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  • 101.
    Bardal, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Eriksson, Fia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    The Venture Adventure: En studie i hur svenska venture capitalbolag påverkas av finanskrisen2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 102.
    Barrios, Luis
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Kenntoft, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    The Business Analysis Process of New Product Development: - a study of small and medium size enterprises2008Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    The world is a very competitive place, every day companies from all over the globe try to be on the edge of their fields in order to keep a good distance from competitors. They have found in the new product development process or NPD the leverage they needed to build up that differentiation required to get ahead over competitors. When looking inside the NPD we decided to focus on a very critical and interesting stage, the business analysis process. The purpose sought with our research is to provide a better understanding of how small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) carry out their business analysis stage in the process of new product development (NPD), this purpose was first obtained by stating a main problem and to facilitate the answer to this main problem we proposed two research questions that were later used to review all of the related literature, which resulted in a conceptual framework 2employed to guide this study’s data collection. We decided to use the inductive approach and the use of primary data collected with the help of interviews with companies representing SMEs using a qualitative case study approach through all interviews. It is important to mention that the interviews were also designed with the help of the research questions.

    The results allowed us to develop a model that shows how the business analysis process looks like in the companies studied as well as to highlight the most relevant factors for the two companies studied when performing the business analysis. Finally the research let us establish some suggestions for future researches regarding the business analysis process such as the differences between small and medium enterprises and larger firms, and the cross-functional activities involved in a business analysis process in larger firms.

  • 103.
    Barsk, Anton
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Sundström, Marléne
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    IKEA, Umeås Mekka?: - en enkät om IKEA´s etablering i Umeå2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag finns en avsiktsplan för en etablering av ett IKEA-varuhus i Umeå och det råder en oro bland handlare samtidigt som en förväntan sprider sig bland umeåborna. Kommunen hade tidigare planer på att utveckla Klockarbäckens handelsområde men då möjligheten om ett IKEA dök upp ändrades avsikterna. Visionen är idag en nyetablering av ett nytt handelsområde vid stadens södra entré.

    Hur konsumenter handlar, deras kriterier, var och när de handlar är viktiga aspekter när det gäller konsumentbeteende, vilket är huvudämnet som kommer att behandlas i denna uppsats. Lojalitet är en annan viktig aspekt inom konsumentbeteendet, och det vi ville studera är hur lojala konsumenter är mot de butiker och handelsområden de handlar på idag och vad som händer med en konsuments lojalitet vid nyetableringar.

    Syftet med denna studie har varit att kartlägga konsumenters grad av lojalitet till befintliga handelsområden idag och hur denna skulle komma att förändras i och med en externetablering av ett fjärde handelsområde vad gäller ett IKEA-varuhus i Umeå. Vårt syfte kommer även vara att förklara skillnader mellan olika grupper samt redogöra för de effekter som en etablering kan medföra.

    Vi har genom en omfattande enkätundersökning identifierat hur konsumenter i Umeå uppskattar sin lojalitet idag och hur de tror att denna kan komma att förändras i och med en nyetablering av ett nytt handelsområde.

    Våra resultat visar att Umeås konsumenter i stor utsträckning idag är mycket lojala till sina valda handelsområden. Trots detta uttrycker majoriteten av alla respondenter att deras lojalitet kommer att förändras till förmån för det nya handelsområdet Entré Syd och IKEA. Vidare visar resultatet tydliga indikationer på att Strömpilen och Klockarbäcken är de handelsområden som kommer drabbas hårdast av nyetableringen.

  • 104.
    Barua, Promotosh
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Islam, Md. Sajedul
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Young Consumers’ Purchase Intentions of Buying Green Products: A study based on the Theory of Planned Behavior2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation explored the contextual factors affecting young consumers’ attitudes and their intentions of green purchase behavior in the area of consumer behavior. This study seeks to understand young consumers’ green purchase intentions based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). At the same time, this study also intends to detect variables that influence young consumers’ intentions of buying green products. 

    In this thesis, a quantitative approach was adopted. Using a sample of 282 young people, a survey was developed and conducted in Umeå University, Sweden.

    Results indicate that parental influence is the top predictor among all the variables we studied. From the correlation analyses; we can see that top three predictors are important for understanding purchase intentions of young consumers.  Influence of contextual and background factors –parents, peer, and environmental knowledge – clearly played an important role in influencing young consumers’ purchase intentions of buying green products. To the end, a proposed model is developed to understand green purchase intentions of young consumers.

    Implications for marketers are also discussed in this study.

  • 105.
    Barumwete, Lyna Alami
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Rao, Feiyi
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Exchange rate risk in Automobile Industry: An Empirical Study on Swedish, French and German Multinational Companies.2008Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, both company executives as well as national media have claimed that short currency exchange rate fluctuations are negatively affecting the stock returns of certain firms. However, most previous studies focusing on companies in the US and Asia have been unable to find empirical support for a statistically significant linkage between firm value and exchange rate risk. By using a quantitative method with a deductive approach,the present research investigates if currency exchange rate movements impact the stock return of European based car companies with market interests in the US. By selecting French Renault and Peugeot, German Audi and BMW and Swedish Saab and Volvo, we were able to analyze three currencies exchange rates in our study: SEK/USD, SEK/Euro and Euro/USD. In addition, we included three macroeconomic factors: GDP, stock market index and Oil price to perform a multiple regression analysis. In consistency with the earlier studies, our results indicate that for five out of the six investigated companies, short movements in the three exchange rates do not significantly affect the stock returns of the companies investigated. By analyzing the annual report of the investigated companies, we found that derivatives instruments such as currency option, foreign exchange forwards, currency futures and currency swaps were used to hedge exchange risk. This might be one of the reasons why it was difficult to capture exchange rate risk. The fact that BMW was the only company showing a significant effect could indicate that the company is not applying the accurate hedging strategy. Another reason might be that the company is more exposed to exchange risk due to its large exporting activity compared to the other investigated companies.

  • 106.
    Barwinski, Arne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Burvall, Caroline
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Fashionable Strategies: Internationalization process of small and medium sized Nordicfashion companies2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In our master thesis “Fashionable strategies” we analyze the internationalization processof small and medium sized Nordic Fashion companies. In our study we conducted aquantitative survey and qualitative in-depths interviews to shed light on the topic. We usehereby an iterative research strategy through the triangulation analysis method as researchapproach. The combination of methodologies and perspectives allowed us to analyze ourtheoretical framework and the research questions in a favorable manner. The researchquestions we aim to investigate in our study were the following:· What are the reasons for the small and medium sized Nordic fashion companies wheninternationalizing, and what are the strategies the companies use hereby?· What influences the small and medium sized Nordic fashion companies in their choiceof strategy and market to enter?· Which barriers of entry and problems do the small and medium sized Nordic fashioncompanies see as critical in their internationalization process and how do theyovercome these issues?In the research we especially took a look at the following areas that we found mainlyimportant for fashion companies in their internationalization process: The reasons forexpanding, the choice of market, the entry modes that are used and barriers and problemsthat occur in the process. We take a view on the theoretical models of the Uppsala Model,Helsinki model, Revised Uppsala model and Born-Global Theory to explain the strategiesbehind the small and medium sized Nordic fashion companies.We see that the growth of the company and the profit increase are the main reasons for theNordic fashion companies when expanding their business. The entry modes used by thecompanies are agents and distributors, and when choosing the markets the fashioncompanies are contact-driven and focusing first on markets that have a rather smallerdistance to their own domestic market. The problems the companies have to overcome arecosts of entry, cash-flow and invoice payments which are all related to financial issues.We believe that our study has contributed with new information to the research field ofinternationalization concerning small medium fashion companies in the Nordic countries.

  • 107.
    Basazinew, Serkalem Tilahun
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Vashkevich, Aliaksandra
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOVEREIGN CREDIT DEFAULT SWAP AND STOCK MARKETS- The Case of East Asia     2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    When adjusted to sovereign entities, the structural credit risk model assumes a negative (positive) relationship between sovereign CDS spreads and stock prices (volatilities). In theory both markets are supposed to incorporate new information simultaneously. Discrepancies from the theoretical relationship can be exploited by capital structure arbitrageurs. In our thesis we study the intertemporal relationship between sovereign CDS and stock index markets in East Asia during the period of 2007 – 2011. We detect a negative (by and large positive) relationship between the Asian CDS spreads and stock indexes (volatilities). Across the whole region the sovereign CDS market dominates the price discovery process. However, 4 out of 7 Asian countries (Japan, Korea, Malaysia and the Philippines) demonstrate a feedback effect. The stock markets of countries with higher credit spreads (Indonesia, the Philippines and Korea) appear to react more severely at heightened variance in the CDS market. When considered separately for turbulent vs. calm periods, we find that the lead-lag relationship between the Asian sovereign CDS and stock markets is not stable. Apart from that, both markets become more interrelated during periods of increased volatility. The dependency of Asian CDS spreads and stock indexes on the “fear index” detected in the frames of robustness check implies an integration of both markets into the global one. Therefore, while seeking for arbitrage opportunities in the respective Asian markets one should also take into account possible influences of broader global factors. 

  • 108.
    Bashir, Muhammed Tahir
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Morales Gajete, Jesús Carlos
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Analysis of training in consumer banking: A case study of Citibank2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In this research we tried to find out which role plays training in the success or failure ofsales in retail banking and how vary it is around the world. This research should beinteresting for readers because we made a deep investigation about training of salesteam in retail banking in an international context, comparing two different branchesaround the world. With a consistent result, we can extrapolate our findings to otherbranches of Citibank or other banks across the earth.In order to get knowledge about this topic, we have done a case study of Citibank,focusing in two branches, Spain and Pakistan. With this purpose we have done teninterviews, five in each country, with Training Heads and Sales Managers. To choosethose respondents we used a snowball sampling.Our study shows that training plays an important role in sales and satisfaction of clients,but it is necessary to consider another factor like genetic, experience and motivationbetween others. It aims to develop and improve skills of employees, and then if theyreceive the best programs and provide it in the right moment for the employee, it has adirect and positive impact in a sales person’s work and therefore it contributes to thegeneration of profits.To know how Training vary around the world, our study shows that it vary betweendifferent cultures. Citibank aims to have a homogeneous line in Training, without toforget each local situation. This is because Citibank aims to solve the differences ofbudgets, needs, laws, products, processes, cultures, religions and ways to approach tothe client, etc, adapting its training policy to the local situation.

  • 109.
    Bayar, Regzedmaa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Chandmani, Dolgorsuren
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    What you see? Value or ...?: A study of life values and lifestyles, and attractiveness of consumers towards advertising posters with value appeals in Umea2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This research is investigated a relationship between life values and attitude towards advertising, which included life value appeals. A survey is used a self administrated questionnaire of a quantitative research method, which is asked about people’s life values based on Kahle scale of eight items and their attitudes about advertising posters are created ourselves. Sample was chosen from students and workers in Umea. University, offices and shopping mall techniques used to collect the data.

     

    Theoretical review has shown that the link between advertising appeals and consumer behavior factors’ life value and lifestyle being addressed before scholars, such as Belch, Polay, and Kahle so on. The review also included influencer factors and types of advertising appeals, and life values and lifestyle activities.

     

    This research’s empirical findings have established the correlation between ranking of eight life values and ranking of eight advertising posters with the values. In addition, the posters are compared by gender and lifestyles activities.  Our findings confirmed two out of three hypotheses. Confirmed first hypothesis is that consumer life value is reflected their choice of advertising posters with the value. Next, choice of the value and the poster is not different by gender. Unconfirmed hypothesis is lifestyle activities relative the choice of the posters.

     

    The research’s results have highlighted practical implications for advertisers and marketers, so that they can understand consumer behavior towards advertising. Especially in today’s world of booming advertisement industry, as such they are able to make more efficient their advertising, not to overdo nor underestimate its effects on customers.

  • 110.
    Belegu, Alba
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Knowledge transfer and learning: A case study conducted in Company X in UK2009Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Project management has become a natural way of conducting activities in companies.  The goal is continuous improvement in project performance.  The way knowledge is managed in the company is crucial for gaining competitive advantage.  Knowledge management and learning, has been recognized by academics and practitioners as important to achieving success and improvement in projects.

     

    Achieving continuous improvement is considered a difficult task.  The difficulty lies in capturing and storing the knowledge and learning from one individual to another and from one project to another.  In this study the researcher has reviewed the mechanisms and processes from recent research which are supposed to facilitate knowledge transfer and learning.  Nevertheless, the academic and practitioner researchers do not seem to have a common ground on how to facilitate knowledge transfer and learning, even though there are many mechanisms and processes suggested.  Their results are not concurrent in effective and efficient facilitation of knowledge and learning.

    The researcher has conducted a qualitative case study through seven interviews.  The empirical study was done in a Company X which provides air traffic services.  It shows that some of the practices institutionalized by Case Company X are different from what the literature suggests.  Moreover, the environment wherein these mechanisms and processes co-exist is particular from what the literature suggests.  A learning landscape of Case Company X is identified based on the empirical data.  Recommendations and suggestions are provided in the end to increase knowledge transfer and improve learning in and between projects at Case Company X.

  • 111.
    Beliavskaia, Olga
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    “Cooperation and Adaptation are the basis for a: A study of cooperation and segmentation2008Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    According to the latest UNWTO World Tourism Barometer the first six months of 2007 have

    again shown an unexpected growth in the global tourism with the increase of 6 % in Europe

    compared with the year before. Swedish politicians have started to see tourism as an

    opportunity and in an investigation made 2006 showed that eighty percent of the Swedish

    municipalities gave priority to tourism as an industry. This priority is rather logical since

    investing in tourism development is profitable since each hundred-krona note an international

    tourists spends in Sweden 45-48 SEK returns to the state in the form of taxes and fees. There

    are many rather small tourism actors in Sweden who often cooperate in common activities

    such as marketing because of equally small financial resources. “Market segmentation is one

    of the most crucial long-term strategic marketing decisions a destination or organization

    makes, therefore it is crucial that it is performed in a proper manner since it affects the total

    planning and a destinations success. I wanted to understand the relationships between various

    tourism actors in the County of Västerbotten when it came to efficient marketing management

    and tourism development.

  • 112.
    Beliavskaia, Olga
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    “The future is getting older so be prepared”: -2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    In what atmosphere do people feel welcomed and comfortable? What are their needs, preferences, expectations and how do these affect their shopping behaviour? The proportion of older persons in the population is constantly growing so in the new future there will be more and more older shoppers in the stores. This study has from a management perspective tried to find a suitable store design and atmosphere that would be appreciated by the older shoppers segment.

    The research question of the study was: What store atmosphere and store design lead the growing target group - the elderly towards a sales increasing shopping behaviour? In attempt of answering the research question the main purpose was to understand the needs and preferences of older consumers and their shopping behaviour related to the issues of food shopping in a supermarket and to be able to discover underlying mechanisms in order to suggest a store atmosphere and store design adapted to the older consumers; and thus an increasing sales strategy for the store.

    In order to form a theoretical frame various secondary sources have been used that were found to be suitable for the research area. The retail anthropologist Paco Underhill has been a great inspiration for many theories in the study. Two qualitative methods have been used: structural observations and semi-structural interviews. The qualitative method is well chosen and makes it possible to fulfil the purpose of the study. Seven individuals were first observed in a store while shopping and later interviewed about their shopping experience.

    In the analysis the empirical data was analysed with some references drawn to the theoretical frame. Similar behavioural patterns were identified among the participants that formed the concepts: morning shoppers, one stop store, personal atmosphere, brand unawareness and finally service access. In conclusions a store strategy, based on older consumers needs and preferences, was proposed that would make the older consumers of the study feel more welcomed in the store and hence hopefully shop more. The strategy contained features like: more staff members in the morning, more efficient use of the in-store kitchen, development of “We Care” strategy and others. Researcher’s own reflections and suggestions as well as the veracity conclude this bachelor thesis.

  • 113.
    Bellini, Edith
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    -To Bow Heads or Shake Hands -: A Study of Direct and Indirect Communication in Chinese Management2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    The world-wide globalisation that has taken place during the past decades has led to more Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) choosing to relocate some parts of their organisation to other countries. China, which is in command of the world’s lowest-cost manufacturing plants, is the first destination for MNEs. Although China presents a great opportunity for MNEs, this investment does not come without its difficulties, MNEs wishing to invest in China are confronted with certain challenges. MNEs are faced with dealing with the notable differences in Western and Chinese business culture. One particular difference is related to intercultural communication between western managers and Chinese managers. The theory of low context and high context cultures states that the Chinese communicate indirectly and Western countries directly.

    The main purpose of this research is to find out if the Chinese manager, after obtaining experience negotiating with foreign managers from low context cultures, adopts a more direct communication style. The purpose of this research is to answer the following question:

    Does the Chinese manager have a preference for direct or indirect communication when negotiating with foreign managers?

    The following hypotheses were stated:

    Ho: Chinese managers prefer direct communication during business negotiations with foreign managers.

    Ha: Chinese managers prefer indirect communication during business negotiations with foreign managers

    A quantitative method with a positivistic epistemology was used for the research. Quantitative research is an exploratory study with a deductive approach and therefore the most appropriate method for this research was a survey. A survey was chosen for data collection and a questionnaire based on the research model was developed and used as the survey instrument to collect data from the target group.

    The target group was stated as Chinese managers with at least three years work experience, fluent in English and with experience in negotiations with managers from cultures considered as low-context cultures such as Germany, Sweden and the United States of America.

    The target group was selected from the MBA programs at Fudan University.

    The SPSS program was utilised to analyse the responses and to test the hypothesis. Numeric values were assigned to each of the responses, with 5 being the most direct and 1 being the most indirect. The scale was appropriately reversed for negative questions.

    Descriptive statistics were obtained about distribution, variability and central tendency of the variables. t tests were applied to compare group means. Furthermore, a regression analysis was conducted to estimate a linear relationship between direct communication and the lack of miscommunication showed by the descriptive test. All tests were conducted at a 95% confidence level.

    The result of the hypothesis test indicated that Chinese managers have preference towards direct communication when conducting business negotiations with foreign managers.

  • 114.
    Bellini, Edith
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Where to Invest?: -A comparative study of the performance of Swedish funds investing in Sweden and Swedish funds investing in Emerging Markets -2008Studentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    The world-wide globalisation that has taken place over the past decades has led to a revolution on the stock markets. Nowadays, it is more simple, cheap and convenient to access financial information. As a result investing in mutual funds has increase.

    There has been a renewed interest to investigate the performance of the mutual fund industry. The researcher has chosen to perform a comparative analysis of the performance of Swedish mutual funds invested in Sweden and, Swedish mutual funds invested in emerging markets.

    The primary aim of this research is to examine whether the investment in mutual funds is more profitable in Sweden or in the Emerging markets. The research endeavors to answer the following questions:

    Considering risk and return factors, is it more profitable to invest in Swedish equity funds or invest in equity funds from emerging markets?

    Was the Swedish mutual funds performance better than the performance of the Swedish index?

    Was the Emerging markets mutual funds performance better than the performance of the emerging markets index?

    A quantitative method with a positivistic epistemology was used for the research. 4 mutual funds investing in Sweden and 4 mutual funds investing in emerging markets were studied in this research. To estimate the performance of the mutual funds, historical data from Jan. 2000 to Sep. 2007 was analyzed using:

    (i) Treynor’s index

    (ii) Sharpe’s index

    (iii) Jensen’s index

    Descriptive statistics were obtained using the Statgraphs program, the excel program and the Metastock program. The results showed that the Emerging markets funds had a better performance during the period studied.

    The result showed, in addition, that the Swedish funds outperformed the Swedish MCSI index whereas the Emerging markets funds under performed against the Emerging Markets MCSI index.

  • 115.
    Bendrich, Denise
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Bergström, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Impact of Asset Allocation on Insurance Companies’ Performance: A study of the European Economic Area2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Insurance companies offer business and individuals the possibility to reduce the financial impact of a risk occurring by transferring it away from themselves onto someone. For taking on risk on behalf of someone else the insurance company requires a premium from the policyholder which is pooled and invested in order to meet future obligations towards the policyholder. However, the importance of the European insurance industry goes beyond economic protection of the policyholder as the industry with its EUR8.4 trillion or 58 percent of EU GDP in assets is the largest institutional investor in Europe. As the financial system has undergone dramatic transformation over time, so have the role and function of intermediaries changed. While traditional tasks like reducing transaction costs and asymmetric information became less relevant, facilitating of risk transfer and dealing with the increasing breadth and depth of financial markets are gaining more and more importance. While insurers have been able to hold illiquid asset to a larger extent arguments from the industry are made that the planned introduction of Solvency II will limit insurers and overlook their investment abilities, which is something that can affect the region’s economic development.

    The above mention aspect combined with the limited research that has been conducted on insurers’ asset allocation and the performance of it resulted in the following research question:

    Does asset allocation impact insurance company's performance?

    The question focuses on insurers within the European Union (EU) which is enlarged by the European Economic Area (EEA) and Switzerland, where performance is measured as the return on investment (ROI). To answer the research question in the best possible way, relevant theories such as Modern Portfolio Theory or Efficient Market Hypothesis are presented and discussed as well as previous research on asset allocation. Earlier studies about asset allocation policy and its power to explain the investment return came to different conclusions which can be due to variation in the interpretation of the findings or difficulties by distinguishing between asset allocation policy and active asset allocation.

    Census is used to investigate in the topic as the population of listed insurance companies within the selected region was rather small which finally came down to 42 firms due to the timeframe of 11 years. Data regarding insurer’s asset class weights in debt securities, equity, real estate, derivatives, cash and equivalent, loans and receivables and the category of others were collected. The return on investment was also collected for each year of the time period and for each insurance company. Benchmarks were constructed in order to replicate what the return of a passive investment of the same proportion would have yielded. The result was inconclusive as it was not possible to determine if asset allocation policy or active management have the greatest impact on the return on investment. This is contradicting previous research of asset allocation and performance as researchers have found that asset allocation policy explains most or all of the return.

  • 116.
    Bengtsson, Cecilia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Att agera på förväntningsgapet mellan revisionsprofessionen och intressenter: en uppsats som behandlar ansvarsfrihet och förväntningarna på en revisors ansvar2008Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Den första av en rad skandaler i USA och i Europa, var Enron-skandalen. Det amerikanska företaget Enron försattes i konkurs i slutet av 2001 då företaget hade dolt sina skulder och manipulerat redovisningen för att kunna ge sken av att vara ett finansiellt välmående företag. Då det uppdagades att Enrons revisionsbyrå Andersen hade förstört material för att dölja information för tillsynsmyndigheten i och med förundersökningen mot Enron var skandalen ett faktum och revisorernas roll kom alltmer i fokus.

    Skandalerna har bidragit till att allmänheten upplever att revisorerna inte levererar det de ska: att revisionen garanterar att det inte försiggår några förbiseenden eller oegentligheter i ett företags affärstransaktioner. Allmänheten förväntar sig att en revisor ska vara som en polis i granskandet av ett företags affärer och blir därför besvikna på revisionsprofessionen då en revisionsskandal uppstår. För att minska detta förväntningsgap behöver allmänhetens förväntningar på en revisors ansvar realiseras och alltså minskas samtidigt som revisionsprofessionen behöver öka sin prestation.

    Det här är ett kvalitativt arbete där materialet kommer ifrån lagtexter, akademisk revisions-, redovisnings- och marknadsföringslitteratur, kursböcker, domar från Stockholms tingsrätt samt utlåtanden från Revisorsnämnden. Diskussionerna och analysen i detta arbete har utgått såväl från intressenternas perspektiv som från revisorernas och empirin är utarbetad med ett explorativt och deskriptivt tillvägagångssätt.

    Arbetet syftar till att besvara frågeställningar angående Ansvarsfrihet, attityder om revisorns ansvar från ett flertal perspektiv samt begreppet förväntningsgap. Den teoretiska referensramen gör läsaren införstådd med den teoretiska aspekten om dessa huvudpunkter i arbetet genom att presentera information från de valda materialkällorna. I arbetets empiriska del framkommer ett flertal respondenters attityder och åsikter om en revisors ansvar bland annat och respondenterna representerar flera grupper av ett samhälles intressenter. Vidare analyseras respondenternas svar med utgångspunkt i den teoretiska referensramen där diverse tidigare studier belyser förväntningsgapet mellan revisionsprofessionen och intressenter. Slutligen mynnar analysen ut i flertalet konkreta förslag med inslag från såväl marknadsföringens som revisions- och redovisningens forskningsområde. Dessa konkreta förslag till hur förväntningsgapet kan minskas är arbetets huvudsakliga bidrag till forskningen som i nuläget är ett tämligen outforskat område.

  • 117.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Baldwin, Andrew
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    The interactive base of inter-organizational identity formation: inclusion and exclusion through boundary drawing2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 118.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Boter, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Vanyushyn, Vladimir
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Integrating the Internet and Marketing Operations: A Study of Antecedents in Firms of Different Size2007Ingår i: International Small Business Journal, ISSN 0266-2426, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 27-48Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Adopting the Internet for advanced marketing operations opens up challenging opportunities for firms of all sizes. However, such adoption might destroy investments in present market channels and thus has the characteristics of radical innovation. In this article, we draw on the literature on innovation to investigate what differentiates adopters of advanced Internet-based marketing operations from non-adopters in firms of different sizes. The conceptual model for this study is centred on the set of internal and external factors size, willingness to cannibalize, entrepreneurial drivers, management support, and market pressure. Our analysis is built on survey data from 379 Swedish manufacturing firms. The results of analysis show that composition of factors on which firms base their decision to adopt advanced Internet-based marketing operations varies signifi cantly with fi rm size. A number of implications for further research as well as for managers and educators are discussed.

  • 119.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Boter, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Vanyushyn, Vladimir
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    The challenge of building marketing channels via the Internet2003Ingår i: International Council for Small Business, Belfast, 2003Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 120.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Kock, Sören
    Innovationer gynnas av både konkurrens och samarbete2008Ingår i: Marknadsorientering: Myter och möjligheter, Liber AB Malmö , 2008, s. 239-256Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    De myter som diskuteras i detta kapitel är att antingen konkurrens eller samarbete utgör det bästa receptet för att stödja innovationsprocesser.

    En orsak till att myterna fått så stor genomslagskraft är att konkurrens och samarbete sällan diskuteras kopplat till vad somutgör innovativa processer, nämligen förmogan att utforska och exploatera nya idéer. Det är därför viktigt att man avfärdar de båda myterna och istället inser att konkurrens och samarbete pågår samtidigt, så kallad coopetition.

    Både konkurrens och samarbete kan stimulera och försvåra innovativa processer om än på olika sätt under olika delar av den innovativa processen. I kapitlet visas med hjälp av några praktiska exempel hur olika kombinationer av konkurrens och samarbete stimulerar förmågan att utforska respektive exploatera nya idéer.

  • 121.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Co-opetition dynamics – an outline for further inquiry2010Ingår i: Competitiveness Review: An International Journal, ISSN 1059-5422, Vol. 20, nr 2, s. 194-214Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to conceptually develop the understanding of co-opetitiondynamics and to enhance the conceptual clarity of co-opetition by developing a definition based onprevious research efforts.Design/methodology/approach – This conceptual paper integrates various approaches to theconcept co-opetition into a definition that holds for co-opetitive interactions across multiple levels.Different co-opetitive interactions and the resulting dynamics are discussed by drawing uponcompetition and cooperation theories. The paper concludes with an agenda for further research onco-opetition dynamics.Findings – The paper outlines how different types of co-opetitive interactions result in archetypicalsituations where the dynamics of co-opetition are present as well as where the dynamics of co-opetitionare missing due to a lack of balance between cooperation and competition. It notes four co-opetitiveforces: over-embedding, distancing, confronting, and colluding. These four forces drive developmenttowards situations without dynamics.Originality/value – This paper provides a conceptual understanding of co-opetition dynamics andwill reveal that in order to adequately account for co-opetition dynamics, a definition of co-opetitionmust analytically separate the cooperative and the competitive interaction inherent in co-opetition.

  • 122.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Wincent, Joakim
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Coopetition: New ideas for a new paradigm2010Ingår i: Coopetition: Winning strategies for the 21st century / [ed] Yami, Said et.al., CHELTENHAM: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2010, s. 19-39Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 123.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Wincent, Joakim
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    La coopétition: Un nouveau monde2010Ingår i: Stratégies de coopétition: Rivaliser et coopérer simultanément / [ed] Saïd Yami, Frédéric le Roy, de boeck , 2010, 1, s. 29-46Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 124.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Kock, Sören
    Handelshögskolan i Vasa, Finland .
    Role conflicts in co-opetitive relationships2009Ingår i: EIASM Co-opetition and Entrepreneurship, 2009Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 125.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Wåhlin, Nils
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Ledarskap och strategisk förändring2009Ingår i: Ledarskapsboken, Malmö: Liber AB , 2009, s. 123-157Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 126.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Holmquist, Carin
    Entrepreneurial Drivers and Dynamic Capabilities in Situations of Encompassing Change2005Ingår i: A focused Issue on Understanding Growth: Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Diversification / [ed] Ron Sanchez, Aime Heene, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2005, s. 3-29Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We lack knowledge concerning the importance of entrepreneurial actors in development of dynamic capabilities. Entrepreneurial drives lead the entrepreneur and his/her firm into different strategies to cope with encompassing change and in building different sets of capabilities. A case study of four high-tech firms suggests that entrepreneurial actions determined by entrepreneurial drives (technological, market, business, and development) lead to the creation of new modules and to combinations of external and internal capabilities that increase the balance between contradicting demands. This suggests that a combination of different drives is important, as is the formation of entrepreneurial roles (creators, expanders, and builders).

  • 127.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Holmquist, Carin
    Managing the Unmanageable: Strategic Balancing in Industries Characterized by Encompassing Change2000Ingår i: Winning Strategies in a Deconstructing World, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. , 2000, s. 332-Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 128.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Johansson, Marlene
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Clashes between contending market regimes: a challenge for firms in converging industries2011Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 23, nr 5, s. 454-475Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework that describe three contending market regimes in converging industries, and to use this framework to study clashes between the different regimes and the implication they have on firms’ competitive strategies and on the interaction among competitors. More specifically, it is the challenges that develop when competitors simultaneously are acting in accordance with a competitive, a cooperative, and a co-opetitive market regime that are elaborated upon.

    Design/methodology/approach – An exploratory study of the interaction between firms within the IT and Telecom industry is conducted using a case study approach with in-depth interviews with 30 informants within the industry together with secondary data.

    Findings – The paper brings forward clashes between different market regimes in converging industries and six propositions are formulated.  The study furthermore shows how firms respond differently to a demand-driven convergence, some act in accordance with a competitive regime and try to exclude others whereas others act in accordance with the co-opetitive regime and cooperate with competitors to develop new product offers.

  • 129.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Kock, Sören
    Cooperation and competition in relationships between competitors in business networks1999Ingår i: Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 178-193Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally the relationships between competitors in the industrial market have been based on competition. The network approach and literature about strategic alliances have provided new insights into cooperation between firms based on the value chain. The empirical findings from two in-depth studies, the rack and pinion industry and the lining industry, show that a firm can be involved in four different types of horizontal relationships at the same time. Apart from relationships consisting of competition or cooperation, a firm can live in symbiosis by coexisting with other relationships, or being involved in a relationship simultaneously containing elements of both cooperation and competition. Consequently, a successful firm needs to focus on relationship management in order to achieve a portfolio consisting of the four types of relationships to other

    horizontal firms.

  • 130.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Kock, Sören
    "Coopetition" in Business Networks -- to Cooperate and Compete Simultaneously2000Ingår i: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, Vol. 29, nr 5, s. 411-426Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing theory and research on relationships among competitors focuses either on competitive or on cooperative relationships between them, and the one relationship is argued to harm or threaten the other. Little research has considered that two firms can be involved in and benefit from both cooperation and competition simultaneously, and hence that both types of relationships need to be emphasized at the same time. In this article, it is argued that the most complex, but also the most advantageous relationship between competitors, is “coopetition” where two competitors both compete and cooperate with each other. Complexity is due to the fundamentally different and contradictory logics of interaction that competition and cooperation are built on. It is of crucial importance to separate the two different parts of the relationship to manage the complexity and thereby make it possible to benefit from such a relationship. This article uses an explorative case study of two Swedish and one Finnish industries where coopetition is to be found, to develop propositions about how the competitive and cooperative part of the relationship can be divided and managed. It is shown that the two parts can be separated depending on the activities degree of proximity to the customer and on the competitors' access to specific resources. It is also shown that individuals within the firm only can act in accordance with one of the two logics of interaction at a time and hence that either the two parts have to be divided between individuals within the company, or that one part needs to be controlled and regulated by an intermediate actor such as a collective association.

  • 131.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Kock, Sören
    Department of Management and Organization, Hanken School of Economics, Finland & Erling-Persson Center for Entrepreneurship, Hanken School of Economics, Finland.
    Coopetition - Quo vadis?: Past accomplishments and future challenges2014Ingår i: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 180-188Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on coopetition has been conducted for more than two decades. However, several concepts remain that require elaboration. A study on the literature shows that there is a lack of unified definitions, as various definitions have been employed in previous accomplished research. In this article we suggest that the early definition of coopetition, as a dual relationship between firms that simultaneously cooperate and compete needs to be refined. Our new definition suggests that coopetition is a paradoxical relationship between two or more actors, regardless of whether they are in horizontal or vertical relationships, simultaneously involved in cooperative and competitive interactions. We also highlight important contributions to the field, and some shortcomings that point to future challenges for coopetition research. Finally, we put forward five directions for future research: (1) understand the balancing of cooperation and competition, (2) understand the coopetition paradox and engendered tension, (3) apply a multilevel perspective on coopetition (4) understand the dynamics of coopetitive interaction, and (5) understand how coopetition impacts business models and strategy.

  • 132.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Kock, Sören
    Dynamics in business networks: Cooperation and competition among competitors1999Ingår i: Training exercises for improving sensemaking skills - with solutions, JAI Press Inc. , 1999Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Relationships among competitors in the same market have for a long time been regarded as consisting of only competition. By competing, the competitors have been forced to develop their products, although this is not always a demand from the buyers. Moreover, competition is regarded as the main driving force behind better internal efficiency. Lately, the importance of cooperation in order to pool resources together has been suggested as an effective way of enabling competitors to be more effective. Shorter lead times, distribution of costs for developing new products, more efficient production processes, and focusing on core competition are mentioned as some of the reasons competitors should form cooperative relationships that can range from informal long-term relationships between competitors and how they can affect their business.

  • 133.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Marell, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Structural conditions for static and dynamic competition after deregulation2006Ingår i: Competitiveness Review, Vol. 16, nr 1, s. 20-31Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 1980's and 1990's deregulation had become the 'recipe' for many countries' economies to obtain increased efficiency and lower prices. Yet many empirical and theoretical studies of deregulation show that expectations rarely became fulfilled. The purpose of this paper is to develop the model of competition by introducing static and dynamic competition, which has different consequences for market performance. We claim that the development of static and/or dynamic competition post deregulation can be explained by structural conditions, both regarding entry barriers and customer influence. Four different competitive conducts are identified based on an explorative study of four deregulated industries: static, dynamic, hyper, and unheated competition.

  • 134.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Marell, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Baldwin, Andrew
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Business induced barriers in explaining the effects of deregulation: Two Swedish case studies1998Ingår i: Who Benefits from Privatisation? / [ed] Moazzem Hossain and Justin Malbon, Routledge, 1998, s. 157-182Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 135.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Müllern, Tomas
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Söderholm, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Wåhlin, Nils
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    A Grammar of Organizing2007Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 136.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Powell, Walter W.
    Introduction: new perspectives on competition and cooperation2004Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, Vol. 20, nr 1-2, s. 1-8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 137.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Söderholm, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Bridging Distances: Organizing Boundry-spanning Technology Development Projects2002Ingår i: Regional Studies, ISSN 0034-3404, Vol. 36, nr 3, s. 263-274Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology development is often a boundary-spanning activity where insights and discoveries from different organizations or organizational units are merged into new products or new technical solutions. In some cases, projects of this kind are organized within large multinational firms. In other cases, technology development projects are organized within networks through co-operation between independent companies possessing unique resources that can be utilized as parts of the project. In this paper, we discuss and analyse how distances are bridged in technology development projects. We focus on: (1) the relationship between implicit and explicit knowledge; and (2) different distances inherent in the development effort. Two different bridging processes are proposed as means to overcome distances: a separating-integrating process; and a linking-formalizing process. It is argued that a development project typically runs through either one of these two processes.

  • 138.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Sölvell, Örjan
    Climate of Competition: Clusters and Innovative Performance2004Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 225-244Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to examine industry competition and cooperation in industry clusters, and to explore the role they play in driving innovation among firms. The dependent variable, innovative performance, is measured in terms of both product and process development. A theoretical model is built on the basis of three constructs: industry competition, involving both structural and relational, or ‘climatic’ characteristics; industry cluster; and innovative performance. Seven hypotheses are extracted from the model. A LISREL model based on a stratified sample of all Swedish manufacturing industries is used to test our hypotheses. The empirical findings have important theoretical implications in three areas. First, by introducing relational dimensions of competition—the ‘climate of competition’—we can build a more refined model of the nature of industry competition. Two types of climate are identified, the ‘hot’ and the ‘cold’. Second, it is shown that the structure and climate of competition are both important drivers of innovative behavior. Third, in addition to competition, cooperation within clusters also has a significant impact on innovation.

  • 139.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Wilson, Timothy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Introduction to the special issue: changing paradigms in competition and competitiveness2010Ingår i: Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal incorporating Journal of Global Competitiveness, ISSN 1059-5422, Vol. 20, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 140.
    Berg, Tobias
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Nadal, Gustav
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Implementation of the Sarbanes Oxley Act: A study on the problems that can arise when implementing an innovation tool in a company2007Studentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose; Purpose of this thesis is to review the implementation process of SOX in one company to be able to estimate which factors that are significant for individuals when it comes to accepting SOX as a tool to improving processes.

    Method: Our approach in attacking the reality has been the golden middle-way, which means we have went into the reality with already constructed theories but along as the study went on we have refined theories, thus shifting between inductive and deductive approach.

    Results/conclusions; Important obstacles that prevented adoption of the innovation had to do the characteristic of the innovation and the size and complexity of the organization; however we believed that the most significant blockade against change was the non-existing communication between the three different parties, namely consultants, managers and end-users.

  • 141.
    Bergenström, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Österberg, Jennie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Slopad revisionsplikt: -hur påverkar detta bankernas krav på ekonomisk information vid kreditgivning?2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige är ett av få länder som har kvar en lagstadgad revisionsplikt och debatten går het idag

    om vad som skulle hända med företagets intressenter ifall att den tas bort. Vi har därför valt

    att fördjupa oss i hur bankens syn är på detta. Hur ser deras situation ut idag vid en

    kreditgivning och kommer deras insamling av information inför ett kreditbeslut att förändras

    om Sverige väljer att införa en frivillig revisionsplikt för de små aktiebolagen?

    I den svenska regeringen har frågan varit upp många gånger om kravet på revision för små

    aktiebolag verkligen är till någon nytta för företaget och i så fall väger mervärdet upp

    kostnaden för företaget? År 1998 ansåg regeringen att det inte fanns motiv nog för att avslå

    revisionsplikten för små aktiebolag, år 2006 togs det upp på tapeten igen och denna gång ville

    man göra en grundligare undersökning på frågan.

    I vår teoretiska del har vi sett närmare på hur bankerna arbetar kring en kreditgivning och

    vilken redovisningsinformation som används samt i vilken utsträckning revisionen har

    betydelse. Vi har försökt att göra en sammanfattning kring den diskussion som framkommit

    kring ett borttagande av revisionsplikten, detta för att förtydliga argumenten för läsaren.

    Den fakta och information som vi har funnit har i huvudsak kommit från artiklar som vi hittat

    genom att söka i databasen Business Source Premier, Artikelsök och i bibliotekets ”Album”.

    Vi har valt att se problemet utifrån bankernas perspektiv och med hjälp av en kvalitativ metod

    försökt att lösa vår problemformulering. Detta genom att göra intervjuer med fyra kreditgivare

    från olika banker. Våra intervjuer gjordes på kreditgivarnas arbetsplats.

    Vi har i vår slutsats kommit fram till att kunden och upplysningscentralen eller bolagsverket

    är den vanligaste källan till information om företaget vid en kreditgivning.

    Återbetalningsförmågan hos företaget är den viktigaste faktorn som bankerna ser på vid ett

    kreditbeslut. Därför anser kreditgivarna att redovisningsinformation har en stor

    sammanhängande betydelse. Ett sätt att säkra återbetalningsförmågan är ta ut en ägarborgen

    eller att se på ägarens finansiella ställning. En god relation med banken underlättar

    kreditgivningen och kan resultera i lägre räntor för företaget.

    Ingen av våra respondenter har förberett sig på ett borttagande av revisionsplikten. De anser

    alla att revisionsplikten medför en trygghet vid ett kreditbeslut. Ett slopande av

    revisionsplikten tror de med blandande åsikter kommer att medföra att kreditgivare blir mer

    restriktiva vid långivning eller att bankerna inte kommer att påverkas överhuvudtaget, då de

    kommer att kräva den information de behöver för att säkerställa återbetalningsförmågan.

    Vi tror inte att ett slopande av revisionsplikten skulle innebära att bankernas krav på

    ekonomisk information förändras. Vår studie visar att redovisningsinformationen är en viktig

    del av beslutsunderlaget vid kreditgivning till små företag. Vi tror dock inte att redovisningshandlingarnas

    tillförlitlighet skulle komma att påverkas i så stor utsträckning att bankerna inte

    fortsättningsvis skulle kunna använda denna information i kreditgivningsprocessen.

  • 142.
    Berggren, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Romualdo, Gonzalez
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Gender difference in financial decision making: A quantitative study of risk aversion and overconfidence between the genders2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 143. Berggren, Niclas
    et al.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Hellström, Jörgen
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Does social trust speed up reforms?: The case of central-bank independence2016Ingår i: Journal of Institutional Economics, ISSN 1744-1374, E-ISSN 1744-1382, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 395-415Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many countries have undertaken central-bank independence reforms, but the years of implementation differ. What explains such differences in timing? This is of interest more broadly, as it sheds light on factors that matter for the speed at which economic reforms come about. We study a rich set of potential determinants, both economic and political, but put special focus on a cultural factor, i.e. social trust. We find empirical support for an inverse u-shape: Countries with low and high social trust implemented their reforms earlier than countries with intermediate levels. We make use of two factors to explain this pattern: the need to undertake reform (which is more urgent in countries with low social trust) and the ability to undertake reform (which is greater in countries with high social trust). Overall, our findings imply that culture matters for institutional change.

  • 144.
    Bergh, Pontus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Entrepreneurs in learning networks : Problems, opportunities, and implications for program design Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Critiques of most existing competence development programs with respect to small firms is that they are not fully relevant to the firms; entrepreneurs in small firms need alternatives. An experiential learning approach, based on collaborative learning and work-related problems in learning networks, may fit the needs of the entrepreneur better than traditional methods based on passive theory centered lecturing. The distinctive nature of learning in small firms and the appropriateness of programs to support learning and development in those firms are largely unexplored from an empirical perspective. The purpose of this article is to suggest how different conditions related to learning networks may facilitate an appropriate learning situation for entrepreneurs. The findings show that for entrepreneurs to gain useful learning in learning networks, the management of the network should be demanding and various constructs in the learning situation must be considered.

  • 145.
    Bergh, Pontus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Interorganisatoriska lärandenätverk för chefer från små och medelstora företag2006Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Målet med föreliggande studie är att skapa en ökad förståelse för chefers lärande i konstruerade interorganisatoriska lärandenätverk. Studien kan bidra till utvecklingen av både praktik och teori. På praktisk nivå kan resultaten ligga till grund för beslut om deltagande i lärandenätverk samt hur man kan konstruera dessa nätverk. På teoretisk nivå ger studien en ökad kunskap om vilka läranderesultat som kan uppnås i nätverken samt en ökad förståelse för den specifika lärandesituationen. Intresset för denna studie ligger sålunda i om, och i så fall hur ett konstruerat lärandenätverk kan motsvara de behov av, och förutsättningar för lärande och kompetensutveckling som chefer i små och medelstora företag har.

    Den teoretiska referensramen i denna studie bygger på en kombination av teoretiska paradigm om lärande samt tidigare forskning om vuxenpedagogik och interorganisatoriska nätverk.

    Det empiriska exemplet på ett konstruerat interorganisatoriskt lärandenätverk är det nationella utvecklingsprogrammet krAft. I huvudsak baseras analyserna i denna studie på tolkningar av intervjuer med deltagarna i krAft-nätverket vid olika tidpunkter i det ett år långa programmet. Informationen från intervjuerna har även fått ett stöd av och validerats med information från andra datainsamlingsmetoder såsom deltagande observation, frågeguider, lärstilstest och skriftliga redogörelser i samband med presentationer i nätverket.

    Erfarenheterna från denna jämförande fallstudie tyder liksom tidigare forskning på att ett konstruerat interorganisatoriskt lärandenätverk kan vara en fungerande form och metod för lärande hos de deltagande cheferna från små och medelstora företag. De läranderesultat som deltagarna i nätverket upplevde sig ha fått kategoriserades som kognitiva (kunskapsmässiga), psykodynamiska (emotionella) och sociala (samverkansmässiga). En syntes av de tre typerna av läranderesultat kan dessutom utgöra en förändringskompetens. Analysen av läranderesultaten visar att lärandenätverk har sin främsta styrka i att uppnå psykodynamiska och sociala läranderesultat, med vilka även kognitiva läranderesultat befrämjas. Studien visar också att de tre dimensionerna i lärandesituationen (aktör, relation och design) på olika sätt påverkar vad och hur deltagarna i nätverket lär sig.

    Ett viktigt bidrag med studien är slutligen att genom de åtta propositionerna i det sista kapitlet ge avstamp för fortsatt forskning.

  • 146.
    Bergh, Pontus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Learning among entrepreneurs in formal networks: Outcomes, processes and beyond2009Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation focuses on how entrepreneurs learn to acquire entrepreneurial knowledge and competence, which ultimately can open doors to business success. Contemporary critics suggest that programs designed to develop general competence are not sufficiently relevant to these entrepreneurs. On the other hand, scholars and practitioners have recently noticed that external relations in formal learning networks can be a notable opportunity for learning in entrepreneurs. The aim of this dissertation is to elaborate on the processes and outcomes of government supported learning networks among entrepreneurs who work in small and medium sized enterprises. It draws on reports of four separate but interrelated research studies that author conducted. The research described in the dissertation is based on multiple theoretical perspectives, methodologies, and data sources. To gain a full understanding of the experiences of the different network participants, as well as the interactive processes within the learning network, data were collected from multiple sources: interviews, participant observation, and videotaping. The conclusions stated in appended paper 1 and 2 are primarily based on the interviews, but they are also supported by the observations and written material. Paper three focuses on the videos in combination with the interviews. Finally, to complement the qualitative research with insights regarding the relationships among trust, learning, and self-efficacy, the last paper reports the results of a quantitative survey study. The dissertation makes several major contributions to knowledge. First and foremost, by combining entrepreneurship theory and learning theory, it describes the outcomes that can emerge from formal learning networks and shows how these outcomes can have entrepreneurial consequences. Second, it suggests how the learning situation can be characterized and describes an appropriate learning environment for entrepreneurs from small and medium sized enterprises. The research also contributes to theory on how trust in formal learning networks is built and how this trust contributes to entrepreneurial learning. At the same time, it shows that the potential benefits derived from trust cannot be realized without incorporating the entrepreneur’s level of self-efficacy in the analysis. The dissertation concludes by offering suggestions for exploiting learning and business opportunities through the construction and utilization of learning networks. 

  • 147.
    Bergh, Pontus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Swedish inter-organisational learning network: Outcomes in three dimensions2008Ingår i: International Journal of Business and Globalisation, ISSN 1753-3627, E-ISSN 1753-3635, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 56-71Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on findings from a national Swedish competence development project, known as krAft, this study focuses on the relevance of inter-organizational learning networks set up to support managerial competence development in SMEs. The networks that comprise the project are coordinated by a University consortium made up of four Universities in Sweden. Owner-Managers from SMEs in this project were combined into various networks, where a primary focus placed on learning. Interpretations of data from interviews with participants from one of these learning networks suggest constructed inter-organizational network an effective method to support learning of Owner-Managers from SMEs. This paper categorizes learning outcomes, as cognitive (knowledge), psychodynamic (emotion), and social (collaboration). A synthesis of these three types of learning outcomes can be used to further develop one’s business. The analysis demonstrates that the network method in relation to more traditional learning methods has strengths in developing psychodynamic and social outcomes.

  • 148.
    Bergh, Pontus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Jacobsson, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Learn or die: the development of an assessment framwork for SME entrepreneurial learning programmes2011Ingår i: International Journal of Management and Enterprise Development, ISSN 1468-4330, E-ISSN 1741-8127, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 92-109Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The unique features of entrepreneurial learning, that involves multiple dimensions, are not easily captured and today few appropriate assessment frameworks exist. The aim of this paper is therefore to develop an assessment framework for entrepreneurial learning and empirically illustrate its potential on a specific SME learning program. Based on a survey of owners/managers who took part in the government supported learning program, krAft, an exploratory factors analysis and a regression analysis were conducted. The paper proposes a two dimensional framework of cognitive and social/emotional learning outcomes where both are strongly correlated to internal efficiency but only the social/emotional outcomes are correlated to external effectiveness. The paper therefore concludes that the mere focus on cognitive learning outcomes is not enough in order to successfully act upon business opportunities. Hence, the social/emotional learning dimension is of great importance, and should be utilized, in the development of arranged SME learning groups.

  • 149.
    Bergh, Pontus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Thorgren, Sara
    Department of Business Administration and Social Science, Luleå University of Technology.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Department of Business Administration and Social Science, Luleå University of Technology.
    Entrepreneurs learning together: the importance of building trust for learning and exploiting business opportunities2011Ingår i: The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 17-37Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This longitudinal, qualitative case study examines trust-building processes and learning outcomes among entrepreneurs who participated in formal networks designed to develop competence and knowledge. This study is built on rich data collected through observation and video recordings made during network meetings and get-togethers. Additional data was gleaned from personal interviews with participating entrepreneurs. All data sources reveal on how trust develops and how entrepreneurs can use networks to learn and improve their capacity to exploit business opportunities. Studying how trust is built over time among entrepreneurs who demonstrate a low level of trust when they join the network, this study provides insights into micro-processes and important components of building trust. Findings suggest three processes that build commitment, companionship, and competence trust. Moreover, acknowledging the notion of social learning, the findings suggest that when entrepreneurs build trust with one another they can experience cognitive, emotional, and social changes by participating in a network. This may bring potential consequences for their exploiting opportunities. Implications for academics and managers are discussed.

  • 150.
    Bergh, Pontus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Entrepreneurs learning together: The importance of building trust for learning and exploiting business opportunitiesManuskript (preprint) (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    This longitudinal, qualitative case study examines trust-building processes and learning outcomes among entrepreneurs who participated in formal networks designed to develop competence and knowledge. This study is built on rich data collected through observation and video recordings made during network meetings and get-togethers. Additional data was gleaned from personal interviews with participating entrepreneurs. All data sources reveal on how trust develops and how entrepreneurs can use networks to learn and improve their capacity to exploit business opportunities. Studying how trust is built over time among entrepreneurs who demonstrate a low level of trust when they join the network, this study provides insights into micro-processes and important components of building trust. Findings suggest three processes that build commitment, companionship, and competence trust. Moreover, acknowledging the notion of social learning, the findings suggest that when entrepreneurs build trust with one another they can experience cognitive, emotional, and social changes by participating in a network. This may bring potential consequences for their exploiting opportunies. Implications for academics and managers are discussed.

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