umu.sePublikasjoner
Endre søk
Begrens søket
2324252627 1251 - 1300 of 1301
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Treff pr side
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
Merk
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 1251.
    Yelhekar, Tushar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Chloride Homeostasis in Central Neurons2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the present thesis is to clarify the control of intracellular chloride homeostasis in central neurons, because of the critical role of chloride ions (Cl) for neuronal function. Normal function of the central nervous system (CNS) depends on a delicate balance between neuronal excitation and inhibition. Inhibition is, in the adult brain, most often mediated by the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). GABA may, however, in some cases cause excitation. GABA acts by activating GABA type A receptors (GABAARs), which are ion channels largely permeable to Cl. The effect of GABAAR-mediated neuronal signaling - inhibitory or excitatory - is therefore mainly determined by the Cl gradient across the membrane. This gradient varies with neuronal activity and may be altered in pathological conditions. Thus, understanding Cl regulation is important to comprehend neuronal function. This thesis is an attempt to clarify several unknown aspects of neuronal Cl regulation. For such clarification, a sufficiently sensitive method for measuring the intracellular Cl concentration, [Cl]i, is necessary. In the first study of this thesis, we examined two electrophysiological methods commonly used to estimate [Cl]i. Both methods, here called the interpolation and the voltage-ramp method, depend on an estimate of the Cl equilibrium potential from the current-voltage relation of GABA- or glycine-evoked Cl currents. Both methods also provide an estimate of the membrane Cl conductance, gCl. With a combination of computational and electrophysiological techniques, we showed that the most common (interpolation) method failed to detect changes in [Cl]i and gCl during prolonged GABA application, whereas the voltage-ramp method accurately detected such changes. Our analysis also provided an explanation as to why the two methods differ. In a second study, we clarified the role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) for the distribution of Cl across the cell membrane of neurons from rat brain. It was recently proposed that immobile charges located within the ECM, rather than as previously thought cation-chloride transporter proteins, determine the low [Cl]i which is critical to GABAAR-mediated inhibition. By using electrophysiological techniques to measure [Cl]i, we showed that digestion of the ECM decreases the expression and function of the neuron-specific K+ Cl cotransporter 2 (KCC2), which normally extrudes Cl- from the neuron, thus causing an increase in resting [Cl]i. As a result of ECM degradation, the action of GABA may be transformed from inhibitory to excitatory. In a third study, we developed a method for quantifying the largely unknown resting Cl (leak) conductance, gCl, and examined the role of gCl for the neuronal Cl homeostasis. In isolated preoptic neurons from rat, resting gCl was about 6 % of total resting conductance, to a major part due to spontaneously open GABAARs and played an important role for recovery after a high Cl load. We also showed that spontaneous, impulse-independent GABA release can significantly enhance recovery when the GABA responses are potentiated by the neurosteroid allopregnanolone. In a final commentary, we formulated the mathematical relation between Cl conductance, KCC2-mediated Cl extrusion capacity and steady-state [Cl]i. In summary, the present thesis (i) clarifies how well common electrophysiological methods describe [Cl]i and gCl, (ii) provides a novel method for quantifying gCl in cell membranes and (iii) clarifies the roles of the ECM, ion channels and ion transporters in the control of [Cl]i homeostasis and GABAAR-mediated signaling in central neurons. 

  • 1252.
    Yelhekar, Tushar D.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Druzin, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Johansson, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Contribution of Resting Conductance, GABA(A)-Receptor Mediated Miniature Synaptic Currents and Neurosteroid to Chloride Homeostasis in Central Neurons2017Inngår i: eNeuro, ISSN 2373-2822, Vol. 4, nr 2, artikkel-id e0019Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintenance of a low intraneuronal Cl- concentration, [Cl-](i), is critical for inhibition in the CNS. Here, the contribution of passive, conductive Cl- flux to recovery of [Cl-](i) after a high load was analyzed in mature central neurons from rat. A novel method for quantifying the resting Cl- conductance, important for [Cl-](i) recovery, was developed and the possible contribution of GABAA and glycine receptors and of ClC-2 channels to this conductance was analyzed. The hypothesis that spontaneous, action potential-independent release of GABA is important for [Cl-](i) recovery was tested. [Cl-](i) was examined by gramicidin-perforated patch recordings in medial preoptic neurons. Cells were loaded with Cl- by combining GABA or glycine application with a depolarized voltage, and the time course of [Cl-](i) was followed by measurements of the Cl- equilibrium potential, as obtained from the current recorded during voltage ramps combined with GABA or glycine application. The results show that passive Cl- flux contributes significantly, in the same order of magnitude as does K+-Cl- cotransporter 2 (KCC2), to [Cl-](i) recovery and that Cl- conductance accounts for similar to 6% of the total resting conductance. A major fraction of this resting Cl- conductance is picrotoxin (PTX)-sensitive and likely due to open GABAA receptors, but ClC-2 channels do not contribute. The results also show that when the decay of GABAA receptor-mediated miniature postsynaptic currents (minis) is slowed by the neurosteroid allopregnanolone, such minis may significantly quicken [Cl-](i) recovery, suggesting a possible steroid-regulated role for minis in the control of Clhomeostasis.

  • 1253.
    Yelhekar, Tushar D.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Druzin, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Karlsson, Urban
    Blomqvist, Erii
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Johansson, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    How to Properly Measure a Current-Voltage Relation? -Interpolation vs. Ramp Methods Applied to Studies of GABA(A) Receptors2016Inngår i: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5102, E-ISSN 1662-5102, Vol. 10, artikkel-id 10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The relation between current and voltage, I-V relation, is central to functional analysis of membrane ion channels. A commonly used method, since the introduction of the voltage-clamp technique, to establish the I-V relation depends on the interpolation of current amplitudes recorded at different steady voltages. By a theoretical computational approach as well as by experimental recordings from GABA(A) receptor mediated currents in mammalian central neurons, we here show that this interpolation method may give reversal potentials and conductances that do not reflect the properties of the channels studied under conditions when ion flux may give rise to concentration changes. Therefore, changes in ion concentrations may remain undetected and conclusions on changes in conductance, such as during desensitization, may be mistaken. In contrast, an alternative experimental approach, using rapid voltage ramps, enable I-V relations that much better reflect the properties of the studied ion channels.

  • 1254.
    Yelhekar, Tushar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Kuznetsova, Tatiana
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Malinina, Evgenya
    Ponimaskin, Evgeni
    Dityatev, Alexander
    Druzin, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Johansson, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Extracellular Matrix Regulates Neuronal Chloride Concentration via K+-Cl--cotransporter 2Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 1255.
    Ylärinne, Janne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Histologi med cellbiologi.
    Production of neocartilage tissues using primary chondrocytes2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Hyaline cartilage is a highly specialized tissue, which plays an important role in the articulating joints of an individual. It provides the joints with a nearly frictionless, impact resisting surface to protect the ends of the articulating bones. Articular cartilage has a poor self-repair capacity and, therefore, it rarely heals back to normal after an injury. Overweight, injuries, overloading and genetic factors may initiate a degenerative disease of the joint called osteoarthritis.

    Osteoarthiritis is a major global public health issue. Currently, the most used treatment for large articular cartilage defects is joint replacement surgery. However, possibilities to replace this highly invasive operation with strategies based on tissue engineering are currently investigated. The idea of the tissue engineering is to optimize the use of the cells, biomaterials and culture conditions to regenerate a new functional tissue for the defect site.

    The goal of this thesis was to manufacture cartilage tissue in cell culture conditions in vitro. Bovine primary chondrocytes isolated from the femoral condyles were used in all the experiments for neocartilage production. The samples were collected for histology, gene expression level quantifications, and analyses of proteoglycan (PG) content and quality. The histological sections were stained for type II collagen and PGs, the quantitative RT-PCR was used to observe the relative expressions of aggrecan, Sox9, procollagen α2(I) and procollagen α1(II) genes. The PGs were quantified using a spectrophotometric method, and agarose gel electrophoresis was used to separate the PGs according to their size.

    In the two first studies, we optimized the culture conditions of in vitro scaffold-free culture technique to produce the native-type hyaline cartilage of a good quality. We found out that high glucose concentration and hypertonic medium at 20% oxygen tension promoted the best hyaline-like neocartilage tissue production. Glucosamine sulfate supplementation, low oxygen tension, 5 mM glucose concentration and a transient TGF-β3 supplementation were not beneficial for the neocartilage formation in the scaffold-free cell culture system.

    In the third study, we used these newly defined, optimized culture conditions to produce the neocartilage tissues in the HyStem™ and the HydroMatrix™ scaffold materials and we compared these tissues to the ones grown as scaffold-free control cultures. We noticed that there was no difference between the controls and the scaffolds, and occasionally the scaffold-free controls had produced better quality cartilage than the ones with the scaffolds. Overall, the neocartilage tissues were of good hyaline-like quality in the third study. Their extracellular matrix contents were close to the native cartilage, although the neotissues lacked the zonal organization typical to the normal articular cartilage. The tissues had the right components, but their ultrastructure differed from the native cartilage.

    In conclusion, we were able to optimize our in vitro neocartilage culture method further, and discovered a good combination of the culture conditions to produce hyaline-like cartilage of good quality. Surprisingly, the scaffold materials were not beneficial for the cartilage formation.

     

  • 1256.
    Ylärinne, Janne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Qu, Chengjuan
    Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Lammi, Mikko
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). School of Public Health, Health Science Center of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Xi’an, P. R. China.
    Comparison of the neocartilages generated in scaffolds and scaffold-free agarose gel supported primary chondrocyte culture: Generation of neocartilage in vitro Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The present study was conducted to compare the neocartilages generated in scaffolds and scaffold-free, agarose gel-supported primary chondrocyte cultures.

    Design: Six million bovine primary chondrocytes were embedded in HyStem™ or HydroMatrix™ scaffolds, or scaffold-free in chondrocyte culture medium, and then loaded to agarose gel supported culture wells. Neocartilages were grown in the presence of hypertonic high glucose DMEM medium in 37 °C incubator at 20% O2 and 5% CO2 for one, three or six weeks. By the end of culture periods, the formed tissues were analyzed by histological staining for proteoglycans (PGs) and type II collagen, gene expression measurements of chondrocyte-specific genes aggrecan, Sox9 and procollagen α1(II), and procollagen α2(I) were performed using quantitative RT-PCR, and analyses of PG contents and structure were conducted by spectrophotometric and agarose gel electrophoretic methods, respectively.

    Results: The neocartilage generated in scaffold-free cultures appeared slightly bigger in size than in HyStem™- or HydroMatrix™-containing scaffolds. Histology visualized that the PGs and type II collagen were abundantly present in both in scaffold-free and scaffold-containing tissues. The PG content gradually increased following the culture period. However, the mRNA expression levels of the cartilage-specific genes of aggrecan, procollagen α1(II) and Sox9 gradually decreased following culture period, while procollagen α2(I) levels increased.

    Conclusions: After six weeks cultivations, the PG concentrations in neocartilage tissues manufactured with HyStem™ or HydroMatrix™ scaffolds, and in scaffold-free agarose gel-supported cell cultures, were similar to native cartilage. No obvious benefits could be seen on the extracellular matrix assembly in HyStem™ or HydroMatrix™ scaffolds cultures.

  • 1257.
    Ylärinne, Janne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Qu, Chengjuan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Lammi, Mikko
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Xi’an Jiaotong Univ., Xi'an, China.
    HyStemTM and HydroMatrixTM scaffolds for articular cartilage tissue engineering2016Inngår i: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, ISSN 1063-4584, E-ISSN 1522-9653, Vol. 24, s. S466-S466Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract
  • 1258.
    Ylärinne, Janne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Qu, Chengjuan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Lammi, Mikko
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). School of Public Health, Health Science Center of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health and Family Planning Commission, P. R. China.
    Scaffold-free approach produces neocartilage tissue of similar quality as the use of HyStem™ and Hydromatrix™ scaffolds2017Inngår i: Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine, ISSN 0957-4530, E-ISSN 1573-4838, Vol. 28, nr 4, artikkel-id 59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous biomaterials are being considered for cartilage tissue engineering, while scaffold-free systems have also been introduced. Thus, it is important to know do the scaffolds improve the formation of manufactured neocartilages. This study compares scaffold-free cultures to two scaffold-containing ones. Six million bovine primary chondrocytes were embedded in HyStem™ or HydroMatrix™ scaffolds, or suspended in scaffold-free chondrocyte culture medium, and then loaded into agarose gel supported culture well pockets. Neocartilages were grown in the presence of hypertonic high glucose DMEM medium for up to 6 weeks. By the end of culture periods, the formed tissues were analyzed by histological staining for proteoglycans (PGs) and type II collagen, gene expression measurements of aggrecan, Sox9, procollagen α1(II), and procollagen α2(I) were performed using quantitative RT-PCR, and analyses of PG contents and structure were conducted by spectrophotometric and agarose gel electrophoretic methods. Histological stainings showed that the PGs and type II collagen were abundantly present in both the scaffold-free and the scaffold-containing tissues. The PG content gradually increased following the culture period. However, the mRNA expression levels of the cartilage-specific genes of aggrecan, procollagen α1(II) and Sox9 gradually decreased following culture period, while procollagen α2(I) levels increased. After 6-week-cultivations, the PG concentrations in neocartilage tissues manufactured with HyStem™ or HydroMatrix™ scaffolds, and in scaffold-free agarose gel-supported cell cultures, were similar to native cartilage. No obvious benefits could be seen on the extracellular matrix assembly in HyStem™ or HydroMatrix™ scaffolds cultures.

  • 1259.
    Yu, F
    et al.
    Pennsylvania State University.
    Stål, Per
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Larsson, L
    Human single masseter muscle fibers contain unique combinations of myosin and myosin binding protein C isoforms2002Inngår i: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility, ISSN 0142-4319, E-ISSN 1573-2657, Vol. 23, nr 4, s. 317-326Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Striated craniofacial and limb muscles differ in their embryological origin, regulatory program during myogenesis, and innervation. In an attempt to explore the effects of these differences on the striated muscle phenotype in humans, the expression of myosin and myosin-associated thick filament proteins were studied at the single fiber level both in the human jaw-closing masseter muscle and in two limb muscles (biceps brachii and quadriceps femoris muscles). In the masseter, unique combinations of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) and myosin binding protein C (MyBP-C) isoforms were observed at the single fiber level. Compared to the limb muscles, the MyHC isoform expression was more complex in the masseter while the opposite was observed for MyBP-C. In limb muscles, a coordinated expression of three MyHC and three MyBP-C isoforms were observed, i.e., single fibers contained one or two MyHC isoforms, and up to three MyBP-C isoforms. Also, the relative content of the different MyBP-C isoforms correlated with the MyHC isoform expression. In the masseter, on the other hand, up to five different MyHC isoforms could be observed in the same fiber, but only one MyBP-C isoform was identified irrespective MyHC isoform expression. This MyBP-C isoform had a migration rate similar to the slow MyBP-C isoform in limb muscle fibers. In conclusion, a unique myofibrillar protein isoform expression was observed in the human masseter muscle fibers, suggesting significant differences in structural and functional properties between muscle fibers from human masseter and limb muscles.

  • 1260. Yu, Fang Fang
    et al.
    Lin, Xia Lu
    Yang, Lei
    Liu, Huan
    Wang, Xi
    Fang, Hua
    Lammi, Mikko J.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Institute of Endemic Diseases, School of Public Health of Health Science Center, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Xi’an 710061, Shaanxi, China.
    Guo, Xiong
    Comparison of T-2 Toxin and HT-2 Toxin Distributed in the Skeletal System with That in Other Tissues of Rats by Acute Toxicity Test2017Inngår i: Biomedical and environmental sciences, ISSN 0895-3988, E-ISSN 2214-0190, Vol. 30, nr 11, s. 851-854Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Twelve healthy rats were divided into the T-2 toxin group receiving gavage of 1 mg/kg T-2 toxin and the control group receiving gavage of normal saline. Total relative concentrations of T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin in the skeletal system (thighbone, knee joints, and costal cartilage) were significantly higher than those in the heart, liver, and kidneys (P < 0.05). The relative concentrations of T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin in the skeletal system (thighbone and costal cartilage) were also significantly higher than those in the heart, liver, and kidneys. The rats administered T-2 toxin showed rapid metabolism compared with that in rats administered HT-2 toxin, and the metabolic conversion rates in the different tissues were 68.20%-90.70%.

  • 1261.
    Yu, Fang-Fang
    et al.
    Institute of Endemic Diseases, School of Public Health of Health Science Center, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Xi’an, China.
    Lin, Xia-Lu
    Institute of Endemic Diseases, School of Public Health of Health Science Center, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Xi’an, China.
    Wang, Xi
    Institute of Endemic Diseases, School of Public Health of Health Science Center, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Xi’an, China.
    Liu, Huan
    Institute of Endemic Diseases, School of Public Health of Health Science Center, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Xi’an, China.
    Yang, Lei
    Institute of Endemic Diseases, School of Public Health of Health Science Center, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Xi’an, China.
    Goldring, Mary B.
    Hospital for Special Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA.
    Lammi, Mikko J.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Institute of Endemic Diseases, School of Public Health of Health Science Center, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Xi’an, China.
    Guo, Xiong
    Institute of Endemic Diseases, School of Public Health of Health Science Center, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Xi’an, China.
    Selenium promotes metabolic conversion of T-2 toxin to HT-2 toxin in cultured human chondrocytes2017Inngår i: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0946-672X, E-ISSN 1878-3252, Vol. 44, s. 218-224Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To explore the metabolism of T-2 toxin in human chondrocytes (HCs) and determine the impact of selenium supplementation. For determination of cytotoxicity using the MTT assay, optical density values were read with an automatic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reader at 510nm. Cell survival was calculated and the cytotoxicity estimated. To identify the metabolites of T-2 toxin, the medium supernatants and C28/I2 cells were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) separately. For HPLC-MS/MS, the mobile phase A was water and phase B was 98% methanol. The gradient for the elution was: 0-0.5min, 50% of B; 0.5-2.0min, 100% of B; 2.0-3.5min, 100% of B; 3.6-6min, 50% of B. T-2 toxin increased the toxicity to C28/I2 cells significantly in a dose- and time-dependent manner (viability range 91.5-22.0%). Supplementation with selenium (100ng/mL) could increase the cell viability after the 24h incubation. The concentration of T-2 toxin in the cell medium decreased from 20 to 6.67±1.02ng/mL, and the concentration of HT-2 toxin increased from 0 to 6.88±1.23ng/mL during the 48h incubation, whereas the relative concentration of T-2 toxin in cells increased from 0 to 12.80±1.84ng/g. Supplementary selenium in the HCs cultures reduced the cytotoxicity induced by T-2 toxin significantly, and was associated with rapid conversion of T-2 toxin in the culture medium to HT-2 toxin. T-2 toxin was more toxic to HCs than HT-2 toxin at equivalent concentrations. HT-2 toxin was a detectable metabolite of T-2 toxin in cultured HCs, and selenium enhanced the metabolic conversion of T-2 toxin, reducing its cytotoxicity to HCs.

  • 1262.
    Yu, Fang-Fang
    et al.
    Institute of Endemic Diseases, School of Public Health of Health Science Center, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Xi’an, China.
    Zhang, Yan-Xiang
    Department of Orthopedics, Baoji People’s Hospital, Baoji, China.
    Zhang, Lian-He
    Institute of Endemic Diseases, School of Public Health of Health Science Center, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Xi’an, China.
    Li, Wen-Rong
    Institute of Endemic Diseases, School of Public Health of Health Science Center, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Xi’an, China.
    Guo, Xiong
    Institute of Endemic Diseases, School of Public Health of Health Science Center, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Xi’an, China.
    Lammi, Mikko
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Institute of Endemic Diseases, School of Public Health of Health Science Center, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Xi’an, China.
    Identified molecular mechanism of interaction between environmental risk factors and differential expression genes in cartilage of Kashin-Beck disease2016Inngår i: Medicine (Baltimore, Md.), ISSN 0025-7974, E-ISSN 1536-5964, Vol. 95, nr 52, artikkel-id e5669Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As environmental risk factors (ERFs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD), it is important to identify the interaction between ERFs and differentially expression genes (DEGs) in KBD. The environmental response genes (ERGs) were analyzed in cartilage of KBD in comparison to normal controls.We searched 5 English and 3 Chinese databases from inception to September 2015, to identify case-control studies that examined ERFs for KBD using integrative meta-analysis and systematic review. Total RNA was isolated from articular cartilage of KBD patients and healthy controls. Human whole genome microarray chip (Agilent) was used to analyze the amplified, labeled, and hybridized total RNA, and the validated microarray data were partially verified using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The ERGs were derived from the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database. The identified ERGs were subjected to KEGG pathway enrichment, biological process (BP), and interaction network analyses using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) v6.7, and STRING.The trace elements (selenium and iodine), vitamin E, and polluted grains (T-2 toxin/HT-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol, and nivalenol) were identified as the ERFs for KBD using meta-analysis and review. We identified 21 upregulated ERGs and 7 downregulated ERGs in cartilage with KBD compared with healthy controls, which involved in apoptosis, metabolism, and growth and development. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis found that 2 significant pathways were involved with PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and P53 signaling pathway, and gene ontology function analysis found 3 BPs involved with apoptosis, death, and cell death in KBD cartilage.According to previous results and our own research, we suggest that the trace element selenium and vitamin E induce PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and the mycotoxins (T-2 toxin/HT-2 toxin and DON) induce P53 signaling pathway, contributing to the development of KBD, and chondrocyte apoptosis and cell death.

  • 1263.
    Yu, J-G
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Fürst, D. O.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    The mode of myofibril remodelling in human skeletal muscle affected by DOMS induced by eccentric contractions.2003Inngår i: Histochemistry and Cell Biology, ISSN 0948-6143, Vol. 119, nr 5, s. 383-393Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1264.
    Yu, J-G
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Eccentric contractions leading to DOMS do not cause loss of desmin nor fibre necrosis in human muscle.2002Inngår i: Histochemistry and Cell Biology, ISSN 0948-6143, Vol. 118, nr 1, s. 29-34Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1265.
    Yu, J-G
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Desmin and actin alterations in human muscles affected by delayed onset muscle soreness: a high resolution immunocytochemical study.2002Inngår i: Histochemistry and Cell Biology, ISSN 0948-6143, Vol. 118, nr 2, s. 171-179Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1266.
    Yu, J-G
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Evidence of transient increased permeability of sarcolemma upon eccentric exercise inducing delayed onset muscle soreness.Manuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 1267.
    Yu, J-G
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Ultrastructural alterations in human muscles with DOMS revisited: Evidence for myofibril remodeling as opposed to myofibril damage.Manuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 1268.
    Yu, Ji-Guo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Integrativ medicinsk biologi.
    Re-evaluation of exercise-induced muscle soreness: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study2003Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a familiar experience for the elite and novice athletes. Symptoms can range from muscle tenderness to severe deliberating pain. It is generally believed that eccentric contractions produce higher tension on muscle fibres and connective tissues than concentric and isometric contractions. This higher mechanical stress induces initial injury, and subsequent damage is linked to inflammatory process and to changes in the excitation-contraction coupling within the muscles. Classically myofibrillar ultrastrctural changes in DOMS muscles are mainly related with myofibrillar Z-disc. Z-disc streaming and broadening have long been deemed as the hallmarks of DOMS muscles. Recent studies on rabbit models have shown a rapid loss of the intermediate filament protein desmin after eccentric contractions and this was believed to be the initial event which triggers a subsequent muscle fibre necrosis. Even though numerous studies have been conducted on both human muscles and animal models following eccentric exercise, the mechanisms responsible for the perception of DOMS have not been clearly identified.

    To re-evaluate the exercise-induced muscle soreness with respect to the muscle fibre structural changes, in the present study three different modes of eccentric exercise were used as a model to introduce DOMS in healthy young subjects. Biopsies from the soleus muscle and vastus lateralis muscle were taken from control subjects and those who had taken part in the exercise, at different time intervals after exercise. The biopsies were analyzed with general histology, enzymehistochemistry, immunohistochemistry and electronmicroscopy.

    All the three exercise protocols induced DOMS, which reached its peak value at 24-48 hour post exercise. Examination of the biopsies taken after the three exercise modes showed no loss of desmin or fibre necrosis of any biopsy. However, in biopsies taken 1 hour post exercise, some influx of fibrinogen into muscle fibres was observed. Despite that, the sarcolemma integrity revealed by stainings with dystrophin and laminin was seemingly not destroyed. Further analysis of the biopsies taken after the downstairs running with high-resolution immunohistochemistry revealed the following alterations: 1) F-actin and desmin were in much greater amounts and distributed differently from normal muscle; 2) alpha-actinin, nebulin and titin were initially lacking in focal areas and were subsequently reappearing. These changes were mainly observed in the 2-3 days and 7-8 days post exercise biopsies. The staining patterns were proposed to represent different stages of sarcomere formation. These findings therefore support the suggestion that myofibrils in muscles subjected to eccentric contractions adapt to unaccustomed activity by the addition of new sarcomeres. Electronmicroscopy showed ultrastructural changes also mainly in biopsies taken 2-3 days and 7-8 days post exercise. These changes were classified into four types on bases of their different staining patterns. For each of the four types of changes, there was a corresponding type of changes revealed by the immunohistochemical method. It was concluded that alterations revealed by electronmicroscopy were suggestive of myofibrillar remodeling rather than the conventionally suggested injury.

    The present study will change the dogma that myofibrillar disruption/damage is a hallmark of DOMS. The findings of this study is of clinical importance as the myofibrils contrary to becoming weakened, are reinforced by cytoskeletal elements during the addition of new sarcomeres. The latter gives for the first time a mechanistic explanation for the lack of further damage upon additional exercise (second bout effect). Furthermore, the current methods of analysis of biopsies from eccentric exercised subjects can be used as an in situ model to analyze the molecular changes taking place in the muscle fibres affected by DOMS.

  • 1269.
    Yu, Ji-Guo
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin.
    Bonnerud, Patrik
    Department of Health Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Department of Health Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå.
    Stål, Per S.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Department of Health Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå.
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin.
    Effects of long term supplementation of anabolic androgen steroids on human skeletal muscle2014Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 9, artikkel-id e105330Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of long-term (over several years) anabolic androgen steroids (AAS) administration on human skeletal muscle are still unclear. In this study, seventeen strength training athletes were recruited and individually interviewed regarding self-administration of banned substances. Ten subjects admitted having taken AAS or AAS derivatives for the past 5 to 15 years (Doped) and the dosage and type of banned substances were recorded. The remaining seven subjects testified to having never used any banned substances (Clean). For all subjects, maximal muscle strength and body composition were tested, and biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were obtained. Using histochemistry and immunohistochemistry (IHC), muscle biopsies were evaluated for morphology including fiber type composition, fiber size, capillary variables and myonuclei. Compared with the Clean athletes, the Doped athletes had significantly higher lean leg mass, capillary per fibre and myonuclei per fiber. In contrast, the Doped athletes had significantly lower absolute value in maximal squat force and relative values in maximal squat force (relative to lean body mass, to lean leg mass and to muscle fiber area). Using multivariate statistics, an orthogonal projection of latent structure discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model was established, in which the maximal squat force relative to muscle mass and the maximal squat force relative to fiber area, together with capillary density and nuclei density were the most important variables for separating Doped from the Clean athletes (regression  =  0.93 and prediction  =  0.92, p<0.0001). In Doped athletes, AAS dose-dependent increases were observed in lean body mass, muscle fiber area, capillary density and myonuclei density. In conclusion, long term AAS supplementation led to increases in lean leg mass, muscle fiber size and a parallel improvement in muscle strength, and all were dose-dependent. Administration of AAS may induce sustained morphological changes in human skeletal muscle, leading to physical performance enhancement.

  • 1270.
    Yu, Ji-Guo
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin.
    Carlsson, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Evidence for myofibril remodeling as opposed to myofibril damage in human muscles with DOMS: an ultrastructural and immunoelectron microscopic study.2004Inngår i: Histochemistry and Cell Biology, ISSN 0948-6143, E-ISSN 1432-119X, Vol. 121, nr 3, s. 219-227Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The myofibrillar and cytoskeletal alterations observed in delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) caused by eccentric exercise are generally considered to represent damage. By contrast our recent immunohistochemical studies suggested that the alterations reflect myofibrillar remodeling (Yu and Thornell 2002; Yu et al. 2003). In the present study the same human muscle biopsies were further analyzed with transmission electron microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy. We show that the ultrastructural hallmarks of DOMS, Z-disc streaming, Z-disc smearing, and Z-disc disruption were present in the biopsies and were significantly more frequent in biopsies taken 2-3 days and 7-8 days after exercise than in those from controls and 1 h after exercise. Four main types of changes were observed: amorphous widened Z-discs, amorphous sarcomeres, double Z-discs, and supernumerary sarcomeres. We confirm by immunoelectron microscopy that the main Z-disc protein alpha-actinin is not present in Z-disc alterations or in the links of electron-dense material between Z-discs in longitudinal register. These alterations were related to an increase of F-actin and desmin, where F-actin was present within the strands of amorphous material. Desmin, on the other hand, was seen in less dense regions of the alterations. Our results strongly support that the myofibrillar and cytoskeletal alterations, considered to be the hallmarks of DOMS, reflect an adaptive remodeling of the myofibrils.

  • 1271.
    Yu, Ji-Guo
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin.
    Fürst, Dieter O
    Department of Cell Biology, Institute for Biochemistry and Biology, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    The mode of myofibril remodelling in human skeletal muscle affected by DOMS induced by eccentric contractions.2003Inngår i: Histochemistry and Cell Biology, ISSN 0948-6143, E-ISSN 1432-119X, Vol. 119, nr 5, s. 383-93Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Myofibrillar Z-disc streaming and loss of the desmin cytoskeleton are considered the morphological hallmarks of eccentric contraction-induced injury. The latter is contradicted by recent studies where a focal increase of desmin was observed in biopsies taken from human muscles with DOMS. In order to determine the effects of eccentric contraction-induced alterations of the myofibrillar Z-disc, we examined the distribution of alpha-actinin, the Z-disc portion of titin and the nebulin NB2 region in relation to actin and desmin in DOMS biopsies. In biopsies taken 2-3 days and 7-8 days after exercise, we observed a significantly higher number of fibres showing focal areas lacking staining for alpha-actinin, titin and nebulin than in biopsies taken from control or 1 h after exercise. None of these proteins were part of Z-disc streamings but instead they were found in distinct patterns in areas characterised by altered staining for desmin and actin. These were preferentially seen in regions with increased numbers of sarcomeres in parallel myofibrils. We propose that these staining patterns represent different stages of sarcomere formation. These findings therefore support our previous suggestion that muscle fibres subjected to eccentric contractions adapt to unaccustomed activity by the addition of new sarcomeres.

  • 1272.
    Yu, Ji-Guo
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin.
    Liu, Jing-Xia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Carlsson, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Stål, Per S
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Re-evaluation of sarcolemma injury and muscle swelling in human skeletal muscles after eccentric exercise2013Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 4, artikkel-id e62056Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The results regarding the effects of unaccustomed eccentric exercise on muscle tissue are often conflicting and the aetiology of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) induced by eccentric exercise is still unclear. This study aimed to re-evaluate the paradigm of muscular alterations with regard to muscle sarcolemma integrity and fibre swelling in human muscles after voluntary eccentric exercise leading to DOMS. Ten young males performed eccentric exercise by downstairs running. Biopsies from the soleus muscle were obtained from 6 non-exercising controls, 4 exercised subjects within 1 hour and 6 exercised subjects at 2-3 days and 7-8 days after the exercise. Muscle fibre sarcolemma integrity, infiltration of inflammatory cells and changes in fibre size and fibre phenotype composition as well as capillary supply were examined with specific antibodies using enzyme histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Although all exercised subjects experienced DOMS which peaked between 1.5 to 2.5 days post exercise, no significant sarcolemma injury or inflammation was detected in any post exercise group. The results do not support the prevailing hypothesis that eccentric exercise causes an initial sarcolemma injury which leads to subsequent inflammation after eccentric exercise. The fibre size was 24% larger at 7-8 days than at 2-3 days post exercise (p<0.05). In contrast, the value of capillary number per fibre area tended to decrease from 2-3 days to 7-8 days post exercise (lower in 5 of the 6 subjects at 7-8 days than at 2-3 days; p<0.05). Thus, the increased fibre size at 7-8 days post exercise was interpreted to reflect fibre swelling. Because the fibre swelling did not appear at the time that DOMS peaked (between 1.5 to 2.5 days post exercise), we concluded that fibre swelling in the soleus muscle is not directly associated with the symptom of DOMS.

  • 1273.
    Yu, Ji-Guo
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin.
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Eccentric contractions leading to DOMS do not cause loss of desmin nor fibre necrosis in human muscle.2002Inngår i: Histochemistry and Cell Biology, ISSN 0948-6143, E-ISSN 1432-119X, Vol. 118, nr 1, s. 29-34Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High force eccentric muscle contractions can result in delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), prolonged loss of muscle strength, decreased range of motion, muscle swelling and an increase of muscle proteins in the blood. At the ultrastructural level Z-line streaming and myofibrillar disruptions have been taken as evidence for muscle damage. In animal models of eccentric exercise-induced injury, disruption of the cytoskeleton and the sarcolemma of muscle fibres occurs within the first hour after the exercise, since a rapid loss of staining of desmin, a cytoskeletal protein, and the presence of fibronectin, a plasma and extracellular protein, are observed within the muscle fibres. In the present study, biopsies from subjects who had performed different eccentric exercises and had developed DOMS were examined. Our aim was to determine whether eccentric exercise leading to DOMS causes sarcolemmal disruption and loss of desmin in humans. Our study shows that even though the subjects had DOMS, muscle fibres had neither lost staining for desmin nor contained plasma fibronectin. This study therefore does not support previous conclusions that there is muscle fibre degeneration and necrosis in human skeletal muscle after eccentric exercise leading to DOMS. Our data are in agreement with the recent findings that there is no inflammatory response in skeletal muscle following eccentric exercise in humans. In combination, these findings should stimulate the search for other mechanisms explaining the functional and structural alterations in human skeletal muscle after eccentric exercise.

  • 1274.
    Yu, Ji-Guo
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin.
    Sewright, Kimberly
    Hubal, Monica
    Liu, Jing-Xia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Schwartz, Lawrence
    Hoffman, Eric
    Clarkson, Priscilla
    Investigation of gene expression in C(2)C(12) Myotubes following simvastatin application and mechanical strain2009Inngår i: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis, ISSN 1880-3873, E-ISSN 1340-3478, Vol. 16, nr 1, s. 21-29Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The 3-hydroxy-3methylgutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) are the most effective prescribed drugs for lowering serum cholesterol; however, although statins are extremely safe medications and have brought significant benefits to patients with hypercholesterolemia, they have been shown to produce myalgia, cramps, exercise intolerance and fatigue. The aim of the study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms that may mediate statin myopathy.

    Methods: We used DNA microarray analysis to examine the changes in gene expression profiles induced by 1 hour and 6 hours of statin treatment on differentiated C(2)C(12) myotubes. Four genes were selected for analysis at the protein level using Western blot analysis on myotubes treated with statin with or without additional mechanical stretching.

    Results: Eighty-five genes exhibited more than a 2-fold up- or down-regulation in expression, of which 46 have known biological functions related primarily to transmembrane transport, signal transduction, cell growth/maintenance, protein metabolism, or apoptosis. At protein level, three of the four proteins were induced (Adrb1, Socs4 and Cflar) and one was repressed (Birc4). Changes in protein expression largely mirrored the changes in their corresponding transcripts, although the fold-change was less dramatic. The addition of imposed muscle fiber stretching did not exacerbate the expression of these genes at the protein level with the exception of Cflar, a pro-apoptotic protein.

    Conclusion: These data suggested that alterations in the expressions of some statin-regulated genes could be causative factors for statin toxicity in muscle. Repression of the anti-apoptosis gene (Birc4) and activation of the pro-apoptosis gene (Cflar) indicated that cell death may play an important role in statin-induced myopathy.

  • 1275.
    Yu, Ji-Guo
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Desmin and actin alterations in human muscles affected by delayed onset muscle soreness: a high resolution immunocytochemical study.2002Inngår i: Histochemistry and Cell Biology, ISSN 0948-6143, E-ISSN 1432-119X, Vol. 118, nr 2, s. 171-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Lack of staining for desmin in muscles in animal models of eccentric exercise has been suggested to reflect disruption of the desmin intermediate filament network and proposed to cause disruption of the myofibrillar apparatus and deterioration of muscle fibers. In a recent study, we examined muscle biopsies from persons who had performed different eccentric exercise protocols, which induced delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). We were unable to verify that loss of staining for desmin was a feature of sore muscles. Nevertheless, we observed changes in the desmin cytoskeleton, but the meaning of the observations was not conclusive. In the present study, a high resolution immunocytochemical method was used to investigate the changes of desmin and actin in human muscles following a bout of eccentric exercise that lead to DOMS 2-3 days post-exercise. Biopsies were taken before exercise and 1 h and 2-3 and 7-8 days after exercise. Phalloidin, a ligand that labels filamentous actin, and anti-desmin antibodies were used to stain semithin (approximately 0.5 micro m) cryosections. At 1 h post-exercise, the staining of actin and desmin did not differ from the controls, whereas in biopsies taken 2-3 and 7-8 days after exercise, 12.5% (SD 5.8%) and 6.1% (SD 2.3%) fibers showed areas of increased staining for actin. Corresponding values for fibers with increased staining for both actin and desmin were 8.7% (SD 3.9%) and 11.4% (SD 4.6%), respectively. We suggest that the increased staining of actin and desmin reflects an increased synthesis of these proteins as part of an adaptation process following the unaccustomed eccentric exercise.

  • 1276. Zashikhin, A L
    et al.
    Sehlin, Janove
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Integrativ medicinsk biologi, Histologi med cellbiologi.
    Bolduev, V A
    Agafonov, Iu V
    Organization of the muscular component of the lymphangion wall in different parts of the lymphatic bed2005Inngår i: Morfologiia, ISSN 1026-3543, Vol. 127, nr 1, s. 29-32Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex comparative analysis of the organization of smooth muscle (SM) forming the wall of lymphatic vessels in bovine small intestinal mesenterium was performed using the methods of morphometry, quantitative histochemistry (including the analysis of nuclear DNA content, and cytoplasmic protein content) and electron microscopy. SM cells (SMC) isolated by dissociation were studied and were found to possess various levels of differentiation, associated with specific morphometric and metabolic characteristics. The structure of SMC population was shown to vary in both different parts of lymphatic bed and within the wall of an individual lymphangion. The results obtained indicate the cellular heteromorphism of lymphatic bed SM. The peculiarities of SM organization in lymphatic vessels are functionally dependent and are determined not only by the level of SM representation in their wall but also by the proportions of different SMC types.

  • 1277.
    Zashikhin, Andrei L
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Histologi med cellbiologi.
    Sehlin, Janove
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Histologi med cellbiologi.
    Barmina, Anastasia O
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Histologi med cellbiologi.
    [Reactive changes in the smooth muscle tissue of the rat small intestine during experimental intestinal obstruction].2010Inngår i: Morfologiia (Saint Petersburg, Russia), ISSN 1026-3543, Vol. 137, nr 2, s. 48-53Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [ru]

    Using light, electron microscopy and immunohistochemical methods, the reactive transformation of smooth muscle tissue (SMT) was studied in the intestinal wall during the development of acute partial high intestinal obstruction. The material of small intestine was taken from 10 male rats in both the zone of ligature application, and proximal and distal zones, 3 cm distant from the ligation zone. The results of the study demonstrate that in partial intestinal obstruction, the nature of structural and functional SMT transformation was variable depending upon differences in functional and destructive loads. During these changes, the remodeling of smooth myocyte population was shown to be one of the mechanisms of SMT adaptation to the changing conditions of functioning. Immunohistochemical analysis found no changes in the pattern of expression of marker and phenotypic proteins in the intestinal zones studied during the dynamics of an experiment.

  • 1278.
    Zashikhin, Andrei
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Histologi med cellbiologi.
    Sehlin, Janove
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Histologi med cellbiologi.
    Visceral'naja gladkaja myšečnaja tkan'2001Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1279.
    Zashikhin, Andrey L
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Histologi med cellbiologi.
    Sehlin, Janove
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Histologi med cellbiologi.
    Barmina, Anastasia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Histologi med cellbiologi.
    Mechanisms of the contractile activity control in smooth muscle cells2010Inngår i: Morfologiia, ISSN 1026-3543, Vol. 138, nr 6, s. 56-59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1280.
    Zeisig, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin.
    Ljung, B-O
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin.
    Danielson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Immunohistochemical evidence of local production of catecholamines in cells of the muscle origins at the lateral and medial humeral epicondyles: of importance for the development of tennis and golfer's elbow?2009Inngår i: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 43, nr 4, s. 269-275Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Tennis elbow (TE) is a painful condition affecting the common extensor origin at the lateral humeral epicondyle. Colour Doppler examination has shown increased blood flow at this site and the sensory, and sympathetic innervation patterns have been delineated. However, it is not known whether there is local production of catecholamines and/or acetylcholine in this tissue, which is the case in patellar and Achilles tendinopathies. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible presence of local production of catecholamines and acetylcholine in non-neuronal cells (fibroblasts) in connective tissue at the muscle origin at the lateral humeral epicondyle in patients with TE. DESIGN: Immunohistochemical studies were performed on biopsies taken from the extensor origin in patients with TE and in pain-free controls. For reference purpose, biopsies from the flexor origin in patients with golfer's elbow (GE) were also studied. PATIENTS: Seven patients with TE and four patients with GE. Six healthy asymptomatic individuals served as controls. Method: Immunohistochemistry, using antibodies detecting synthesising enzymes for catecholamines (tyrosine hydroxylase; TH) and acetylcholine (choline acetyltransferase; ChAT). RESULTS: TH-like immunohistochemical reactions were seen in fibroblasts in four of the seven patients with TE and two of the four patients with GE. No such reactions were detected in controls (0/6). No ChAT reactions were seen in any of the investigated specimens. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence of local, non-neuronal production of catecholamines, but not acetylcholine, in fibroblasts in the tissue at the muscle origin at the lateral and medial epicondyles in patients with TE and GE, respectively, which might have an influence on blood vessel regulation and pain mechanisms in these conditions.

  • 1281.
    Zhang, Cheng-Gang
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Integrativ medicinsk biologi, Anatomi.
    Ma, Jian-Jun
    Terenghi, Giorgio
    Mantovani, Cristina
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Integrativ medicinsk biologi, Anatomi. Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Handkirurgi.
    Phrenic nerve transfer in the treatment of brachial plexus avulsion: an experimental study of nerve regeneration and muscle morphology in rats.2004Inngår i: Microsurgery, ISSN 0738-1085, E-ISSN 1098-2752, Vol. 24, nr 3, s. 232-240Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The regeneration of motor and sensory neurons and the morphological changes of the target muscle after phrenic nerve transfer were investigated in adult rats. Six months following nerve transfer, 326.0 +/- 16.31 phrenic motoneurons regenerated into musculocutaneous nerve, which is not different from the normal number of phrenic motoneurons. The regenerated motoneurons exhibited a 14% nonsignificant hypertrophy. Of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, 255.8 +/- 45.26 regenerated, which was significantly lower than the number of normal phrenic DRG neurons. The regenerated phrenic DRG neurons showed a 24% close-to-significant atrophy. The target muscle fiber morphology changed considerably after reinnervation. The present results suggest that the phrenic nerve has very good regenerative ability in terms of its motoneurons and a relatively insufficient sensory neuronal regeneration.

  • 1282. Zhang, Cheng-Gang
    et al.
    Terenghi, Giorgio
    Mantovani, Cristina
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Integrativ medicinsk biologi, Anatomi.
    Neuronal survival, regeneration and musclemorphology after posterior C7 nerve transfer: an experimental study.2006Inngår i: J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg, ISSN 1748-6815, Vol. 59, nr 7, s. 717-25Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    C7 nerve transfer has been widely used in treating brachial plexus avulsion injuries. Little is known regarding the survival and regeneration of C7 motor and sensory neurons including their morphological changes after this procedure and also the possible change of muscle fibre phenotype. In this experimental study, the posterior division of C7 nerve was transferred to the musculocutaneous nerve ipsilaterally, and using fluorescent tracing techniques, the C7 spinal cord segment and dorsal root ganglion were found to contain 630.9 +/- 86.7 motor neurons and 3916.0 +/- 517.3 sensory neurons, respectively. Six months following transfer, 90% of the motor neurons and 78% of the sensory neurons survived and approximately 40% of them had regenerated and all displayed normal soma size. After posterior C7 transfer and reinnervation, the target muscles showed a percentage pattern of distribution and mean fibre diameters similar to those seen in normal biceps muscle. The present study suggests that the posterior C7 nerve transfer provides sufficient number of neurons and satisfactory results for regeneration to obtain an acceptable functional recovery.

  • 1283. Zhang, Cheng-Gang
    et al.
    Welin, Dag
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Novikov, Lev
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Kellerth, Jan-Olof
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Handkirurgi.
    Hart, Andrew McKay
    Motorneuron protection by N-acetyl-cysteine after ventral root avulsion and ventral rhizotomy2005Inngår i: British Journal of Plastic Surgery, ISSN 0007-1226, E-ISSN 1465-3087, Vol. 58, nr 6, s. 765-773Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Motor recovery after proximal nerve injury remains extremely poor, despite advances in surgical care. Several neurobiological hurdles are implicated, the most fundamental being extensive cell death within the motorneuron pool. N-acetyl-cysteine almost completely protects sensory neurons after peripheral axotomy, hence its efficacy in protecting motorneurons after ventral root avulsion/rhizotomy was investigated. In adult rats, the motorneurons supplying medial gastrocnemius were unilaterally pre-labelled with retrograde tracer (true-blue/fluoro-gold), prior to L5 and 6 ventral root avulsion, or rhizotomy. Groups received either intraperitoneal N-acetyl-cysteine (ip, 150 or 750 mg/kg/day), immediate or delayed intrathecal N-acetyl-cysteine treatment (it, 2.4 mg/day), or saline; untreated animals served as controls. Either 4 (avulsion model) or 8 (rhizotomy model) weeks later, the pre-labelled motorneurons' mean soma area and survival were quantified. Untreated controls possessed markedly fewer motorneurons than normal due to cell death (avulsion 53% death; rhizotomy 26% death, P<0.01 vs. normal). Motorneurons were significantly protected by N-acetyl-cysteine after avulsion (ip 150 mg/kg/day 40% death; it 30% death, P<0.01 vs. no treatment), but particularly after rhizotomy (ip 150 mg/kg/day 17% death; ip 750 mg/kg/day 7% death; it 5% death, P<0.05 vs. no treatment). Delaying intrathecal treatment for 1 week after avulsion did not impair neuroprotection, but a 2-week delay was deleterious (42% death, P<0.05 vs. 1-week delay, 32% death). Treatment prevented the decrease in soma area usually found after both types of injury. N-acetyl-cysteine has considerable clinical potential for adjuvant treatment of major proximal nerve injuries, including brachial plexus injury, in order that motorneurons may survive until surgical repair facilitates regeneration.

  • 1284.
    Zhang, Wei
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Chen, Jialin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Backman, Ludvig J.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Malm, Adam D.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Danielson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    Surface Topography and Mechanical Strain Promote Keratocyte Phenotype and Extracellular Matrix Formation in a Biomimetic 3D Corneal Model2017Inngår i: Advanced Healthcare Materials, ISSN 2192-2640, E-ISSN 2192-2659, Vol. 6, nr 5, artikkel-id UNSP 1601238Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The optimal functionality of the native corneal stroma is mainly dependent on the well-ordered arrangement of extracellular matrix (ECM) and the pressurized structure. In order to develop an in vitro corneal model, it is crucial to mimic the in vivo microenvironment of the cornea. In this study, the influence of surface topography and mechanical strain on keratocyte phenotype and ECM formation within a biomimetic 3D corneal model is studied. By modifying the surface topography of materials, it is found that patterned silk fibroin film with 600 grooves mm(-1) optimally supports cell alignment and ECM arrangement. Furthermore, treatment with 3% dome-shaped mechanical strain, which resembles the shape and mechanics of native cornea, significantly enhances the expression of keratocyte markers as compared to flat-shaped strain. Accordingly, a biomimetic 3D corneal model, in the form of a collagen-modified, silk fibroin-patterned construct subjected to 3% dome-shaped strain, is created. Compared to traditional 2D cultures, it supports a significantly higher expression of keratocyte and ECM markers, and in conclusion better maintains keratocyte phenotype, alignment, and fusiform cell shape. Therefore, the novel biomimetic 3D corneal model developed in this study serves as a useful in vitro 3D culture model to improve current 2D cultures for corneal studies.

  • 1285.
    Zhang, Wei
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.
    Robertson, William Brett
    Zhao, Jinmin
    Chen, Weiwei
    Xu, Jiake
    Emerging Trend in the Pharmacotherapy of Osteoarthritis2019Inngår i: Frontiers in Endocrinology, ISSN 1664-2392, E-ISSN 1664-2392, Vol. 10, artikkel-id 431Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disorder and one of the most prevalent diseases among the elderly population. Due to the limited spontaneous healing capacity of articular cartilage, it still remains challenging to find satisfactory treatment for OA. This review covers the emerging trends of pharmacologic therapies for OA such as traditional OA drugs (acetaminophen, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), opioids, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), intra-articular injections of corticosteroids, and dietary supplements), which are effective in pain relief but not in reversing damage, and are frequently associated with adverse events. Alternatively, disease-modifying drugs provide promising alternatives for the management of OA. The development of these emerging OA therapeutic agents requires a comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of OA progression. The process of cartilage anabolism/catabolism, subchondral bone remodeling and synovial inflammation are identified as potential targets. These emerging OA drugs such as bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7), fibroblast growth factor-18 (FGF-18), human serum albumin (HSA), interleukin-1 (IL-1) inhibitor, h-Nerve growth factor (beta-NGF) antibody, matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MERE) and inverse agonist of retinoic acid-related orphan receptor alpha (ROR alpha) etc. have shown potential to modify progression of OA with minimal adverse effects. However, large-scale randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are needed to investigate the safety and efficacy before translation from bench to bedside.

  • 1286.
    Zhang, Yin-Ping
    et al.
    Health Science Center, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China.
    Wei, Huan-Huan
    Health Science Center, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China.
    Wang, Wen
    Health Science Center, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China.
    Xia, Ru-Yi
    Health Science Center, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China.
    Zhou, Xiao-Ling
    Department of Orthopaedics, the 1st Attached Hospital, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, People’s Republic of China.
    Porr, Caroline
    School of Nursing, Memorial University, St. John’s, Canada.
    Lammi, Mikko
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the osteoporosis assessment questionnaire short version (OPAQ-SV) for Chinese osteoporotic fracture females2016Inngår i: Clinical Rheumatology, ISSN 0770-3198, E-ISSN 1434-9949, Vol. 35, nr 4, s. 1003-1010Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Osteoporosis Assessment Questionnaire Short Version (OPAQ-SV) was cross-culturally adapted to measure health-related quality of life in Chinese osteoporotic fracture females and then validated in China for its psychometric properties. Cross-cultural adaptation, including translation of the original OPAQ-SV into Mandarin Chinese language, was performed according to published guidelines. Validation of the newly cross-culturally adapted OPAQ-SV was conducted by sampling 234 Chinese osteoporotic fracture females and also a control group of 235 Chinese osteoporotic females without fractures, producing robust content, construct, and discriminant validation results. Major categories of reliability were also met: the Cronbach alpha coefficient was 0.975, indicating good internal consistency; the test-retest reliability was 0.80; and principal component analysis resulted in a 6-factor structure explaining 75.847 % of the total variance. Further, the Comparative Fit Index result was 0.922 following the modified model confirmatory factor analysis, and the chi-squared test was 1.98. The root mean squared error of approximation was 0.078. Moreover, significant differences were revealed between females with fractures and those without fractures across all domains (p < 0.001). Overall, the newly cross-culturally adapted OPAQ-SV appears to possess adequate validity and reliability and may be utilized in clinical trials to assess the health-related quality of life in Chinese osteoporotic fracture females.

  • 1287. Zhao, Charlie W.
    et al.
    Daley, Mark J.
    Pruszynski, J. Andrew
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Dept. of Computer Science, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada; Brain and Mind Institute, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada; Dept. of Physiology and Pharmacology, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada; Dept. of Psychology, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada; Robarts Research Institute, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.
    Neural network models of the tactile system develop first-order units with spatially complex receptive fields2018Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 6, artikkel-id e0199196Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    First-order tactile neurons have spatially complex receptive fields. Here we use machine-learning tools to show that such complexity arises for a wide range of training sets and network architectures. Moreover, we demonstrate that this complexity benefits network performance, especially on more difficult tasks and in the presence of noise. Our work suggests that spatially complex receptive fields are normatively good given the biological constraints of the tactile periphery.

  • 1288.
    Zhao, Guang-Hui
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases of National Health and Family Planning Commission, Collaborative Innovation Center of Endemic Diseases and Health Promotion in Silk Road Region, School of Public Health, Health Science Center, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China.
    Yang, Lei
    Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases of National Health and Family Planning Commission, Collaborative Innovation Center of Endemic Diseases and Health Promotion in Silk Road Region, School of Public Health, Health Science Center, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China; School of Nursing, Health Science Center, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China; School of Nursing, Health Science Center, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China.
    Lammi, Mikko
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases of National Health and Family Planning Commission, Collaborative Innovation Center of Endemic Diseases and Health Promotion in Silk Road Region, School of Public Health, Health Science Center, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China.
    Guo, Xiong
    Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases of National Health and Family Planning Commission, Collaborative Innovation Center of Endemic Diseases and Health Promotion in Silk Road Region, School of Public Health, Health Science Center, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China.
    A preliminary analysis of microRNA profiles in the subchondral bone between Kashin-Beck disease and primary knee osteoarthritis2019Inngår i: Clinical Rheumatology, ISSN 0770-3198, E-ISSN 1434-9949, Vol. 38, nr 9, s. 2637-2645, artikkel-id 31062252Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is a chronic osteochondral disorder primarily associated with cartilage degeneration. The bone texture structure in KBD was also changed but it was not identical to primary knee osteoarthritis (OA). This study investigates the differences in microRNA (miRNA) profiles of subchondral bone collected from patients suffering from KBD in comparison with those with primary knee osteoarthritis (OA).

    METHODS: Subchondral bone tissues were taken from four patients with KBD and four patients with primary knee OA undergoing total knee replacement. The miRNA array profiling was performed using an Affymetrix miRNA 4.0 Array, and then the target gene predictions and function annotations of the predicted targets were performed.

    RESULTS: Our results showed that 124 miRNAs had lower expression levels in the subchondral bone sampled from KBD patients in comparison with OA patients. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway analyses of the predicted targets demonstrated numerous significantly enriched GO terms and signal pathways essential for bone development and integrity, such as metabolic processes, PI3K-Akt, and MAPK signaling pathways.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms that a large set of miRNAs are differentially expressed in the subchondral bone of patients with KBD and OA and contributes new insights into potential pathological changes in the subchondral bone of KBD patients.

  • 1289.
    Zhu, Yan-He
    et al.
    Institute of Endemic Diseases, Health Science Center, School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China; Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Xi'an, China.
    Wang, Xin-Feng
    Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
    Yang, Guang
    Second Department of Cardiology, Shaanxi Province People's Hospital, Xi'an, China.
    Wei, Jin
    Department of Cardiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China..
    Tan, Wu-Hong
    Institute of Endemic Diseases, Health Science Center, School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China; Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Xi'an, China.
    Wang, Li-Xin
    Institute of Endemic Diseases, Health Science Center, School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China; Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Xi'an, China.
    Guo, Xiong
    Institute of Endemic Diseases, Health Science Center, School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China; Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Xi'an, China.
    Lammi, Mikko
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Institute of Endemic Diseases, Health Science Center, School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China; Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Xi'an, China.
    Xu, Jie-Hua
    Department of Human Anatomy and Histo-Embryology, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
    Efficacy of long-term selenium supplementation in the treatment of chronic Keshan disease with congestive heart failure2019Inngår i: Current medical science, ISSN 2096-5230, Vol. 39, nr 2, s. 237-242Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Few effective treatments for chronic Keshan disease have been available till now. The efficacy of long-term selenium supplementation in the treatment of chronic Keshan disease with congestive heart failure is inconclusive. This study aimed to determine whether selenium supplementation is associated with a decreased risk of cardiac death in chronic Keshan disease with congestive heart failure by ten years of follow-up. A retrospective long-term follow-up analysis was performed on a monitored cohort consisting of 302 chronic Keshan disease patients with a mean age of 40.8±11.4 years. Of the 302 chronic Keshan disease patients, 170 (56.3%) were given selenium supplementation until the end point of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to identify the independent predictors of cardiac events. Our results showed that during the follow-up, there were 101 deaths of patients with chronic Keshan disease in the selenium supplementation group (101/170, 59.4%) and 98 in non-selenium supplementation group (98/132, 74.2%). Multivariate analyses suggested that selenium supplementation was associated with a decreased risk of cardiac death (HR 0.39, 95% CI 0.28-0.53) after adjustment for baseline age, sex, cigarette smoking, family history of Keshan disease, body mass index (BMI), heart rate, electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities, blood pressure, initial cardiothoracic ratio, left ventricular ejection fractions (LVEF) and whole-blood selenium concentration. Our ten-year follow-up analysis indicated that selenium supplementation, specifically combined with the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and beta blocker therapy, improved the survival of patients with chronic Keshan disease with congestive heart failure. BMI, selenium deficiency, male, combined ECG abnormalities, LVEF, and fast heart rate increased the risk of cardiac events.

  • 1290. Zhuravleva, Z. D.
    et al.
    Lebedeva, A. V.
    Volnova, A. B.
    Mukhina, I. V.
    Druzin, Michael Ya.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    The effect of glycine microinjections in the medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus on the sexual behavior of male rats2015Inngår i: Neurochemical Journal, ISSN 1819-7124, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 141-145Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanisms that underlie the early loss of the male reproductive function are still unknown. Therefore, investigation of this problem is an important task. The medial preoptic nucleus takes part in the regulation of sexual behavior; however, the role of glycine transmission in this nucleus has not yet been studied. Our study focuses on these questions.

  • 1291. Zhuravleva, Z.
    et al.
    Titova, N.
    Mukhina, I.
    Druzin, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Preoptic glycine receptors: possible mediators of neuron-glial interaction affecting social behavior in male rats2017Inngår i: Glia, ISSN 0894-1491, E-ISSN 1098-1136, Vol. 65, s. E298-E299Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1292. Zuo, Nianming
    et al.
    Salami, Alireza
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Wallenberg centrum för molekylär medicin vid Umeå universitet (WCMM). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institute and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yang, Yihong
    Yang, Zhengyi
    Sui, Jing
    Jian, Tianzi
    Activation-based association profiles differentiate network roles across cognitive loads2019Inngår i: Human Brain Mapping, ISSN 1065-9471, E-ISSN 1097-0193, Vol. 40, nr 9, s. 2800-2812Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Working memory (WM) is a complex and pivotal cognitive system underlying the performance of many cognitive behaviors. Although individual differences in WM performance have previously been linked to the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response across several large-scale brain networks, the unique and shared contributions of each large-scale brain network to efficient WM processes across different cognitive loads remain elusive. Using a WM paradigm and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) from the Human Connectome Project, we proposed a framework to assess the association and shared-association strength between imaging biomarkers and behavioral scales. Association strength is the capability of individual brain regions to modulate WM performance and shared-association strength measures how different regions share the capability of modulating performance. Under higher cognitive load (2-back), the frontoparietal executive control network (FPN), dorsal attention network (DAN), and salience network showed significant positive activation and positive associations, whereas the default mode network (DMN) showed the opposite pattern, namely, significant deactivation and negative associations. Comparing the different cognitive loads, the DMN and FPN showed predominant associations and globally shared-associations. When investigating the differences in association from lower to higher cognitive loads, the DAN demonstrated enhanced association strength and globally shared-associations, which were significantly greater than those of the other networks. This study characterized how brain regions individually and collaboratively support different cognitive loads.

  • 1293.
    Ängquist, Karl-Axel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Human skeletal muscle fibre structure: effects of physical training and arterial insufficiency1978Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 1294.
    Åberg, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Handkirurgi.
    Ljungberg, Christina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Handkirurgi.
    Edin, E
    Jenmalm, Per
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Handkirurgi.
    Millqvist, H
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Handkirurgi.
    Nordh, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Handkirurgi.
    Considerations in evaluating new treatment alternatives following peripheral nerve injuries: a prospective clinical study of methods used to investigate sensory, motor and functional recovery.2007Inngår i: J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg, ISSN 1748-6815, Vol. 60, nr 2, s. 103-13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The current problem finding reliable and objective methods for evaluating results after peripheral nerve repair is a challenge when introducing new clinical techniques. The aim of this study was to obtain reference material and to evaluate the applicability of different tests used for clinical assessment after peripheral nerve injuries. Fifteen patients with a history of complete median nerve transsection and repair, and 15 healthy volunteers were included. Each subject was investigated using a battery of conventional and new tests for functional, sensory and motor recovery including questionnaires, clinical evaluations, neurophysiological and physiological findings. The results were statistically analysed and comparisons were made within the patient group and between patients and healthy volunteers using a 'per protocol' and an 'intention to treat' approach. Criteria for success were stipulated in order to be able to judge the usefulness of each method. The results showed that 19 of 34 variables, representing six of 16 methods, were not able to fulfil the criteria and were thus questionable for the evaluations of nerve repair in a clinical trial setting. However, 2pd, sensory recovery according to the non-modified British Medical Research Council, sensory neurography, manual muscle test, electromyography, questionnaires (i.e. DASH and the 4 question form) and performance tests (i.e. AMPS and Sollerman's subtests 4 and 8) did fulfil the criteria defined for being useful.

  • 1295.
    Åberg, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Handkirurgi.
    Ljungberg, Christina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Handkirurgi.
    Edin, Ellenor
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Handkirurgi.
    Millqvist, Helena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Handkirurgi.
    Nordh, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Theorin, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Terenghi, Giorgio
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Handkirurgi.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Handkirurgi.
    Clinical evaluation of a resorbable wrap-around implant as an alternative to nerve repair: A prospective, assessor-blinded, randomised clinical study of sensory, motor and functional recovery after peripheral nerve repair.2009Inngår i: Journal of plastic, reconstructive & aesthetic surgery : JPRAS, ISSN 1748-6815, Vol. 62, nr 11, s. 1503-1509Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Peripheral nerve injures are common and often result in impaired functional recovery. The majority of injuries involve the arm and/or the hand. The traditional treatment for peripheral nerve injuries is repair by using microsurgical techniques, either by primary nerve suture or nerve graft, but research to find more successful methods that could improve recovery is ongoing. Tubulisation has been investigated by several authors and is suggested as an alternative to microsurgical techniques. The resorbable poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) is one of the materials that has been previously tested experimentally. In this prospective, randomised, assessor-blinded clinical study, PHB was investigated as an alternative to epineural suturing in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries at the wrist/forearm level of the arm. Twelve patients, with a complete, common, sharp injury of the median and/or ulnar nerve at the wrist/forearm level, were treated by either using PHB or microsurgical epineural end-to-end suturing. All patients were assessed using a battery of tests, including evaluation of functional, sensory and motor recovery by means of clinical, neurophysiological, morphological and physiological evaluations at 2 weeks and 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months after surgery. No adverse events or complications considered as product related were reported, and thus PHB can be regarded as a safe alternative for microsurgical epineural suturing. The majority of the methods in the test battery showed no significant differences between the treatment groups, but one should consider that the study involved a limited number of patients and a high variability was reported for the evaluating techniques. However, sensory recovery, according to the British Medical Research Council score and parts of the manual muscle test, suggested that treating with PHB may be advantageous as compared to epineural suturing. This, however, should be confirmed by large-scale efficacy studies.

  • 1296.
    Öhberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Strålningsvetenskaper.
    Johansson, H
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Integrativ medicinsk biologi, Fysiologi.
    Bergenheim, M
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Integrativ medicinsk biologi, Fysiologi.
    Pedersen, J
    Djupsjöbacka, M
    A neural network appoach to real-time spike discrimination during simultaneous recording from several multi-unit nerve filaments1996Inngår i: Journal of Neuroscience Methods, ISSN 0165-0270, E-ISSN 1872-678X, Vol. 64, nr 2, s. 181-187Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A multi-channel, real-time, unsupervised spike discriminator was developed in order to reconstruct single spike trains from several simultaneously recorded multi-unit nerve filaments. The program uses a Self Organising Map (SOM) algorithm for the classification of the spikes. In contrast to previous similar techniques, the described method is made for use on a PC, and the method may thus be implemented at relatively low cost. In order to test the accuracy of the program, a robustness test was performed, where noise with different RMS levels was superimposed on the spikes. Furthermore, the maximal classification rate was determined. The program is easy to use, since the only manual inputs needed are the voltage threshold for spike detection, and the number of units present in each recorded nerve filament.

  • 1297.
    Österlund, Catharina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Klinisk oral fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Extra- and intrafusal muscle fibre type compositions of the human masseter at young age.: In perspective of growth and functional maturation of the jaw-face motor system.2011Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Muscles control body posture and movement by extrafusal and intrafusal (muscle spindle) fibres. The purpose of this thesis was to provide insight into the muscular basis for human jaw function at young age. Extrafusal and intrafusal fibres in the young masseter, and for comparison young biceps, were examined for composition of fibre types and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms by means of morphological, enzyme-histochemical, biochemical and immuno-histochemical techniques. For evaluation of plasticity during life span the data for young muscles were compared with previous reported data for adult and elderly muscles.

    The results showed significant differences in extrafusal fibre types and MyHC expression between young masseter and young biceps and between young masseter and masseter in adults and elderly. Compared with young biceps, young masseter was more intricate in composition of extrafusal MyHC expression. Muscle spindles were larger and more frequent in the masseter than in the biceps. Masseter and biceps muscle spindles showed fundamental similarities but also marked differences in MyHC expression.

    The results suggest that the young masseter is specialized in fibre types already at young age and shows a unique fibre type growth pattern. Whereas masseter extrafusal fibres display marked plasticity in fibre types and MyHC isoforms during life span muscle spindles/intrafusal fibres are morphologically mature already at young age and precede extrafusal fibres in growth and maturation. Results showed similarities in intrafusal MyHC expression between young masseter and biceps, but also differences implying muscle specific proprioceptive control. Differences in fibre types and MyHC expression between young masseter and young biceps extrafusal fibres are proposed to reflect diverse evolutionary and developmental origins and accord with the masseter and biceps being separate allotypes of muscle.

  • 1298.
    Österlund, Catharina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Klinisk oral fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Lindström, Mona
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Klinisk oral fysiologi.
    Remarkable heterogeneity in myosin heavy-chain composition of the human young masseter compared with young biceps brachii2012Inngår i: Histochemistry and Cell Biology, ISSN 0948-6143, E-ISSN 1432-119X, Vol. 138, nr 4, s. 669-682Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Adult human jaw muscles differ from limb and trunk muscles in enzyme-histochemical fibre type composition. Recently, we showed that the human masseter and biceps differ in fibre type pattern already at childhood. The present study explored the myosin heavy-chain (MyHC) expression in the young masseter and biceps muscles by means of gel electrophoresis (GE) and immuno-histochemical (IHC) techniques. Plasticity in MyHC expression during life was evaluated by comparing the results with the previously reported data for adult muscles. In young masseter, GE identified MyHC-I, MyHC-IIa MyHC-IIx and small proportions of MyHC-fetal and MyHC-alpha cardiac. Western blots confirmed the presence of MyHC-I, MyHC-IIa and MyHC-IIx. IHC revealed in the masseter six isomyosins, MyHC-I, MyHC-IIa, MyHC-IIx, MyHC-fetal, MyHC alpha-cardiac and a previously not reported isoform, termed MyHC-IIx'. The majority of the masseter fibres co-expressed two to four isoforms. In the young biceps, both GE and IHC identified MyHC-I, MyHC-IIa and MyHC-IIx. MyHC-I predominated in both muscles. Young masseter showed more slow and less-fast and fetal MyHC than the adult and elderly masseter. These results provide evidence that the young masseter muscle is unique in MyHC composition, expressing MyHC-alpha cardiac and MyHC-fetal isoforms as well as hitherto unrecognized potential spliced isoforms of MyHC-fetal and MyHC-IIx. Differences in masseter MyHC expression between young adult and elderly suggest a shift from childhood to adulthood towards more fast contractile properties. Differences between masseter and biceps are proposed to reflect diverse evolutionary and developmental origins and confirm that the masseter and biceps present separate allotypes of muscle.

  • 1299.
    Österlund, Catharina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Klinisk oral fysiologi.
    Liu, Jing-Xia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Klinisk oral fysiologi.
    Intrafusal myosin heavy chain expression of human masseter and biceps muscles at young age shows fundamental similarities but also marked differences2013Inngår i: Histochemistry and Cell Biology, ISSN 0948-6143, E-ISSN 1432-119X, Vol. 139, nr 6, s. 895-907Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Muscle spindles are skeletal muscle mechanoreceptors that provide proprioceptive information to the central nervous system. The human adult masseter muscle has greater number, larger and more complex muscle spindles than the adult biceps. For a better knowledge of muscle diversity and physiological properties, this study examined the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression of muscle spindle intrafusal fibres in the human young masseter and young biceps muscles by using a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against different MyHC isoforms. Eight MyHC isoforms were detected in both muscles-slow-tonic, I, IIa, IIx, foetal, embryonic, α-cardiac and an isoform not previously reported in intrafusal fibres, termed IIx'. Individual fibres co-expressed 2-6 isoforms. MyHC-slow tonic separated bag(1), AS-bag(1) and bag(2) fibres from chain fibres. Typically, bag fibres also expressed MyHC-I and α-cardiac, whereas chain fibres expressed IIa and foetal. In the young masseter 98 % of bag(1) showed MyHC-α cardiac versus 30 % in the young biceps, 35 % of bag(2) showed MyHC-IIx' versus none in biceps, 17 % of the chain fibres showed MyHC-I versus 61 % in the biceps. In conclusion, the result showed fundamental similarities in intrafusal MyHC expression between young masseter and biceps, but also marked differences implying muscle-specific proprioceptive control, probably related to diverse evolutionary and developmental origins. Finding of similarities in MyHC expression between young and adult masseter and biceps muscle spindles, respectively, in accordance with previously reported similarities in mATPase fibre type composition suggest early maturation of muscle spindles, preceding extrafusal fibres in growth and maturation.

  • 1300.
    Österlund, Catharina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Klinisk oral fysiologi.
    Liu, Jing-Xia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Klinisk oral fysiologi.
    Muscle spindle composition and distribution in human young masseter and biceps brachii muscles reveal early growth and maturation2011Inngår i: Anatomical Record, ISSN 0003-276X, E-ISSN 1097-0185, Vol. 294, nr 4, s. 683-693Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Significant changes in extrafusal fiber type composition take place in the human masseter muscle from young age, 3-7 years, to adulthood, in parallel with jaw-face skeleton growth, changes of dentitions and improvement of jaw functions. As motor and sensory control systems of muscles are interlinked, also the intrafusal fiber population, that is, muscle spindles, should undergo age-related changes in fiber type appearance. To test this hypothesis, we examined muscle spindles in the young masseter muscle and compared the result with previous data on adult masseter spindles. Also muscle spindles in the young biceps brachii muscle were examined. The result showed that muscle spindle composition and distribution were alike in young and adult masseter. As for the adult masseter, young masseter contained exceptionally large muscle spindles, and with the highest spindle density and most complex spindles found in the deep masseter portion. Hence, contrary to our hypothesis, masseter spindles do not undergo major morphological changes between young age and adulthood. Also in the biceps, young spindles were alike adult spindles. Taken together, the results showed that human masseter and biceps muscle spindles are morphologically mature already at young age. We conclude that muscle spindles in the human young masseter and biceps precede the extrafusal fiber population in growth and maturation. This in turn suggests early reflex control and proprioceptive demands in learning and maturation of jaw motor skills. Similarly, well-developed muscle spindles in young biceps reflect early need of reflex control in learning and performing arm motor behavior.

2324252627 1251 - 1300 of 1301
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf