NO2 and PM analyses at assessments in 1998-2011. Overall, there were no statistically significant associations with any air pollutant or traffic exposure. Sensitivity analyses including in asthmatics only, females only or using back-extrapolated NO2 and PM10 for assessments in 1985-2002 (ECRHS, NSHD, SALIA, SAPALDIA) did not alter conclusions. In never-smokers, all associations were positive, but reached statistical significance only for chronic phlegm with PMcoarse OR 1.31 (1.05 to 1.64) per 5 µg/m(3) increase and PM10 with similar effect size. Sensitivity analyses of older cohorts showed increased risk of chronic cough with PM2.5abs (black carbon) exposures.

    CONCLUSIONS: Results do not show consistent associations between chronic bronchitis symptoms and current traffic-related air pollution in adult European populations.

  • 104. Cain, William S.
    et al.
    de Wijk, René A.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Independence of odor Quality and Absolute Sensitivity in a Study of Aging2008Ingår i: Chemosensory Perception, ISSN 1936-5802, E-ISSN 1936-5810, Vol. 1, s. 24-33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Young, middle-aged, and senior subjects performed tasks designed to examine whether odor quality discrimination varies independently of sensitivity. One task entailed detection of 2-heptanone and the others AB-X discrimination of quality for sets of 2-heptanone and homologues or 2-heptanone and non-ketones. Subjects sought to discriminate either at intensity-matched concentrations far above threshold, but fixed across subjects, or at levels adjusted to neutralize differences in sensitivity. The young and middle-aged groups manifested the same absolute sensitivity, but the senior group poorer sensitivity. Performance in quality discrimination, however, declined progressively. Performance lacked an association with absolute sensitivity, no matter how examined. These data, in conjunction with converging findings from patients with neurological damage, studies of brain imaging, and the relation between concentration and quality discrimination in younger persons, suggest largely independent processing of odor quality and intensity.

  • 105. Canivet, Catarina
    et al.
    Bodin, Theo
    Emmelin, Maria
    Division of Social Medicine and Global Health, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Moghaddassi, Mahnaz
    Östergren, Per-Olof
    Precarious employment is a risk factor for poor mental health in young individuals in Sweden: a cohort study with multiple follow-ups2016Ingår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 16, artikel-id 687Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The globalisation of the economy and the labour markets has resulted in a growing proportion of individuals who find themselves in a precarious labour market situation, especially among the young. This pertains also to the Nordic countries, despite their characterisation as well developed welfare states with active labour market policies. This should be viewed against the background of a number of studies, which have shown that several aspects of precarious employment are detrimental to mental health. However, longitudinal studies from the Nordic region that examine the impact of precarious labour market conditions on mental health in young individuals are currently lacking. The present study aims to examine this impact in a general cohort of Swedish young people.

    METHODS: Postal questionnaires were sent out in 1999/2000 to a stratified random sample of the Scania population, Sweden; the response rate was 58 %. All of those who responded at baseline were invited to follow-ups after 5 and 10 years. Employment precariousness was determined based on detailed questions about present employment, previous unemployment, and self-rated risk of future unemployment. Mental health was assessed by GHQ-12. For this study individuals in the age range of 18-34 years at baseline, who were active in the labour market (employed or seeking job) and had submitted complete data from 1999/2000, 2005, and 2010 on employment precariousness and mental health status, were selected (N = 1135).

    RESULTS: Forty-two percent of the participants had a precarious employment situation at baseline. Labour market trajectories that included precarious employment in 1999/2000 or 2005 predicted poor mental health in 2010: the incidence ratio ratio was 1.4 (95 % CI: 1.1-2.0) when excluding all individuals with mental health problems at baseline and adjusting for age, gender, social support, social capital, and economic difficulties in childhood. The population attributable fraction regarding poor mental health in the studied age group was 18 %.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study supported the hypothesis that precarious employment should be regarded as an important social determinant for subsequent development of mental health problems in previously mentally healthy young people.

  • 106.
    Carlsen, Hanne Krage
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg; Centre of Public Health, University of Iceland, Reykjavík 101, Iceland.
    Boman, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Björ, Bodil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Olin, Anna-Carin
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Coarse Fraction Particle Matter and Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Non-Asthmatic Children2016Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 13, nr 6, artikel-id 621Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Coarse particle matter, PMcoarse, is associated with increased respiratory morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between short-term changes in PMcoarse and sub-clininal airway inflammation in children. Healthy children aged 11 years from two northern Swedish elementary schools underwent fraction of exhaled nitrogen oxide (FENO) measurements to determine levels of airway inflammation twice weekly during the study period from 11 April-6 June 2011. Daily exposure to PMcoarse, PM2.5, NO2, NOx, NO and O-3 and birch pollen was estimated. Multiple linear regression was used. Personal covariates were included as fixed effects and subjects were included as a random effect. In total, 95 children participated in the study, and in all 493 FENO measurements were made. The mean level of PMcoarse was 16.1 mu g/m(3) (range 4.1-42.3), and that of O-3 was 75.0 mu g/m(3) (range: 51.3-106.3). That of NO2 was 17.0 mu g/m(3) (range: 4.7-31.3), NOx was 82.1 mu g/m(3) (range: 13.3-165.3), and NO was 65 mu g/m(3) (range: 8.7-138.4) during the study period. In multi-pollutant models an interquartile range increase in 24 h PMcoarse was associated with increases in FENO by between 6.9 ppb (95% confidence interval 0.0-14) and 7.3 ppb (95% confidence interval 0.4-14.9). PMcoarse was associated with an increase in FENO, indicating sub-clinical airway inflammation in healthy children.

  • 107.
    Carlsen, Hanne Krage
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Univ Iceland, Engn & Nat Sci, Reykjavik, Iceland; Univ Gothenburg, Inst Med, Sect Occupat & Environm Med, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med,Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bäck, E.
    Eneroth, K.
    Gislason, T.
    Holm, M.
    Janson, C.
    Jensen, S. S.
    Johannessen, A.
    Kaasik, M.
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Segersson, D.
    Sigsgaard, T.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Olsson, David
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Orru, Hans
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Univ Tartu, Dept Family Med & Publ Hlth, Tartu, Estonia.
    Indicators of residential traffic exposure: Modelled NOX, traffic proximity, and self-reported exposure in RHINE III2017Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, Vol. 167, s. 416-425Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have investigated associations between self-reported and modelled exposure to traffic pollution. The objective of this study was to examine correlations between self-reported traffic exposure and modelled (a) NOx and (b) traffic proximity in seven different northern European cities; Aarhus (Denmark), Bergen (Norway), Gothenburg, Ulna and Uppsala (Sweden), Reykjavik (Iceland), and Tartu (Estonia). We analysed data from the RHINE III (Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, www.rhine.nu) cohorts of the seven study cities. Traffic proximity (distance to the nearest road with >10,000 vehicles per day) was calculated and vehicle exhaust (NOx) was modelled using dispersion models and land-use regression (LUR) data from 2011. Participants were asked a question about self-reported traffic intensity near bedroom window and another about traffic noise exposure at the residence. The data were analysed using rank correlation (Kendall's tau) and inter-rater agreement (Cohen's Kappa) between tertiles of modelled NOx and traffic proximity tertile and traffic proximity categories (0-150 metres (m), 150 -200 m, >300 m) in each centre. Data on variables of interest were available for 50-99% of study participants per each cohort. Mean modelled NOx levels were between 6.5 and 16.0 mu g/m(3); median traffic intensity was between 303 and 10,750 m in each centre. In each centre, 7.7-18.7% of respondents reported exposure to high traffic intensity and 3.6-16.3% of respondents reported high exposure to traffic noise. Self-reported residential traffic exposure had low or no correlation with modelled exposure and traffic proximity in all centres, although results were statistically significant (tau = 0.057-0.305). Self reported residential traffic noise correlated weakly (tau = 0.090-0.255), with modelled exposure in all centres except Reykjavik. Modelled NOx\] had the highest correlations between self-reported and modelled traffic exposure in five of seven centres, traffic noise exposure had the highest correlation with traffic proximity in tertiles in three centres. Self-reported exposure to high traffic intensity and traffic noise at each participant's residence had low or weak although statistically significant correlations with modelled vehicle exhaust pollution levels and traffic proximity.

  • 108.
    Carlsen, Hanne Krage
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Meister, Kadri
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Gíslason, Thorarinn
    Oudin, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Ozone is associated with cardiopulmonary and stroke emergency hospital visits in Reykjavik, Iceland 2003--20092013Ingår i: Environmental health, ISSN 1476-069X, E-ISSN 1476-069X, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 28-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Air pollution exposure is associated with hospital admissions and emergency room visits for cardiopulmonary disease and stroke. Iceland's capital area, Reykjavik, has generally low air pollution levels, but traffic and natural sources contribute to pollution levels. The objective of this study was to investigate temporal associations between emergency hospital visits and air pollutants ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and particulate matter (PM10) in the Icelandic capital area.

    METHODS: We constructed a time series of the daily number of adults who visited the emergency room, or were acutely admitted for stroke or cardiorespiratory causes to Landspitali University Hospital 1 January 2003 -- 31 December 2009 from the hospital in-patient register. We used generalized additive models assuming Poisson distribution, to analyze the daily emergency hospital visits as a function of the pollutant levels, and adjusted for meteorological variables, day of week, and time trend with splines.

    RESULTS: Daily emergency hospital visits increased 3.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-6.1%) per interquartile (IQR) change in average O3 the same and two previous days. For females, the increase was 7.8% (95% CI 3.6-12.1) for elderly (70+), the increase was 3.9% (95% CI 0.6-7.3%) per IQR increase of NO2. There were no associations with PM10.

    CONCLUSIONS: We found an increase in daily emergency hospital visits associated with O3, indicating that low-level exposure may trigger cardiopulmonary events or stroke.

  • 109.
    Carlsen, Hanne Krage
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Gislason, T
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Meister, Kadri
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Thorsteinsson, T
    Jóhannsson, T
    Finnbjornsdottir, R
    Oudin, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Emergency Hospital Visits in Association with Volcanic Ash, Dust Storms and Other Sources of Ambient Particles: A Time-Series Study in Reykjavik, Iceland2015Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 12, nr 4, s. 4047-4059Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Volcanic ash contributed significantly to particulate matter (PM) in Iceland following the eruptions in Eyjafjallajökull 2010 and Grímsvötn 2011. This study aimed to investigate the association between different PM sources and emergency hospital visits for cardiorespiratory causes from 2007 to 2012. Indicators of PM10 sources; “volcanic ash”, “dust storms”, or “other sources” (traffic, fireworks, and re-suspension) on days when PM10 exceeded the daily air quality guideline value of 50 µg/m3 were entered into generalized additive models, adjusted for weather, time trend and co-pollutants. The average number of daily emergency hospital visits was 10.5. PM10 exceeded the air quality guideline value 115 out of 2191 days; 20 days due to volcanic ash, 14 due to dust storms (two days had both dust storm and ash contribution) and 83 due to other sources. High PM10 levels from volcanic ash tended to be significantly associated with the emergency hospital visits; estimates ranged from 4.8% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.6, 9.2%) per day of exposure in unadjusted models to 7.3% (95% CI: −0.4, 15.5%) in adjusted models. Dust storms were not consistently associated with daily emergency hospital visits and other sources tended to show a negative association. We found some evidence indicating that volcanic ash particles were more harmful than particles from other sources, but the results were inconclusive and should be interpreted with caution.

  • 110.
    Carlsen, Hanne Krage
    et al.
    Centre of Public Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Gislason, Thorarinn
    Benediktsdottir, Bryndis
    Kolbeinsson, Thorir Bjorn
    Hauksdottir, Arna
    Thorsteinsson, Throstur
    Briem, Haraldur
    A survey of early health effects of the Eyjafjallajokull 2010 eruption in Iceland: a population-based study2012Ingår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 2, nr 2, s. e000343-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To estimate physical and mental health effects of the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption on nearby residents.

    Design Cross-sectional study.

    Setting The Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull erupted on 14 April 2010. The eruption lasted for about 6 weeks and was explosive, ejecting some 8 million tons of fine particles into the atmosphere. Due to prevailing winds, the ash spread mostly to the south and south-east, first over the rural region to the south, later over the Atlantic Ocean and Europe, closing European air space for several days.

    Participants Residents (n=207) of the most ash-exposed rural area south and east of the volcano.

    Methods The study period was from 31 May to 11 June 2010. Participants were examined by a physician. To ascertain respiratory health, standardised spirometry was performed before and after the use of a bronchodilator. All adult participants answered questionnaires about mental and physical health, their children's health and the use of protective equipment.

    Results Every other adult participant reported irritation in eyes and upper airway when exposed to volcanic ash. Adults (n=26) and children (n=5) with pre-existing asthma frequently reported worsening of their symptoms. No serious health problems requiring hospitalisation could be attributed to the eruption. The majority of the participants reported no abnormal physical or mental symptoms to the examining physician. Compared to an age- and gender-matched reference group, the ash-exposed participants reported lower smoking rates and were less likely to have ventilation impairment. Less than 10% of the participants reported symptoms of stress, anxiety or depression.

    Conclusions Short-term ash exposure was associated with upper airway irritation symptoms and exacerbation of pre-existing asthma but did not contribute to serious health problems. The exposure did not impair respiratory function compared to controls. Outdoor use of protective glasses and face masks was considered protective against irritation in eyes and upper airway.                                  

  • 111.
    Carlsen, Hanne Krage
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Hauksdottir, Arna
    Valdimarsdottir, Unnur Anna
    Gíslason, Thorarinn
    Einarsdottir, Gunnlaug
    Runolfsson, Halldor
    Briem, Haraldur
    Finnbjornsdottir, Ragnhildur Gudrun
    Gudmundsson, Sigurdur
    Kolbeinsson, Thorir Björn
    Thorsteinsson, Throstur
    Pétursdóttir, Gudrun
    Health effects following the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption: a cohort study2012Ingår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 2, nr 6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to determine whether exposure to a volcanic eruption was associated with increased prevalence of physical and/or mental symptoms.

    DESIGN: Cohort, with non-exposed control group.

    SETTING: Natural disasters like volcanic eruptions constitute a major public-health threat. The Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull exposed residents in southern Iceland to continuous ash fall for more than 5 weeks in spring 2010. This study was conducted during November 2010-March 2011, 6-9 months after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption.

    PARTICIPANTS: Adult (18-80 years of age) eruption-exposed South Icelanders (N=1148) and a control population of residents of Skagafjörður, North Iceland (N=510). The participation rate was 72%.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Physical symptoms in the previous year (chronic), in the previous month (recent), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) measured psychological morbidity.

    RESULTS: The likelihood of having symptoms during the last month was higher in the exposed population, such as; tightness in the chest (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.1 to 5.8), cough (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.7 to 3.9), phlegm (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.3 to 3.2), eye irritation (OR 2.9; 95% CI 2.0 to 4.1) and psychological morbidity symptoms (OR 1.3; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.7). Respiratory symptoms during the last 12 months were also more common in the exposed population; cough (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.6 to 2.9), dyspnoea (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.3), although the prevalence of underlying asthma and heart disease was similar. Twice as many in the exposed population had two or more symptoms from nose, eyes or upper-respiratory tract (24% vs 13%, p<0.001); these individuals were also more likely to experience psychological morbidity (OR 4.7; 95% CI 3.4 to 6.5) compared with individuals with no symptoms. Most symptoms exhibited a dose-response pattern within the exposed population, corresponding to low, medium and high exposure to the eruption.

    CONCLUSIONS: 6-9 months after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption, residents living in the exposed area, particularly those closest to the volcano, had markedly increased prevalence of various physical symptoms. A portion of the exposed population reported multiple symptoms and may be at risk for long-term physical and psychological morbidity. Studies of long-term consequences are therefore warranted.

  • 112.
    Carlsen, Hanne Krage
    et al.
    Psykiatri Affektiva, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, 416 50 Gothenburg, Sweden. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Gothenburg University, 40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Oudin, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, 223 63 Lund, Sweden..
    Steingrimsson, Steinn
    Psykiatri Affektiva, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, 416 50 Gothenburg, Sweden. Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Oudin Åström, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Ambient Temperature and Associations with Daily Visits to a Psychiatric Emergency Unit in Sweden2019Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, nr 2, artikel-id E286Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    High or low ambient temperatures pose a risk factor for the worsening or onset of psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between ambient temperature and psychiatric emergency visits in an urban region in a temperate climate. The daily number of visits to a psychiatric emergency room (PEVs) at Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden and the daily mean temperature were extracted for the study period 1 July 2012 to 31 December 2017. Case-crossover analysis with distributed lag non-linear models was used to analyse the data by season. The warm season was defined as May to August and the cold season as November to February. Shorter lags periods were used for the warm season than the cold season. In the analysis, temperatures at the 95th percentile was associated with 14% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2%, 28%) increase in PEVs at lag 0⁻3 and 22% (95%CI: 6%, 40%) for lags 0⁻14 during the warm season, relative to the seasonal minimum effect temperature (MET). During the cold season temperatures at the 5th percentile were associated with 25% (95% CI: -8%, 13%) and 18% (95% CI: -30%, 98%) increase in PEVs at lags 0⁻14 and 0⁻21 respectively. We observed an increased number of PEVs at high and low temperatures; however, not to a statistically significant extent for low temperatures. Our findings are similar to what has been found for somatic diseases and in studies of other mental health outcomes in regions with more extreme climates. This merits the inclusion of individuals with psychiatric disorders in awareness planning for climate warning systems.

  • 113.
    Carlsen, Hanne Krage
    et al.
    Centre of Public Health Sciences, University of Iceland.
    Zoëga, Helga
    Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur
    Gíslason, Thórarinn
    Hrafnkelsson, Birgir
    Hydrogen sulfide and particle matter levels associated with increased dispensing of anti-asthma drugs in Iceland's capital2012Ingår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 113, s. 33-39Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Air pollutants in Iceland's capital area include hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions from geothermal power plants, particle pollution (PM10) and traffic-related pollutants. Respiratory health effects of exposure to PM and traffic pollutants are well documented, yet this is one of the first studies to investigate short-term health effects of ambient H2S exposure.

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between daily ambient levels of H2S, PM10, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3), and the use of drugs for obstructive pulmonary diseases in adults in Iceland's capital area.

    Methods The study period was 8 March 2006 to 31 December 2009. We used log-linear Poisson generalized additive regression models with cubic splines to estimate relative risks of individually dispensed drugs by air pollution levels. A three-day moving average of the exposure variables gave the best fit to the data. Final models included significant covariates adjusting for climate and influenza epidemics, as well as time-dependent variables.

    Results The three-day moving average of H2S and PM10 levels were positively associated with the number of individuals who were dispensed drugs at lag 3–5, corresponding to a 2.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.4, 3.6) and 0.9% (95% CI 0.1, 1.8) per 10&#xa0;μg/m3 pollutant concentration increase, respectively.

    Conclusion Our findings indicated that intermittent increases in levels of particle matter from traffic and natural sources and ambient H2S levels were weakly associated with increased dispensing of drugs for obstructive pulmonary disease in Iceland's capital area. These weak associations could be confounded by unevaluated variables hence further studies are needed.

  • 114.
    Carlsson, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Effects of cold and hand-arm vibration on the peripheral neurosensory and vascular system: an occupational perspective2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background In Swedish working life, exposure to cold and exposure to hand-arm vibration (HAV) are two common health hazards. Health effects of HAV in the neurosensory, vascular and musculoskeletal systems are collectively denoted hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS), and have been thoroughly studied. Effects of cold exposure in terms of effects on the peripheral neurosensory and vascular system are on the contrary limited, especially in an occupational setting. Effects of cold exposure or cold injury have not previously been assessed with quantitative sensory testing (QST). Commonly reported symptoms after exposure to HAV and after cold injuries, includes cold sensitivity and sensation of cold. Cold sensitivity can also occur without previous exposure to vibration or cold and may have a major impact on quality of life. Other possible risk factors for cold sensitivity need to be assessed. Sensation of cold hands could theoretically imply an early manifestation of damage to the neurosensory or vascular system, and therefore be of importance to enable early detection of vascular and neurosensory HAVS. The purpose of this thesis was to increase the knowledge about health effects from cold and HAV on the peripheral neurosensory and vascular system, with an occupational perspective. The aims were: first, to identify and evaluate health effects and sequelae in the peripheral neurosensory and vascular system due to cold injury and cold exposure; second, to investigate if sensation of cold hands is a predictor for future onset of Raynaud's phenomenon or paresthesia; and third, to identify possible risk factors associated with cold sensitivity.

    Methods A case series on 15 military conscripts with local cold injuries in the hands or feet, involving QST and symptom descriptions, was conducted to investigate the hypothesis that cold injuries can result in similar neurosensory and vascular impairments as in HAVS. To assess health effects of cold exposure, a cohort study on 54 military conscripts in cold winter military training, with cold exposure assessments, was conducted. Possible health effects were assessed after 14 months of military training, containing considerable cold exposure, by means of QST, Finger systolic blood pressure after local cooling (FSBP) and a questionnaire. To investigate if sensation of cold hands is a predictor for vascular or neurosensory HAVS we investigated a cohort of 178 employees at a manufacturing company where HAV was a common exposure. The cohort was followed during 21 years and both vibration exposure and health outcomes were assessed regularly. Questionnaire items were used to assess sensations of cold hands as well as signs of Raynaud’s phenomenon and paresthesia. To identify risk factors for cold sensitivity a case-control study was conducted involving 997iiiparticipants from the general population in northern Sweden. The study was cross-sectional and explored possible risk factors for cold sensitivity.

    Results Cold injuries and cold exposure were associated with reduced sensibility in QST and increase severity and prevalence of neurosensory and vascular symptoms. Our results did not show any impairment in peripheral blood flow due to cold exposure, detectable by FSBP. The risk of developing Raynaud's phenomenon was increased for workers previously reporting sensation of cold hands (OR 6.3, 95% CI 2.3-17.0). No increased risk for paresthesia in relation to a sensation of cold hands was observed. The identified risk factors for cold sensitivity were frostbite in the hands, rheumatic disease, nerve injury in upper extremities or neck, migraine and vascular disease. When analysing women and men separately, women’s risk factors were frostbite in the hands, rheumatic disease, migraine and cold exposure. Men’s risk factors were frostbite in the hands, vibration exposure and nerve injury in upper extremities or neck. BMI > 25 was a protective factor for both men and women.

    Conclusion Cold injury and cold exposure are associated with impairments in the neurosensory system, detectable by QST. Symptoms such as sensation of cold hands and white fingers indicate vascular involvement, even though no vascular impairments due to cold exposure could be detected by objective measurements. A sensation of cold hands is a risk factor for development of Raynaud´s phenomenon, but not for paresthesia. At the individual level, reporting cold hands does not appear to be useful information when considering the possibility of a future development of Raynaud’s phenomenon. Frostbite in the hands is a risk factor for cold sensitivity among both women and men. For women rheumatic disease, migraine and cold exposure are also independent risk factors, and for men, exposure to HAV. Being overweight is a protective factor for both women and men.

  • 115.
    Carlsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Sundsvall Hosp, Dept Occupat & Environm Med, SE-85186 Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Burström, Lage
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Heldestad Lilliesköld, Victoria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Tohr
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Sundsvall Hosp, Dept Occupat & Environm Med, SE-85186 Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Nordh, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Wahlström, Jens
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Neurosensory sequelae assessed by thermal and vibrotactile perception thresholds after local cold injury2014Ingår i: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 1239-9736, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 73, artikel-id 23540Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Local freezing cold injuries are common in the north and sequelae to cold injury can persist many years. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) can be used to assess neurosensory symptoms but has previously not been used on cold injury patients.

    Objective. To evaluate neurosensory sequelae after local freezing cold injury by thermal and vibrotactile perception thresholds and by symptom descriptions.

    Design. Fifteen patients with a local freezing cold injury in the hands or feet, acquired during military training, were studied with QST by assessment of vibrotactile (VPT), warmth (WPT) and cold (CPT) perception thresholds 4 months post-injury. In addition, a follow-up questionnaire, focusing on neurovascular symptoms, was completed 4 months and 4 years post-injury.

    Results. QST demonstrated abnormal findings in one or both affected hands for VPT in 6 patients, for WPT in 4 patients and for CPT in 1 patient. In the feet, QST was abnormal for VPT in one or both affected feet in 8 patients, for WPT in 6 patients and for CPT in 4 patients. Freezing cold injury related symptoms, e. g. pain/discomfort when exposed to cold, cold sensation and white fingers were common at 4 months and persisted 4 years after the initial injury.

    Conclusions. Neurosensory sequelae after local freezing cold injury, in terms of abnormal thermal and/or vibration perception thresholds, may last at least 4 months after the initial injury. Symptoms such as pain/discomfort at cold exposure, cold sensations and white fingers may persist at least 4 years after the initial injury.

  • 116.
    Carlsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Pettersson, Hans
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Burström, Lage
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nilsson, Tohr
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Wahlström, Jens
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Neurosensory and vascular function after 14 months of military training comprising cold winter conditions2016Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 42, nr 1, s. 61-70Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the effects of 14 months of military training comprising cold winter conditions on neurosensory and vascular function in the hands and feet.

    METHODS: Military conscripts (N=54) were assessed with quantitative sensory testing comprising touch, temperature, and vibration perception thresholds and finger systolic blood pressure (FSBP) after local cooling and a questionnaire on neurosensory and vascular symptoms at both baseline and follow-up. Ambient air temperature was recorded with body worn temperature loggers.

    RESULTS: The subjects showed reduced sensitivity to perception of touch, warmth, cold and vibrations in both the hands and feet except from vibrotactile perception in digit two of the right hand (right dig 2). Cold sensations, white fingers, and pain/discomfort when exposed to cold as well as pain increased in both prevalence and severity. There were no statistically significant changes in FSBP after local cooling.

    CONCLUSION: Fourteen months of winter military training comprising cold winter conditions reduced sensation from touch, warmth, cold, and vibrotactile stimulus in both hands and feet and increased the severity and prevalence of symptoms and pain. The vascular function in the hands, measured by FSBP after local cooling, was not affected.

  • 117.
    Carlsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Wahlström, Jens
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Burström, Lage
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Hagberg, Mats
    Avd för samhällsmedicin och folkhälsa vid Institutionen för medicin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Lundström, Ronnie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Radiofysik.
    Pettersson, Hans
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nilsson, Tohr
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Can sensation of cold hands predict Raynaud’s phenomenon or paresthesia?2018Ingår i: Occupational Medicine, ISSN 0962-7480, E-ISSN 1471-8405, Vol. 68, nr 5, s. 314-319Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Raynaud's phenomenon and neurosensory symptoms are common after hand-arm vibration exposure. Knowledge of early signs of vibration injuries is needed. Aims: To investigate the risk of developing Raynaud's phenomenon and paraesthesia in relation to sensation of cold hands in a cohort of male employees at an engineering plant. Methods: We followed a cohort of male manual and office workers at an engineering plant in Sweden for 21 years. At baseline (1987 and 1992) and each follow-up (1992, 1997, 2002, 2008), we assessed sensation of cold, Raynaud's phenomenon and paraesthesia in the hands using questionnaires and measured vibration exposure. We calculated risk estimates with univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses and adjusted for vibration exposure and tobacco usage. Results: There were 241 study participants. During the study period, 21 individuals developed Raynaud's phenomenon and 43 developed paraesthesia. When adjusting the risk of developing Raynaud's phenomenon for vibration exposure and tobacco use, the odds ratios were between 6.0 and 6.3 (95% CI 2.2-17.0). We observed no increased risk for paraesthesia in relation to a sensation of cold hands. Conclusions: A sensation of cold hands was a risk factor for Raynaud's phenomenon. At the individual level, reporting a sensation of cold hands did not appear to be useful information to predict future development of Raynaud's phenomenon given a weak to moderate predictive value. For paraesthesia, the sensation of cold was not a risk factor and there was no predictive value at the individual level.

  • 118.
    Carlsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Samband mellan rörelseutslag i ryggkotpelaren och antropometriska mått vid exponering för mekanisk stöt i sittande: En laboratorieundersökning2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning: Vid körning av maskiner i terräng utsätts kroppen för mekaniska stötar och vibrationer vilket kan ge muskuloskeletala besvär, främst i ryggraden. Det saknas kunskap om hur kroppsliga reaktioner vid mekanisk stöt påverkas av kroppens storleksförhållanden (antropometri). Syfte: Att undersöka samband mellan rörelseutslag i ryggkotpelaren och antropometriska mått då en person utsätts för en translatorisk stöt i sidled under sittande position. Vidare var syftet att se om sambandet påverkades om personen samtidigt utför en kognitiv uppgift då forskning visat att det kan påverka postural kontroll i andra situationer. Metod: Tjugotre friska manliga forskningspersoner (19-36år) satt på en stol monterad på en rörelsesimulator. De utsattes för 10 stötar med eller utan samtidig kognitiv uppgift. Rörelseutslag registrerades som relativa vinklar mellan olika ryggsegment genom orienteringsmätare fästa på huden. Resultat: Flera svaga men signifikanta samband fanns. Det högst uppmätta korrelationsvärdet var r=0,55 (avstånd mellan huvud-sits och rörelseutslag i nacken). Inga starka samband gick att finna och att samtidigt utföra en kognitiv uppgift påverkade inte sambanden. Slutsats: Antropometriska mått tycks ha viss betydelse för hur stora rörelseutslagen blir i ryggraden hos unga friska män som utsätts för mekanisk stöt. Sambanden påverkas inte av att man samtidigt utför en kognitiv uppgift.

  • 119. Carsin, Anne-Elie
    et al.
    Fuertes, Elaine
    Schaffner, Emmanuel
    Jarvis, Debbie
    Antó, Josep M.
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Bellisario, Valeria
    Svanes, Cecilie
    Keidel, Dirk
    Imboden, Medea
    Weyler, Joost
    Nowak, Dennis
    Martinez-Moratalla, Jesus
    Gullón, José-Antonio
    Sanchez Ramos, José Luis
    Caviezel, Seraina
    Beckmeyer-Borowko, Anna
    Raherison, Chantal
    Pin, Isabelle
    Demoly, Pascal
    Cerveri, Isa
    Accordini, Simone
    Gislason, Thorarinn
    Toren, Kjell
    Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Goteburg, Sweden..
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Janson, Christer
    Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory, Allergy and Sleep Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Jogi, Rain
    Emtner, Margareta
    Gómez Real, Francisco
    Raza, Wasif
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Leynaert, Bénédicte
    Pascual, Silvia
    Guerra, Stefano
    Dharmage, Shyamali C.
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole
    Garcia-Aymerich, Judith
    Restrictive spirometry pattern is associated with low physical activity levels: A population based international study2019Ingår i: Respiratory Medicine, ISSN 0954-6111, E-ISSN 1532-3064, Vol. 146, s. 116-123Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Restrictive spirometry pattern is an under-recognised disorder with a poor morbidity and mortality prognosis. We compared physical activity levels between adults with a restrictive spirometry pattern and with normal spirometry.

    Methods: Restrictive spirometry pattern was defined as a having post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ≥ Lower Limit of Normal and a FVC<80% predicted in two population-based studies (ECRHS-III and SAPALDIA3). Physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The odds of having low physical activity (<1st study-specific tertile) was evaluated using adjusted logistic regression models.

    Results: Subjects with a restrictive spirometry pattern (n = 280/4721 in ECRHS, n = 143/3570 in SAPALDIA) reported lower levels of physical activity than those with normal spirometry (median of 1770 vs 2253 MET·min/week in ECRHS, and 3519 vs 3945 MET·min/week in SAPALDIA). Subjects with a restrictive spirometry pattern were more likely to report low physical activity (meta-analysis odds ratio: 1.41 [95%CI 1.07–1.86]) than those with a normal spirometry. Obesity, respiratory symptoms, co-morbidities and previous physical activity levels did not fully explain this finding.

    Conclusion: Adults with a restrictive spirometry pattern were more likely to report low levels of physical activity than those with normal spirometry. These results highlight the need to identify and act on this understudied but prevalent condition.

  • 120. Cecchi, L
    et al.
    D'Amato, G
    Ayres, JG
    Galan, C
    Forastiere, F
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Gerritsen, J
    Nunes, C
    Behrendt, H
    Akdis, C
    Dahl, R
    Annesi-Maesano, I
    Projections of the effects of climate change on allergic asthma: the contribution of aerobiology2010Ingår i: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0105-4538, E-ISSN 1398-9995, Vol. 65, nr 9, s. 1073-1081Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is unequivocal and represents a possible threat for patients affected by allergic conditions. It has already had an impact on living organisms, including plants and fungi with current scenarios projecting further effects by the end of the century. Over the last three decades, studies have shown changes in production, dispersion and allergen content of pollen and spores, which may be region- and species-specific. In addition, these changes may have been influenced by urban air pollutants interacting directly with pollen. Data suggest an increasing effect of aeroallergens on allergic patients over this period, which may also imply a greater likelihood of the development of an allergic respiratory disease in sensitized subjects and exacerbation of symptomatic patients. There are a number of limitations that make predictions uncertain, and further and specifically designed studies are needed to clarify current effects and future scenarios. We recommend: More stress on pollen/spore exposure in the diagnosis and treatment guidelines of respiratory and allergic diseases; collection of aerobiological data in a structured way at the European level; creation, promotion and support of multidisciplinary research teams in this area; lobbying the European Union and other funders to finance this research.

  • 121. Chen, Chih-Mei
    et al.
    Thiering, Elisabeth
    Zock, Jan-Paul
    Villani, Simona
    Olivieri, Mario
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Jarvis, Deborah
    Norbaeck, Dan
    Verlato, Giuseppe
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Is There a Threshold Concentration of Cat Allergen Exposure on Respiratory Symptoms in Adults?2015Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 6, artikel-id e0127457Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Objective Cat allergen concentrations higher than 8 mu g/g in settled house dust, have been suggested to provoke exacerbation of allergic respiratory symptoms. However, whether the 8 mu g/g of indoor cat allergen concentration is indeed the minimal exposure required for triggering the asthma related respiratory symptoms or the development of sensitization has not yet been confirmed. We studied the associations between domestic cat allergen concentrations and allergic symptoms in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II, with the aim of confirming this suggested threshold. Methods Cat allergen concentrations were measured in the mattress dust of 3003 participants from 22 study centres. Levels of specific immunoglobulin E to cat allergens were measured in serum samples using an immunoassay. Information on allergic symptoms, medication use, home environment and smoking was obtained from a face-to-face interview. Results Domestic cat allergen concentrations were not associated with allergic/asthmatic symptoms in the entire study population, nor in the subset sensitized to cat allergen. We also found no association among individuals exposed to concentrations higher than 8 mu g/g. However, exposure to medium cat allergen concentrations (0.24-0.63 mu g/g) was positively associated with reported asthmatic respiratory symptoms in subjects who have experienced allergic symptoms when near animals. Conclusions The proposed 8 mu g/g threshold of cat allergen concentrations for the exacerbation of allergic/respiratory symptoms was not confirmed in a general European adult population. Potential biases attributable to avoidance behaviours and an imprecise exposure assessment cannot be excluded.

  • 122. Chen, Liang
    et al.
    Jin, Taiyi
    Huang, Bo
    Chang, Xiuli
    Lei, Lijian
    Nordberg, Gunnar F
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nordberg, Monica
    Plasma metallothionein antibody and cadmium-induced renal dysfunction in an occupational population in China.2006Ingår i: Toxicol Sci, ISSN 1096-6080, Vol. 91, nr 1, s. 104-12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 123. Chen, Liang
    et al.
    Lei, Lijian
    Jin, Taiyi
    Nordberg, Monica
    Nordberg, Gunnar F
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Plasma metallothionein antibody, urinary cadmium, and renal dysfunction in a Chinese type 2 diabetic population.2006Ingår i: Diabetes Care, ISSN 0149-5992, Vol. 29, nr 12, s. 2682-7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 124. Chen, Xiao
    et al.
    Wang, Zhongqiu
    Zhu, Guoying
    Nordberg, Gunnar F
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Ding, Xiaoqiang
    Jin, Taiyi
    The association between renal tubular dysfunction and zinc level in a Chinese population environmentally exposed to cadmium2018Ingår i: Biological Trace Element Research, ISSN 0163-4984, E-ISSN 1559-0720, Vol. 186, nr 1, s. 114-121Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Microglobulin (UBMG) were measured. The median UCd, BCd, SZn, and HZn were 2.8 and 13.6 μg/g cr, 1.3 and 12.2 μg/L, 1.31 and 1.12 mg/L, and 0.14 and 0.12 mg/g in subjects living in control and polluted areas. The UBMG level of subjects living in the polluted area was significantly higher than that of the control (0.27 vs 0.11 mg/g cr, p < 0.01). SZn, HZn, and Zn/Cd ratios were negatively correlated with UBMG (p < 0.05 or 0.01). Subjects with high SZn concentrations (≥ 1.62 mg/L) had reduced risks of elevated UBMG [(odds ratio (OR) = 0.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07-0.99)] after controlling for multiple covariates compared with those with lower zinc levels. A similar result was observed in subjects with high HZn (OR = 0.09, 95% CI 0.02-0.48). The ORs of the second, third, and fourth quartiles of Zn/Cd ratio were 0.40 (95% CI 0.19-0.84), 0.14 (95% CI 0.06-0.37), and 0.01 (95% CI 0.02-0.18) for renal dysfunction compared with those of the first quartile, respectively. For those subjects with high level of UCd, high level of SZn and HZn also had reduced risks of elevated UBMG. The results of the present study show that high zinc body burden is associated with a decrease risk of renal tubular dysfunction induced by cadmium. Zinc nutritional status should be considered in evaluating cadmium-induced renal damage.

  • 125. Chen, Xiao
    et al.
    Wang, Zhongqiu
    Zhu, Guoying
    Nordberg, Gunnar F.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Jin, Taiyi
    Ding, Xiaoqiang
    The association between cumulative cadmium intake and osteoporosis and risk of fracture in a Chinese population2019Ingår i: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 29, nr 3, s. 435-443Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bone is one of the target organs for cadmium toxicity. However, few studies have shown the association between cumulative cadmium intake and prevalence of osteoporosis and bone fracture. In the present study, we evaluated the association between cumulative cadmium intake and osteoporosis and risk of fracture in a Chinese population. A total of 790 subjects (488 women and 302 men) living in a control area and two cadmium-polluted areas were included. The cumulative cadmium intake was estimated by a food survey. The bone mineral density was determined by using single-photon absorptiometry. The cumulative cadmium intakes were 0.48, 2.14, and 11.00 g for men, and 0.42, 2.11, and 11.12 g in women in control, and moderately and heavily polluted areas, respectively. In women, the odds ratios (ORs) of subjects with a cadmium intake between 2.21 and 10.63 g and >10.63 g were 1.30 (95% CI: 0.58-2.94) and 2.36 (95% CI: 1.14-5.16), compared with those with a cadmium intake < 0.58 g after adjusting to the confounders for osteoporosis. The ORs of subjects with a cadmium intake >10.63 g were 2.34 (95% CI: 1.23-4.38) for all of the women and 2.62 (95% CI: 1.02-5.58) in women ≥ 60 years old, compared with those with a cadmium intake <10.63 g after adjusting to the confounders for bone fractures. In men, similar trends were observed, but no statistical significance was found. In addition, those subjects with renal tubular dysfunction showed high risk of bone fracture. Our results indicate that a high level of cumulative cadmium intake is associated with an increased rate of osteoporosis and fractures among women.

  • 126. Cherniack, Martin
    et al.
    Brammer, Anthony J
    Institute for Microstructural Sciences, National Research Council, Ottawa, Canada.
    Lundström, Ronnie
    Department of Biomedical Engineering and Informatics, University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden.
    Morse, Tim F.
    Neely, Greg
    Technical Risk Factors, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Tohr
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Peterson, Donald
    Toppila, Esko
    Warren, Nicholas
    Diva, Ulysses
    Croteau, Marc
    Dussetschleger, Jefferey
    Syndromes from segmental vibration and nerve entrapment: observations on case definitions for carpal tunnel syndrome2008Ingår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 81, nr 5, s. 661-669Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The purpose of this paper is to assess the overlap and stability of two different case definitions of carpal tunnel syndrome CTS. The analysis considers the association between different case definitions and objective tests (sensory nerve conduction velocities, SNCVs and vibrotactile perception thresholds, TTS), and the natural history of CTS, in the context of two vibration-exposed cohorts.

    Methods: Clinical CTS cases were defined in two ways: (1) by the study physician using fixed criteria, and; (2) by questionnaire and hand diagram. SNCV in median and ulnar nerves was measured for digital, transpalmar, and transcarpal segments, and conventionally as from wrist-digit. Skin temperature was assessed as a point measurement by thermistor and regionally by thermal imaging. VTTs were determined at the bilateral fingertips of the third and fifth digits using a tactometer meeting the requirements of ISO 13091-1 (ISO 2001). The subjects were cohorts of shipyard workers in 2001 and 2004, and dental hygienists in 2002 and 2004.

    Results: Results are reported for 214 shipyard workers in 2001 and 135 in 2004, and for 94 dental hygienists in 2002 and 66 in 2004. In 2001, 50% of shipyard workers were diagnosed as CTS cases by at least one of the diagnostic schemes, but only 20% were positive by both criteria. Among study physician diagnosed cases, 64% were CTS negative in 2001, 76% were negative in 2004, 13% were positive in both years, 22% became negative after being positive, and 11% became positive after being negative. For only study physician diagnosed CTS did VTTs differ between cases differ and non-cases in digit 3; there was no such distinction in digit 5. The dental hygienists had little CTS.

    Conclusion: Clinical case definitions of CTS based on diagrams and self-assessment, and clinical evaluation have limited overlap. Combining clinical criteria to create a more narrow or specific case definition of CTS does not appear to predict SNCV. The natural history of CTS suggests a protean disorder with considerable flux in case status over time.

  • 127. Cherniack, Martin
    et al.
    Brammer, Anthony
    Lundström, Ronnie
    Morse, Timothy
    Neely, Gregory
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nilsson, Tohr
    Peterson, Donald
    Toppila, Esko
    Warren, Nicholas
    Age and neuropathies in vibration exposed manual workers2009Ingår i: Canadian Acoustics, ISSN 0711-6659, E-ISSN 2291-1391, Vol. 37, nr 3, s. 178-179Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 128. Cherniack, MG
    et al.
    Dussetschleger, J
    Björ, Bodil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Musculoskeletal disease and disability in dentists2010Ingår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 35, nr 4, s. 411-418Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is conflicting evidence on the extent that medical conditions, particularly musculoskeletal conditions related to work, cause disability and premature retirement in dentists. Reports based on data from disability insurance in the United States suggest dentists are not susceptible to work related musculoskeletal disability. Surveys of symptom rated debility suggest higher rates of dysfunction, however, as do compulsory employment injury reports from European countries. These data, including information on Swedish dentists, analyzed for this study, tend to put dentists at the higher end of health care professionals in terms of musculoskeletal injury and lost work time. Because compensation patterns and proprietorship vary between national systems, the relationship between exposure and injury and retirement from the active work force may include differing national characteristics.

  • 129. Christensen, Stine Holmegaard
    et al.
    Timm, Signe
    Janson, Christer
    Benediktsdóttir, Bryndis
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Holm, Mathias
    Jogi, Rain
    Johannessen, Ane
    Omenaas, Ernst
    Sigsgaard, Torben
    Svanes, Cecilie
    Schlünssen, Vivi
    A clear urban-rural gradient of allergic rhinitis in a population-based study in Northern Europe2016Ingår i: European clinical respiratory journal, ISSN 2001-8525, Vol. 3, artikel-id 33463Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The protective effect of farm upbringing on allergic rhinitis is well known, but how upbringing in other environments influences the development of allergic rhinitis is scarcely investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between place of upbringing and pet keeping in childhood and allergic rhinitis and nasal symptoms in adulthood.

    METHODS: The population-based Respiratory Health in Northern Europe study includes subjects from Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland, and Estonia born in 1945-1973. This paper analyses 13,376 participants of the third study wave. Six categories of place of upbringing were defined: farm with livestock, farm without livestock, village in rural area, small town, city suburb, and inner city. Pets in the home at birth and during childhood were recorded. Data were analysed using adjusted logistic regression models.

    RESULTS: Livestock farm upbringing predicted less adult allergic rhinitis [odds ratio (OR) 0.68, 0.54-0.85] and nasal symptoms (OR 0.82, 0.68-0.99) than city upbringing, and an urban-rural gradient with decreasing risk per level of urbanisation was observed (OR 0.92, 0.88-0.94). Pets in the home at birth (OR 0.78, 0.68-0.88) and during childhood (OR 0.83, 0.74-0.93) were associated with less subsequent allergic rhinitis. Pet keeping did not explain the protective effect of place of upbringing.

    CONCLUSION: Risk of allergic rhinitis and nasal symptoms in adulthood was inversely associated with the level of urbanisation during upbringing. Pets at birth decreased the risk further, but did not explain the urban-rural gradient. Persistent beneficial effects of microbial diversity in early life might be an explanation for the findings.

  • 130. Chuang, Shu-Chun
    et al.
    Fanidi, Anouar
    Ueland, Per Magne
    Relton, Caroline
    Midttun, Oivind
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    Gunter, Marc J.
    Seckl, Michael J.
    Travis, Ruth C.
    Wareham, Nicholas
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Lagiou, Pagona
    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
    Peeters, Petra H. M.
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas
    Boeing, Heiner
    Wientzek, Angelika
    Kuehn, Tilman
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Tumino, Rosario
    Agnoli, Claudia
    Palli, Domenico
    Naccarati, Alessio
    Ardanaz Aicua, Eva
    Sanchez, Maria-Jose
    Ramon Quiros, Jose
    Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores
    Agudo, Antonio
    Johansson, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Grankvist, Kjell
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap.
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise
    Fagherazzi, Guy
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Riboli, Elio
    Brennan, Paul J.
    Vineis, Paolo
    Johansson, Mattias
    Circulating Biomarkers of Tryptophan and the Kynurenine Pathway and Lung Cancer Risk2014Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, ISSN 1055-9965, E-ISSN 1538-7755, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 461-468Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Imbalances in tryptophan metabolism have been linked to cancer-related immune escape and implicated in several cancers, including lung cancer. Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer andNutrition (EPIC) that included 893 incident lung cancer cases and 1,748matched controls. Circulating levels of tryptophan and six of its metabolites were measured and evaluated in relation to lung cancer risk. Results: Tryptophan (P-trend = 2 Chi 10(-5)) and the kynurenine/ tryptophan ratio (KTR; P-trend 4 Chi 10(-5)) were associated with lung cancer risk overall after adjusting for established risk factors. The ORs comparing the fifth and first quintiles (OR5th (vs. 1st)) were 0.52 [ 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.37-0.74] for tryptophan and 1.74 (95% CI, 1.24-2.45) for KTR. After adjusting for plasma methionine (available fromprevious work, which was strongly correlated with tryptophan), the associations of tryptophan (adjusted P-trend 0.13) and KTR (P-trend = 0.009) were substantially attenuated. KTR was positively associated with squamous cell carcinoma, the OR5th vs. 1st being 2.83 (95% CI, 1.62-4.94, P-trend -3 Chi 10(-5)) that was only marginally affected by adjusting for methionine. Conclusions: This study indicates that biomarkers of tryptophan metabolism are associated with subsequent lung cancer risk. Although this result would seem consistent with the immune system having a role in lung cancer development, the overall associations were dependent on methionine, and further studies are warranted to further elucidate the importance of these metabolites in lung cancer etiology. Impact: This is the first prospective study investigating the tryptophan pathway in relation to lung cancer risk.

  • 131.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Andersson, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wikdahl, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyback, Maj-Helen
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Comorbidity of Airway Inflammatory Diseases in Chemical and Building-Related Intolerance2018Ingår i: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 60, nr 4, s. 295-300Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study investigated comorbidity in chemical intolerance (CI) and building- related intolerance (BRI) with (i) chronic sinusitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, allergic and nonallergic asthma and allergic rhinitis, and (ii) airway inflammatory symptoms. Methods: Data from two population-based questionnaire surveys, the Västerbotten and Österbotten Environmental Health Studies, were used. The participants were categorized as CI or BRI and referents, and binary logistic regression analysis was applied. Results: Prevalence rates for the case groups were 7.2% to 40.0% for diseases and 24.3% to 68.9% for symptoms, whereas adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were 3.4 to 26.1 for diseases and 3.3 to 17.0 for symptoms, all being significantly higher than unity. Prevalence rates and ORs were in general higher in BRI than in CI. Conclusion: Inflammatory airway diseases and symptoms are associated with CI and BRI, which encourages further research regarding underlying mechanisms and treatments.

  • 132.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Häggström, Jenny
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    Fowler, Christopher J.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Nording, Malin L.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Levels of oxylipins, endocannabinoids and related lipids in plasma before and after low-level exposure to acrolein in healthy individuals and individuals with chemical intolerance2017Ingår i: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, ISSN 0952-3278, E-ISSN 1532-2823, Vol. 121, s. 60-67Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxylipins and endocannabinoids play important biological roles, including effects upon inflammation. It is not known whether the circulating levels of these lipids are affected by inhalation of the environmental pollutant acrolein. In the present study, we have investigated the consequences of low-level exposure to acrolein on oxylipin, endocannabinoid and related lipid levels in the plasma of healthy individuals and individuals with chemical intolerance (CI), an affliction with a suggested inflammatory origin. Participants were exposed twice (60 min) to heptane and a mixture of heptane and acrolein. Blood samples were collected before exposure, after and 24 h post-exposure. There were no overt effects of acrolein exposure on the oxylipin lipidome or endocannibinoids detectable in the bloodstream at the time points investigated. No relationship between basal levels or levels after exposure to acrolein and CI could be identified. This implicates a minor role of inflammatory mediators on the systemic level in CI.

  • 133.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lidén, Edvard
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The role of perceived pollution and health risk perception in annoyance and health symptoms: a population-based study of odorous air pollution2013Ingår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 86, nr 3, s. 367-374Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Health effects associated with air pollution at exposure levels below toxicity may not be directly related to level of exposure, but rather mediated by perception of the air pollution and by top-down processing (e.g., beliefs that the exposure is hazardous). The aim of the study was to test a model that describes interrelations between odorous air pollution at non-toxic exposure levels, perceived pollution, health risk perception, annoyance and health symptoms.

    METHODS: A population-based questionnaire study was conducted in a Swedish community of residents living near a biofuel facility that emitted odorous substances. Individuals aged 18-75 years were selected at random for participation (n = 1,118); 722 (65 %) agreed to participate. Path analyses were performed to test the validity of the model.

    RESULTS: The data support a model proposing that exposure level does not directly influence annoyance and symptoms, and that these relations instead are mediated by perceived pollution and health risk perception.

    CONCLUSIONS: Perceived pollution and health risk perception play important roles in understanding and predicting environmentally induced annoyance and health symptoms in odorous environments at non-toxic levels of exposure.

  • 134.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lind, Nina
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Econ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Human exposure to acrolein: Time -dependence and individual variation in eye irritation2016Ingår i: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, ISSN 1382-6689, E-ISSN 1872-7077, Vol. 45, s. 20-27Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 135.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lind, Nina
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Human exposure to acrolein: Time-dependence and individual variation in eye irritation2016Ingår i: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, ISSN 1382-6689, E-ISSN 1872-7077, Vol. 45, s. 20-27Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine the time dependence on sensory irritation detection following exposure to threshold levels of acrolein, in humans. The exposures occurred in an exposure chamber and the subjects were breathing fresh air through a mask that covered the nose and mouth. All participants participated in four exposure conditions, of which three consisted of a mixture of acrolein and heptane and one of only heptane. Exposure to acrolein at a concentration half of the TLV-C lead to sensory irritation. The perceived sensory irritation resulted in both increased detectability and sensory irritation after about6.8 min of exposure in 58% of the participants. The study confirm the previously suggested LOAEL of about 0.34 mg/m3for eye irritation due to acrolein exposure. The sensory irritation was still significant 10 min after exposure. These results have implications for risk assessment and limit setting in occupational hygiene.

  • 136.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Palmquist, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lind, Nina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Symptom-trigger factors other than allergens in asthma and allergy2016Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Health Research, ISSN 0960-3123, E-ISSN 1369-1619, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 448-457Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Several environmental exposures of particular relevance for indoor air quality, such as exposure to odorants, may be associated with asthma and allergy. The aim of this study was to investigate attribution of symptoms and behavioral disruptions to various chemical and physical environmental sources in persons with self-reported asthma and allergy. Data from a population-based study, the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study, were used to compare persons with asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis, multiple diagnoses of asthma/allergy and no asthma or allergy. Persons with asthma and multiple diagnoses reported odorous/pungent and buildingrelated environmental factors to trigger symptoms to a larger extent than did the reference group, mainly due to perfume and odors from flowers. They also reported behavioral disruptions and affective reactions to odorous/ pungent environments. These findings increase the understanding of the role of odorants in symptom development and thereby the prevention of health problems in asthma and allergy in indoor air.

  • 137.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Palmquist, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Physical and chemical trigger factors in environmental intolerance2018Ingår i: International journal of hygiene and environmental health (Print), ISSN 1438-4639, E-ISSN 1618-131X, Vol. 221, nr 3, s. 586-592Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Individuals with environmental intolerance (EI) react to exposure from different environmental sources at levels tolerated by most people and that are below established toxicological and hazardous thresholds. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of attributing symptoms to chemical and physical sources in the environment among individuals with different forms of self-reported EI and in referents.

    Methods: Cross-sectional data from a population-based study, the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study (n = 3406), were used and individuals with self-reported EI to chemicals, buildings, electromagnetic fields and sounds as well as a group with multiple EIs were identified. The Environmental-Symptom Attribution Scale was used to quantify degree to which health symptoms are attributed to 40 specific environmental exposures and sources, with subscales referring to the four types of EI.

    Results: All EI groups, except the group with building related intolerance (BRI), reported more symptoms from the expected sources compared to the referents. In addition, individuals with chemical and sound intolerance reported symptoms from building related trigger factors, and individuals with electromagnetic hypersensitivity reported symptoms from chemical trigger factors.

    Conclusions: The study suggests that individuals with BRI react to fewer and more specific trigger factors than do individuals with other EIs, and that it is important to ask about different sources since three of the EI groups attribute their symptoms to a wide variety of sources in addition to the sources to which their EI implicates.

  • 138.
    Claesson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Birgander, Lisbeth Slunga
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Lindahl, B
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Burell, G
    Asplund, Kjell
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Mattsson, Cecilia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Cognitive-behavioural stress management does not improve biological cardiovascular risk indicators in women with ischaemic heart disease: a randomized-controlled trial.2006Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 260, nr 4, s. 320-331Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 139.
    Claesson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Slunga Birgander, Lisbeth
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nasic, Salmir
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Åström, Monica
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Asplund, Kjell
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Burell, Gunilla
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Women's hearts - stress management for women with ischemic heart disease: explanatory analyses of a randomized controlled trial.2005Ingår i: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation (JCR), ISSN 0883-9212, E-ISSN 1539-0691, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 93-102Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 140. Clendenen, Tess V.
    et al.
    Arslan, Alan A.
    Lokshin, Anna E.
    Liu, Mengling
    Lundin, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Koenig, Karen L.
    Berrino, Franco
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Enheten för biobanksforskning.
    Idahl, Annika
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Lukanova, Annekatrin
    Marrangoni, Adele
    Muti, Paola
    Nolen, Brian M.
    Ohlson, Nina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Shore, Roy E.
    Sieri, Sabina
    Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne
    Circulating prolactin levels and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer2013Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control, ISSN 0957-5243, E-ISSN 1573-7225, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 741-748Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Indirect evidence from experimental and epidemiological studies suggests that prolactin may be involved in ovarian cancer development. However, the relationship between circulating prolactin levels and risk of ovarian cancer is unknown.

    We conducted a nested case-control study of 230 cases and 432 individually matched controls within three prospective cohorts to evaluate whether pre-diagnostic circulating prolactin is associated with subsequent risk of ovarian cancer. We also assessed whether lifestyle and reproductive factors are associated with circulating prolactin among controls.

    Prolactin levels were significantly lower among post- versus pre-menopausal women, parous versus nulliparous women, and past versus never users of oral contraceptives in our cross-sectional analysis of controls. In our nested case-control study, we observed a non-significant positive association between circulating prolactin and ovarian cancer risk (ORQ4vsQ1 1.56, 95 % CI 0.94, 2.63, p trend 0.15). Our findings were similar in multivariate-adjusted models and in the subgroup of women who donated blood a parts per thousand yen5 years prior to diagnosis. We observed a significant positive association between prolactin and risk for the subgroup of women with BMI a parts per thousand yen25 kg/m(2) (ORQ4vsQ1 3.10, 95 % CI 1.39, 6.90), but not for women with BMI < 25 kg/m(2) (ORQ4vsQ1 0.81, 95 % CI 0.40, 1.64).

    Our findings suggest that prolactin may be associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer, particularly in overweight/obese women. Factors associated with reduced risk of ovarian cancer, such as parity and use of oral contraceptives, were associated with lower prolactin levels, which suggests that modulation of prolactin may be a mechanism underlying their association with risk.

  • 141. Cornmins, Scott P.
    et al.
    Kelly, Libby A.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    James, Hayley R.
    Pochan, Shawna L.
    Peters, Edward J.
    Lundbäck, Bo
    Nganga, Lucy W.
    Cooper, Philip J.
    Hoskins, Janelle M.
    Eapen, Saju S.
    Matos, Luis A.
    McBride, Dane C.
    Heymann, Peter W.
    Woodfolk, Judith A.
    Perzanowski, Matthew S.
    Platts-Mills, Thomas A. E.
    Galactose-alpha-1,3-Galactose-Specific IgE Is Associated with Anaphylaxis but Not Asthma2012Ingår i: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, ISSN 1073-449X, E-ISSN 1535-4970, Vol. 185, nr 7, s. 723-730Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationale: IgE antibodies to the mammalian oligosaccharide galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal) are common in the southeastern United States. These antibodies, which are induced by ectoparasitic ticks, can give rise to positive skin tests or serum assays with cat extract. Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between IgE antibodies to alpha-gal and asthma, and compare this with the relationship between asthma and IgE antibodies to Fel d 1 and other protein allergens. Methods: Patients being investigated for recurrent anaphylaxis, angioedema, or acute urticaria underwent spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, questionnaires, and serum IgE antibody assays. The results were compared with control subjects and cohorts from the emergency department in Virginia (n = 130), northern Sweden (n = 963), and rural Kenya (n = 131). Measurements and Main Results: Patients in Virginia with high-titer IgE antibodies to a-gal had normal lung function, low levels of exhaled nitric oxide, and low prevalence of asthma symptoms. Among patients in the emergency department and children in Kenya, there was no association between IgE antibodies to a-gal and asthma (odds ratios, 1.04 and 0.75, respectively). In Sweden, IgE antibodies to cat were closely correlated with IgE antibodies to Fel d 1 (r = 0.83) and to asthma (P < 0.001). Conclusions: These results provide a model of an ectoparasite-induced specific IgE response that can increase total serum IgE without creating a risk for asthma, and further evidence that the main allergens that are causally related to asthma are those that are inhaled.

  • 142. Cox, Bianca
    et al.
    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Gasparrini, Antonio
    Roels, Harry A.
    Martens, Evelyne
    Vangronsveld, Jaco
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nawrot, Tim S.
    Ambient temperature as a trigger of preterm delivery in a temperate climate2016Ingår i: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 70, nr 12, s. 1191-1199Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that elevated ambient temperatures may trigger preterm delivery. Since results from studies in temperate climates are inconclusive, we investigated the association between temperature and the risk of preterm birth in Flanders (Belgium).

    METHODS: We used data on 807 835 singleton deliveries (January 1998-July 2011). We combined a quasi-Poisson model with distributed lag non-linear models to allow for delayed and non-linear temperature effects, accounting for the daily pregnancies at risk and their gestational age distribution.

    RESULTS: For moderate heat (95th vs 50th centile) up to 1 day before delivery (lag 0-1), the risk of preterm birth increased by 8.5% (95% CI 2.4% to 15.0%) when minimum temperature increased from 8.3°C to 16.3°C and by 9.6% (95% CI 1.1% to 18.7%) when maximum temperature increased from 14.7°C to 26.5°C. Corresponding estimates for extreme heat (99th vs 50th centile) were 15.6% (95% CI 4.8% to 27.6%) for minimum temperature (19.0°C vs 8.3°C) and 14.5% (95% CI 0.5% to 30.6%) for maximum temperature (30.7°C vs 14.7°C). Despite the increased risk of preterm birth associated with cold at lag 2 (and lag 1 for minimum temperature), cumulative cold effects were small. The per cent change in preterm birth associated with moderate cold (5th vs 50th centile) up to 3 days before delivery (lag 0-3) was 2.1% (95% CI -4.1% to 8.7%) for minimum temperature (-2.0°C vs 8.3°C) and 0.6% (95% CI -7.3% to 9.2%) for maximum temperature (2.5°C vs 14.7°C).

    CONCLUSIONS: Even in a temperate climate, ambient temperature may trigger preterm delivery, suggesting that pregnant women should avoid temperature extremes.

  • 143. Crenshaw, Albert G
    et al.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    Heiden, Marina
    Flodgren, Gerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin. Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Gävle, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    Impact of time pressure and pauses on physiological responses to standardized computer mouse use: a review of three papers focusing on mechanisms behind computer-related disorders2007Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, nr Suppl 3, s. 68-75Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews three computer mouse studies in our laboratory in which our emphasis was on mechanisms behind computer-related disorders. Our approach was sequentially (i) to determine the validity of a laboratory model for computer mouse use (painting rectangles) for studying musculoskeletal disorders, (ii) to use this model to study time pressure and precision demands on position sense and muscular oxygenation, and (iii) to use this model to determine the effect of pauses (active versus passive) on these parameters. Kinematic data for the painting model showed constrained movements of the wrist similar to that of CAD (computer-aided design) work, a support for its validity for a real-life situation. Changes in forearm oxygenation were associated with time pressure and precision demands, a potential for insight into the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Increasing trends in oxygenation and blood volume were associated with pauses, especially active pauses, a possible explanation for the alleviating effect of discomfort experienced in real-life situations when a pause is implemented.

  • 144. Cyrys, Josef
    et al.
    Eeftens, Marloes
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Ampe, Christophe
    Armengaud, Alexandre
    Beelen, Rob
    Bellander, Tom
    Beregszaszi, Timea
    Birk, Matthias
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Cirach, Marta
    de Hoogh, Kees
    De Nazelle, Audrey
    de Vocht, Frank
    Declercq, Christophe
    Dėdelė, Audrius
    Dimakopoulou, Konstantina
    Eriksen, Kirsten
    Galassi, Claudia
    Gra˛ulevičienėo, Regina
    Grivas, Georgios
    Gruzieva, Olena
    Hagenbjörk Gustafsson, Annika
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Hoffmann, Barbara
    Iakovides, Minas
    Ineichen, Alex
    Krämer, Ursula
    Lanki, Timo
    Lozano, Patricia
    Madsena, Christian
    Meliefste, Kees
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Mölter, Anna
    Mosler, Gioia
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark
    Nonnemachera, Michael
    Oldenwening, Marieke
    Peters, Annette
    Ponteta, Sabrina
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole
    Quassa, Ulrich
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Ranzia, Andrea
    Sugiri, Dorothee
    Stephanou, Euripides G.
    Taimisto, Pekka
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Vaskövi, Éva
    Villania, Simona
    Wang, Meng
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Hoek, Gerard
    Variation of NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within 36 European study areas: Results from the ESCAPE study2012Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 62, s. 374-390Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ESCAPE study (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) investigates long-term effects of exposure to air pollution on human health in Europe. This paper documents the spatial variation of measured NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within 36 ESCAPE study areas across Europe.

    In all study areas NO2 and NOx were measured using standardized methods between October 2008 and April 2011. On average, 41 sites were selected per study area, including regional and urban background as well as street sites. The measurements were conducted in three different seasons, using Ogawa badges. Average concentrations for each site were calculated after adjustment for temporal variation using data obtained from a routine monitor background site.

    Substantial spatial variability was found in NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within study areas; 40% of the overall NO2 variance was attributable to the variability between study areas and 60% to variability within study areas. The corresponding values for NOx were 30% and 70%. The within-area spatial variability was mostly determined by differences between street and urban background concentrations. The street/urban background concentration ratio for NO2 varied between 1.09 and 3.16 across areas. The highest median concentrations were observed in Southern Europe, the lowest in Northern Europe.

    In conclusion, we found significant contrasts in annual average NO2 and NOx concentrations between and especially within 36 study areas across Europe. Epidemiological long-term studies should therefore consider different approaches for better characterization of the intra-urban contrasts, either by increasing of the number of monitors or by modelling.

  • 145. Daar, Abdallah S
    et al.
    Jacobs, Marian
    Wall, Stig
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Groenewald, Johann
    Eaton, Julian
    Patel, Vikram
    dos Santos, Palmira
    Kagee, Ashraf
    Gevers, Anik
    Sunkel, Charlene
    Andrews, Gail
    Daniels, Ingrid
    Ndetei, David
    Declaration on mental health in Africa: moving to implementation2014Ingår i: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 7, artikel-id 24589Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Urgent action is needed to address mental health issues globally. In Africa, where mental health disorders account for a huge burden of disease and disability, and where in general less than 1% of the already small health budgets are spent on these disorders, the need for action is acute and urgent. Members of the World Health Organization, including African countries, have adopted a Comprehensive Mental Health Action Plan. Africa now has an historic opportunity to improve the mental health and wellbeing of its citizens, beginning with provision of basic mental health services and development of national mental health strategic plans (roadmaps). There is need to integrate mental health into primary health care and address stigma and violations of human rights. We advocate for inclusion of mental health into the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, and for the convening of a special UN General Assembly High Level Meeting on Mental Health within three years.

  • 146. Dambach, Peter
    et al.
    Sie, Ali
    Lacaux, Jean-Pierre
    Vignolles, Cecile
    Machault, Vanessa
    Sauerborn, Rainer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. University of Heidelberg, Department of Tropical Hygiene & Public Health, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Using high spatial resolution remote sensing for risk mapping of malaria occurrence in the Nouna district, Burkina Faso2009Ingår i: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 2, s. 149-155Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Malaria control measures such as early diagnosis and treatment, intermittent treatment of pregnant women, impregnated bed nets, indoor spraying and larval control measures are difficult to target specifically because of imprecise estimates of risk at a small-scale level. Ways of estimating local risks for malaria are therefore important.

    Methods: A high-resolution satellite view from the SPOT 5 satellite during 2008 was used to generate a land cover classification in the malaria endemic lowland of North-Western Burkina Faso. For the area of a complete satellite view of 60 x 60 km, a supervised land cover classification was carried out. Ten classes were built and correlated to land cover types known for acting as Anopheles mosquito breeding sites.

    Results: According to known correlations of Anopheles larvae presence and surface water-related land cover, cultivated areas in the riverine vicinity of Kossi River were shown to be one of the most favourable sites for Anopheles production. Similar conditions prevail in the South of the study region, where clayey soils and higher precipitations benefit the occurrence of surface water. Besides pools, which are often directly detectable, rice fields and occasionally flooded crops represent most appropriate habitats. On the other hand, forests, elevated regions on porous soils, grasslands and the dryer, sandy soils in the north-western part turned out to deliver fewer mosquito breeding opportunities.

    Conclusions: Potential high and low risks for malaria at the village level can be differentiated from satellite data. While much remains to be done in terms of establishing correlations between remotely sensed risks and malaria disease patterns, this is a potentially useful approach which could lead to more focused disease control programmes.

  • 147. de' Donato, Francesca K.
    et al.
    Leone, Michela
    Scortichini, Matteo
    De Sario, Manuela
    Katsouyanni, Klea
    Lanki, Timo
    Basagaña, Xavier
    Ballester, Ferran
    Åström, Christofer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Paldy, Anna
    Pascal, Mathilde
    Gasparrini, Antonio
    Menne, Bettina
    Michelozzi, Paola
    Changes in the effect of heat on mortality in the last 20 years in nine European cities: results from the PHASE project2015Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 12, nr 12, s. 15567-15583Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The European project PHASE aims to evaluate patterns of change in the temperature–mortality relationship and in the number of deaths attributable to heat in nine European cities in two periods, before and after summer 2003 (1996–2002 and 2004–2010). We performed age-specific Poisson regression models separately in the two periods, controlling for seasonality, air pollution and time trends. Distributed lag non-linear models were used to estimate the Relative Risks of daily mortality for increases in mean temperature from the 75th to 99th percentile of the summer distribution for each city. In the recent period, a reduction in the mortality risk associated to heat was observed only in Athens, Rome and Paris, especially among the elderly. Furthermore, in terms of heat-attributable mortality, 985, 787 and 623 fewer deaths were estimated, respectively, in the three cities. In Helsinki and Stockholm, there is a suggestion of increased heat effect. Noteworthy is that an effect of heat was still present in the recent years in all cities, ranging from +11% to +35%. In Europe, considering the warming observed in recent decades and population ageing, effective intervention measures should be promoted across countries, especially targeting vulnerable subgroups of the population with lower adaptive resources.

  • 148. de Hoogh, Kees
    et al.
    Gulliver, John
    Donkelaar, Aaron van
    Martin, Randall V
    Marshall, Julian D
    Bechle, Matthew J
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Pradas, Marta Cirach
    Dedele, Audrius
    Eeftens, Marloes
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Galassi, Claudia
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Hoffmann, Barbara
    Jacquemin, Bénédicte
    Katsouyanni, Klea
    Korek, Michal
    Künzli, Nino
    Lindley, Sarah J
    Lepeule, Johanna
    Meleux, Frederik
    de Nazelle, Audrey
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark
    Nystad, Wenche
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Peters, Annette
    Peuch, Vincent-Henri
    Rouil, Laurence
    Udvardy, Orsolya
    Slama, Rémy
    Stempfelet, Morgane
    Stephanou, Euripides G
    Tsai, Ming Y
    Yli-Tuomi, Tarja
    Weinmayr, Gudrun
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Vienneau, Danielle
    Hoek, Gerard
    Development of West-European PM2.5 and NO2 land use regression models incorporating satellite-derived and chemical transport modelling data2016Ingår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 151, s. 1-10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Satellite-derived (SAT) and chemical transport model (CTM) estimates of PM2.5 and NO2 are increasingly used in combination with Land Use Regression (LUR) models. We aimed to compare the contribution of SAT and CTM data to the performance of LUR PM2.5 and NO2 models for Europe. Four sets of models, all including local traffic and land use variables, were compared (LUR without SAT or CTM, with SAT only, with CTM only, and with both SAT and CTM). LUR models were developed using two monitoring data sets: PM2.5 and NO2 ground level measurements from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) and from the European AIRBASE network. LUR PM2.5 models including SAT and SAT+CTM explained ~60% of spatial variation in measured PM2.5 concentrations, substantially more than the LUR model without SAT and CTM (adjR(2): 0.33-0.38). For NO2 CTM improved prediction modestly (adjR(2): 0.58) compared to models without SAT and CTM (adjR(2): 0.47-0.51). Both monitoring networks are capable of producing models explaining the spatial variance over a large study area. SAT and CTM estimates of PM2.5 and NO2 significantly improved the performance of high spatial resolution LUR models at the European scale for use in large epidemiological studies.

  • 149. de Hoogh, Kees
    et al.
    Korek, Michal
    Vienneau, Danielle
    Keuken, Menno
    Kukkonen, Jaakko
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J
    Badaloni, Chiara
    Beelen, Rob
    Bolignano, Andrea
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Pradas, Marta Cirach
    Cyrys, Josef
    Douros, John
    Eeftens, Marloes
    Forastiere, Francesco
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Fuks, Kateryna
    Gehring, Ulrike
    Gryparis, Alexandros
    Gulliver, John
    Hansell, Anna L
    Hoffmann, Barbara
    Johansson, Christer
    Jonkers, Sander
    Kangas, Leena
    Katsouyanni, Klea
    Künzli, Nino
    Lanki, Timo
    Memmesheimer, Michael
    Moussiopoulos, Nicolas
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Pershagen, Göran
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole
    Schindler, Christian
    Schikowski, Tamara
    Sugiri, Dorothee
    Teixidó, Oriol
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Yli-Tuomi, Tarja
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Hoek, Gerard
    Bellander, Tom
    Comparing land use regression and dispersion modelling to assess residential exposure to ambient air pollution for epidemiological studies2014Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 73, s. 382-392Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Land-use regression (LUR) and dispersion models (DM) are commonly used for estimating individual air pollution exposure in population studies. Few comparisons have however been made of the performance of these methods.

    OBJECTIVES: Within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) we explored the differences between LUR and DM estimates for NO2, PM10 and PM2.5.

    METHODS: The ESCAPE study developed LUR models for outdoor air pollution levels based on a harmonised monitoring campaign. In thirteen ESCAPE study areas we further applied dispersion models. We compared LUR and DM estimates at the residential addresses of participants in 13 cohorts for NO2; 7 for PM10 and 4 for PM2.5. Additionally, we compared the DM estimates with measured concentrations at the 20-40 ESCAPE monitoring sites in each area.

    RESULTS: The median Pearson R (range) correlation coefficients between LUR and DM estimates for the annual average concentrations of NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 were 0.75 (0.19-0.89), 0.39 (0.23-0.66) and 0.29 (0.22-0.81) for 112,971 (13 study areas), 69,591 (7) and 28,519 (4) addresses respectively. The median Pearson R correlation coefficients (range) between DM estimates and ESCAPE measurements were of 0.74 (0.09-0.86) for NO2; 0.58 (0.36-0.88) for PM10 and 0.58 (0.39-0.66) for PM2.5.

    CONCLUSIONS: LUR and dispersion model estimates correlated on average well for NO2 but only moderately for PM10 and PM2.5, with large variability across areas. DM predicted a moderate to large proportion of the measured variation for NO2 but less for PM10 and PM2.5.

  • 150. de Vogel, Stefan
    et al.
    Schneede, Jörn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk farmakologi.
    Ueland, Per Magne
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    Meyer, Klaus
    Fredriksen, Åse
    Midttun, Øivind
    Bjørge, Tone
    Kampman, Ellen
    Bretthauer, Michael
    Hoff, Geir
    Biomarkers related to one-carbon metabolism as potential risk factors for distal colorectal adenomas2011Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, ISSN 1055-9965, E-ISSN 1538-7755, Vol. 20, nr 8, s. 1726-1735Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Efficient one-carbon metabolism, which requires adequate supply of methyl group donors and B-vitamins, may protect against colorectal carcinogenesis. However, plasma folate and vitamins B2 and B12 have inconsistently been associated with colorectal cancer risk, and there have been no previous studies relating plasma concentrations of methionine, choline, and betaine to this outcome.

    METHODS: This study comprised 10,601 individuals, 50 to 64 years of age, participating in the Norwegian Colorectal Cancer Prevention (NORCCAP) screening study. Using logistic regression analyses, we crosssectionally investigated associations between distal colorectal adenoma occurrence-potential precursor lesions of colorectal carcinomas-and plasma concentrations of methyl group donors and B-vitamins, and polymorphisms of genes related to one-carbon metabolism.

    RESULTS: Screening revealed 1,809 subjects (17.1%) with at least one adenoma. The occurrence of high-risk adenomas (observed in 421 subjects) was inversely associated with plasma concentrations of methionine (highest versus lowest quartile: odds ratio (OR) = 0.61; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.45-0.83), betaine: OR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.54-1.02, the vitamin B2 form flavin-mononucleotide (FMN): OR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.49-0.88, and the vitamin B6 form pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP): OR = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.51-0.95, but not with folate, choline, vitamin B12 concentrations, or with the studied polymorphisms. High methionine concentration in combination with high vitamin B2 or B6 concentrations was associated with lower occurrence of high-risk adenomas compared with these factors individually.

    CONCLUSIONS: High plasma concentrations of methionine and betaine, and vitamins B2 and B6 may reduce risk of developing colorectal adenomas.

    IMPACT: In addition to B-vitamins, methyl group donors such as methionine and betaine may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis.

1234567 101 - 150 av 847
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf