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  • 1151.
    Willander, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Mer och bättre eller på lika villkor?: En kvalitativ studie av officiell vårdstatistik ur ett genusperspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 1152.
    Wistemar, Sandra
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Genusarbetsdelning i vården: En fallstudie av en kirurgisk klinik vid Norrlands universitetssjukhus2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 1153.
    Wänglund, Julia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Främjande av fysisk aktivitet genom den byggda miljön2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to examine the spatial distribution of sports facilities and exercise tracks in the cities of Växjö and Eskilstuna, if the vicinity to these places differs between different socio-economic groups, what role physical activity has and how it ́s treated in urban planning. To answer the aim of this thesis, geographical analysis was performed in ArcGIS and each municipality’s comprehensive plan was studied and analyzed, plus the outdoor program of Växjö. These two municipalities differ in the way that Växjö is the municipality in Sweden where the largest proportion of the population is physically active, while Eskilstuna is one of the municipalities where the share is the lowest.

    The result then showed that a larger proportion of the residents in Växjö live near a sports facility or exercise trail compared to Eskilstuna. Regarding the location of different socio-economic groups in the two cities, it appears that the areas characterized by a higher proportion of highly educated and higher median income are more concentrated around the outskirts of Eskilstuna. By comparison, the location of different socio-economic groups in Växjö was more evenly distributed. Furthermore, based on the content analysis of each municipality’s comprehensive plan it was evident that physical activity has a more significant role in Växjö than in Eskilstuna. Växjö municipality also has an outdoor program that further reinforces the image of a municipality where the health of the population and opportunities for physical activity have a significant role in urban planning.

  • 1154.
    Xin, Jin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Is gastronomy a new tourism lure of Scandinavian countries?: An exploratory study on Chinese tourists2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This exploratory study initially attempts to generate basic understanding regarding how do Chinese tourists evaluate the importance of Scandinavian gastronomies when holidaying the countries. And it further judge the states could whether implement gastronomical development strategy. Additionally, the study generally explores Chinese tourists’ food behavior, motivation and preference in a culturally different environment when holidaying in Scandinavian countries.

    The study also provides a detailed investigation regarding Chinese tourists’ food preference, behavior and motivation based upon the general food habits. The study proposes the in-depth research that describes the disparities of Chinese tourists’ dining attitude on Scandinavian gastronomies from varying social groups, such as age and gender. A structured questionnaire adopted in the study as the research tool to collect quantitative data from sampled respondents.

    This study addressed a number of gaps in current knowledge. Academically, it filled the gap about the relationship between the gastronomy and the destination in Scandinavian states. And this study gains a better understanding about Chinese tourists food attitude towards exotic gastronomies in particular Scandinavian’s. The difference of Chinese tourists’ gastronomies, food preference, motivations and tourists’ food behavior on food while having a trip in Scandinavian countries is specifically indicated in the study. Regarding the business, a key contribution of this study is that it also provides the understanding about Chinese tourists in culinary aspect which can help with making a feasible tourism development plan. 

  • 1155.
    Yoshida Ahlin, Celia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Rural demographic change over space and time - the case of Vilhelmina municipality2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1960s the literature on demography of rural northern Sweden has focussed on 'decline' - noting loss of population, population ageing, yourth outmigration and other 'negative' demographic developments (Friedlander, 1969; Hjort, 2009; Stone 1971); recent studies suggest that such generalizations may overlook the diversity of experiences of rural areas (D. Carson and Koch, 2013; Cernic-Maly, Koch and Koch, 2014; Hedlund, 2014; Hoggart and Paniagua, 2001; Koch and Carson, 2012). The purpose of this thesis is to explore aspets of the diversity of experiences of demographic change in one part of rural northern Sweden, focusing on differences between villages and towns within a single municipality.

    Theoretically, the large body of scientific studies of 'rural' tend to be at macro-scale and from the 'urban' perspective, which might provide generalized and biased assumptions of 'rural'; this study may contribute to the understanding of 'rural' by describing it 'how it really is' and by looking into demographic diversity and change at the micro-scale. Practically, the thesis might assist local planners to take 'place-based' decisions when planning for the future of rural areas when deciding where to place schools, health centres, youth activities centres, playgrounds, or invest in economic opportunities, etc. Moreover, this thesis should answer the following research questions: 

    Q1: Is there diversity in demographic characteristics when comparing proximate locations in the Swedish rural setting?

    Q2: If there is, is it something that has recently emerged, or sothing that has been present for a long period of history?

    The thesis studied the case of Vilhelmina municipality, in this case defined by local government boundaries, in three stages: first, looked at how settlement patterns within the area have changed over time - where has there been population growth? Decline? Both? Neither? - using data from 1890, 1970 and 2015. Second, selected five individual locations (defined by village' borders) within the area that have featured at those points in time, and compared them in terms of age, sex, age dependency ratios, and child-woman rates. Third, accessed secondary historical data and interviewed key informants with knowledge of these places to check which events could have influenced shaping them over the time.

    The findings of the thesis were: 'fragmentedä development over time, differences between individual places at different time; differences between different places at the same time; local, regional, national and international events and trends are likely to have played a role in these results. According to the findings, I can conclude that even since the 1960s, not all locations in rural northern Sweden have had the same experience of 'decline'. Furthermore, not all places share the presumed characteristics of rural areas - i.e. some are younger and some are older, etc. Hence, even the same events influence proximate places in different ways depending on their specific location (e.g. near geographical feature that become more or less valued), their connections with other places (through economic activities, communications, family ties, etc), rules and regulations especially regarding land use, and availability of infrastructure.

    This thesis describes the demographics of a case in rural northern Sweden in the micro perspective related to temporal and spatial scales. This study provides empirical evidence and might support arguments about the importance of scale and diversity of rural conditions. Moreover, it emphasises, as Koch and Carson (2012) did, the need to understand the spatial scale at which assessments of rural demographic change are being made. Lastly, more academics should perform this genre of research, so that we move past incomplete messages and concepts about rural development that have dominated in northern Sweden since the 1960s.

  • 1156.
    Zackariasson, Peter
    et al.
    Handelshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet .
    Sandqvist, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Playing the game: Leveraging artistic freedom and financial pressure in video game development2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 1157.
    Zglejc, Michal
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Skogens produktionsvärden och dess betydelse för Sveriges ekonomi2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The forest is characterized by many different values such as those related to forest productivity which are of a big importance for Swedish economy. History has proved that forest resources had helped the country in the transition from the agricultural to the industrial society. Today Swedish forest industry is among the strongest in Europe and significantly contributing to the Swedish export. The industry provides many direct and indirect job opportunities and is one of the biggest employers in the industry sector. It is also worth to notice that the forest can also generate an additional income for the owners, even if the forestry isn’t their primary income source. In this paper I have analyzed the production values of the forest, their influence on current forest industry, and their economic importance for Sweden both on national level and in an international context. Additionally I have studied historical importance of forestry and job opportunities. The forest sector is constantly developing and the forest can even contribute to countries transition into a bio-based society for example by processing of timber based products in chemical industry. The analysis is based on literature review, combined with secondary data from trade association statistical yearbooks and other statistical sources.

  • 1158.
    Zhang, Jundan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    How could we be non-Western?: Some ontological and epistemological ponderings on Chinese tourism research2018Inngår i: Asian qualitative research in tourism / [ed] Paolo Mura & Catheryn Khoo-Lattimore, Singapore: Springer, 2018, s. 117-136Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Qualitative research in tourism studies has achieved significant popularity and has encouraged researchers to scrutinize their own ontological and epistemological concerns in their decisions on choosing how to go about their research projects and the research ethics they will adopt (Phillimore and Goodson 2004; Tribe et al. 2015; Wilson and Hollinshead 2015). One could say that the critical shifts in theories and methodologies in tourism studies are nurtured mostly through qualitative research, for such qualitative research aims to challenge the positivist paradigm which tends to take things for granted (Phillimore and Goodson 2004). Emerging from calls for non-positivist methodologies are the recent calls also for non-Western ontologies and epistemologies, aiming not only to provide alternative perspectives (other than the Eurocentric perspectives) in understanding tourism worldmaking but also to accommodate the "new tourists" from non-Western regions, in particular, Asia and China.

    In this chapter, I attempt to problematize calls for alternative discourses in tourism studies, prompted by a concern from Chinese tourism researchers, especially those working outside of China, that is, "how to be non-Western and do non-Western research?" I argue that every Asian researcher who is interested in contributing to global knowledge would inevitably come to the questions of who we are as Asian researchers and what can we offer. To consider these questions critically, we need inwardly directed critique. Currently, there are two approaches regarding these questions: a decolonizing approach and a postcolonial approach. With some inwardly directed critique of my own, I argue that the decolonizing approach may risk further essentializing the binaries of the colonizer/colonized and the local/global, which are still within the discourse of imperialism. Looking at Chinese tourism studies and how these are positioned in the global scene, I have shown an ambiguous positioning that requires a more complex reading and that leads my arguing for a postcolonial approach.

  • 1159.
    Zhang, Jundan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Political ecology of tourism worldmaking: a case of Shangri-La County, Southwest China2013Inngår i: Tourism in the global south: heritages identities and development / [ed] João Sarmento, Eduardo Brito Henriques, Lisbon: Centro de Estudos Geográficos, Universitade de Lisboa , 2013, s. 193-207Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1160.
    Zhang, Jundan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Review: Making Sense of Reality: Culture and Perception in Everyday LifeInngår i: Tourism, Culture & Communication, ISSN 1098-304X, E-ISSN 1943-4146Artikkel, omtale (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1161.
    Zhang, Jundan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Review: Making sense of reality: Culture and perception in everyday life2017Inngår i: Tourism, Culture & Communication, ISSN 1098-304X, E-ISSN 1943-4146, Vol. 16, nr 3, artikkel-id 171-172Artikkel, omtale (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1162.
    Zhang, Jundan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    The Irreducible Ethics in Reflexivity: Rethinking Reflexivity in Conducting Ethnography in Shangri-La, Southwest China2017Inngår i: Tourism, Culture & Communication, ISSN 1098-304X, E-ISSN 1943-4146, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 19-30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Because this research started in Shangri-La County in Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Southwest China, I have had different people in different occasions ask me similar questions: Are you a Han or a Tibetan? Why do you want to do research in Shangri-La? These are indeed common questions to start with if one is studying a place and people that are different from one's own "origins." However, if we take such questions seriously and look deeper, we can see that they are not only posed on the condition of knowledge or assumptions, but also posed as a concern and sometimes curiosity on how the researcher may reflect upon her research as a political action and deal with relations with other people, especially in a situation that research seems to be institutionalized and the researcher appears to have more influence and power. In this article, I attempt to look into the contents and contexts of the recent "reflexive calls" in tourism studies and social research in general. Through critically questioning what "reflexivity" is and what context it has been applied, I argue that both the researcher and the researched subjects are a mixture of "selves," and they both go through the process of interpreting information and thus always attempt to negotiate with their surroundings. Therefore, I argue that we must rethink the current normalized ideas of "reflexivity" in social research, to examine/self-examine the researcher's intention or actual capacity to practice "reflexivity." Hence, the ethical way for me to follow in this research is to not claim myself being "reflexive," rather to act on it.

  • 1163.
    Zhang, Jundan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Müller, Dieter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Tourism and the Sámi in transition: a discourse analysis of Swedish newspapers from 1982 to 20152018Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 18, nr 2, s. 163-182Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to contribute to a more nuanced understanding of how tourism in Sápmi is positioned in the broader discourses that contribute to the construction of Sámi identities. This is done through examining how the tourism industry is represented in the ethno-political discourses in newspaper media. Employing a discourse analysis framework, we collected 165 articles from 29 major Swedish newspapers for the period 1982–2015. The results show that the ethno-political discourses construct, and are constructed by, the discursive practice of tourism in Sápmi, thus forming an ongoing dialectical process. This process entails three aspects. First, while some narratives in newspapers construct a social knowledge that portrays the Sámi people as “exotic others” in the global and domestic tourism industry, others show that tourism can also be an opportunity to challenge such a view. Second, these news narratives demonstrate how the ethno-political discourses are intertwined in the social relations between tourism and other natural-resource-based industries. Third, an ever-changing social identity construction shows that, with the changing role of reindeer herding in the Sámi identity, how tourism assists or challenges this association is becoming increasingly important.

  • 1164.
    Zhang, Jundan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Tucker, Hazel
    University of Otago.
    Knowing subjects in an unkown place: producing identity through tourism and heritage in Niru Village, Southwest China2018Inngår i: Heritage at the interface: interpretation and identity / [ed] Glenn Hooper, Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2018, s. 106-120Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1165.
    Zugschwerdt, Marc
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    'Designing out Crime' – A Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Crime in Umeå2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The creation of sustainable and safe environments nowadays moves more and more into focus for urban planners and architects. Cities should be designed in a way to contribute to social cohesion, shaping an inclusive environment and focusing on the wellbeing of its citizens. Nevertheless, these processes can be undermined by public crime and the fear of crime, which is not only affecting aspects of personal safety but also affecting the people’s behaviour. Reasons why criminality occurs are manifold, impacted by a dynamic set of socioeconomic, demographic, personal but also environmental aspects. In recent years especially the impact of factors related to urban and environmental design respectively planning received rising attention in the field of crime prevention. However, the implementation of strategies regarding ‘crime prevention through environmental design’ or ‘designing out crime’ is still in its early stage in Sweden.

     

    This study aims to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of public crime for the case of Umeå in order to identify potential risk areas, which could receive particular attention regarding crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED). In this sense a GIS based spatial analysis had the aim to detect statistically significant hotspots of crime and furthermore to assess the development of these hotspots over time. In order to understand the nature of public crime and criminal behaviour in Umeå in a more holistic way, also temporal aspects regarding the occurrence of crime were analysed. One particularly vulnerable neighbourhood was examined with a qualitative field observation regarding the principles of crime prevention through environmental design in order to assess in which way the built environment is designed and suited to prevent and deter criminality.

     

    Umeå displays rather clear patterns of higher crime activity, assigned to seasonal, weakly and daily periods, which are connected to higher activity in the public space. Also from a spatial perspective certain patterns are detectable with a higher vulnerability for crime at spots which generate higher activity such as shopping areas or neighbourhoods with nightlife and transport hub functions, and in general neighbourhoods with a higher building density. The neighbourhood of Ålidhem displayed thereby a high concentration of criminality, marked as a constant or even intensifying hotspot for the entire period of investigation. The results of the field observation regarding principles of CPTED are especially indicating a lack of maintenance and furthermore the street and building layout is contributing to disorientation. On the other hand, the area is in most cases well equipped for natural surveillance and provides a high amount of locations for leisure and recreation in order strengthen social cohesion.

  • 1166.
    Åberg, Ebba
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Handelsutveckling i Umeå Kommun - en analys av potentiell handelsutveckling för Strömpilens handelsområde i förmån för samhället och befolkningstillväxten i Umeå Kommun2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Umeå is a town in northern Sweden that currently has a few different strategies to reach population growth, one of these strategies is to develop shopping areas. Shopping development can generate jobs, wages, visitors and this in turn can a have positive outcome in consumption and population growth. The kind of shopping that should be established in a city is based on the socio-economic status of the population, shopping demand and the existing shopping supply at the local stores. There are several aspects that are important during shopping development, the physical environment, the economy and “sense of place” which is the local resident’s image of the local community. These aspects should be consider to maximize the positive effects and minimizing the negative effects. In Umeå there are five different shopping areas, one in the city center and four are external shopping areas. One shopping area called Strömpilen is going through a planning and development process, which is the focus for this study. The study is going to analyze what could and needs be done at Strömpilen so it can, once again become an attractive shopping area. The method used for this study is in-depth interviews with three people in Umeå who is working with shopping development. The results from the interviews showed that Strömpilen will work on establishing larger stores (larges sizes). The supply will be different from what is already established in Umeå to complement and attract customers to visit Strömpilen. Transportation and access to the shopping area should be improved and developed. Environmental-friendly products and communication with potential customers as well as events in marketing purposes is essential for shopping development.

  • 1167.
    Åberg, Josephina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Förändring av arbetsuppgifter för de medicinska sekreterarna: En studie på barn och ungdomskliniken på Mälarsjukhuset2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 1168.
    Åberg, Kajsa G.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    "Anyone could do that": Nordic perspectives on competence in tourism2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In academic reasoning, as well as policy rhethoric, much attention has been drawn to the low thresholds to employment and entrepreneurship in tourism. The purpose of this thesis is to go beyond the simplified images and examine the educational characteristics of the tourism workforce in a way that includes both a geographical and work task related aspect. By employing a sequential mix of methods, two perspectives on competence in tourism are presented. First, the actual presence of formal education within the workforce is mapped and discussed based on descriptive analyses of register data. Thereafter, thematic analyses of interviews are used to allow for a discussion on underlying reasoning of recruitment. The theoretical point of departure is that the workforce is a crucial input factor of the production process in labour intense service sectors such as tourism. However, the access to a suitable workforce differs between destinations. It is therefore imperative to scrutinize its characteristics in order to set relevant strategies for development, as well as education.

    The thesis contains four individual papers and an introductory section. The first two papers are based on register data on the Swedish national workforce in the years 2000, 2005 and 2010. The results show that the general level of formal education is not exceptionally low in tourism and that it is rather linked to geography than occupational sector. There was also confirmed to be a mismatch between tourism-specific education and work in tourism. In the second part of the thesis, focus is turned to the managerial segment within destination development. The geographical scope includes the northern region of Sweden and one case study area each in Norway and Finland. The empirical material shows that tourism-specific education was not prioritized when recruiting for destination management.

    The empirical findings are brought together in the concluding discussion of the thesis. It is there suggested that reasoning on the educational characteristics of the tourism workforce needs to  include the diversity of local preconditions and needs relating to geography and work tasks.            

  • 1169.
    Åberg, Kajsa G.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Governance and Partnership in Tourism Development: On the Elusiveness of Participation in Tourism2013Inngår i: Natural resources and regional development theory / [ed] Linda Lundmark, Camilla Sandström, Umeå: Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Umeå universitet , 2013, s. 142-157Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 1170.
    Åberg, Kajsa G.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    The importance of being local: prioritizing knowledge in recruitment for destination development2014Inngår i: Tourism Review, ISSN 1660-5373, E-ISSN 1759-8451, Vol. 69, nr 3, s. 229-243Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The paper aims to illuminate the discrepancy between the need for knowledge as found in prior research and the requirements formulated by those taking part in destination development. The results are intended to contribute to further research on the role of knowledge in destination management when performed as a strategy for regional development.

    Design/methodology/approach: Based on theories within epistemology and tourism, an interview structure was developed and used in 10 in-depth interviews, with a qualitative approach through open-ended questions. This was complemented by a mapping of specific background factors through enquiries with 23 respondents. The paper follows an explorative approach to illuminate one aspect within the research area of destination development.

    Findings: It was found that when recruiting much significance is put on understanding the structures of involved actors and local rooting. In contrast to theoretical findings, specific knowledge was not a prioritized requirement, neither in tourism nor marketing. Hence, there is a gap between what is perceived as needed for destination development according to academia and how it is being performed by practitioners.

    Research limitations/implications: The study is limited in geography and context. Because the research design was showed to be successful in capturing significant aspects, it is proposed for use in further research.

    Practical implications: The paper deepens the understanding of factors explaining success and impediments of destination development. It underlines the need for bridging the gap between theory and practice.

    Originality/value: This work addresses a vital, but not fully explored, aspect of an extensively implemented strategy for regional development.

  • 1171.
    Åberg, Kajsa G.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Marjavaara, Roger
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Tracking the tourism-specific educated in SwedenManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 1172.
    Åberg, Kajsa G.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    The development of geographical differences in education levels within the Swedish tourism industry2018Inngår i: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340, Vol. 20, nr S1, s. 67-84Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The nexus of workforce and destination development is a largely uncharted area within tourism research. The local human capital has above all been in focus when underlining tourism’s potential to create employment even for the inexperienced and less educated. However, a discordant strand of theory holds the low levels of qualified knowledge within the industry responsible for absent destination development in areas struggling to develop competitive advantages. Additionally, the in-migration of a skilled workforce may be hampered by a lack of amenities attracting permanent residents. In order to explore whether the tourism sector is characterized by a less educated share of the workforce, a study was performed using micro-level data on the full working population of Sweden during the years 2000–2010. The workforce in tourism was compared to the total and two other low-skill sectors, and the results show that the educational aspects within tourism are more related to geography than economic sectors. Contrary to general presumptions, the workforce within the tourism sector has a higher level of formal education than the other selected sectors in regions with generally low educational levels. The implication is thus that strategies aimed at creating employment for the least educated in rural areas need to be reconsidered, and not unconditionally target the tourism sector. Above all, tourism development needs to be based on assessments of local preconditions rather than a generalized image.

  • 1173.
    Åberg, Kajsa G.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Svels, Kristina
    Åbo Akademi, Finland.
    Destination development in Ostrobothnia: great expectations of less involvement2018Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, s. S7-S23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-actor involvement and cooperation are emphasized elements of destination development. Whereas prior research has addressed challenges involved in creating inclusive structures and trust through bottom-up approaches, this paper’s focus is on the less explored attitude of acceptance of a top-down structure. The case study of Ostrobothnia in Finland shows a regional destination organization that went from broad involvement to less inclusiveness and transparency. Through interviews with public and private stakeholders, it was found that the formal exclusion was accepted by all actors, even those who were excluded, based on their common high expectations of enhanced effectiveness of the new organization. Building on institutional theory and inclusiveness, it is suggested that the long-lasting formal collaboration had created the trust needed among the stakeholders for a new, lean management to replace the old. However, lasting formal collaboration may also lead to development of informal networks that hinder further interaction. Any formal collaboration or partnership between the public and private sectors therefore needs to acknowledge the local socio-political context to overcome established social hierarchies and open up for new influences. Co-determination should be held as a potential solution rather than an imposed structure, as it depends on expectations and local conditions.

  • 1174.
    Åkerlund, Ulrika
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Buying a Place Abroad: Processes of Recreational Property Acquisition2013Inngår i: Housing Studies, ISSN 0267-3037, E-ISSN 1466-1810, Vol. 28, nr 4, s. 632-652Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the search for the good life,' moving to warmer destinations is a growing trend among affluent individuals from the northern parts of Europe and North America. Induced by quality-of-life drivers, property acquisition is an integral part of this search. Property acquisition behavior has earlier been conceptualized in various models of consumer behavior; however, these models are not sophisticated enough to explain the multiple drivers and complexity of lifestyle- and leisure-led acquisitions, especially if they are international in scope. In this paper, the process of recreational property acquisition is explored, based on thematic analysis of in-depth interviews with Swedes in Malta. Acquisition is found to be influenced by both internal drivers and motives, and external factors that are highly contextualized. This study explains the importance of the contextual frameworks and external influences on decision-making, and conceptualizes the process of international recreational property acquisition.

  • 1175.
    Åkerlund, Ulrika
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Selling a place in the sun: International property mediation as production of lifestyle mobility2012Inngår i: Anatolia: An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, ISSN 1303-2917, E-ISSN 2156-6909, Vol. 23, nr 2, s. 251-267Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Buying property abroad is not a new phenomenon, but academic research into the complexities of international property mediation is underdeveloped. This paper adopts a wide perspective on lifestyle-driven mobilities, including the semi-permanent relocation of Swedes to warmer destinations in the Mediterranean and other regions, and explores the functions of international property mediation. On the basis of data gathered from interviews with property agents, the objectives are to describe the organization of the international property sector, to understand the mediating roles of property agents, and position property mediation as production of lifestyle mobility. Property agents are understood to play a crucial role as intermediaries, influencing the client's decisions by combining instrumental, interactionary, communicative, and social functions of mediation. Because of their superior expertise on property transaction procedures and regulations, area characteristics and contact networks, agents may influence clients' decisions; however this also depends on their skills in interpreting client expectations and experiences, and the ability of the client to manage the process themselves.

  • 1176.
    Åkerlund, Ulrika
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Strategic lifestyle management in later life: Swedish lifestyle movers in Malta seeking the 'best of both worlds'2017Inngår i: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 23, nr 1, artikkel-id e1964Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In affluent societies, an active choice of lifestyle is increasingly becoming an option. With increased possibilities for mobility, opportunities to lead a good life can be accessed across global space. However, lifestyle management is largely directed and constrained by structural frameworks, and movers have to allocate resources and experience in order to manoeuvre structures and make optimal lifestyle choices. This paper explores how residential mobility may be used as a resource to gain access to opportunities. Based on thematic analysis of in-depth interviews, this is performed by exploring the experiences of Swedish lifestyle movers in Malta, in their tailoring of mobility practices that allow them to enjoy opportunities for the good life in both countries. The research questions that have guided this study are as follows: (a) What does the good life comprise? (b) How are structural frameworks surrounding opportunities for lifestyle management perceived by movers? and (c) In what ways do movers actively tailor their mobility practices to achieve the good life? The results show that movers are highly engaged in tailoring their access to opportunities through place fixity, such as permanent residency and social integration, and through routinised and timed mobility practices.

  • 1177.
    Åkerlund, Ulrika
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    The Best of Both Worlds: Aspirations, Drivers and Practices of Swedish Lifestyle Movers in Malta2013Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    It has often been claimed that contemporary societies are shaped by globalization; the rapid interconnections of societies, economies, markets, flows and information potentially linking all places in the world to each other. In search for experiences, variation, escape or comfort, individuals are travelling, circulating, and migrating between places, challenging the notions of ‘home’ and ‘away’, ‘everyday’ and ‘extraordinary’. This thesis addresses the ways lifestyle-led mobilities are produced and performed, by studying the mobility trajectories and experiences of Swedes dividing their time seasonally between Sweden and Malta. It explores how movers are faced with a structural framework that both facilitates and directs their choices concerning mobility, and how they interpret and respond to these structures. It also explores the imaginaries, meanings, and feelings for place, identity, and lifestyle that the movers negotiate through their mobility practices and through the links they create and sustain in places. Thus, this thesis is situated in an evolving field of research on lifestyle mobilities. Lifestyle mobilities are here defined as those mobility practices undertaken by individuals based on their freedom of choice, of a temporal or more permanent duration, with or without any significant ‘home base(s)’, that are primarily driven by aspirations to increase ‘quality of life’, and that are primarily related to the individuals’ lifestyle values.

    The thesis is based on four individual papers exploring different aspects lifestyle mobility. The aim is to understand how production and performance aspects of lifestyle mobilities are related, and how notions of identity and belonging are negotiated in relation to lifestyle mobility practices. The production aspect relates to those structures and frameworks that create, facilitate, or sometimes delimit opportunities for lifestyle mobility while the performance aspect focuses on individual agency and meaning of lifestyle mobility practices. The studies are based on in-depth interviews with Swedish movers in Malta, and focus on how structural frameworks and mediations influence the ways that movers manoeuvre, manipulate or adapt to structures and influences in order to arrange their life context to achieve ‘quality of life’. A second aim focuses on the ways that movers reflect upon their identities and belongings as they travel routinely between two (or more) significant places, and how this may influence mobility practices. It is concluded that structures and mediations are both facilitating and delimiting movers’ space of choice regarding mobility decisions. Through their agency, movers negotiate their space of choice by allocating resources and experience, accessing supportive networks and tailoring their access to entitlements. The production and performance aspects of lifestyle mobility practices are interlinked in complex ways.

  • 1178.
    Åkerlund, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Implementing Tourism Events: The Discourses of Umeå's Bid for European Capital of Culture 20142012Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 164-180Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Regional competitiveness has become a truism for many places today. In line with this competitive discourse, planners in Umeå, Northern Sweden, are seeking to create a sticky place where capital and people are attracted by enhancing the cultural sector through the hosting of events. By implementing the bid for the title of European Capital of Culture in 2014 through a positive growth-oriented discourse, it is hoped that a multitude of stakeholders will come together in a network of co-creation, and enhance an image of the city as a creative and gushing place with endless development possibilities. This paper studies how a development proposal is implemented among the stakeholders by seeking to create positive expectations. With a point of departure in stakeholder theory and interdiscursive analysis, this study explores the role of discourse in stakeholder dynamics and engagement. The results of this study show that implementation is not merely a marketing process, but different opinions will emerge that may contest the official discourse, and that the outcomes of the implementation strategy may be hard to control unless the official discourse is consciously elaborated to adapt to these counter-discourses.

  • 1179.
    Åkerlund, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia. Center for Tourism Studies, University of Eastern Finland.
    Pitkänen, Kati
    Center for Tourism Studies, University of Eastern Finland.
    Hiltunen, Mervi J.
    Center for Tourism Studies, university of Eastern Finland.
    Overvåg, Kjell
    Eastern Norway Research Institute.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Kahila, Petri
    Karelian Institute, University of Eastern Finland.
    Health, well-being and second homes: an outline of current research and policy challenges2015Inngår i: Matkaliututkimus, Finnish Journal of Tourism research, ISSN 1796-1300, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 43-54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Healthy living environments and housing conditions are important foci of Nordic health and welfare policies. However, policies and research on living conditions have mostly explored people’s permanent living environments, adhering to thinking about health in terms of fixity in place. What has not been acknowledged is that a considerable amount of Nordic people live in a continuous interaction of more than one place of dwelling. An illustrative example of the significance of mobile lifestyles is the use of second homes. Second home tourism is usually assumed to increase health and well-being. However, research on well-being and the health effects of second home tourism has been limited. In this paper we propose a research framework to approach second homes and well-being by identifying place and mobility as the key aspects in comprehending the relationship between health, wellbeing and second homes. Furthermore, we argue that the mobile lifestyles considerably challenge existing regulatory frameworks and provision of services as multi-local living is not systematically accounted for. Failing to acknowledge mobile lifestyles and multiple dwelling will degrade possibilities to respond to the current and long-term challenges of the distribution of health and welfare.

  • 1180.
    Åkerlund, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Sandberg, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Stories of lifestyle mobility: representing self and place in the search for the 'good life'2015Inngår i: Social & cultural geography (Print), ISSN 1464-9365, E-ISSN 1470-1197, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 351-370Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, mobility researchers have paid increasing attention to the flows of relatively privileged individuals whose mobility practices are largely understood to be lifestyle-motivated, consumption-led and tourism-induced (e.g. Benson, M., & O'Reilly, K. (Eds.). (2009). Lifestyle migration: Expectations, aspirations and experiences. Surrey: Ashgate; King, R., Warnes, A. M., & Williams, A. M. (2000). Sunset lives: British retirement migration to the Mediterranean. Oxford: Berg). Situated within the context of lifestyle mobilities, this paper aims to analyse the significance of place and representations of place in the movers' stories of mobility. The mobility experiences of Swedish retirees practicing routinised and seasonal mobility between Sweden and Malta have been analysed, and this paper explores how they actively give meaning to their choices and decisions. In their narratives, the movers express their representations of themselves in relation not only to their imaginings of places and to their belongings to and engagements with these places, but also to their mobility practices. The findings contribute to a discussion of how place imaginaries and self-identities are constructed through lifestyle mobility practices.

  • 1181.
    Åström Gelfgren, Nina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Jämställdhet och tillgänglighet: PATIENTENS EGEN SYN PÅ JÄMSTÄLLDHET OCH TILLGÄNGLIGHET TILL VÅRDEN2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 1182.
    Åström, Susanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Den medicinska sekreterarens psykosociala arbetsmiljö: avseende stress, upplevd av medicinska sekreterare samt andra yrkesgrupper2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 1183.
    Öberg, Eva-Lotta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Starkare tillsammans: Offentligt och privat samarbete-En fallstudie av Höga Kusten2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperation and relationships between private and public stakeholders is a growing field within tourism. Cooperation between stakeholders at a destination is by many researchers in tourism seen as a success factor for sustainable destination development. Research show that by combining assets a destination creates collective benefits for the participating stakeholders. A further seen benefit of collaboration is also that it can increase growth and competitiveness. Every cooperation relation between actors at a destination and the place where it takes place is unique, which why this subject is interesting to examine.  Cooperation take place at various locations, geographic variations, unique compositions of these factors and unique interactions between people makes cooperation complex. There is little knowledge in the field on how tourist organisations in Sweden are organized and structured. The aim of this bachelor thesis is to examine how public and private stakeholders cooperate to create destination development. Many destinations have created one collected destination corporation for the private and public sectors. Destination High Coast, Sweden, however still have two separate corporations with different focus and missions. This case study is based on an analysis of the public Corporation Höga Kusten Destinationsutveckling and the private corporation Höga Kusten Turism. The study aims to answer how the cooperation between the public destination development corporation and the private corporation takes shape. How unanimous they are in visions and goals and how they work together. Further what meaning and conditions for development the cooperation between the public stakeholder and the private stakeholder have. To answer the aim of the thesis, interviews with informants from both corporations has been made. The empirical material was analysed using thematic analysis and then compared to theory according networks, destination development, cooperation and governance. The results of the study reveal that the corporations have a close relationship and work together in many parts of the development of the destination. They have the same visions with different approaches and they have collectively created strategies that they work with. However, the two corporations have different focus on the development of the destination. The public corporation have a more long-term, strategic perspective. They work for the owners which is the municipalities forming The High Coast. The private corporation has a more operative and short-term perspective. They work for the entrepreneurs and the operators at the destination to establish and develop good products and then market them towards the costumer. The relation is complex, much because there are multiple stakeholders, owners and parts of the relationship and cooperation. The two corporations are also, because the different focus on the development, in a dependency relationship to create destination development and reach their goals. Both corporations state that they benefit from the cooperation and is “stronger together”

  • 1184.
    Ödmark, Elin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Är kultur bättre än sport?: En studie om hur antalet gästnätter påverkas av olika evenemang2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The tourism industry is considered to be the fastest growing industry in Sweden. That people choose to travel depends on a number of factors, such as discovering something new, exercising an interest or traveling for relaxation or recreation. That a destination can offer a variety of activities is considered important when different tourists request different things.

    Events can be considered a good attraction for destinations. An event is limited in time and space but can be arranged anywhere, anytime. There are different types of events but the question is what type of event that generates the best economic effects for a destination?

    This study deals with different types of events and how these relate to the number of guest nights sold. The purpose of the paper is to investigate how different types of events contribute different value in the form of guest nights in destination Umeå and Jönköping. These two destinations were considered comparable and why are described in the table of descriptive statistics in chapter 3.4. Quantitative method where guest night statistics were compared to event databases from both destinations were used. This to see how different types of events affect the number of guest nights on the destinations as well as whether there are statistically significant differences of event types between. Umeå and Jönköping were chosen as study objects because the destinations are similar and that they have data available. The results chapter presents the results obtained from the study as shown in tables and diagrams and in the discussion and the analysis chapter the theory has been linked to the results in order to answer the purpose and the questions. This chapter also discusses the results and provides suggestions for future studies. The essay is linked together in the last chapter called summary.

  • 1185.
    Ölund, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Varför vill städer arrangera de Olympiska spelen?: En innehållsanalys av motiven i OS-ansökningar.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The Olympic Games are today seen as one of the biggest events in the world. The Games gather the world´s athletes to compete in this great sports festival. The Olympic games are an example of what is define as a mega event. Mega events have the potential to attract both many visitors and attention from international media. The Olympic games have throughout the years been used, to create economic growth, as a catalyst for infrastructure investment, a tool to create urban renewal and for cities to reach global recognition.

    This thesis aims to examine the motives to why cities are seeking to host the Olympic Games. It also examines if Agenda 2020 has entailed any changes to why cities wants to host the Games. This has been done by studying three cities applications to arrange the Olympic Games. To examine these motives, a qualitative content analysis has been used. The result of this study tells us about the reasons why cities are seeking to become a host for the Games. All three cities argue why their city is most suited to become the host for the Games. Vancouver wants to hold the most inclusive games, London are focusing at deliver a great game because it enables great performance and Paris wants to show that we can create a better world through sport. At the same time, there are many similarities in the motives. For example, all three cities are using the Games to improve physical activity among their residents, the Games contributes for urban renewal and all three cities have a sustainability approach for the Games.    

  • 1186.
    Östbring, Lisa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Relatedness put in place: on the effects of proximity on firm performance2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis contributes to recent theorizations in economic geography on the effects of proximity on firm competitiveness. One of the great challenge in the contemporary economy is for firms to remain competitive. Their innovative ability is highly dependent on the knowledge they possess and their ability to acquire new knowledge. It is argued that a relational proximity between individuals reduces uncertainty and offers a joint platform for communication and learning. Therefore, does this thesis apply a micro-perspective in which the labor force and the knowledge composition within plants is examined. The aim is pursued by exploring the interrelationship between different types of proximity in the labor force and plant performance. The proximity dimensions under scrutiny are; the cognitive-, the organizational-, and the geographical proximity dimension.

    The three empirical papers in the thesis are based on longitudinal micro-data from the database ASTRID. The database connects detailed socio-economic data of individuals to features of plants and firms in the entire Swedish economy. The empirical findings suggest that the different types of proximities are interdependent with regard to learning in firms. The interdependence is manifested through the variable impact on plant performance that a given distance in one dimension has, depending on what other type of proximity is accounted for at the plant. It is further found that the proximity dimensions have conditional effects on learning and innovation in firms. The empirical findings also indicate that the circumstances under which learning and knowledge application take place, vary between capital-intensive and labor-intensive sectors. Moreover, it is found that relatedness in the cognitive dimension is not unambiguously positive for interactive learning and innovativeness. Similarity in one dimension and unrelatedness in the cognitive dimension, has a significantly stronger impact on interactive learning than simply having relatedness in the cognitive dimension. It therefore seems as if the combined distance of several proximity dimensions should be taken into account when estimating the innovative power of a firm or industry.

    When the empirical findings are considered together it is evident that the local environment generates relational proximity between agents through formal- and informal networks. This proximity reproduces and rejuvenates the localized capabilities by allowing for the combination of heterogeneous pieces of knowledge in firms through local unrelated labor inflow. In conclusion, time and place are the paramount dimensions that shape the micro-dynamics of knowledge generation and innovation in firms.

  • 1187.
    Östbring, Lisa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Labor mobility and organizational proximity: routines as supporting mechanisms for variety, skill integration and productivity2017Inngår i: Industry and Innovation, ISSN 1366-2716, E-ISSN 1469-8390, Vol. 24, nr 8, s. 775-794Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to introduce an organisational dimension to the discussion of knowledge flows and relatedness. We hypothesise that not only the degree of technological relatedness influence the extent of skill integration in a firm but also that familiarity with firm routines (intra-organisational proximity) should smoothen absorption. Longitudinal micro-data are used in pooled ordinary least square- and fixed effect models to estimate the impact on plant productivity growth of 18,051 labour flows within, and to, four large Swedish firms between 2003 and 2006. Our findings suggest that intra-regional related flows are economically beneficial. Their link to localised capabilities and community creates a weaker but more productive link between individuals than do organisational proximity, which generate too much similarity to allow for cognitively related inflows to impact productivity growth. Also, we find a positive relationship between unrelated flows and plant performance.

  • 1188.
    Östbring, Lisa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Relatedness through experience: on the importance of collected worker experiences for plant performance2018Inngår i: Papers in regional science (Print), ISSN 1056-8190, E-ISSN 1435-5957, Vol. 97, nr 3, s. 501-518Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate that multiple cognitive dimensions exist between employees in knowledge intensive business services (KIBS) and that these dimensions interact in their influence on plant performance. Knowledge and cognitive distance are measured as formal knowledge and industry experience. Pooled OLS regressions with year, industry, and region-fixed effects are used to estimate the impact on plant performance. The results suggest that the commonly found negative impact of similarity in formal knowledge on plant performance may be reduced by high human capital ratios or high levels of similarity in experience. Moreover, the organizational structures associated with single-plant and multi-plant firms, generate different plant performance outcomes of knowledge variety.

  • 1189.
    Östbring, Lisa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Labour mobility and plant performance: on the (dis)similarity between labour- and capital-intensive sectors for knowledge diffusion and productivity2013Inngår i: Geografiska Annaler. Series B, Human Geography, ISSN 0435-3684, E-ISSN 1468-0467, Vol. 95, nr 4, s. 287-305Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we analyse differences between capital- and labour-intensive sectors with regard to the impact of workforce composition and labour mobility on plant performance. By the use of geo-referenced longitudinal employer–employee data on a micro level, we analyse labour flows between plants within and between labour market regions. The analysis is carried out using weight least square (WLS) regression analysis combined with additional variance analysis (ANOVA). The results show that there are differences between the sectors with regard to both in-house workforce composition and type of skill inflow. A high degree of related knowledge in the in-house workforce has a strong positive effect on plant performance in the labour-intensive sectors. The analysis of labour inflow indicates that knowledge in the capital-intensive sectors is localized – only intra-regional labour flows give rise to increased plant productivity. In the labour-intensive sectors, the geographic and cognitive dimensions complement one another; similar knowledge needs to be non-local in order to be beneficial to plant performance, and unrelated knowledge mainly contributes to plant productivity growth when it is local.

  • 1190.
    Östh, John
    et al.
    Department of Social and Economic Geography, Uppsala University.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Do changes in gdp influence commuting distances?: a study of swedish commuting patterns between 1990 and 20062012Inngår i: Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie, ISSN 0040-747X, E-ISSN 1467-9663, Vol. 103, nr 4, s. 443-456Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have analysed the relationships between individuals' commuting distances and individual characteristics, discrimination, societal structure and planning. Largely left unexplored, however, are the long-term relationships between changes in the economic cycle and the effects on individual commuting distances. Using regression analyses, this study focuses on the relationship between changes in GDP and commuters' response reflected in commuting distances. The empirical data consist of records of almost 12 million Swedish commuting events between 1990 and 2006. Results of the analyses indicate that changes in GDP growth rate have an impact on commuting distances, especially for younger workers, the recently unemployed and commuters in metropolitan areas.

  • 1191.
    Östling, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Lockar tätort mer än landsbygd: En kvantitativ studie över urbaniseringsgradens samband med inflyttningen till Sveriges kommuner2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 1192.
    Östman, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Förtätning och grönstruktur i en tid av urbanisering: Strategier i kollision?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Although the world is facing major climate changes and science shows the importance of urban green structure in order to handle these changes, it seems to be subordinate in urban planning. For that reason, the aim of this thesis is to illustrate the problems associated with the concepts of densification and green structure in the context of growing cities. 

    By making a case study of Örebro municipality, one of Sweden’s largest cities and one of the fastest growing ones, the purpose is to describe the ongoing process of densification in combination with green structure planning. This is done by identifying the municipality densification strategies and chart their distribution by categorizing newly built residential buildings and relate the result to the intentions. Furthermore, the purpose is to understand how the green structure that is being occupied is being into account and discuss the contemporary process.

    Science shows a gap concerning how green structure strategies are being implemented in strategies of densification. Besides, the national authority for housing, building and planning (Boverket) request an evaluation of what types of priorities that is done during the densification process of the Swedish municipalities. Hence, in order to answer these questions a literature study and a spatial GISanalysis was made. 

    The result shows that Örebro municipality has a strategy that aims to control the densification process by categorize different types of methods. The GIS-analysis displayed a pattern of newly built residential buildings categorized by the types of methods found in the densification strategy. Generally, the outcome seems to follow the intentions of the strategy even though the majority are built on green structure. At the same time the strategies that seeks to compensate the loss of green structure are not fully implemented in the standardized planning process. 

  • 1193.
    Östman, Sandra
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Sjukvårdens effektivisering: En studie om läkares syn på det administrativa arbetet2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 1194.
    Öttenius, Susannah
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Shoppingturism och hur detaljhandeln kan fungera som turistattraktion: -Umeås möjligheter med IKEA2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the many aspects of shopping tourism. By using IKEA and the establishment of the popular retail chain in Umeå as a specific case to look at, the study will focus on determening the possibilities associated with using retail as part of the marketing for a destination. The intention is also to look at how big of a part shopping as a whole is presented when municipalities are marketing themselves. By looking at the municipality of Sundsvall aswell, the paper aims to investigate what they have benefited from having a IKEA store. This is done so that the results later can be used to draw connections to the possible situation in Umeå.

    The method chosen to establish a result for this study was by doing interviews.  These interviews was later analyzed by deviding the answers from the interviews into themes. To get a clearer view of how the municpalities had worked with retail in their marketing,  some regulatory documents was analyzed as well. 

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