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  • 101.
    Hagberg, Lovisa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statsvetenskap.
    Finding a place for green politics: political space-time, globalisation and new environmental policy concepts2003Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The overarching aim of this dissertation is to rethink green ideas for change in political space-time against the background of globalisation. It is based on two avenues of investigation. First, green ideas are contrasted with the analyses of current changes in political space-time found in the globalisation literature. Second, the kinds of political space-time that emerge in the encounter between two environmental policy concepts and environmental policy practice are studied. The policy concepts are river basin management and critical loads, both of which were launched as solutions to the problems policy-actors perceive in existing constructions of political space-time.

    Although the spatial reconfigurations entailed by processes of globalisation do not necessarily contradict green ideas, the temporalities of green theory and theories of globalisation are less easily reconciled. In terms of place, globalisation may lead to an increased interest in defending places, that is, the engagement with a politics of place. It is suggested that one could distinguish between politics of and politics in place, and that bioregionalism and other green theories concerned with place should strive towards the latter.

    The study of river basin management and critical loads raises important questions regarding the problem of scale in environmental politics. Whereas critical load deals with the problem of difference within a territory by abstraction, river basin management has also involved ideas about the importance of creating a sense of and care for place. Both concepts illustrate the challenge involved in considering the dynamic temporalities of nature in politics. New timeframes for environmental politics appear due to increased emphasis on issues of recovery from environmental change. It is observed that concepts like river basin management may carry very different spatial interpretations, for example, there is a difference in whether the river basin is understood in functional terms or as a container. Moreover, it is noted that different kinds of politics are at play in both cases. This suggests the possibility for greens to politicise political space-time at the margin, that is, in contexts which are not explicitly to do with spatio-temporal change.

    Finally, the study of green theory and theories of globalisation, and river basin management and critical loads, suggest that it is important to consider political space and time together. The possibility of developing a green politics of presence is offered as a potential first step in such an effort.

  • 102.
    Hanberger, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Centrum för utvärderingsforskning (UCER).
    Democratic governance and evaluation2004Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 103.
    Hellström, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statsvetenskap.
    Causal complexity and party-based Eurosceptisism: mixed-method approaches to middle-sized data analysisManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 104.
    Hellström, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statsvetenskap.
    Dynamic Interactions: National Political Parties, Voters and European Integration2009Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of an introduction and four self-contained papers, designated I-IV, which extend previous research on national political parties and voters in Western Europe. More specifically, the issues addressed are parties’ positions and voters’ opinions on European integration and their dynamic interactions, i.e. the extent to which parties’ influence voters’ opinions, voters influence parties, and the conditions under which they influence each other. All four papers make contributions to both the content of the research field and methodology (statistical techniques) applied.

    Paper I re-examines and evaluates several hypotheses regarding the way national political parties position themselves with respect to European integration. Based on analysis of panel data on references to Europe in the election manifestos of political parties in 16 West European countries between 1970 and 2003, I present evidence that their stances on European integration have been largely determined by their ideology, here measured by the locations of the parties within party families and their general orientation along the left/right ideological continuum. The results indicate that the influence of ideology has diminished over time and parties have adopted more favourable positions towards the European project, but it is too early to ignore the connection between left/right and pro/anti integration, since many marginal parties are still taking oppositional stances that are strongly related to their ideological commitments.

    In Paper II, I discuss how configurational comparative methods (i.e. Qualitative Comparative Analysis, QCA) and statistical methods can be combined to provide tests for the sufficiency of any given set of combination of causal conditions. The potential utility of the mixed-method approach for analyzing political phenomena is demonstrated by applying it to cross-national data regarding party-based Euroscepti¬cism in Western Europe. The findings show that oppositional stances to European integration are mainly restricted to non-governmental ideological fringe parties on both the left and right. Further, radical left parties with Eurosceptical positions are largely restricted to countries with social democratic (i.e. Nordic) welfare state regimes. The empirical example presented in this paper demonstrates that configurational methods can be successfully combined with related statistical methods.

    Paper III examines and evaluates the link between electorates’ opinions and national political parties’ positions on European integration, i.e. the extent to which political parties lead and/or follow public opinion on this issue. Applying a method for causal modelling to panel data concerning political parties’ positions and voters’ opinions in 15 countries from 1973 to 2003, I find (contrary to previous investigations of this relationship) that there is little empirical support for an electoral connection or reciprocal causation between party positions and electorates’ opinion regarding European integration. Parties have an influence on voter opinions, but they are largely unresponsive to changes in voter opinion.

    In Paper IV, I examine when parties do (and do not) influence voters’ opinions about EU policy issues. According to previous research, whether parties are able to persuade their constituents to adopt their standpoints depends on several conditions: characteristics and preferences of individual voters, intra-party factors, inter-party factors and several factors that affect the salience of EU issues at the domestic level. Applying hierarchical linear models to data concerning voters’ opinions and political parties’ positions in 14 West European countries, I present findings regarding the conditions under which parties are actually able to influence voters’ opinions concerning European integration.

  • 105.
    Hellström, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statsvetenskap.
    Mass support and opposition to European integration: Reconsidering the conditional influence of party positions on voter opinionsManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Citizens and political parties evaluate European integration differently, but not independently.  Support for, or opposition to, European integration is understood to be partly mediated by political parties, as supporters assimilate their opinions with those of the party. The purpose of this paper is to propose and test a model of the effectiveness of party cues, i.e. the degree to which parties influence voters’ opinions about EU policy issues. Whether parties are able to persuade their constituents to adopt their standpoints is assumed to depend on several conditions: the individual characteristics and preferences of voters, intra-party factors, inter-party factors and several factors that determine the salience of EU issues at the domestic level. Appling hierarchical linear models to data concerning voters’ opinions and political parties’ positions in 14 Western European countries, I present findings regarding some conditions under which parties are able to influence voters’ opinions concerning European integration

  • 106.
    Hellström, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Who leads, who follows?: Re-examining the party-electorate linkages on European Integration2008Ingår i: Journal of European Public Policy, ISSN 1350-1763, E-ISSN 1466-4429, Vol. 15, nr 8, s. 1127-1144Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article re-examines and evaluates the link between electorates' opinions and national political parties' positions on European integration, i.e. the extent to which political parties lead and/or follow public opinion on this issue. Applying a method for causal modelling (Granger causality tests) to panel data concerning political parties' positions and voters' opinions in 15 countries from 1973 to 2003, I find (contrary to previous investigations of this relationship) that there is little empirical support for an electoral connection or reciprocal causation between party positions and electorates' opinion regarding European integration. Parties have an influence on voter opinions, but are at the same time unresponsive to changes in voter opinion.

  • 107.
    Hellström, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Bäck, Hanna
    Statsvetenskapliga institutionen, Lunds universitet.
    Efter valet 2014: Regeringsbildningen och det inställda extra valet2015Ingår i: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 117, nr 2, s. 261-278Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we discuss government formation after the parliamentary elections in 2014 in a historical and comparative European context, while at the same time connecting our discussion to the research on government formation and duration in parliamentary democracies. The paper raises and tries to answer the following questions: Why did the Social Democrats form a minority government with the Green Party after the parliamentary elections in 2014, excluding the Left party? What can we say about the allocation of ministerial portfolios between the Social Democrats and the Green Party in the new government? And what are the consequences of the so called December agreement between the new government on its ability to govern and survive until the next regular election in 2018?

  • 108.
    Hellström, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Walther, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Governmental participation and alliances of liberal parties in Europe2019Ingår i: Liberal parties in Europe / [ed] Caroline Close, Emilie van Haute, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2019, s. 310-325Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When do Liberal parties get into government, and under which circumstances? With which partners do they generally form government? When getting into office, which ministerial portfolios do they usually obtain? In most European democracies, Liberal parties are represented in parliament and have been in office at some point in time. They also seem to have an above-average ability to secure a place in government and to obtain ministerial portfolios. This chapter takes a comparative approach and examines the patterns of government participation among Liberal parties, and their success in getting both the Prime Ministership and other important ministerial portfolios.

  • 109.
    Hendriks, Frank
    et al.
    Tilburg University.
    Lidström, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Loughlin, John
    Cambridge University.
    Local and regional democracy in European politics2014Ingår i: Routledge handbook of European politics / [ed] Magone, José M., Oxon & New York: Routledge, 2014, s. 398-417Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 110. Hendriks, Frank
    et al.
    Loughlin, John
    Lidström, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    European subnational democracy: Comparative reflections and conclusions2011Ingår i: The Oxford Handbook of Local and Regional Democracy in Europe / [ed] John Loughlin, Frank Hendriks & Anders Lidström, Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2011, s. 715-742Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 111.
    Hendriks, Frank
    et al.
    University of Tilburg.
    Loughlin, John
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Lidström, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    European subnational democracy: Comparative reflections and conclusions2012Ingår i: The Oxford Handbook of Local and Regional Democracy in Europe / [ed] John Loughlin, Frank Hendriks & Anders Lidström, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, s. 715-742Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 112.
    Hertzberg, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Avbrott i policy inom gruvnäring: Policyutveckling i fallen Rönnbäcken och Kallak2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien utgår från två fall av gruvetablering, Rönnbäcken och Kallak, vilka har liknande utgångspunkter men resulterat i olika utfall. Respektive länsstyrelse har i de två fallen yttrat sig jakande respektive nekande. Studien är ett fall av myndighetsutövning i två fall av bearbetningskoncession och syftar till att förklara varför olika beslut fattats i fallen Rönnbäcken och Kallak. Det teoretiska ramverket utgår från Punctuated Equilibrium theory vilket belyser fyra faktorer av vikt för beslut, yttranden och processen i sig i de två fallen. Utgångspunkten är teoriprövande där det teoretiska ramverket används förklarande i och med de olika utfallen. Studien använder sig av processpårning och analyserar därigenom kvantitet såväl som innehåll och tendenser i bland annat artiklar, protokoll, lagar och yttranden.

     

    Studien utgör ett bidrag till existerande forskningslitteratur inom området gruvnäring och stärker i och med slutsatser, förklaringspotentialen hos Punctuated equilibrium theory. Ytterligare slutsatser innefattar att det avstyrkande yttrandet och beslutet i fallet Kallak tyder på policyförändringar där fallet Kallak mycket väl kan påverka utkomsten i fallet Rönnbäcken. Attention och New participants ses som de viktigaste faktorerna i initiering av policyförändring.

  • 113.
    Hjelm, Jonny
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Från "påfösare" till modern arbetsledare2012Ingår i: Människan, arbetet och historien: en vänbok till professor Tom Ericsson / [ed] Anders Brändström & Svante Norrhem, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2012, s. 186-206Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 114.
    Hovik, Sissel
    et al.
    Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research, Oslo, Norway .
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Management of protected areas in Norway and Sweden: challenges in combining central governance and local participation2010Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 159-177Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Neither Norway nor Sweden has fulfilled international commitments to the principles of direct public involvement in nature conservation, which involve (we believe) the state adopting an 'enabling' role, mobilizing governance resources to support decentralized decision-making while retaining powers to intervene when necessary to defend important minority interests or support international objectives. We analyse four attempts to establish nature conservation areas with substantial levels of direct public involvement in the two countries and argue that in each case, flaws in the setting of the areas' boundaries, the framework for participation and conflict resolution mechanisms have undermined public involvement. Hence, there is a need to design more effective, enabling rules to encourage local actor involvement in nature conservation and resolve any political issues that arise as a consequence of such involvement, before the international commitments can be fulfilled.

  • 115.
    Hudson, Christine
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Hell's Grannies and Crazy Ladies: Challenging the Precarization of Older Women2019Ingår i: Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society, ISSN 1072-4745, E-ISSN 1468-2893Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Older women are often portrayed as particularly vulnerable and in need of protection, producing processes of ageist “othering” that deny agency, foster “appropriate” behaviors, and work to exclude them from everyday life. While not denying many women face a precarious situation in later life, some older women resist their subjectivation as vulnerable. Drawing on a concept of precarity as governmentality, older women’s acceptance and resistance to being characterized as “vulnerable” and in need of protection are explored in relation to focus group interviews with female pensioners in four Swedish municipalities.

  • 116.
    Hudson, Christine
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Regional development partnerships in Sweden: a way for higher education institutions to develop their role in the processes of regional governance?2006Ingår i: Higher Education, ISSN 0018-1560, E-ISSN 1573-174X, Vol. 51, nr 3, s. 387-410Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 117.
    Hudson, Christine
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Regionala partnerskap - ett hot mot eller ett förverkligande av demokrati?2001Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Papperet fokuserar på de nya regionala partnerskap som har införts i samband med de regionala tillväxtavtalen och vilka möjligheter dessa har att stärka eller försvaga demokrati. Partnerskap är en ny formför det politiska arbetet på regional nivå somuppmuntras av både staten och EU. I partnerskap skall aktörer från olika sektorer, särskilt näringslivet, ingå. Det övergripande målet är att genom att utveckla en helhetssyn och en bättre tvärsektoriell samverkan mellan olika aktörer åstadkomma en hållbar ekonomisk tillväxt. Partnerskap kan ses som en del i utvecklingen av en ny regionalpolitik där fokus har förskjutits från traditionellt industristöd till en ökad betoning av att varje region bör bygga sin utveckling på just sina egna förutsättningar. Detta skall stimulera utvecklingen av aktiva regioner som kännetecknas av inklusivitet, nätverk, samverkan och dialog mellan olika regionala intressen (stakeholders). Strategin är nära kopplad till framväxten av en mer holistisk regional diskurs, som innehåller en mer sammanhållen syn på samhällsbyggande och samhällsutveckling där hälsa, kultur, utbildning, miljö samt omsorg om barn och äldre ingår i ett interaktivt skapande av välfärd och tillväxt. Den preliminära slutsats somman kan dra från vår inledande undersökning är att det finns en potential för att regionala partnerskap, som en del av en bredare mer holistisk regional diskurs, skall kunna bidra till en utveckling av den regionala och lokala demokratin. Men om den mer exkluderande diskursen dominerar och regionala partnerskap blir ett elitprojekt finns det risk att demokratin i stället försämras.

  • 118.
    Hudson, Christine
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Sharing fairly?: mobility, citizenship, and gender relations in two Swedish city-regions2018Ingår i: Journal of Urban Affairs, ISSN 0735-2166, E-ISSN 1467-9906, Vol. 40, nr 1, s. 82-97Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the centrality of women's mobility in relation to urban citizenship and how this is influenced by the underlying gender relations. A theoretical framework is developed concerning mobility, citizenship and the gender contract. Focusing on the Swedish situation the relationship between gender, domestic work and commuting is discussed.  Drawing on theories concerning mobility and the concept of gender contract and using the findings from a questionnaire survey, these issues are explored in two Swedish city-regions, Göteborg and Umeå. Focus is on whether, when both in a couple are in paid employment and commute, a more egalitarian gender contract develops where the unpaid domestic work is shared more equally. It concludes that, irrespective of commuting, there continues to be a more traditional gender contract where, despite being in paid employment, the woman continues to be responsible for the brunt of the unpaid domestic labour with the exception of tasks relating to childcare. Here responsibility is more equally shared between both parents, reflecting a strong norm in Swedish society where fathers are also expected to be actively involved with their children.  

  • 119.
    Hudson, Christine
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    The university and regional reciprocity2000Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

     

  • 120.
    Hudson, Christine
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Transforming the educative state in the Nordic Countries?2010Ingår i: Education in political science: discovering a neglected field / [ed] A.P. Jakobi, K Martens & K.D. Wolf, London & New York: Routledge , 2010, s. 56-70Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 121.
    Hugoson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen. Umeå universitet.
    Clarifying Liquidity: Keynes and Marx, Merchants, and Poets2019Ingår i: Contributions to the History of Concepts, ISSN 1807-9326, E-ISSN 1874-656X, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 46-66Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is a history of liquidity presented as interaction between metaphors and theoretical concepts in social contexts. While taking note of Zygmunt Bauman's metaphor "liquid modernity," the study instead surveys the wider conceptual field. The text turns around mercantile liquidity (liquidity as clarification) and liquidity in modern economics (characteristic of all assets), as well as older metaphors, notably the famous phrase of the Communist Manifesto,"all that is solid melts into air" (Alles Ständische und Stehende verdampft), which is revealed to have resonance in texts by poets, notably Heinrich Heine. The main result is the historical consistency of the field, where liquidity is a promise of knowledge and clarity.

  • 122.
    Hugoson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen. CERUM.
    European Capitals of Culture and urban diplomacy2015Ingår i: Culture and Sustainability in European Cities: Imagining Europolis / [ed] Svetlana Hristova, Milena Dragićević Šešić, Nancy Duxbury, Routledge, 2015, s. 112-124Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 123.
    Hugoson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Lars Widdings Umeå: Den lokala identitetens dynamik2009Ingår i: Historier: Arton- och nittonhundratalens skönlitteratur som historisk källa / [ed] Ahlberger, Christer mfl, Göteborg: Institutionen för historiska studier, Göteborgs universitet , 2009, s. 137-146Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 124.
    Hugoson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Lars Widdings Umeå: Den lokala identitetens dynamik2009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 125.
    Hugoson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Möten, nätverk och politik: Norrlandsoperan igår, idag, imorgon2010Ingår i: Kulturens kraft för regional utveckling / [ed] Lindeborg, Lisbeth och Lindkvist, Lars, Stockholm: SNS Förlag , 2010, s. 356-375Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 126.
    Hugoson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Norrlandsoperan: Fisk eller fråmmande fågel i Umeås kulturliv?2010Ingår i: Västerbotten, ISSN 0346-4938, nr 1, s. 62-67Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 127.
    Hugoson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Umeå: Björkarnas stad: Från stadsbrand till city brand2009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 128.
    Hugoson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Vad säger projekt om stadens utveckling?: Introduktion till projektstudiemetod2009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 129.
    Hugoson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    "We’re a peaceful nation": Krigsretorik efter 11 september: Brigitte Mral. Krisberedskapsmyndigheten, KBM:s temaserie 2994:5, 127 sidor2005Ingår i: Rhetorica Scandinavica, ISSN 1397-0534, s. 72-75Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 130. Höglund, Kristine
    et al.
    Jarstad, Anna Karin
    Department of Government, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Towards electoral security: experiences from KwaZulu-Natal2011Ingår i: Africa Spectrum, ISSN 0002-0397, E-ISSN 1868-6869, Vol. 46, nr 1, s. 33-59Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing recognition of the dangers of electoral violence. Yet, the theoretical foundation for systematic research and for adequate policy is still underdeveloped. This article aims to develop the theoretical understandings of strategies to manage and prevent electoral violence. This is accomplished by integrating research conducted within the two academic discourses on democratization and conflict management and also by drawing on the experiences from the conflict-ridden province KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. The five strategies identified are monitoring, mediation, legal measures, law enforcement and self-regulating practices. In the article, the functions and mechanisms of the strategies are discussed. In addition, we analyse the limitations and usefulness of each of the strategies in turn and also provide suggestions on how to improve electoral security.

  • 131.
    Hörnström, Lisa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Redistributive regionalism: Narratives on regionalisation in the Nordic periphery2010Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades a stronger role for the regions has developed in many West European countries. To a significant degree this regionalisation trend has coincided with European integration. The key change in the role of the regional level has been with regard to its status as an agent of regional development. In most West European countries there has been a shift from an approach to regional policy that has focused on redistributive measures from the centre in which the regions play a relatively weak role to a perspective that is sometimes labelled “new regionalism” in which the focus is on the region taking responsibility for its own development. In this new regionalist perspective, which is both descriptive and normative, the region is considered as the appropriate arena for both economic activities and decision-making.

    In the political systems of the Nordic countries the regional level has traditionally been in a relatively weak position and regional policy has emphasized centralisation and redistributive measures. Not unexpectedly, the pan-European trend toward a stronger role for the region has also found its way to the Nordic countries. The aim of this study is to describe and analyze if and to what extent key actors in three peripheral regions, situated in countries with a strong tradition of redistribution from the centre and a weak role for the regional level, have embraced the new regionalist perspective. The three regions are Troms in Norway, Pohjois-Pohjanmaa in Finland and Västerbotten in Sweden. All are peripherally located with small populations and economies that rely heavily on natural resources. The analysis is based on interviews with regional and local politicians, civil servants, and business representatives. The empirical material is presented in the form of narratives formulated by the regional actors who express their views on regional policy and the role of the region.

    The results of the study show that regional actors in the three peripheries express similar narratives. To a certain degree actors have embraced the new regionalist perspective in the sense that they see the regional level as an important coordinator for development initiatives and measures. However, the actors’ claims for a stronger regional level must be understood in the context of the unitary state. In this context, the actors’ perspective combines the new regionalist and the centralist redistributive approach, one that can be labelled ‘redistributive regionalism’. The state remains the key actor and is expected to guarantee equal conditions in all parts of the country. The emphasis on strengthening the administrative region is more pronounced in Troms and Västerbotten than in Pohjois-Pohjanmaa, where instead there is a stronger focus on the functional region. Actors in the three regions do not see any contradiction between a strong state and increased regional influence on development issues. In sum, the study finds that the new regionalist perspective has been embraced to a certain extent but that it has been adapted to national characteristics, as well as to the specific conditions in the three regions.

  • 132.
    Jakobsen, Joan Pauli Dahl
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Loaded Discourse: Hegemonic Manifestations Concerning Turkey's EU Membership Bid2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 133.
    Jarl, Maria
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Rönnberg, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Skolpolitik: från riksdagshus till klassrum2015 (uppl. 2)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Varför ser skolan ut som den gör? Vilka aktörer försöker påverka de politiska besluten om skolan? Vad vill de olika aktörerna och hur för de fram sina krav? Den här boken skildrar det politiska spelet om skolan. En viktig utgångspunkt är att skolpolitiken inte bara handlar om politiska beslut i riksdag och regering utan också om lärares och rektorers dagliga gärningar i skolan. Skolpolitiken formas på olika nivåer i skolsystemet. Lärare och rektorer är nyckelaktörer i dessa processer, men även politiska partier, lärarförbunden och ministrar har viktiga roller. Boken Skolpolitik – från riksdagshus till klassrum fokuserar på fyra skolpolitiska huvudfrågor: makten över skolan som organisation, skolans uppdrag, makten över lärare och rektorer, granskningen av skolans verksamhet. I den andra upplagan har författarna reviderat samtliga kapitel och uppdaterat innehållet med hänvisning till de senaste årens skolpolitiska beslut. Den andra upplagan innehåller dessutom ett helt nytt avsnitt om det politiska spelet om lärarlegitimationerna. Boken vänder sig till studenter på lärar- och rektorsutbildningar, verksamma rektorer och lärare, men också andra läsare med intresse för skolpolitik.

  • 134.
    Jarl, Maria
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Rönnberg, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Skolpolitik: från riksdagshus till klassrum2010Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 135.
    Jarl, Maria
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Rönnberg, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Skolpolitik: från riksdagshus till klassrum2019 (uppl. 3)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Varför ser skolan ut som den gör? Vilka aktörer försöker påverka de politiska besluten om skolan? Vad vill de olika aktörerna och hur för de fram sina krav? Den här boken skildrar det politiska spelet om skolan. En viktig utgångspunkt är att skolpolitiken inte bara handlar om politiska beslut i riksdag och regering utan också om lärares och rektorers dagliga gärningar i skolan. Skolpolitiken formas på olika nivåer i skolsystemet. Lärare och rektorer är nyckelaktörer i dessa processer, men även politiska partier, lärarförbunden och ministrar har viktiga roller.

    Boken Skolpolitik – från riksdagshus till klassrum fokuserar på fyra skolpolitiska huvudfrågor: makten över skolan som organisation, skolans uppdrag, makten över lärare och rektorer, granskningen av skolans verksamhet.

    I den tredje upplagan har författarna reviderat samtliga kapitel och uppdaterat innehållet med hänvisning till de senaste årens skolpolitiska beslut.

    Boken vänder sig till studenter på lärar- och rektorsutbildningar, verksamma rektorer och lärare, men också andra läsare med intresse för skolpolitik.

  • 136.
    Jarstad, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    The Prevalence of Power-Sharing: Exploring the Patterns of Post-Election Peace2009Ingår i: Africa Spectrum, ISSN 0002-0397, E-ISSN 1868-6869, Vol. 44, nr 3, s. 41-62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Why are some elections followed by armed conflict, while others are not? This article begins to explore this question by mapping the prevalence of power-sharing agreements and patterns of post-election peace in states shattered by civil war. While democracy builds on the notion of free political competition and uncertain electoral outcomes, power-sharing reduces the uncertainty by ensuring political power for certain groups. Nevertheless, new data presented in this article – the Post-Accord Elections (PAE) data collection – shows that the issues of peace, power-sharing and democracy have become intertwined as the vast majority of contemporary peace agreements provide for both power-sharing and elections. First, in contrast to previous research which has suggested that power-sharing is a tool for ending violence, this study shows that conflict often continues after an agreement has been signed, even if it includes provisions for power-sharing. Second, this investigation shows no evidence of power-sharing facilitating the holding of elections. On the contrary, it is more common that elections are held following a peace process without power-sharing. Third, a period of power-sharing ahead of the elections does not seem to provide for postelection peace. Rather, such elections are similarly dangerous as post-accord elections held without a period of power-sharing. The good news is that power-sharing does not seem to have a negative effect on post-election peace.

  • 137.
    Jarstad, Anna K.
    Uppsala universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Local Peace Agreements: The Road to Peace and Democracy in KwaZulu Natal?2010Ingår i: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 112, nr 1, s. 60-68Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 138.
    Jarstad, Anna K.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Nilsson, Desirée
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    From words to deeds: the implementation of power-sharing pacts in peace accords2008Ingår i: Conflict Management and Peace Science, ISSN 0738-8942, E-ISSN 1549-9219, Vol. 25, nr 3, s. 206-223Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Is the implementation of power-sharing provisions the key to durable peace? This study analyzes whether the implementation of political, military, and territorial power-sharing provisions contributes to peace. We introduce a new dataset (IMPACT), which contains unique information on the implementation of power-sharing pacts in peace accords in the post–Cold War period. Based on the logic of costly signaling, we demonstrate that when the parties engage in costly concessions by implementing military and territorial provisions, peace is more likely to prevail. In contrast, the implementation of political pacts is less costly, and hence does not increase the prospects of peace.

  • 139.
    Jarstad, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Åkebo, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    the Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala University.
    Söderström, Johanna
    Department of Government, Uppsala University.
    Saati, Abrak
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Kostić, Roland
    the Hugo Valentin Centre and Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University.
    Sahovic, Dzenan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Peace agreements in the 1990s – what are the outcomes 20 years later?2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In the 1990s, a number of protracted armed conflicts were finally ended. This period can be described as a paradigmatic shift with regards to how armed conflicts are brought to an end. When the logic of the Cold War no longer hindered the United Nations (UN) to intervene, the number of UN peace operations rose dramatically and became more comprehensive. In addition, conflicts increasingly ended through negotiated settlements rather than military victory. The peace processes of the 1990s gave rise to great optimism that negotiations and peacebuilding efforts, often with considerable international involvement, would bring sustainable peace to war-affected countries. The outcomes of these peace processes, however, appears to be far from unanimously positive. Today, 20 years after the war endings of the 1990s, it is therefore imperative to critically analyze and evaluate these peace processes and their long-term results. What is the situation like today in countries where conflicts ended in the 1990s? What has become of the peace? In this paper, the long-term outcomes of peace processes that took place in the 1990s are evaluated through brief analyses of a number of cases,demonstrating that the nature and quality of peace today show great diversity. The paper also includes a conceptualization of the ”peace triangle” aimed at distinguishing between different forms of peace, as well as a study of the relationship between peacebuilding and democracy in UN peace operations in the 1990s, concluding that outcomes with regards to democratic development in the intervened countries are generally poor.

  • 140.
    Jarstad, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Åkebo, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Barnes, Philippa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Eklund, Niklas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Eklund Wimelius, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Saati, Abrak
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Sahovic, Dzenan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Strandh, Veronica
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Söderström, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen. Department of Government, Uppsala University and Department of Comparative Politics, University of Bergen .
    Varieties of peace: presentation of a research program2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Varieties of Peace research program aims to analyze long-term effects of peace processes in conflicts that ended in the 1990s. The central research questions are: What characterizes peace after the peace processes initiated in the 1990s and how does it vary? How can this variation be described and explained? Peace processes have been studied using short time perspectives, usually in ”lessons-learned” evaluations five years after conflict termination, and usually with theories of conflict as a starting point. The Varieties of Peace research program is an ambitious initiative, which starts from a theoretical understanding of peace, its quality and character, and views peace and peace processes as dynamic and transformative. It will investigate and evaluate different types of peace processes from a comparative perspective and 25–30 years after they started, with the ambition of producing generalizable knowledge about peace, what it is and how it can be achieved. As a starting point, the program studies explanatory factors in five areas: 1) the actions, capacity and resilience of civil society, 2) the interests and strategies of the elites, 3) the aims and character of the agreements, 4) the societies’ institutions and resilience, and 5) international involvement. These issues will be studies in at least ten projects, with the ambition to capture and explain variation, internal dynamics and ultimately the results and effects of peace processes, studied over a longer period of time. The Varieties of Peace program is funded by Riksbankens Jubileumsfond: the Swedish Foundation for Humanities and Social Sciences, 2017-2024. For more info, please visit our webpage at www.varietiesofpeace.net.

  • 141.
    Johansson, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Lidestav, Gun
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Can voluntary standards regulate forestry?: Assessing the environmental impacts of forest certification in Sweden2011Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 13, nr 3, s. 191-198Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the issue of to what extent forest certification schemes contribute to the enhancement of environmental protection in Swedish forestry. Our assessment is built on the analysis of three different data sets, namely: 1) the Swedish National Forest Inventory (NFI), 2) the Swedish Database for Forest Owner Analysis, presenting data on small-scale forestry practices and certification, and 3) a follow-up mail survey addressed to private small-scale forest owners with certified forest properties. Our NFI analysis indicated some minor improvements in forest conditions, corresponding with the interim target for enhanced biological diversity (dead wood, broad-leaved trees and old forests). The improvements were less evident on large-scale forest properties (certified in accordance with the Forest Stewardship Council scheme) than on small-scale private forest properties (mainly certified in accordance with the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes). This contradicts a common assumption that a much higher degree of certification with stricter environmental standards will give more evident positive impacts on environmental conditions. However, results from the follow-up survey showed that more harvesting activity had taken place on certified small-scale forest properties than on non-certified properties. This could mean more negative effects on biodiversity. We conclude by stressing the importance of improving quantitative methods for determining a cause-and-effect relationship between certification and nature protection; previous research tends to report rather far-reaching conclusions based on limited data sets.

  • 142.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statsvetenskap.
    Equivocal Resolve?: Toward a Definition of Chapter VII Resolutions2008Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The United Nations Security Council has become significantly more active since the end of the Cold War. Nowhere is this more evident than in the increased resort to Chapter VII of the Charter, under which the Council can make decisions that are binding on member States. Despite the authority vested in the Security Council through Chapter VII, there is occasional disagreement over whether specific resolutions are indeed adopted under Chapter VII or not. Drawing on such disagreements, this paper develops a definition of Chapter VII resolutions. On the basis of this definition, the paper goes on to present an overview of the use of Chapter VII for the period 1946-2007, and relates it to world wide conflict patterns. It illustrates and explores the increased use of Chapter VII in the post-Cold War era, as well as the distribution of Chapter VII resolutions across conflicts and issues on the Council’s agenda. The paper concludes by raising a few questions about possible consequences of the extensive use of Chapter VII for, most importantly, the legitimacy and the effectiveness of the Security Council.

  • 143.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Kan ickevåldsmotstånd mot Ryssland fungera?2015Ingår i: Mänsklig säkerhetArtikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 144.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Konfliktmönster i MENA-regionen 1980-19971999Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 145.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Peace by repatriation: Concepts, cases, and conditions2010Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this study is the assumption that the return of refugees is a necessary condition for the establishment of sustainable peace after armed conflict. This assumption is often made in the peacebuilding literature as well as by policy makers, but it has rarely been the object of systematic analysis. The purpose of the study, therefore, is to test this assumption, which I label the “peace-by-repatriation thesis.”

    I adopt a two-step approach to analyzing the peace-by-repatriation thesis. The first step is to formulate an analytical framework. The second step is to use the framework to test the peace-by-repatriation thesis on a medium number of cases. The formulation of the analytical framework starts with an examination of previous research. I trace the theoretical foundations of the peace-by-repatriation thesis in research on peacebuilding, forced migration, and partition. The analytical framework is further informed by case studies of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Nagorno-Karabakh, two cases that represent opposing perceptions of repatriation as a condition for peace.

    I adopt a set-theoretic approach to test the peace-by-repatriation thesis. I describe in some detail how the key concepts of the analytical framework are operationalized. I select and code forty-three cases—terminated conflicts that caused large-scale displacement—and use fuzzy-set analysis to test the peace-by-repatriation thesis. The analysis shows that repatriation is not a necessary condition for sustainable peace. Instead, ending displacement—irrespective of how this is done—turns out to be an important condition for peace. This result is consistent across tests of different combinations of cases and tests using alternative operationalizations of key concepts.

    Taken together, the fuzzy-set analysis and the case studies suggest that the relationship between repatriation and peace will vary from case to case and that pre-war interethnic relations is one of the circumstances that affect that relationship.

  • 146.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statsvetenskap.
    Refugee Repatriation as a Necessary Condition for Peace2007Ingår i: Globalization and Challenges to Building Peace, Anthen Press, London, Chicago and New Delhi , 2007Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 147.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    The Humdrum Use of Ultimate Authority: Defining and Analysing Chapter VII Resolutions2015Ingår i: Economic Sanctions / [ed] Michael P. Malloy, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, s. 449-482Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 148.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Vad jag läser2014Ingår i: Respons, nr 5, s. 7-Artikel, recension (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 149.
    Johansson, Patrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statsvetenskap.
    Amer, Ramses
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statsvetenskap.
    The United Nations Security Council and the Enduring Challenge of the Use of Force in Inter-state Relations2007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The United Nations Security Council has, after the end of the Cold War, become a markedly more active player on the international stage. The number of resolutions adopted – in particular resolutions adopted under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations – the number of peacekeeping missions, and the number of mandatory sanctions regimes have all increased considerably. The Council has also broadened its view of security, and adopted several resolutions that deal with thematic issues rather than with specific conflicts. In this paper, we raise the question of whether this increased activity has been accompanied by a corresponding increase in the effectiveness of the Council. We do this by analysing how the Council has developed its reaction to the use of force in inter-state relations. Throughout the existence of the United Nations, the prohibition of the use of force, other than in self-defence, has been one of the most fundamental rules that the Council is assigned the responsibility to uphold. We conclude that despite the increased level of activity on the part of the Council since the end of the Cold War, its ability to react consistently and authoritatively to violations of the prohibition of the use of force has not been strengthened.

  • 150. Johansson, Susanne
    et al.
    Roos, Katarina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Lika nöjd i syd, i väst och i norr?2010Ingår i: Regional demokrati: Om politik och medier i Skåne / [ed] Susanne Johansson, Göteborg: SOM-institutet, Göteborgs universitet , 2010, s. 35-54Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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