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  • 101.
    Bergenheim, Åsa
    Umeå universitet, Humanistisk fakultet, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Sexualdebattens århundrade2008Ingår i: Signums svenska kulturhistoria del 8, 2008Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 102.
    Bergenheim, Åsa
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Sexuella övergrepp och medicinska sanningar i svensk rättspraxis 1930–502010Ingår i: In på bara huden: medicinhistoriska studier tillägnade Karin Johannisson / [ed] Torbjörn Gustafsson Chorell & Maja Bondestam, Nora: Nya Doxa , 2010, 1, s. 145-157Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 103.
    Bergenheim, Åsa
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Varm choklad och psykoterapi: om Ericastiftelsen i Stockholm2013Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 104.
    Bergenheim, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Liliequist, Jonas, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    ”Visa aktning för din far och din mor”: ett historiskt perspektiv på vuxna barns våld mot sina föräldrar2010Ingår i: Nordisk Tidsskrift for Kriminalvidenskab, ISSN 0029-1528, Vol. 97, nr 2, s. 179-190Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 105.
    Bergenheim, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Ågren, KarinUmeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Juridiskt forum.
    Forskarhandledares Robusta Råd2008Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 106.
    Berggren, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Blodets renhet: En historisk studie av svensk antisemitism2014Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad är antisemitism? Hur har tanken om en judisk världskonspiration som strävar efter världsherravälde uppstått och kunnat få gehör?Vilken politisk funktion har antisemitismen haft, och hur harantisemitismen legitimerats?Lena Berggren beskriver här den svenska antisemitismen under mellankrigstiden och krigsåren med fokus på dess mer uttalade och hatiska former. I boken undersöks bland annat hur denna antisemitism var relaterad till den svenska nazismen, både idémässigt och organisatoriskt. Undersökningen består av två delstudier som behandlar skribenten Elof Eriksson respektive idémiljön inom Samfundet Manhem.Elof Eriksson började sin bana som framstående organisatör inom den politiska bonderörelsen men kom efter att han 1921 lämnat denna att bli allt skarpare i sin antisemitism. Eriksson blev aldrig nazist utan utvecklade ett slags politisk antisemitism som vilade på en antidemokratisk och antimodernistisk grund, men han rörde sig delvis i samma miljöer som de svenska nazisterna. Efterhand utvecklade Eriksson även en rasmystiskt präglad antisemitism som kopplade samman ras och religion och därmed gav antisemitismen gudomlig sanktion.Samfundet Manhem grundades 1934 och hade det uttalade syftet att fungera som en bildningsmiljö och en mötesplats för den så kallade nationella rörelsen, där såväl nazister som andra antidemokratiska ultranationalister ingick. Grov, konspiratorisk antisemitism fanns som ett genomgående och viktigt tema inom samfundet. Men där antisemitismen hos Elof Eriksson efterhand utvecklades till ett mål i sig fungerade den inom Samfundet Manhem som ett medel för att uppnå en i grunden fascistisk politisk vision om ett framtida perfekt samhälle. Den enda vägen för att uppnå detta tillstånd av samhällelig och mänsklig perfektion var att slå vakt om nationens, rasens och blodets renhet, men för att detta skulle lyckas måste hotet från den så kallade judiska världskonspirationen avslöjas och besegras.

  • 107.
    Berggren, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Completing the Lutheran Reformation: Ultra-nationalism, Christianity and the Possibility of 'Clerical Fascism' in Interwar Sweden2008Ingår i: Clerical Fascism in Interwar Europe / [ed] Matthew Feldman and Marius Turda with Tudor Georgescu, Abingdon, Oxon & New York: Routledge, 2008, s. 91-102Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 108.
    Berggren, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Efterord: Fascismen är långt ifrån död2017Ingår i: Vad är egentligen fascism? / [ed] Kalle Johansson, Verbal , 2017, , s. 5s. 49-53Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 109.
    Berggren, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Fascismens återkomst2017Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 110.
    Berggren, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Intellectual Fascism: Per Engdahl and the Formation of 'New-Swedish Socialism'2014Ingår i: Fascism: Journal of Comparative Fascist Studies, ISSN 2211-6249, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 69-92Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this article is the ideological formation of so called ‘New-Swedish Socialism’, an indigenous form of fascist thought formulated by the Swedish ideologue Per Engdahl (1909–1994) in the early 1930s. New-Swedish Socialism should not be equated with either Italian-styled Fascism or National Socialism, but must be seen as an original form of fascist thought. This fascist variant can be described as comparatively flexible, low-key and intellectual. The present analysis of the formation of New- Swedish Socialism follows the model for ideological analysis suggested by the British political scientist Michael Freeden. Freeden’s analytical mode defines an ideology in terms of a core cluster of interrelated and ineliminable political concepts which are essentially contestable. Starting from a definition of generic fascism and using the core concepts that can be identified from this definition, the presence, de-contestation and interrelatedness of these core concepts within New-Swedish Socialism is studied and analyzed. This article addresses whether New-Swedish Socialism can correctly be labelled fascist as well as capturing its special character as a fascist variant in its own right. The study has been limited to the ideological formation process in the early and mid-1930s but Engdahl remained an important influence on Swedish as well as European fascism throughout his life.

  • 111.
    Berggren, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Tankar om vita privilegier, tårtor och svensk rasism2017Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 112.
    Berggren, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Ultra-nationalists movements in inter-war Sweden2010Ingår i: Medicine under ideological preassure: Swedish-German contacts in medicine during 1933-1945 / [ed] Peter M Nilsson, Nils Hansson, Gunnar Broberg, Lund: Enheten för medicinens historia, Lunds universitet , 2010, s. 19-28Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 113.
    Berggren, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Völkisch thought in Sweden: the Manhem Society and the quest for national enlightenment 1934-442013Ingår i: Nordic ideology between religion and scholarship / [ed] Horst Junginger, Andreas Åkerlund, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2013, s. 153-168Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 114.
    Berglund, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Kunde Descartes gud ha skapat allt på ett sådant sätt att han inte hade existerat?2012Ingår i: Filosofisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0348-7482, Vol. 33, nr 4, s. 3-7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 115.
    Berglund, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    "Ett odygdigt leverne": Om Södermalmsupploppet 1719 och glasbrugsgatorna i Katarina församling2010Ingår i: Bebyggelsehistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 0349-2834, Vol. 59, s. 28-46Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

     

    "Ett odygdigt leverne". Om Södermalmsupploppet 1719 och glasbrugsgatorna i Katarina församling

    Under tre på varandra följande kvällar i juli 1719 rasade ett upplopp i ett av Stockholms allra fattigaste områden. Flera hundra personer – huvudsakligen soldater, båtsmän och arbetsfolk från de lägre klasserna – hade samlats för att attackera och förstöra sammantaget elva hus i kvarteren runt Stora och Lilla glasbruksgatan på östra Södermalm. Myndigheternas reaktion under tiden upploppet pågick var avvaktande; endast ett fåtal personer kunde arresteras på plats, men i princip gjordes inga försök att hejda massans framfart. Däremot företogs en grundlig utredning i efterhand där närmare 40 personer dömdes till påfallande hårda straff. Med stor sannolikhet fungerade samtliga av de attackerade husen även som förtäckta krogar och bordeller. Händelserna har gått under benämningen Södermalmsupploppet [övers. the Södermalm Riots].

    Jag har i tidigare studier ställt frågor kring varför upploppet uppstod och varför myndigheterna reagerade som de gjorde. Den här uppsatsen fokuserar istället på de lokala aspekterna och förutsättningarna. Med undantag för upploppets sista dag, då folkmassan drog sig ner till centrala staden, höll sig händelserna inom ett förvånansvärt litet lokalt område; bara ett par kvarter uppe på östra Södermalms otillgängliga bergsknallar drabbades. Området hade exploaterats relativt sent; först från stormaktstidens slut finns gator inritade på kartorna. Och det var under lång tid hårt drabbat av fattigdom, trångboddhet och svåra livsvillkor. Många av kvinnorna tvingades till prostitution, vilket förklarar det stora antalet bordeller i området. Frågan som uppsatsen söker svara på är vilken roll den mycket speciella sociala geografin spelade – både för det vardagliga livet på Glasbruksgatorna och för den extraordinära händelsen som upploppet utgjorde?

    De kala branta klipporna gjorde livet svårt för de boende. Vatten och förnödenheter fick dagligen släpas upp och det var ont om tjänligt byggmaterial. Husen stod tätt med halm- och torvtak och var i allmänhet byggda av trä. Tillgänglighetsproblemen och den förhöjda brandfaran var sannolikt bidragande orsaker till myndigheternas passiva förhållningssätt. Men också det faktum att området befolkades av samhällets allra lägsta sociala skikt kan ha spelat in eftersom upploppet då aldrig hotade den sociala ordningen, åtminstone så länge massan höll sig i kvarteren uppe på bergen. En genomgång av mantalslängderna på Stockholms stadsarkiv visar att det år 1721 ­­– två år efter Södermalmsupploppet – bodde sammantaget 717 personer i de två kvarteren Glasbruket större respektive Glasbruket övre. Könsmässigt dominerade kvinnorna, men området var också mycket barnrikt. Bland de manliga yrkestitlarna var de sjöfartsrelaterade och de militära mest förekommande. Många arbetade vid hamnen. Andra vanliga yrkeskategorier var: biträden, arbetare och gesäller inom handel och hantverk. Men där fanns också ett antal borgare, ofta inflyttade från den finska rikshalvan. Även tjänstefolk var en frekvent kategori.

    Antalet fastigheter i området var 77 stycken (varav några tomter ännu var obebyggda eller låg öde) och antalet hushåll 271. Varje gård fick således inhysa flera familjer. Statistiken störs dock av en fattiggård där hela 46 fattiga, lytta eller åldriga män och kvinnor, indelade på 27 hushåll, bodde gemensamt inom samma gårdsenhet. Med fattighuset borträknat tvingade ändå trångboddheten fram ett genomsnitt på två och en halv familj per fastighet. Fördelningen mellan de två undersökta kvarteren är dock ojämn. I Glasbruket större var familjeenheterna fler och trångboddheten betydligt större än i det övre kvarteret.

    Den utbredda prostitutionen i området, i förening med just trångboddheten, bör i praktiken ha inneburit mycket stora problem – inte minst med tanke på barnrikedomen – då den offentliga sexhandeln tvingades göra intrång på den privata familjesfären område. När myndigheterna inte ingrep fick de boende själva gå ut på gatorna och, i ett våldsamt upplopp riktat mot kvartersbordellerna, göra upp med problematiken. Synsättet möjliggör en tolkning där den lokala förankringen var avgörande för händelseutvecklingen. Men också där trångboddheten både var en bidragande bakomliggande orsak till upploppet och till det hastigt expansiva förloppet på grund av möjligheten till snabb ryktesspridning och till folkmassans rekrytering.

  • 116.
    Berglund, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier. Stockholms universitet.
    Food riots in nineteenth-century Sweden2014Ingår i: Gender in urban Europe: sites of political activity and citizenship, 1750-1900 / [ed] Krista Cowman, Nina Javette Koefoed, Åsa Karlsson Sjögren, Routledge, 2014, Vol. 19, s. 93-107Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 117.
    Berglund, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Gender perspectives on preindustrial urban crowds, 1700–1850:  2010Ingår i: City & Society in European History: 10th International Conference on Urban History, 2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I discuss the violent crowd in a historical gender perspective. The starting point is a study of eight riots and about thirty small-scale street fights in Stockholm 1700–1850. Historical studies of crowds and riots are well rooted in the breakthrough of social historical research in the 1960s with George Rudé and E. P. Thompson as innovative pioneers. Although the genre has grown wide, there is still a lack of gender perspective in the field; in particular, female participation in violent masses has tended to be neglected in research.

    Studies of open violent conflict from a gender perspective have a three-fold purpose: Firstly, to highlight women as active participants; secondly to study the social and political power structures; and thirdly to study the historical changes of these structures.

    The judicial sources from the trials on the popular riots rarely present women as individuals. Women are seldom mentioned by name, and professions or titles or other socioeconomic markers are often difficult to determine. Among those who went to trial – as witnesses or defendants – men were by far the most dominant gender category. So is also the case of my study of preindustrial unrest in Stockholm. Women appear infrequently in the material, and the tendency for the lack of women seems also be strengthen in the later part of the studied period. Towards the middle of the nineteenth century, we hardly see any women at all in the material. However, by generalizing from those women who still are found in the sources, and additionally by using complementary sources, we can detect not only that women regularly were in the masses, but also that they often had different roles than men.

    In everyday city life political structures and power structures are usually hidden, both for the historical actors and for the contemporary historian. But when social conflicts arise – for example in riots or insurrections – these structures will come up to the surface, and through exposure to external influences they can be changed. At the same time, they will also become available for historical research.

    In my studies, based on urban riots, I have been able to follow an early democratization-process well before the democratic breakthrough and the implementation of universal suffrage. It is a story that begins in a patriarchal society of privilege, and ends in a society based on a democratic view of the world, in which freedom of opinion, freedom of the press and the rule of law were among the bywords. Historiographicly, this is a development that has been described based on ideas coming from the upper layers of society, and which was largely implemented by politicians, statesmen, or other influential groups of male actors. My study, however, shows that democratization was also a process from below – made by the people ­– where the female involvement was both a necessary and central factor. It was not the violence per se that contributed to democratization, but the open violent conflict displays the process. Women's participation in the violent crowds in the streets of Stockholm shows that women in fact had an active part in the democratic process.

  • 118.
    Berglund, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Råkurr: Konfliken mellan den liberala oppositionen och kungamakten under första halvan av 1800-talet2010Ingår i: Familjen Bernadotte: Kungligheter och människor / [ed] Ingvar von Malmborg, Stockholm: Riksarkivet , 2010, s. 92-109Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 119.
    Berglund, Moa
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Åldersdiskriminering2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 120.
    Bergman, Ingela
    et al.
    Silvermuseet Arjeplog.
    Ramqvist, Per H
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Hunters of forests and waters: Late Iron Age and Medieval subsistence and social processes in coastal northern Sweden2018Ingår i: Acta Borealia, ISSN 0800-3831, E-ISSN 1503-111X, Vol. 35, nr 1, s. 1-28Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During the course of the 14th century the Swedish Crown and the Catholic Church made robust attempts to include the areas beside the Bothnian bay within their central fiscal and clerical organization. Salmon fishing in the productive river rapids became major targets for external commercial interests. Written records inform us about the situation from the perspective of the exploiters. However, there is a story running in parallel – that of the local population already occupying the lands and the fishing grounds. The study aims to analyse the significance of hunting and fishing to the overall subsistence of coastal communities in northern Sweden during the period AD 500–1600. The social context is of particular interest, specifically in relation to the successive conformation by the local communities to the Swedish fiscal system. The study draws on archaeological records and on historical records from the 14th to the 17th century, in addition to ethnographic accounts for hunting and fishing. We conclude that the legal cultures embraced by the indigenous population and that of the Swedish central powers were in essence incompatible. The acquisition of land and fishing rights was never settled between two equal parties, but one-sidedly enforced by the party holding the pen.

  • 121.
    Bergman, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CPS).
    Constructing communities: The establishment and demographic development of sawmill communities in the Sundsvall district, 1850-18902010Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation studies the establishment and demographic development of the sawmill communities that emerged in the Sundsvall district during the latter half of the 19th century.  The intention is to highlight the importance of the sawmill communities and their resident populations by discussing community construction from a demographic perspective as well as socially and symbolically. Based on church registers, this is a longitudinal study that includes information from 31 individual sawmill communities.

    This study has shown that the establishment and demographic development of the sawmill communities was not an instant process that necessarily followed the construction of the sawmill industries. The prerequisites of the geographical locations and year of establishment influenced population development, but the speed and size of the settlements were individual to each mill site. More prosperous times for the industry during the 1870s resulted in that migration increased consequently leading to quickly populated communities and larger registered core populations in residence.

    Migration to the sawmill communities from within the parishes was infrequent and the geographical backgrounds revealed that an extremely small proportion of the populations had been born within the district, implying a migratory hesitation among locally born. The sawmill populations were male-dominated due to the large groups of temporary workers inhabiting the communities, although, adult males barely made up one-third of the registered populations. The largest demographic group was children aged 0-14 years. The strong presence of children and high proportions of married individuals suggests that the sawmill communities were family oriented communities, more so than non-sawmill areas. Long-time settled families had usually formed kinship networks with other residents.

    This dissertation concludes that while time was important for the development of the sawmill communities, so were the registered populations residing in these communities. Residency would have been key in claiming belonging to the sawmill communities and to be considered as a real sawmill worker. Residency, family and kin therefore contributed to the construction of community structures, geographically, socially and symbolically.

  • 122.
    Bergner, Petter
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Med historien som motståndare: SKP/VPK/V och det kommunistiska arvet 1956-20062013Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation concerns Sveriges Kommunistiska Parti (SKP) [the Swedish Communist Party] – in 1967 renamed Vänsterpartiet kommunisterna (VPK) [the Left Party – the Communists] and in 1990 renamed Vänsterpartiet (V) [the Left Party] – and the Party's process of coming to terms with history and its communist legacy. The aim of the study is to describe and analyse the SKP/VPK/V's process of coming to terms with history for the period 1956-2006, and to set out and problematise the driving forces and constraining mechanisms of this process. The theoretical framework of the study consists of Gunnar Sjöblom’s theory about party strategies of political parties in multi-party systems and Michael Freeden’s conceptual approach to ideology analysis.

         During the period of study the SKP/VPK/V has, like no other political party in Sweden, been ascribed historical guilt regarding its own party history but also regarding the effects of world communism. The Party has thus found itself in a situation where it has had history as an adversary. The process of coming to terms with history has mainly revolved around three issues: independence (1956-1977), international ties (1977-1989) and a broadening beyond the communist tradition (1986-2006). The internal debate within the Party has linked these issues to calls for change aimed at ridding the party of what is considered undesirable elements of the Communist legacy. By analysing the arguments pursued in favour of these calls, it is possible to pick out a number of the driving forces behind the Party's process of coming to terms with history, namely an ambition to obtain vote maximisation, programme realisation and maximisation of parliamentary influence. The urge to distance the Party from certain aspects of its communist past has thus been related to fundamental goals that political parties in multi-party systems seek to obtain.

         The results of the dissertation show that it is possible to pick out five main constraining mechanisms in the Party's process of coming to terms with history. 1) The safeguarding of Party cohesion. 2) The safeguarding of the distinctive character of the Party.  3) The need to resist external pressure. 4) The desire to avoid unfair apportioning of blame. 5) The safeguarding of the right to define the substance of one's own ideology. The existence of these constraining mechanisms help to explain why the process of coming to terms with history lingered on for several decades, and also why it seems to have been a process of such complexity for the Swedish Communist and Post-Communist Party.  

  • 123.
    Bergner, Petter
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Recension av Rysk spegel: svenska berättelser om Sovjetunionen - och om Sverige2009Ingår i: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 75, nr 2, s. 104-106Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 124.
    Bergqvist Karlsson, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Om fenomenell kunskap och Förmågehypotesen: Information eller förmåga – vad lär vi oss när vi får en ny upplevelse?2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fysikalism ifråga om vårt upplevande – fenomenella – medvetande; att det är helt och enbartfysiskt, står i kontrast till olika former av dualism, som säger att medvetandet inte helt låter sigreduceras till det fysiska.Frank Jackson har presenterat det så kallade kunskapsargumentet mot fysikalism. Eftersom vilär oss något nytt då vi får en ny upplevelse, och eftersom detta inte kan läras på något annatsätt än att själv erfara upplevelsen, så drar kunskapsargumentet slutsatsen att det finns ickefysiskafakta om världen, och att fysikalismen därför är falsk.Förmågehypotesen (eng. the Ability Hypothesis) är ett svar på detta argument som lagts framav David Lewis och Laurence Nemirow. De menar att det vi lär oss då vi får en ny upplevelseinte är något annat än vissa förmågor, och därför är kunskapsargumentets slutsats att det finnsicke-fysiska fakta om världen falsk.Syftet med föreliggande uppsats är att undersöka om Förmågehypotesen utgör ett hållbartförsvar för fysikalismen mot kunskapsargumentet. För att genomföra detta utvärderar jag feminvändningar mot Förmågehypotesen och de svar på dessa som Nemirow anför. Jag kommeratt argumentera för att två av dessa invändningar pekar på problem med Förmågehypotesensom inte låter sig lösas, och därför drar jag slutsatsen att Förmågehypotesen inte lyckas försvarafysikalismen mot Jacksons kunskapsargument.

  • 125.
    Bergström, Elina
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Bakom Kulisserna: En begreppshistorisk analys av begreppen ras och kultur i Vägen Framåt, 1946 – 19492019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 126.
    Bergström, Jonathan
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Group Belief and Justification: Analyzing Collective knowledge2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 127.
    Bergström, Kai
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Barns arv och försörjning i de svenska medeltida landskapslagarna.2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 128.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Social values of forests and production of new goods and services: the views of Swedish family forest owners2018Ingår i: Small-scale Forestry, ISSN 1873-7617, E-ISSN 1873-7854, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 125-146Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Forests are considered crucial assets for sustainable rural development, and contemporary forestry is an industry where production, environmental and social goals can – and should – be handled simultaneously. Swedish family forest owners (FFOs) are expected to both manage and conserve their forests for the benefit of the whole country, but there are contradictions between development and conservation and between traditional and alternative forms of utilization, representing dilemmas in rural areas. Tensions between urban and rural areas, between demands on what to produce and protect, are often linked to the FFOs’ views on opportunities for forest management. The aim of this study is to identify and analyse the extent to which FFOs perceive that social values have the ability to generate “new” goods and services as a supplement or alternative to traditional forestry, and to suggest how the forests might be managed to render high social values. Fifty-seven interviews were conducted with FFOs (both resident and non-resident). The results indicate that regardless of where they reside, FFOs have a multifunctional view of their forests and forest management, that the social values attached to forests can play an important role in the development of local recreation- and forest-based tourism activities, and in this respect they can enhance sustainable rural development. It is, however, not obvious who might start and develop these businesses, since there seems to be a lack of interest among the FFOs themselves.

  • 129.
    Björklund, Hampus
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Liberalism, Radical Feminism and Prostitution:: A Reassessment of Two Perspectives on Prostitution2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The current philosophical debate about prostitution is mainly concerned with two different points of view: (a) the permissibility of prostitution and if paternalistic interference on behalf of prostitutes is legitimate in a liberal democracy, and (b) feminist objections claiming that it is the unjust structures of the patriarchy that enables and affirms the institution of female bodies being sold on an open market for the sexual desires of males. The aim of this paper is to investigate if both of these perspectives take on too narrow a view when trying to address the phenomenon of prostitution. If so, the conclusions drawn may lead to unwanted consequences making it necessary for a more context-sensitive approach and/or a broader theoretical foundation.

  • 130.
    Björklund, Samuel
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Omsorgsetiken som moralteori: En feministisk teori om omsorg2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här uppsatsen kommer jag försvara Nel Noddings omsorgsetik genom att argumentera mot Michael Slotes kritik av den och själv kritisera hans dygdetiska version av omsorgsetik. Enligt mig är den viktigaste skillnaden mellan teorierna att Noddings teori ger relationer så kallad ontologisk prioritet. Jag kommer argumentera för att den relationella ontologin ger bättre vägledning i omsorgssituationer, men också är att föredra som metaetisk grund. Jag kommer göra det genom att ta upp ett exempel som visar hur Slotes dygdetik bedömer en handling som omsorgsfull, även fast den inte nödvändigtvis är det. Sedan kommer jag argumentera för att Noddings omsorgsetik kräver en fylligare bild av exemplet och därför även ger bättre vägledning, vilket jag menar även gäller generellt i moralisk praktik. Jag kommer även argumentera mot Slote genom att belysa hur rimligheten i hans argument och teori förutsätter vad som kallas för en individualistisk ontologi, till skillnad från den relationella ontologin Noddings använder sig av. En relationell ontologi förutsätter att en relation finns mellan två (eller flera) individer i en situation, medan den individualistiska inte tar hänsyn till det. Den relationella ontologin är viktig för de flesta av omsorgsetikens förespråkare, varför jag anser att Slotes teori inte bör användas. Därför argumenterar jag för att använda den relationella ontologin även som metaetiskt antagande.

  • 131.
    Björn, Norlin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Sjögren, David
    Uppsala universitet.
    Educational history in the age of apology: The Church of Sweden's "White book" on historical relations to the Sami, the significance of education and scientific complexities in reconciling the past2019Ingår i: Educare - Vetenskapliga skrifter, ISSN 1653-1868, nr 1, s. 69-95Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reconciliation processes – wherein governments and other organizations examine their past institutional practices to understand contemporary problems in relation to minorities or indigenous groups – have become a widespread international phenomenon in recent decades. In Sweden, such an ongoing process is the reconciliation work between the Church of Sweden and the Sami. In this process, which recently resulted in the publication of a scholarly anthology (or a “white book”), educational history has come to play a vital part. The present article uses the Church of Sweden’s White Book as an empirical object of study to examine in more detail the role and significance of knowledge of educational history for this specific reconciliation process. By focusing on various scientific complexities and epistemological tensions that tend to arise in these kinds of undertakings, this paper also aims to problematize the white book genre itself as a path to historical knowledge. By doing this, this article’s overall ambition is to contribute to future scholarly work in reconciliation activities, white papers and truth commissions. This study applies a qualitative content analysis and connects theoretically to the growing field of transitional justice research.

  • 132.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier. University of Gothenburg.
    Contextualism in Ethics2013Ingår i: The International Encyclopedia of Ethics / [ed] H. LaFolette, Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell , 2013Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There are various ways in which context matters in ethics. Most clearly, the context in which an action is performed might determine whether the action is morally right: though it is often wrong not to keep a promise, it might be permissible in certain contexts. More radically, proponents of moral particularism (see particularism) have argued that a reason for an action in one context is not guaranteed to be a reason in a different context: whether it is a reason against an act that it breaks a promise or inflicts pain might depend on the particulars of the situation. In moral epistemology, Timmons (1999: Ch. 5) argues that whether a moral judgment is epistemically responsible depends both on the basic moral outlook of the moral judge and on whether the context of judgment is one of engaged moral thinking, or one of distanced, skeptical reflection. In the former, the judge’s basic moral outlook can serve to justify the judgment; not so in the latter (see epistemology, moral).

    Our focus here, however, will be on forms of metaethical, and more precisely semantic, contextualism in moral discourse and moral thinking. According to these forms of contextualism (henceforth “metaethical contextualism,” or just “contextu- alism”), the meaning or truth-conditions of a moral judgment depend not only on the properties of the act it concerns, but also on features of the context in which the judgment is made, such as the standards endorsed by the moral judge or the parties of the conversation. If metaethical contextualism is correct, it might be that when two persons judge that abortions must be banned, one person’s judgment might be true whereas the other person’s is false, because they accept different fundamental norms. This would undermine the idea that there are objectively correct answers to moral questions.

    Metaethical contextualism is supported from three directions. First, what is expressed by terms such as “good” and “ought” seems to be context-dependent when used outside ethics, being dependent on a variety of interests and concerns. One might therefore expect similar context dependence when these terms are used to express moral judgments, assuming a corresponding variety of interests and concerns in moral contexts. Second, many have thought that deep moral disagree- ments suggest that the interests and concerns behind moral judgments do vary in this way. Finally, contextualism promises to make sense of what seems to be an intrinsic yet defeasible connection between moral judgments and moral motivation, by tying the meaning or truth-conditions of moral judgments closely to interests and concerns of moral judges. At the same time, contextualism faces two broad kinds of problems: to make sense of the seemingly categorical or objective preten- sions of moral claims, and to explain why the parties to deep moral disagreement often behave as if they were disagreeing about substantive issues rather than talking past each other. In the sections that follow, we look closer at both sources of support and problems for contextualism.

  • 133.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Diagreement, correctness, and the evidence for metaethical absolutism2015Ingår i: Oxford Studies in Metaethics / [ed] Russ Shafer-Landau, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Metaethical absolutism is the view that moral concepts have non-relative satisfaction conditions that are constant across judges and their particular beliefs, attitudes, and cultural embedding. Two related premises underpin the argument for absolutism: (1) that moral thinking and discourse display a number of features that are characteristically found in paradigmatically absolutist domains, and only partly in uncontroversially non-absolutist domains; and (2) that the best way of making sense of these features is to assume that absolutism is correct. This chapter defends the prospect of a non-absolutist explanation of these “absolutist” features, thus calling into question the second premise. The chapter proposes independently motivated general accounts of attributions of agreement, disagreement, correctness, and incorrectness that can explain both why absolutist domains display all “absolutist” features and why these non-absolutist domains display some, and thus provides preliminary reasons to think that these features of moral discourse can be given a non-absolutist explanation.

  • 134.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Do ‘objectivist’ features of moral discourse and thinking support moral objectivism?2012Ingår i: Journal of Ethics, ISSN 1382-4554, E-ISSN 1572-8609, Vol. 16, nr 4, s. 367-393Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many philosophers think that moral objectivism is supported by stable features of moral discourse and thinking. When engaged in moral reasoning and discourse, people behave ‘as if’ objectivism were correct, and the seemingly most straightforward way of making sense of this is to assume that objectivism is correct; this is how we think that such behavior is explained in paradigmatically objectivist domains. By comparison, relativist, error-theoretic or non-cognitivist accounts of this behavior seem contrived and ad hoc. After explaining why this argument should be taken seriously (recent arguments notwithstanding), I argue that it is nevertheless undermined by considerations of moral disagreement. Even if the metaphysical, epistemic and semantic commitments of objectivism provide little or no evidence against it, and even if the alternative explanations of ‘objectivist’ traits of moral discourse and thinking are speculative or contrived, objectivism is itself incapable of making straightforward sense of these traits. Deep and widespread moral disagreement or, rather, the mere appearance of such disagreement, strongly suggests that the explanations operative in paradigmatically objective discourse fail to carry over to the moral case. Since objectivism, no less than relativism, non-cognitivism and error-theories, needs non-trivial explanations of why we behave ‘as if’ objec- tivism were correct, such behavior does not presently provide reason to accept objectivism.

  • 135.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Essentially shared obligations2014Ingår i: Midwest studies in philosophy, ISSN 0363-6550, E-ISSN 1475-4975, Vol. 38, nr 1, s. 103-120Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 136.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Explaining (Away) the Epistemic Condition on Moral Responsibility2017Ingår i: Responsibility: The Epistemic Condition / [ed] Philip Robichaud, Jan Willem Wieland, Oxford University Press, 2017Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter combines the familiar Strawsonian idea that moral blame and credit depend on the agent’s quality of will with an independently motivated account of responsibility as grounded in a normal explanatory relation between agential qualities and objects of responsibility. The resulting ‘explanatory quality of will condition’ on moral responsibility is then further motivated by being shown to account for the effects on moral blame and credit of justifications, excuses, and undermined control in cases where agents are fully aware of what they are doing. Having been independently motivated, the explanatory quality of will condition is then applied to cases involving lack of awareness. Though this condition involves no explicit epistemic condition on responsibility, it is shown how it accounts for the degrees to which lack of awareness can excuse.

  • 137.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Incompatibilism and ‘Bypassed’ Agency2014Ingår i: Surrounding Free Will: Philosophy, Psychology, Neuroscience / [ed] Alfred R. Mele, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014, s. 95-122Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent papers, Eddy Nahmias and Dylan Murray have proposed an error theory for intuitions supporting incompatibilism. They suggest that when people take responsibility to be undermined by determinism, they do so because they take determinism to imply that agents’ beliefs, desires, and decisions are bypassed, having no effect on their actions. This chapter first presents results from experiments designed to exclude certain sources of error in Nahmias and Murray’s studies, showing that their data, however puzzling, are robust with respect to minor variations in questionnaires. Second, it presents results from studies designed to provide more direct tests of the bypass hypothesis, results strongly suggesting that in spite of these data, the hypothesis is false. Third, it argues that, initial appearances notwithstanding, the explanation hypothesis can straightforwardly explain Nahmias and Murray’s data.

  • 138.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Moralisk oenighet utan metaetisk absolutism2015Ingår i: Filosofisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0348-7482, Vol. 36, nr 3, s. 3-11Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 139.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Outsourcing the deep self: Deep self discordance does not explain away intuitions in manipulation arguments2016Ingår i: Philosophical Psychology, ISSN 0951-5089, E-ISSN 1465-394X, Vol. 29, nr 5, s. 637-653Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    According to manipulation arguments for incompatibilism, manipulation might undermine an agent's responsibility even when the agent satisfies plausible compatibilist conditions on responsibility. According to Sripada (2012), however, empirical data suggest that people take manipulation to undermine responsibility largely because they think that the manipulated act is in discord with the agent's “deep self”, thus violating the plausible compatibilist condition of deep self concordance. This paper defends Sripada's methodological approach but presents data from an experiment that corrects for crucial weaknesses in his study. These data strongly suggest that, contrary to Sripada’s contention, most of the effect of manipulation on attributions of moral responsibility is unmediated by worries about inadequate information or deep self discordance. Instead, it depends largely on worries that the action is ultimately explained by factors outside the agent’s control, just as proponents of manipulation arguments have proposed. More generally, data suggest that judgments of deep self discordance are themselves explained by worries about responsibility, and that the everyday notion of what an agent wants or is “deep down” is sensitive not only to the agent’s internal psychological structure, but also its source. This casts doubt on recent claims about the explanatory role of deep self judgments.

  • 140.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Quasi-Realism, Absolutism, and Judgment-Internal Correctness Conditions2013Ingår i: Johanssonian Investigations: Essays in Honour of Ingvar Johansson on His Seventieth Birthday / [ed] Christer Svennerlind, Jan Almäng, Rögnvaldur Ingthorsson, Heusenstamm: Ontos Verlag, 2013, s. 96-119Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The traditional metaethical distinction between cognitivist absolutism, on the one hand, and speaker relativism or noncognitivism, on the other, seemed both clear and important. On the former view, moral judgments would be true or false independently on whose judgments they were, and moral disagreement might be settled by the facts. Not so on the latter views. But noncognitivists and relativists, following what Simon Blackburn has called a “quasi-realist” strategy, have come a long way in making sense of talk about truth of moral judgments and its in- dependence of moral judges and their attitudes or standards. The success of this strategy would undermine the traditional way of understanding the distinction, and it is not obvious how it can be reformulated. In this paper, I outline the difficulty posed by quasi-realism, raise problems for some prior attempts to overcome it, and present my own suggestion, focusing on correctness conditions that are internal to the act of moral judgment.

  • 141.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Eriksson, John
    Francén Olinder, Ragnar
    Strandberg, Caj
    Recent Work on Motivational Internalism2012Ingår i: Analysis, ISSN 0003-2638, E-ISSN 1467-8284, Vol. 72, nr 1, s. 124-137Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reviews recent work on motivational internalism

  • 142.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Brülde, Bengt
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Normative responsibilities: structure and sources2017Ingår i: Parental responsibility in the context of neuroscience and genetics / [ed] Kristien Hens, Daniela Cutas, Dorothee Horstkötter, Cham: Springer, 2017, s. 13-33Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Normative responsibilities have a central role in everyday moral thinking, largely because they are taken to ground requirements to act and react in certain ways. If parents are responsible for the wellbeing of their children, for example, this might mean that they are morally required to feed them, attend to their emotional needs, or make sure that someone else does. But normative responsibilities are not well understood as lists of requirements to act or react, for such requirements will depend on what options and information the agent has available. In the first part of the paper, we instead propose to understand normative responsibilities as requirements to care about what one is responsible for: about the wellbeing of one’s child, about performing a certain action, or about playing the sort of role that one’s profession requires. Such requirements, we argue, are just the sort of things that will give rise to requirements to act and react given the right context. In the second part, we survey and discuss a variety of considerations that might give rise to normative responsibilities: capacities and costs; retrospective and causal responsibility; benefits; promises, contracts and agreements; laws and norms; and roles and special relationships.

  • 143.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Francén Olinder, Ragnar
    Enoch’s Defense of Robust Meta-Ethical Realism2016Ingår i: Journal of Moral Philosophy, ISSN 1740-4681, E-ISSN 1745-5243, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 101-112Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Taking Morality Seriously is David Enoch’s book-length defense of meta-ethical and meta-normative non-naturalist realism. After describing Enoch’s position and outlining the argumentative strategy of the book, we engage in a critical discussion of what we take to be particularly problematic central passages. We focus on Enoch’s two original posi-tive arguments for non-naturalist realism, one argument building on first order moral implications of different meta-ethical positions, the other attending to the rational commitment to normative facts inherent in practical deliberation. We also pay special attention to Enoch’s handling of two types of objections to non-naturalist realism, objec-tions having to do with the possibility of moral knowledge and with moral disagreement.

  • 144.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Francén Olinder, Ragnar
    Internalists Beware – We Might all be Amoralists!2013Ingår i: Australasian Journal of Philosophy, ISSN 0004-8402, E-ISSN 1471-6828, Vol. 91, nr 1, s. 1-14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Standard motivational internalism is the claim that by a priori or conceptual necessity, a psychological state is a moral opinion only if it is suitably related to moral motivation. Many philosophers, the authors of this paper included, have assumed that this claim is supported by intuitions to the effect that amoralists—people not suitably related to such motivation—lack moral opinions proper. In this paper we argue that this assumption is mistaken, seeming plausible only because defenders of standard internalism have failed to consider the possibility that our own actual moral practice as a whole is one where moral opinions fail to motivate in the relevant way. To show this, we present a cynical hypothesis according to which the tendency for people to act in accordance with their moral opinions ultimately stems from a desire to appear moral. This hypothesis is most likely false, but we argue, on both intuitive and methodological grounds, that it is conceptually possible that it correctly describes our actual moral opinions. If correct, this refutes standard motivational internalism. Further, we propose an explanation of why many have seemingly internalist intuitions. Such intuitions, we argue, stem from the fact that standard amoralist cases allow (or even suggest) that we apprehend the putative moral opinions of amoralists as radically different from how we understand actual paradigmatic moral opinions. Given this, it is reasonable to understand them as not being moral opinions proper. However, since these intuitions rest on substantial a posteriori assumptions about actual moral opinions, they provide no substantial a priori constraints on theories of moral judgment.

  • 145.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier. University of Gothenburg.
    Hess, Kendy
    Corporate Crocodile Tears?: On the Reactive Attitudes of Corporations2017Ingår i: Philosophy and phenomenological research, ISSN 0031-8205, E-ISSN 1933-1592, Vol. 94, nr 2, s. 273-298Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, a number of people have argued that certain entities embodied by groups of agents themselves qualify as agents, with their own (analogs of) beliefs, desires, and intentions; even, some claim, as moral agents. However, others have independently argued that fully-fledged moral agency involves a capacity for reactive attitudes such as guilt and indignation, and these capacities might seem beyond the ken of “collective” or “corporate” agents. Individuals embodying such agents can of course be ashamed, proud, or indignant about what the agent has done. But just as an entity needs to have its own beliefs, desires, and intentions to qualify as a bona fide agent, the required capacity for reactive attitudes is a capacity to have one’s own reactive attitudes. If fully-fledged moral agency requires reactive attitudes, the corporate agent must itself be capable of (analogs of) guilt and indignation. In this paper, we argue that at least certain corporate agents are. Or, more precisely, we argue that if there are bona fide corporate agents, these agents can have the capacities that are both associated with guilt and indignation and plausibly required for moral agency; in particular certain epistemic and motivational capacities.

  • 146.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier. Göteborgs universitet.
    John, Eriksson
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Strandberg, Caj
    Universitetet i Oslo.
    Francén Olinder, Ragnar
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Motivational internalism and folk intuitions2015Ingår i: Philosophical Psychology, ISSN 0951-5089, E-ISSN 1465-394X, Vol. 28, nr 5, s. 715-734Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivational internalism postulates a necessary connection between moral judgments and motivation. In arguing for and against internalism, metaethicists traditionally appeal to intuitions about cases, but crucial cases often yield conflicting intuitions. One way to try to make progress, possibly uncovering theoretical bias and revealing whether people have conceptions of moral judgments required for noncognitivist accounts of moral thinking, is to investigate non-philosophers' willingness to attribute moral judgments. A pioneering study by Shaun Nichols seemed to undermine internalism, as a large majority of subjects were willing to attribute moral understanding to an agent lacking moral motivation. However, our attempts to replicate this study yielded quite different results, and we identified a number of problems with Nichols' experimental paradigm. The results from a series of surveys designed to rule out these problems (a) show that people are more willing to attribute moral understanding than moral belief to agents lacking moral motivation, (b) suggest that a majority of subjects operate with some internalist conceptions of moral belief, and (c) are compatible with the hypothesis that an overwhelming majority of subjects do this. The results also seem to suggest that if metaethicists’ intuitions are theoretically biased, this bias is more prominent among externalists.

  • 147.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier. Göteborgs universitet.
    McPherson, Tristram
    Moral Attitudes for Non-Cognitivists: Solving the specification problem2014Ingår i: Mind (Print), ISSN 0026-4423, E-ISSN 1460-2113, Vol. 123, nr 489, s. 1-38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Moral non-cognitivists hope to explain the nature of moral agreement and disagreement as agreement and disagreement in non-cognitive attitudes. In doing so, they take on the task of identifying the relevant attitudes, distinguishing the non-cognitive attitudes corresponding to judgements of moral wrongness, for example, from attitudes involved in aesthetic disapproval or the sports fan’s disapproval of her team’s performance. We begin this paper by showing that there is a simple recipe for generating apparent counterexamples to any informative specification of the moral attitudes. This may appear to be a lethal objection to non-cognitivism, but a similar recipe challenges attempts by non-cognitivism’s competitors to specify the conditions underwriting the contrast between genuine and merely apparent moral disagreement. Because of its generality, this specification problem requires a systematic response, which, we argue, is most easily available for the non-cognitivist. Building on premisses congenial to the non-cognitivist tradition, we make the following claims: (1) In paradigmatic cases, wrongness-judgements constitute a certain complex but functionally unified state, and paradigmatic wrongness-judgements form a functional kind, preserved by homeostatic mechanisms. (2) Because of the practical function of such judgements, we should expect judges’ intuitive understanding of agreement and disagreement to be accommodating, treating states departing from the paradigm in various ways as wrongness-judgements. (3) This explains the intuitive judgements required by the counterexample-generating recipe, and more generally why various kinds of amoralists are seen as making genuine wrongness-judgements.

  • 148.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Olinder, Ragnar Francen
    Taking Morality Seriously2016Ingår i: Journal of Moral Philosophy, ISSN 1740-4681, E-ISSN 1745-5243, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 101-112Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Taking Morality Seriously is David Enoch's book-length defense of meta-ethical and meta-normative non-naturalist realism. After describing Enoch's position and outlining the argumentative strategy of the book, we engage in a critical discussion of what we take to be particularly problematic central passages. We focus on Enoch's two original positive arguments for non-naturalist realism, one argument building on first order moral implications of different meta-ethical positions, the other attending to the rational commitment to normative facts inherent in practical deliberation. We also pay special attention to Enoch's handling of two types of objections to non-naturalist realism, objections having to do with the possibility of moral knowledge and with moral disagreement.

  • 149.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Pereboom, Derk
    Free Will Skepticism and Bypassing2014Ingår i: Moral Psychology, vol 4: Free Will and Moral Responsibility / [ed] Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, MIT Press, 2014, s. 27-35Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 150.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Pereboom, Derk
    Traditional and Experimental Approaches to Free Will and Moral Responsibility2016Ingår i: A Companion to Experimental Philosophy / [ed] Justin Sytsma, Wesley Buckwalter, Wiley-Blackwell, 2016, s. 158-172Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
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