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  • 1401. Ye, L
    et al.
    Li, YL
    Mellström, K
    Mellin, C
    Bladh, LG
    Koehler, K
    Garg, N
    Garcia Collazo, AM
    Litten, C
    Husman, B
    Persson, Karina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Odontologi.
    Ljunggren, J
    Grover, G
    Sleph, PG
    George, R
    Malm, J
    Thyroid receptor ligands. 1. Agonist ligands selective for the thyroid receptor beta1.2003Inngår i: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. 24;46, nr 9, s. 1580-8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Endogenous thyroid receptor hormones 3,5,3',5'-tetraiodo-l-thyronine (T(4), 1) and 3,5,3'-triiodo-l-thyronine (T(3), 2) exert a significant effects on growth, development, and homeostasis in mammals. They regulate important genes in intestinal, skeletal, and cardiac muscles, the liver, and the central nervous system, influence overall metabolic rate, cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and heart rate, and affect mood and overall sense of well being. The literature suggests many or most effects of thyroid hormones on the heart, in particular on the heart rate and rhythm, are mediated through the TRalpha(1) isoform, while most actions of the hormones on the liver and other tissues are mediated more through the TRbeta(1) isoform of the receptor. Some effects of thyroid hormones may be therapeutically useful in nonthyroid disorders if adverse effects can be minimized or eliminated. These potentially useful features include weight reduction for the treatment of obesity, cholesterol lowering for treating hyperlipidemia, amelioration of depression, and stimulation of bone formation in osteoporosis. Prior attempts to utilize thyroid hormones pharmacologically to treat these disorders have been limited by manifestations of hyperthyroidism and, in particular, cardiovascular toxicity. Consequently, development of thyroid hormone receptor agonists that are selective for the beta-isoform could lead to safe therapies for these common disorders while avoiding cardiotoxicity. We describe here the synthesis and evaluation of a series of novel TR ligands, which are selective for TRbeta(1) over TRalpha(1). These ligands could potentially be useful for treatment of various disorders as outlined above. From a series of homologous R(1)-substituted carboxylic acid derivatives, increasing chain length was found to have a profound effect on affinity and selectivity in a radioreceptor binding assay for the human thyroid hormone receptors alpha(1) and beta(1) (TRalpha(1) and TRbeta(2)) as well as a reporter cell assay employing CHOK1-cells (Chinese hamster ovary cells) stably transfected with hTRalpha(1) or hTRbeta(1) and an alkaline phosphatase reporter-gene downstream thyroid response element (TRAFalpha(1) and TRAFbeta(1)). Affinity increases in the order formic, acetic, and propionic acid, while beta-selectivity is highest when the R(1) position is substituted with acetic acid. Within this series 3,5-dibromo-4-[(4-hydroxy-3-isopropylphenoxy)phenyl]acetic acid (11a) and 3,5-dichloro-4-[(4-hydroxy-3-isopropylphenoxy)phenyl]acetic acid (15) were found to reveal the most promising in vitro data based on isoform selectivity and were selected for further in vivo studies. The effect of 2, 11a, and 15 in a cholesterol-fed rat model was monitored including potencies for heart rate (ED(15)), cholesterol (ED(50)), and TSH (ED(50)). Potency for tachycardia was significantly reduced for the TRbeta selective compounds 11a and 15 compared with 2, while both 11a and 15 retained the cholesterol-lowering potency of 2. This left an approximately 10-fold therapeutic window between heart rate and cholesterol, which is consistent with the action of ligands that are approximately 10-fold more selective for TRbeta(1). We also report the X-ray crystallographic structures of the ligand binding domains of TRalpha and TRbeta in complex with 15. These structures reveal that the single amino acid difference in the ligand binding pocket (Ser277 in TRalpha or Asn331 in TRbeta) results in a slightly different hydrogen bonding pattern that may explain the increased beta-selectivity of 15.

  • 1402.
    Yekkalam, Negin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Wänman, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Associations between craniomandibular disorders, sociodemographic factors and self-perceived general and oral health in an adult population2014Inngår i: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 72, nr 8, s. 1054-1065Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between pain in the craniomandibular region and jaw dysfunction, respectively, to sociodemographic factors and self-perceived general and oral health in a middle-aged and elderly population in Västerbotten County, Sweden.

    Materials and methods. Six hundred individuals, 35-, 50-, 65- and 75 years old, from inland and 600 individuals from coastal areas were randomly selected in 2002. Of these, 987 individuals completed a questionnaire and 779 participated in a clinical examination. Thirty-five- and 50-year-olds together constituted a middle-aged group and the rest an elderly group.

    Results. Among the middle-aged, craniomandibular pain was associated with impaired general health status, signs of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain were associated with female gender and living alone, jaw dysfunction symptoms were associated with university degree and chewing with caution; and signs of TMD dysfunction were associated with female gender and living in the more densely populated coastal region. Among the elderly, craniomandibular pain was more common among those living in the inland region, craniomandibular pain and signs of TMD pain were associated with impaired general health status, jaw dysfunction symptoms were associated with higher education level and self-perceived impaired general health and oral health; and signs of TMD dysfunction were associated with female gender and living in the coastal region. Dental status was not associated with craniomandibular pain.

    Conclusions. Socioeconomic factors and impaired general state of health were related to signs and symptoms indicative of CMD. These factors may influence demand for treatment among the affected.

  • 1403.
    Yekkalam, Negin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Wänman, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Factors associated with clinical decision-making in relation to treatment need for temporomandibular disorders2016Inngår i: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 74, nr 2, s. 134-141Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze dentist's clinical decision-making related to treatment need for temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in an adult population. Materials and methods. The study population comprised 779 randomly selected 35, 50, 65 and 75 year old individuals living in the county of Vasterbotten, Sweden. The participants filled out a questionnaire and were examined clinically according to a structured protocol. The four examiners (two men, two women) were experienced dentists and were calibrated before the start of the study. After examination they individually assessed the need of treatment owing to TMD. Results. In total, 15% of the study population was considered to have a treatment need owing to TMD. The highest estimate was noted for 35 and 50 years old women and the lowest for 65 and 75 years old men. Overall, 21% of the women and 8% of the men were considered to have a treatment need owing to TMD, with statistically significant differences between men and women for the 35 and 50 years old groups. Inter-individual variations in dentists' decisions were observed. In a multivariate analysis, female gender, signs and symptoms of TMD pain, signs and symptoms of TMD dysfunction and smoking were associated with estimated treatment need. Conclusions. The prevalence of estimated treatment need owing to TMD was fairly high, but the dentists' clinical decision-making process showed large inter-individual variability. The observation calls for further research on the factors affecting the decision-making process in care providers.

  • 1404.
    Yekkalam, Negin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Wänman, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Prevalence of signs and symptoms indicative of temporomandibular disorders and headaches in 35-, 50-, 65- and 75-year-olds living in Västerbotten, Sweden2014Inngår i: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 72, nr 6, s. 458-465Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare prevalence of signs and frequently occurring symptoms indicative of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and headaches in 35-, 50-, 65- and 75-year-old men and women in Västerbotten County, Sweden.

    Materials and methods. From a total target population of 11 324 subjects living in Västerbotten County in the year 2002, 300 individuals in each age group were randomly selected. Of these, 998 (82% response rate) answered and returned a postal questionnaire and 779 (65% response rate) individuals accepted a clinical examination.

    Results. The prevalence of frequent TMD symptoms peaked among 50-year-old women and then declined. Women at this age reported significantly higher prevalence compared to men for all TMD symptoms except temporomandibular joint locking. In the 65- and 75-year-olds, the prevalence was practically equal between men and women as well as between these ages. Frequent headaches showed the highest prevalence among 35- and 50-year-old women, with a statistically significant difference between men and women of 50 years of age (p < 0.05). Fifty-year-old women had statistically significantly higher prevalence of muscle pain to palpation (p < 0.001), temporomandibular joint sounds (p < 0.01) and impaired maximal jaw opening capacity (p < 0.01), compared to 50-year-old men.

    Conclusions. The different symptoms indicative of TMD and headaches showed a similar pattern, with higher prevalence among the 35- and 50-year-old, as compared to the 65- and 75-year-old, participants. The pattern may be related to biological, psychosocial or generation-related factors.

  • 1405. Young, Geoffrey
    et al.
    Turner, Sally
    Davies, John K
    Sundqvist, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Endodonti.
    Figdor, David
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Endodonti. Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Bacterial DNA persists for extended periods after cell death2007Inngår i: Journal of Endodontics, ISSN 0099-2399, E-ISSN 1878-3554, Vol. 33, nr 12, s. 1417-1420Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The fate of DNA from bacteria that infect the root canal but cannot survive is currently unknown, yet such information is essential in establishing the validity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based identification methods for root canal samples. This in vitro study tested the hypothesis that PCR-detectable DNA from dead bacteria might persist after cell death and investigated the efficiency of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as a field decontamination agent. Using heat-killed Enterococcus faecalis, the persistence of DNA encoding the 16S rRNA gene was monitored by PCR. While most probable number analysis showed an approximate 1000-fold decay in amplifiable template, E. faecalis DNA was still PCR-detectable 1 year after cell death. NaOCl (1%) eliminated amplifiable DNA within 60 seconds of exposure. Our findings also disclosed a previously overlooked problem of concentration-dependent inhibition of the PCR reaction by thiosulfate-inactivated NaOCl. These results highlight the challenges of reliably identifying the authentic living root canal flora with PCR techniques.

  • 1406.
    Yousif, Ranna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Zakrisson, Elin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Does Caries Prevalence Correlate to Caries Risk in Adolescents on a Community Level?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing geographical polarization of caries is seen among children and adolescents. Attitudes, lifestyle, socioeconomics, knowledge and use of fluorides are factors of significance for the dental health. The aim of this study was to assess selected risk factors and risk indicators for caries in adolescents from different parts of the county Halland with contrasting levels of caries.

    One hundred sixty-one adolescent in 9th grade in four public schools in Laholm (South) and Kungsbacka (North) were invited to participate. They were asked to fill in a questionnaire with 26 questions concerning oral health, attitudes, lifestyle and knowledge. Data were computerized in SPSS.

    In South the adolescents had more experience of dental care, more dental fear, a higher consumption of juice and used more fluoride tablets. In North the adolescents where more likely to choose natural science program, had learned to take care of their teeth by their parents and had received less orthodontic treatment. Knowledge about oral health between the two areas did not differ. In North the fluoride concentration in the piped drinking water was approximately 1.0 ppm while the corresponding value in South was < 0.3 ppm.

    In conclusion, the caries risk was higher in South with lower fluoride content in the piped drinking water and a higher consumption of fruit juice and lemonades and this was reflected in a higher caries experience. The consumption of sugary between meal products did not differ. Additionally, the adolescents in South reported more dental fear and orthodontic treatment were more common.

  • 1407.
    Zafar, H
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Odontologi, Klinisk oral fysiologi.
    Eriksson, P O
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Odontologi, Klinisk oral fysiologi.
    Nordh, E
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Odontologi, Klinisk oral fysiologi.
    Wireless optoelectronic recordings of mandibular and associated head-neck movements in man: a methodological study.2000Inngår i: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, ISSN 0305-182X, E-ISSN 1365-2842, Vol. 27, nr 3, s. 227-238Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Human mandibular movements in space are the result of combined motions of the mandible and the head-neck. They can be simultaneously monitored by an optoelectronic recording technique via markers at different locations on the mandible and on the head. Markers can be attached to the teeth or to the facial skin. Mandibular movements relative to the head can be calculated by one- or three-dimensional (1D and 3D, respectively) mathematical compensation for head movements. The present study analysed mandibular and associated head movements during maximal jaw opening-closing tasks in 10 healthy subjects using a wireless 3D optoelectronic movement recording system. The study aimed to: (i) estimate the soft tissue related displacement of skin-attached markers at different locations on the face; (ii) compare 1D with 3D mathematical compensation for associated head movements; (iii) evaluate the influence of marker location on the recorded head and mandibular movement amplitudes; and (iv) compare skin-attached markers with teeth-attached markers with regard to temporal estimates of recorded mandibular and head movements. Markers were attached to the upper and lower incisors and to the skin of the forehead, nose-bridge, nose-tip and chin. Soft tissue related displacement of skin-attached markers varied between locations. The displacement for the chin marker was larger than that of other markers. The least displacement was found for the nose-bridge marker. However, relative to mandibular and head movements, respectively, the displacement of the chin marker was of the same order as that of the nose-bridge marker. The temporal estimates were not significantly affected by displacement of the skin-attached markers. Markers at different locations on the head and the mandible registered different amplitudes. The mandibular movement patterns calculated by 1D and 3D compensation were not comparable. It is concluded that markers attached to the chin and the nose-bridge can be reliably used in temporal analyses of mandibular and head movements during maximal jaw opening-closing. With certain limitations, they are acceptable for spatial analyses. Selection of method of marker attachment, marker location, and method of compensation for associated head movements should be based on the aim of the study.

  • 1408.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi. Rehabilitation Research Chair, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Alghadir, A. H.
    Iqbal, Z. A.
    Effect of different head-neck-jaw postures on cervicocephalic kinesthetic sense2017Inngår i: Journal of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions - JMNI, ISSN 1108-7161, Vol. 17, nr 4, s. 341-346Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of different induced head-neck-jaw postures on head-neck relocation error among healthy subjects.

    Methods: 30 healthy adult male subjects participated in this study. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sense was measured while standing, habitual sitting, habitual sitting with clenched jaw and habitual sitting with forward head posture during right rotation, left rotation, flexion and extension using kinesthetic sensibility test.

    Results: Head-neck relocation error was least while standing, followed by habitual sitting, habitual sitting with forward head posture and habitual sitting with jaw clenched. However, there was no significant difference in error between different tested postures during all the movements.

    Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to see the effect of different induced head-neck-jaw postures on head-neck position sense among healthy subjects. Assuming a posture for a short duration of time doesn’t affect head-neck relocation error in normal healthy subjects.

  • 1409.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi. King Saud Univ, Coll Appl Med Sci, Dept Rehabil Sci, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Alghadir, Ahmad
    Anwer, Shahnawaz
    Al-Eisa, Einas
    Therapeutic Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Training in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis2015Inngår i: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0003-9993, E-ISSN 1532-821X, Vol. 96, nr 8, s. 1525-1532Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine the current evidence regarding the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Data Sources: We searched PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), and Science Citation Index for research articles published prior to January 2015 using the keywords whole body vibration, vibration training, and vibratory exercise in combination with the Medical Subject Heading osteoarthritis knee. Study Selection: This meta-analysis was restricted to randomized controlled trials published in the English language. The quality of the selected studies was assessed by the PEDro Scale. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane collaboration's tool in the domain-based evaluation. We also evaluated the quality of each study based on the criteria given by the International Society of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions for reporting WBV intervention studies, consisting of 13 factors. Data Extraction: Descriptive data regarding subjects, design, intervention, WBV parameters, outcomes, and conclusions were collected from each study by 2 independent evaluators. The mean and SD of the baseline and final endpoint scores for pain, stiffness, and function were extracted from the included studies. Data Synthesis: A total of 83 studies were found in the search. Of these, 5 studies met the inclusion criteria and were further analyzed. Four of these 5 studies reached high methodologic quality on the PEDro Scale. Overall, studies demonstrated mixed results in favor of additive effects of WBV for reducing pain and improving function in knee OA. There was considerable variation in the parameters of the WBV included in this systematic review. Conclusions: WBV training reduces pain and improves function in individuals with knee OA.

  • 1410.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Odontologi, Klinisk oral fysiologi.
    Nordh, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Odontologi, Klinisk oral fysiologi.
    Impaired positioning of the gape in whiplash-associated disorders.2006Inngår i: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 9-15Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have previously introduced a new concept for natural jaw function suggesting that "functional jaw movements" are the result of coordinated jaw and neck muscle activation, leading to simultaneous movements in the temporomandibular, atlanto-occipital and cervical spine joints. Thus, jaw function requires a healthy state of both the jaw and the neck motor systems. The aim of this study was to examine the positioning of the gape in space during maximal jaw opening at fast and slow speed in healthy as well as whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) individuals. A wireless optoelectronic technique for three-dimensional movement recording was used. Subjects were seated in an upright position, with back support up to the mid-scapular level without headrest. The position of the gape in space was defined as the vertical midpoint position of the gape at maximal jaw opening (MP). In healthy, the MP generally coincided with the reference position at the start of jaw opening. In the WAD group, the MP was significantly lower than the reference position. No sex or speed related differences were found. The results suggest that both the width and orientation of the gape in space relies on coordinated jaw and neck muscle activation and mandibular and head-neck movements. This study also suggests an association between neck pain and dysfunction following trauma, and reduced width and impaired positioning of the gape in space. Finally, the MP seems to be a useful marker in evaluation of the functional state of the jaw-neck motor system

  • 1411.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Klinisk oral fysiologi. King Saud University, Saudi Arabia .
    Oluseye, Kamaldeen
    King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.
    Alghadir, Ahmad
    King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.
    Iqbal, Zaheen A.
    King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.
    Perception about the importance and use of therapeutic massage as a treatment modality among physical therapists working in Saudi Arabia2015Inngår i: Journal of Physical Therapy Science, ISSN 0915-5287, Vol. 27, nr 6, s. 1827-1831Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    [Purpose] To report perceptions about the importance and use of therapeutic massage as a treatment modality among physical therapists working in Saudi Arabia. [Subjects and Methods] A 21-item structured questionnaire was used to assess various domains including the demographic and professional characteristics of physical therapists and their perceptions about the importance and use of therapeutic massage in their daily practice. The questionnaire was uploaded online and the web link was sent to 140 members of the Saudi Physical Therapy Association (SPTA). [Results] The overall response rate was 86%. Among the respondents, 31% reported occasional use of therapeutic massage in their clinical practice, and 55% reported to have received formal training for therapeutic massage. Use of therapeutic massage was more common among female physical therapists. [Conclusion] Many physical therapists working in Saudi Arabia consider therapeutic massage to be an important treatment modality, but its use is relatively limited, either due to the time and effort required to dispense it, or the lack of scientific evidence for its efficacy.

  • 1412. Zamora-Ros, R.
    et al.
    Knaze, V.
    Lujan-Barroso, L.
    Kuhnle, G. G. C.
    Mulligan, A. A.
    Touillaud, M.
    Slimani, N.
    Romieu, I.
    Powell, N.
    Tumino, R.
    Peeters, P. H. M.
    de Magistris, M. S.
    Ricceri, F.
    Sonestedt, E.
    Drake, I.
    Hjartaker, A.
    Skie, G.
    Mouw, T.
    Wark, P. A.
    Romaguera, D.
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.
    Ros, M.
    Molina, E.
    Sieri, S.
    Quiros, J. R.
    Huerta, J. M.
    Tjonneland, A.
    Halkjaer, J.
    Masala, G.
    Teucher, B.
    Kaas, R.
    Travis, R. C.
    Dilis, V.
    Benetou, V.
    Trichopoulou, A.
    Amiano, P.
    Ardanaz, E.
    Boeing, H.
    Foerster, J.
    Clavel-Chapelon, F.
    Fagherazzi, G.
    Perquier, F.
    Johansson, Gerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Kariologi.
    Cassidy, A.
    Overvad, K.
    Gonzalez, C. A.
    Dietary intakes and food sources of phytoestrogens in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) 24-hour dietary recall cohort2012Inngår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 66, nr 8, s. 932-941Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Phytoestrogens are estradiol-like natural compounds found in plants that have been associated with protective effects against chronic diseases, including some cancers, cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to estimate the dietary intake of phytoestrogens, identify their food sources and their association with lifestyle factors in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Single 24-hour dietary recalls were collected from 36 037 individuals from 10 European countries, aged 35-74 years using a standardized computerized interview programe (EPIC-Soft). An ad hoc food composition database on phytoestrogens (isoflavones, lignans, coumestans, enterolignans and equol) was compiled using data from available databases, in order to obtain and describe phytoestrogen intakes and their food sources across 27 redefined EPIC centres. RESULTS: Mean total phytoestrogen intake was the highest in the UK health-conscious group (24.9 mg/day in men and 21.1 mg/day in women) whereas lowest in Greece (1.3 mg/day) in men and Spain-Granada (1.0 mg/day) in women. Northern European countries had higher intakes than southern countries. The main phytoestrogen contributors were isoflavones in both UK centres and lignans in the other EPIC cohorts. Age, body mass index, educational level, smoking status and physical activity were related to increased intakes of lignans, enterolignans and equol, but not to total phytoestrogen, isoflavone or coumestan intakes. In the UK cohorts, the major food sources of phytoestrogens were soy products. In the other EPIC cohorts the dietary sources were more distributed, among fruits, vegetables, soy products, cereal products, non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high variability in the dietary intake of total and phytoestrogen subclasses and their food sources across European regions.

  • 1413. Zamora-Ros, R.
    et al.
    Knaze, V.
    Romieu, I.
    Scalbert, A.
    Slimani, N.
    Clavel-Chapelon, F.
    Touillaud, M.
    Perquier, F.
    Skeie, G.
    Engeset, D.
    Weiderpass, E.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Landberg, R.
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.
    Sieri, S.
    Masala, G.
    Peeters, P. H. M.
    Grote, V.
    Huerta, J. M.
    Barricarte, A.
    Amiano, P.
    Crowe, F. L.
    Molina-Montes, E.
    Khaw, K-T
    Argueelles, M. V.
    Tjonneland, A.
    Halkjaer, J.
    de Magistris, M. S.
    Ricceri, F.
    Tumino, R.
    Wirfaelt, E.
    Ericson, U.
    Overvad, K.
    Trichopoulou, A.
    Dilis, V.
    Vidalis, P.
    Boeing, H.
    Foerster, J.
    Riboli, E.
    Gonzalez, C. A.
    Impact of thearubigins on the estimation of total dietary flavonoids in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study2013Inngår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 67, nr 7, s. 779-782Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Thearubigins (TR) are polymeric flavanol-derived compounds formed during the fermentation of tea leaves. Comprising similar to 70% of total polyphenols in black tea, TR may contribute majorly to its beneficial effects on health. To date, there is no appropriate food composition data on TR, although several studies have used data from the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) database to estimate TR intakes. We aimed to estimate dietary TR in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort and assess the impact of including TR or not in the calculation of the total dietary flavonoid intake. Dietary data were collected using a single standardized 24-h dietary recall interviewer-administered to 36 037 subjects aged 35-74 years. TR intakes were calculated using the USDA database. TR intakes ranged from 0.9 mg/day in men from Navarra and San Sebastian in Spain to 532.5 mg/day in men from UK general population. TR contributed <5% to the total flavonoid intake in Greece, Spain and Italy, whereas in the UK general population, TR comprised 48% of the total flavonoids. High heterogeneity in TR intake across the EPIC countries was observed. This study shows that total flavonoid intake may be greatly influenced by TR, particularly in high black tea-consuming countries. Further research on identification and quantification of TR is needed to get more accurate dietary TR estimations.

  • 1414. Zamora-Ros, Raul
    et al.
    Agudo, Antonio
    Lujan-Barroso, Leila
    Romieu, Isabelle
    Ferrari, Pietro
    Knaze, Viktoria
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas
    Leenders, Max
    Travis, Ruth C.
    Navarro, Carmen
    Sanchez-Cantalejo, Emilio
    Slimani, Nadia
    Scalbert, Augustin
    Fedirko, Veronika
    Hjartaker, Anette
    Engeset, Dagrun
    Skeie, Guri
    Boeing, Heiner
    Foerster, Jana
    Li, Kuanrong
    Teuchet, Birgit
    Agnoli, Claudia
    Tumino, Rosario
    Mattiello, Amalia
    Saieva, Calogero
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Kariologi.
    Stenling, Roger
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Luisa Redondo, Maria
    Wallstrom, Peter
    Ericson, Ulrika
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Mulligan, Angela A.
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Dilis, Vardis
    Katsoulis, Michael
    Peeters, Petra H. M.
    Igali, Lazslo
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Halkjaer, Jytte
    Touillaud, Marina
    Perquier, Florence
    Fagherazzi, Guy
    Amiano, Pilar
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Bredsdorff, Lea
    Overvad, Kim
    Ricceri, Fulvio
    Riboli, Elio
    Gonzalez, Carlos A.
    Dietary flavonoid and lignan intake and gastric adenocarcinoma risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study2012Inngår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 96, nr 6, s. 1398-1408Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Several experimental studies have suggested potential anticarcinogenic effects of flavonoids, although epidemiologic evidence for the impact of dietary flavonoids on risk of gastric cancer (GC) is limited. Objective: We investigated the association between intake of dietary flavonoids and lignans and incident GC. Design: The study followed 477,312 subjects (29.8% men) aged 35-70 y from 10 European countries who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Validated dietary questionnaires and lifestyle information were collected at baseline. A food-composition database on flavonoids and lignans was compiled by using data from USDA and Phenol-Explorer databases. Results: During an average follow-up of 11 y, 683 incident GC cases (57.8% men) were mostly validated by a panel of pathologists and used in this analysis. We observed a significant inverse association between total flavonoid intake and GC risk in women (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.94; for the continuous variable after log2 transformation) but not in men (HR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.85, 1.09). in women, significant inverse associations with GC risk were also observed for intakes of some flavonoid subgroups (anthocyanidins, flavonols, flavones, and flavanols), particularly with intestinal type tumors for total flavonoid and flavanol intakes (P-heterogeneity < 0.1). After stratification by smoking status and sex, there was no significant heterogeneity in these associations between ever- and never-smokers. Conclusion: Total dietary flavonoid intake is associated with a significant reduction in the risk of GC in women. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;96:1398-408.

  • 1415. Zamora-Ros, Raul
    et al.
    Knaze, Viktoria
    Lujan-Barroso, Leila
    Romieu, Isabelle
    Scalbert, Augustin
    Slimani, Nadia
    Hjartaker, Anette
    Engeset, Dagrun
    Skeie, Guri
    Overvad, Kim
    Bredsdorff, Lea
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Halkjaer, Jytte
    Key, Timothy J
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Mulligan, Angela A
    Winkvist, Anna
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas
    Peeters, Petra HM
    Wallström, Peter
    Ericson, Ulrika
    Pala, Valeria
    de Magistris, Maria Santucci
    Polidoro, Silvia
    Tumino, Rosario
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Dilis, Vardis
    Katsoulis, Michael
    Maria Huerta, Jose
    Martinez, Virginia
    Sanchez, Maria-Jose
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Amiano, Pilar
    Teucher, Birgit
    Grote, Verena
    Bendinelli, Benedetta
    Boeing, Heiner
    Foerster, Jana
    Touillaud, Marina
    Perquier, Florence
    Fagherazzi, Guy
    Gallo, Valentina
    Riboli, Elio
    Gonzalez, Carlos A
    Differences in dietary intakes, food sources and determinants of total flavonoids between Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study2013Inngår i: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 109, nr 8, s. 1498-1507Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A greater adherence to the traditional Mediterranean (MED) diet is associated with a reduced risk of developing chronic diseases. This dietary pattern is based on higher consumption of plant products that are rich in flavonoids. We compared the total flavonoid dietary intakes, their food sources and various lifestyle factors between MED and non-MED countries participating in the EPIC study. Flavonoid intakes and their food sources for 35 628 subjects, aged 35-74 years and recruited between 1992 and 2000, in twenty-six study centres were estimated using standardised 24 h dietary recall software (EPIC-Soft (R)). An ad hoc food composition database on flavonoids was compiled using analytical data from the United States Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases. Moreover, it was expanded to include using recipes, estimations of missing values and flavonoid retention factors. No significant differences in total flavonoid mean intake between non-MED countries (373.7 mg/d) and MED countries (370.2 mg/d) were observed. In the non-MED region, the main contributors were proanthocyanidins (48.2 %) and flavan-3-ol monomers (24.9 %) and the principal food sources were tea (25.7 %) and fruits (32.8 %). In the MED region, proanthocyanidins (59.0 %) were by far the most abundant contributor and fruits (55.1 %), wines (16.7 %) and tea (6.8 %) were the main food sources. The present study shows similar results for total dietary flavonoid intakes, but significant differences in flavonoid class intakes, food sources and some characteristics between MED and non-MED countries. These differences should be considered in studies about the relationships between flavonoid intake and chronic diseases.

  • 1416. Zamora-Ros, Raul
    et al.
    Knaze, Viktoria
    Lujan-Barroso, Leila
    Slimani, Nadia
    Romieu, Isabelle
    Fedirko, Veronika
    de Magistris, Maria Santucci
    Ericson, Ulrica
    Amiano, Pilar
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Dilis, Vardis
    Naska, Androniki
    Engeset, Dagrun
    Skeie, Guri
    Cassidy, Aedin
    Overvad, Kim
    Peeters, Petra H. M.
    Maria Huerta, Jose
    Sanchez, Maria-Jose
    Ramon Quiros, J.
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Grioni, Sara
    Tumino, Rosario
    Johansson, Gerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Kariologi.
    Drake, Isabel
    Crowe, Francesca L.
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Teucher, Birgit
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas
    van Rossum, Caroline T. M.
    Norat, Teresa
    Romaguera, Dora
    Vergnaud, Anne-Claire
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Halkjaer, Jytte
    Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Touillaud, Marina
    Salvini, Simonetta
    Khaw, Kay-Thee
    Wareham, Nicholas
    Boeing, Heiner
    Foerster, Jana
    Riboli, Elio
    Gonzalez, Carlos A.
    Estimated dietary intakes of flavonols, flavanones and flavones in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) 24 hour dietary recall cohort2011Inngår i: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 106, nr 12, s. 1915-1925Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Flavonols, flavanones and flavones (FLAV) are sub-classes of flavonoids that exert cardioprotective and anti-carcinogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. We aimed to estimate the FLAV dietary intake, their food sources and associated lifestyle factors in ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. FLAV intake and their food sources for 36 037 subjects, aged between 35 and 74 years, in twenty-seven study centres were obtained using standardised 24 h dietary recall software (EPIC-SOFT). An ad hoc food composition database on FLAV was compiled using data from US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases and was expanded using recipes, estimations and flavonoid retention factors in order to increase its correspondence with the 24 h dietary recall. Our results showed that the highest FLAV-consuming centre was the UK health-conscious group, with 130.9 and 97.0 mg/d for men and women, respectively. The lowest FLAV intakes were 36.8 mg/d in men from Umea and 37.2 mg/d in women from Malmo (Sweden). The flavanone sub-class was the main contributor to the total FLAV intake ranging from 46.6 to 52.9% depending on the region. Flavonols ranged from 38.5 to 47.3% and flavones from 5.8 to 8.6%. FLAV intake was higher in women, non-smokers, increased with level of education and physical activity. The major food sources were citrus fruits and citrus-based juices (especially for flavanones), tea, wine, other fruits and some vegetables. We concluded that the present study shows heterogeneity in intake of these three sub-classes of flavonoids across European regions and highlights differences by sex and other sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.

  • 1417. Zamora-Ros, Raul
    et al.
    Knaze, Viktoria
    Lujan-Barroso, Leila
    Slimani, Nadia
    Romieu, Isabelle
    Touillaud, Marina
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Teucher, Birgit
    Mattiello, Amalia
    Grioni, Sara
    Crowe, Francesca
    Boeing, Heiner
    Foerster, Jana
    Ramon Quiros, J.
    Molina, Esther
    Maria Huerta, Jose
    Engeset, Dagrun
    Skeie, Guri
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Dilis, Vardis
    Tsiotas, Konstantinos
    Peeters, Petra H. M.
    Khaw, Kay-Thee
    Wareham, Nicholas
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    Ocke, Marga C.
    Olsen, Anja
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Tumino, Rosario
    Johansson, Gerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Kariologi.
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Ericson, Ulrika
    Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Fagherazzi, Guy
    Salvini, Simonetta
    Amiano, Pilar
    Riboli, Elio
    Gonzalez, Carlos A.
    Estimation of the intake of anthocyanidins and their food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study2011Inngår i: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 106, nr 7, s. 1090-1099Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthocyanidins are bioactive flavonoids with potential health-promoting effects. These may vary among single anthocyanidins considering differences in their bioavailability and some of the mechanisms involved. The aim of the present study was to estimate the dietary intake of anthocyanidins, their food sources and the lifestyle factors (sex, age, BMI, smoking status, educational level and physisical activity) involved among twenty-seven centres in ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Anthocyanidin intake and their food sources for 36 037 subjects, aged between 35 and 74 years, in twenty-seven redefined centres were obtained using standardised 24 h dietary recall software (EPIC-SOFT). An ad hoc food composition database on anthocyanidins (cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, petunidin) was compiled using data from the US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases and was expanded by adding recipes, estimated values and cooking factors. For men, the total anthocyanidin mean intake ranged from 19.83 (SE 1.53) mg/d (Bilthoven, The Netherlands) to 64.88 (SE 1.86) mg/d (Turin, Italy), whereas for women the range was 18.73 (SE 2.80) mg/d (Granada, Spain) to 44.08 (SE 2.45) mg/d (Turin, Italy). A clear south to north gradient intake was observed. Cyanidins and malvidins were the main anthocynidin contributors depending on the region and sex. Anthocyanidin intake was higher in non-obese older females, non-smokers, and increased with educational level and physical activity. The major food sources were fruits, wine, non-alcoholic beverages and some vegetables. The present study shows differences in both total and individual anthocyanidin intakes and various lifestyle factors throughout Europe, with some geographical variability in their food sources.

  • 1418. Zamora-Ros, Raul
    et al.
    Rothwell, Joseph A.
    Scalbert, Augustin
    Knaze, Viktoria
    Romieu, Isabelle
    Slimani, Nadia
    Fagherazzi, Guy
    Perquier, Florence
    Touillaud, Marina
    Molina-Montes, Esther
    Maria Huerta, Jose
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Amiano, Pilar
    Menendez, Virginia
    Tumino, Rosario
    Santucci de Magistris, Maria
    Palli, Domenico
    Ricceri, Fulvio
    Sieri, Sabina
    Crowe, Francesca L.
    Khaw, Kay-Thee
    Wareham, Nicholas J.
    Grote, Verena
    Li, Kuanrong
    Boeing, Heiner
    Foerster, Jana
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Benetou, Vassiliki
    Tsiotas, Konstantinos
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas
    Ros, Martine
    Peeters, Petra H. M.
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Halkjaer, Jytte
    Overvad, Kim
    Ericson, Ulrika
    Wallstrom, Peter
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Tandläkarutbildning.
    Landberg, Rikard
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Engeset, Dagrun
    Skeie, Guri
    Wark, Petra
    Riboli, Elio
    Gonzalez, Carlos A.
    Dietary intakes and food sources of phenolic acids in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study2013Inngår i: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 110, nr 8, s. 1500-1511Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Phenolic acids are secondary plant metabolites that may have protective effects against oxidative stress, inflammation and cancer in experimental studies. To date, limited data exist on the quantitative intake of phenolic acids. We estimated the intake of phenolic acids and their food sources and associated lifestyle factors in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Phenolic acid intakes were estimated for 36 037 subjects aged 35-74 years and recruited between 1992 and 2000 in ten European countries using a standardised 24 h recall software (EPIC-Soft), and their food sources were identified. Dietary data were linked to the Phenol-Explorer database, which contains data on forty-five aglycones of phenolic acids in 452 foods. The total phenolic acid intake was highest in Aarhus, Denmark (1265.5 and 980.7 mg/d in men and women, respectively), while the intake was lowest in Greece (213.2 and 158.6 mg/d in men and women, respectively). The hydroxycinnamic acid subclass was the main contributor to the total phenolic acid intake, accounting for 84.6-95.3% of intake depending on the region. Hydroxybenzoic acids accounted for 4.6-14.4%, hydroxyphenylacetic acids 0.1-0.8% and hydroxyphenylpropanoic acids <= 0.1% for all regions. An increasing south-north gradient of consumption was also found. Coffee was the main food source of phenolic acids and accounted for 55.3-80.7% of the total phenolic acid intake, followed by fruits, vegetables and nuts. A high heterogeneity in phenolic acid intake was observed across the European countries in the EPIC cohort, which will allow further exploration of the associations with the risk of diseases.

  • 1419.
    Zanbil, Angela
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Tandläkarutbildning.
    Age Related Differences in Muscle Fiber Composition and Capillary Supply of the Human Masseter Muscle2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that aging causes changes in fiber composition and vascular supply in the human masseter muscle that contribute to impaired jaw function in elderly. The myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition and capillary supply of muscle fibers in functionally different parts of the masseter muscle of six elderly and six young subjects (mean age 74 and 22 years) were analyzed with immunohistochemical and morphological methods.

    The mean muscle fiber area in the old masseter was decreased by 27% compared to the young subjects (1100 vs. 1507 m2, p=0.038). Smaller mean fiber area was observed for all fibers containing only slow MyHCI or fast MyHCII isoforms, but not for fibers co-expressing slow and fast MyHCs. There were no significant differences in the numbers of capillaries around fiber (CAF 1.85 vs. 1.92). When CAF was related to individual fiber area, capillaries around fiber area (CAFA), the capillary supply was significantly higher in elderly (CAFA 1.10 vs. 1.65, p=0.004). This was reflected by a higher capillary density in the old masseter (CD 574 vs. 794, cap/mm2, p=0.002).

    The loss of muscle mass without any reduction in capillary supply, suggests that the capillary network in the human masseter muscle is rather stable against degradation during aging. This finding is in contrast to previous findings in human limbs, where aging has been reported to decrease both fiber size and capillary network in muscles. We conclude that the ageing process might have different impact on jaw and limb muscles.

  • 1420. Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne
    et al.
    Lundin, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Micheli, Andrea
    Koenig, Karen L
    Lenner, Per
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Muti, Paola
    Shore, Roy E
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Odontologi, Kariologi.
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Lukanova, Annekatrin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Stattin, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Urologi och andrologi.
    Afanasyeva, Yelena
    Rinaldi, Sabina
    Arslan, Alan A
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Berrino, Franco
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Toniolo, Paolo
    Adlercreutz, Herman
    Circulating enterolactone and risk of endometrial cancer2006Inngår i: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 119, nr 10, s. 2376-2381Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that phytoestrogens protect against hormone-dependent cancers. Lignans are the main class of phytoestrogens in Western diets. We conducted a prospective study of endometrial cancer and circulating levels of the main human lignan, enterolactone. The design was a case-control study nested within 3 prospective cohort studies, in New York, Sweden and Italy. Serum or plasma samples had been collected at enrollment and stored at -80 degrees C. A total of 153 cases, diagnosed a median of 5.3 years after blood donation, and 271 matched controls were included. No difference in circulating enterolactone was observed between cases (median, 19.2 nmol/L) and controls (18.5 nmol/L). Adjusting for body mass index, the odds ratio for the top tertile of enterolactone, as compared to the lowest was 1.2 (95% CI, 0.7-2.0; p for trend = 0.53). Lack of association was observed in both pre- and postmenopausal women. No correlation was observed between enterolactone and circulating estrogens or SHBG in healthy postmenopausal women. These results do not support a protective role of circulating lignans, in the range of levels observed, against endometrial cancer.

  • 1421.
    Zijnge, Vincent
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Oral mikrobiologi.
    Ammann, Thomas
    Institute of Oral Biology, Section of Oral Microbiology and Immunology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Thurnheer, Thomas
    Institute of Oral Biology, Section of Oral Microbiology and Immunology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Gmuer, Rudolf
    Institute of Oral Biology, Section of Oral Microbiology and Immunology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Subgingival Biofilm Structure2012Inngår i: Periodontal Disease / [ed] Kinane D.F. (Philadelphia, Pa.), Mombelli A. (Geneva), S. Karger, 2012, s. 1-16Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the oral cavity initiated by a microbial biofilm (or 'dental plaque'). Subgingival biofilms in periodontal pockets are not easily analyzed without the loss of structural integrity. These subgingival plaques are structured communities of microorganisms with great phylogenetic diversity embedded in a self-produced extracellular polymeric matrix. For almost three decades, knowledge of the structure of plaque located below the gingival margin has been limited to landmark studies from the 1970s that were unaware of the breadth of microbial diversity we appreciate now. Only recently has technical progress - combining histology, confocal scanning fluorescent microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization to localize the most abundant species from different phyla and species associated with periodontitis - provided new insights into the architecture of subgingival biofilms. This review focuses on the structure and composition of subgingival biofilms and discusses current knowledge on the nature of the extracellular matrix. We describe further structural aspects of 'subgingival' biofilms produced in vitro that are gaining considerable interest as we search for models to investigate biofilm development, resistance to antibiotics, extracellular polymeric matrix composition and function, and reciprocal host-cell-to-biofilm interactions.

  • 1422. Zijnge, Vincent
    et al.
    Kieselbach, Thomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Oral mikrobiologi.
    Proteomics of protein secretion by aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans2012Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 7, s. e41662-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The extracellular proteome (secretome) of periodontitis-associated bacteria may constitute a major link between periodontitis and systemic diseases. To obtain an overview of the virulence potential of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, an oral and systemic human pathogen implicated in aggressive periodontitis, we used a combined LC-MS/MS and bioinformatics approach to characterize the secretome and protein secretion pathways of the rough-colony serotype a strain D7S. LC-MS/MS revealed 179 proteins secreted during biofilm growth. Further to confirming the release of established virulence factors (e.g. cytolethal distending toxin [CDT], and leukotoxin [LtxA]), we identified additional putative virulence determinants in the secretome. These included DegQ, fHbp, LppC, Macrophage infectivity protein (MIP), NlpB, Pcp, PotD, TolB, and TolC. This finding indicates that the number of extracellular virulence-related proteins is much larger than previously demonstrated, which was also supported by in silico analysis of the strain D7S genome. Moreover, our LC-MS/MS and in silico data revealed that at least Type I, II, and V secretion are actively used to excrete proteins directly into the extracellular space, or via two-step pathways involving the Sec/Tat systems for transport across the inner membrane, and outer membrane factors, secretins and auto-transporters, respectively for delivery across the outer membrane. Taken together, our results provide a molecular basis for further elucidating the role of A. actinomycetemcomitans in periodontal and systemic diseases.

  • 1423.
    Åkesson, Joacim
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Odontologisk materialvetenskap.
    Sundh, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Odontologisk materialvetenskap.
    Sjögren, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Odontologisk materialvetenskap.
    Fracture resistance of all-ceramic crowns placed on apreparation with a slice-formed finishing line: Fracture resistance of all-ceramic crowns2009Inngår i: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, ISSN 0305-182X, E-ISSN 1365-2842, ISSN 0305-182X, Vol. 36, nr 7, s. 516-523Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1424.
    Åkesson, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Warnberg Gerdin, Elisabeth
    Soderstrom, Ulf
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Health-related quality of life and prospective caries development2016Inngår i: BMC Oral Health, ISSN 1472-6831, E-ISSN 1472-6831, Vol. 16, artikkel-id 15Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The present study was conducted to prospectively assess the association between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and the development of dental caries in adults in northern Sweden. The SF-36 questionnaire was used to estimate HRQoL. Methods: Adults who had (i) participated in a population-based health screening in northern Sweden between 2003 and 2009 and had completed the SF-36 questionnaire, and (ii) received a dental check-up within 1 year (n = 15,615) were included in the study. Of these, 9,838 had a second caries examination 2-7 years after the baseline recording. Information regarding SF-36, lifestyle factors and medical conditions was retrieved by questionnaires, and anthropometric status and blood lipid levels were measured. The association between dental caries (outcome) and SF-36 scores (exposure) with the inclusion of potential confounders was analysed by linear and logistic regression. Results: Caries increment increased significantly with decreasing scores for both physical and mental dimensions of SF-36 in women, but no association was seen in men. However, lifelong caries experience (DMFS) increased linearly with decreasing physical HRQoL in both men and women; this was also observed for the single dimension of mental HRQoL. The crude odds ratio for being in the highest caries quintile compared to the lowest when having the poorest physical HRQoL compared with the best physical HRQoL was 1.88 (95 % CI: 1.54-2.3). Several factors were identified as potential confounders in the associations between DMFS and SF-36 scores, including education level, smoking, age, medications, higher levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, body mass index and sugar intake. Except for education level and smoking, the effect sizes for the association between gradually decreasing SF-36 scores and increasing caries were generally moderate. Conclusions: Increased development of caries was associated with low physical HRQoL and some aspects of mental HRQoL. The mechanisms underlying these associations, which are likely confounded by both biological and lifestyle factors, remain to be elucidated. The study implies that, when possible, subjects with poor HRQoL would benefit from caries prevention measures meeting the underlying situation.

  • 1425.
    Åsell, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Klinisk oral fysiologi.
    Sjölander, Per
    Kerschbaumer, Helmut
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    Are lumbar repositioning errors larger among patients with chronic low back pain compared with asymptomatic subjects?2006Inngår i: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0003-9993, E-ISSN 1532-821X, Vol. 87, nr 9, s. 1170-6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To resolve the debate over whether lumbar repositioning acuity is reduced in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) by using a study design and methodology to minimize the effects of potential confounders. DESIGN: A single-blinded, controlled, multigroup comparative study. SETTING: Vocational rehabilitation center. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-two patients with CLBP, divided into subgroups based on severity of symptoms and diagnostic characteristics. An age- and sex-matched group (n=31) of healthy subjects were the control. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We measured repositioning errors (variable, constant) at 3 positions of the lumbar spine. Subjects were guided to a sitting target posture and asked to perform lumbar flexion before reproducing the target posture. Self-assessed pain, self-efficacy, and functional ability were addressed through questionnaires. RESULTS: There were no differences in repositioning errors between the patients with CLBP or the subgroups of patients and the control group. We found only weak correlations between the repositioning errors and the self-reported data on functional disability, self-efficacy, and pain. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that sensorimotor dysfunctions in CLBP should be evaluated with methods other than repositioning tests in order to generate data relevant to the development of rational diagnostic methods and rehabilitation programs.

  • 1426. Åstrand, Per
    et al.
    Ahlqvist, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Oral diagnostisk radiologi.
    Gunne, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Protetik.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Protetik.
    Implant treatment of patients with edentulous jaws: a 20-year follow-up2008Inngår i: Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, ISSN 1523-0899, E-ISSN 1708-8208, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 207-217Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Implant-supported prostheses are today often used in rehabilitation of partially or totally edentulous patients. Both patients and the dental profession often regard implant treatment as successful in a life perspective. Therefore, studies with a long-term follow-up are important.

    PURPOSE: The aim was to investigate the outcome of implant treatment with fixed prostheses in edentulous jaws after 20 years, with special reference to survival rate of implants and prostheses and frequency of peri-implantitis.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The patient material was a group of patients treated in the early 1980s. The original patient group comprised the first 48 consecutive patients treated with implant-supported prostheses at Umeå University. All patients were edentulous in one or two jaws. The patients had a mean age at the implant insertion of 54.3 years (range 40-74). At the planning of this study 20 years after treatment, 19 of the 48 patients were found to be deceased. Of the 29 patients still alive, 21 patients with altogether 23 implant-supported prostheses could be examined clinically and radiographically. All patients were treated ad modum Brånemark (Nobel Biocare AB, Göteborg, Sweden) with a two-stage surgical procedure. The implants had a turned surface. Abutment connections were performed 3 to 4 months after fixture insertion in the mandible, and after a minimum of 6 months in the maxilla. The prostheses were fabricated with a framework of gold alloy and acrylic artificial teeth.

    RESULTS: The 21 patients (with 23 implant prostheses) examined had at the time of treatment got 123 implants (27 in the upper jaw and 96 in the lower jaw) inserted. Only one of these implants had been lost (about 2 years after loading) giving a survival rate of 99.2%. Very small changes occurred in the marginal bone level. Between the 1 and 20-year examinations, the mean bone loss was 0.53 mm and the mean bone level at the final examination was 2.33 mm below the reference point.

    CONCLUSIONS: This follow-up over two decades of implant-supported prostheses demonstrates a very good prognosis for the treatment performed. The frequencies of peri-implantitis, implant failures, or other complications were very small, and the original treatment concept with a two-stage surgery and a turned surface of the implants will obviously give very good results.

  • 1427. Åstrand, Per
    et al.
    Billström, Camilla
    Feldmann, Hartmut
    Fischer, Kerstin
    Henricsson, Vincent
    Johansson, Björn
    Nyström, Elisabeth
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Odontologi, Käkkirurgi.
    Sunzel, Bo
    Tapered implants in jaws with soft bone quality: a clinical and radiographic 1-year study of the Brånemark System Mark IV fixture.2003Inngår i: Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, ISSN 1523-0899, E-ISSN 1708-8208, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 213-218Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The survival rate of oral implants in soft-quality bone has been demonstrated to be inferior to that of implants inserted in good-quality bone. A possible way to increase the survival rate in soft-quality bone may be to use a tapered implant. Such an implant has been developed and manufactured by Nobel Biocare AB, Gothenburg, Sweden. So far, there have been only a few publications regarding this implant. PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to compare the outcome of using the tapered Brånemark System Mark IV fixture with the outcome of using earlier Brånemark fixtures in a controlled prospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was performed as a multicenter study including seven specialist centers. The material consisted of 40 patients in need of implant-supported bridges in the maxilla. Twenty-five patients belonged to the test group, in which the tapered Mark IV implants were inserted, and 15 patients belonged to the control group, in which Brånemark Standard or Mark II implants were used. The patients were allocated to the test group or the control group according to randomization schedules. The implants were inserted according to the guidelines for Brånemark implants. A two-stage surgical protocol was used, and abutment connection was made 6 months after fixture insertion. The test group comprised 97 Mark IV implants, and the control group made up 92 implants. The prosthetic procedure followed the guidelines for Brånemark implants, and all patients were provided with full fixed maxillary bridges. The patients were followed up with clinical and radiographic records for 1 year after loading. RESULTS: The survival rate was 96.9% for the Mark IV implants and 98.9% for the control implants. There was no significant difference between the two groups. There was a mean marginal bone loss of 0.2 mm during the observation period, and there was no difference between test implants and control implants. CONCLUSIONS: With regard to survival rate and marginal bone level changes, no differences could be demonstrated between the Mark IV tapered implant and the Brånemark implants used earlier. However, compared with earlier results of Brånemark implants in soft-quality bone, the Mark IV implant demonstrated an improved survival rate.

  • 1428. Çaglar, E
    et al.
    Cildir, SK
    Ergeneli, S
    Sandalli, N
    Twetman, Svante
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Odontologi, Pedodonti.
    Salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli levels after ingestion of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 by straws and tablets.2006Inngår i: Acta odontologica Scandinavica, nr 64, s. 314-318Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested that lactobacilli-derived probiotics in dairy products may affect oral ecology, but the impact of different vehicles of ingestion has received little attention. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 on the levels of salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in young adults when ingested by two different delivery systems. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The material comprised 120 healthy young adults (21-24 years) and a placebo-controlled study design with parallel arms was utilized. The subjects were randomly assigned to four equally sized groups: group A drank 200 ml of water through a prepared straw containing L. reuteri ATCC 55730 once daily for 3 weeks, while group B took 200 ml water through a placebo straw during the same period. Group C was given one tablet containing L. reuteri ATCC 55730 once daily for 3 weeks, while group D received placebo tablets without bacteria. Salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli were enumerated with chair-side kits at baseline and 1 day after the final ingestion. RESULTS: A statistically significant reduction of the mutans streptococci levels was recorded after ingestion of the probiotic bacteria via the straw (p<0.05) and the tablets (p<0.01), which was in contrast to the placebo controls. A similar but non-significant trend was seen for lactobacilli. CONCLUSIONS: A short-term daily ingestion of lactobacilli-derived probiotics delivered by prepared straws or lozenges reduced the levels of salivary mutans streptococci in young adults.

  • 1429. Çaglar, E
    et al.
    Sandalli, N
    Twetman, Svante
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Odontologi, Pedodonti.
    Probiotics and oral health.2006Inngår i: Prophylaxe impuls, nr 10, s. 62-68Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Probiotics are living microorganisms that beneficially affect the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance. While the role of probiotics in preventive and therapeutic medicine is firmly established, only limited research is available on its effect on oral health. Recent findings have however suggested that strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium may inhibit mutans streptococci and candida species in the oral cavity. The present overview focuses on vehicles, installation in the mouth and possible benefits on oral ecology. Although an increasing number of studies suggest a role of lactobacilli-derived probiotics on caries pathogens, its efficacy as a preventive measure is still to be determined in randomized controlled trials.

  • 1430. Çaglar, E
    et al.
    Sandalli, N
    Twetman, Svante
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Odontologi, Pedodonti.
    Selvi, S
    Ergeneli, S
    Kavaloglu, S
    Effect of yoghurt with Bifidobacterium DN-173010 on salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli2005Inngår i: Acta odontologica Scandinavica, Vol. 63, nr 6, s. 317-320Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract. Probiotic bacteria are thought to reduce the risk of disease. Previous studies have suggested that lactobacilli-derived probiotics in dairy products may affect the oral ecology but the effect of bifidobacteria has not previously been reported. The aim of the present study was to examine whether or not a short-term consumption of yogurt containing bifidobacteria would affect the salivary levels of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in young adults. A double blind, randomized crossover study was performed and 21 healthy subjects were followed over four periods. During period 2 and 4 (two weeks each), they ingested 200 g yogurt containing Bifidobacterium DN-173 010 once daily or a control yogurt without viable bacteria. Periods 1 and 3 were run-in and washout periods, respectively. Salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli were enumerated with chair-side kits. A statistically significant reduction (p<0.05) of salivary mutans streptococci was recorded after the probiotic yogurt consumption, which was in contrast to the controls. A similar trend was seen for lactobacilli but this decrease failed to reach statistical significance. In conclusion, probiotic bifidobacteria in yogurt may reduce the levels of selected caries-associated microorganisms in saliva.

  • 1431.
    Öberg, Sven
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Bone Healing after implantation of bone substitute materials. Experimental studies in estrogen deficiency.2003Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Bone formation and bone healing were studied in the mandible, tibia and skull bones in adult, healthy and estrogen deficient rabbits implanted with different bone substitutes.

    In the first study an evaluation of the differences in bone regeneration in and around solid (Alveograf *) and porous hydroxyapatite (Interpore 200*) was undertaken. The implant material was placed into experimentally made bone defects and in half of the defects hydroxyapatite was mixed with a fibrin sealant (Tisseel *). The material alone or mixed with Tisseel was also placed subperiostally in the mandible. The observation time was six month. No difference in bone regeneration was found between solid or porous hydroxyapatite granulas and the addition of Tisseel* did not seem to disturb the bone healing process. The implant material placed subperiostally did not induce bone formation nor did it provoke any bone resorption. The addition of Tisseel made the implant material much easier to handle and retain in the tissue during surgery.

    Bone healing around hydroxyapatite implants was also evaluated in the second study. Experimental cavities in the mandible and tibia were filled with hydroxyapatite in granules or blocks (Interpore 200*) but now with or without autolyzed, antigen-extracted, allogeneic bone (AAA). Also in this study Tisseel* was used to facilitate the handling of the material. All cavities implanted with AAA-bone, regardless of the combination with hydroxyapatite or Tisseel, demonstrated excessive bone formation resembling exostosis formation. Thus, hydroxyapatite, both as granules and blocks, can be successfully combined with AAA bone utilizing the bone inductive capacity of AAA bone.

    The same model was used to study the healing in ovariectomized animals in the third study. Bone cavities were implanted with or without AAA bone and left to heal. The results indicate that the osteoinductive capacity of AAA bone is in operation also in animals deprived of a normal estrogen production.

    The effect of using AAA bone prior to implant insertion was studied in paper four. The bone-implant contact was significant higher when AAA bone had been used. The implant stability did not seem to be affected.

    In paper five defects were made in skull and tibial bone in estrogen deficient animals. The deficiency of estrogen was confirmed through blood analysis, the decrease in the weight of uterus and bone mineral density. The whole body scanning with DEXA showed that the ovariectomized animals developed osteopenia. Various degree of bone formation was seen in the defects due to the influence of the bone inductive substance AAA bone.

    The studies indicate that a conductive material like hydroxyapatite in granules or blocks could be useful in oral reconstructive surgery. The combination with AAA bone enhanced the bone formation in calvarial and tibial bone in healthy and estrogen deficient animals. Tisseel* could be used to facilitate handling and retention of the material in the intended position during the healing process without negative effects.

  • 1432.
    Öberg, Sven
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Kahnberg, Karl-Erik
    Combined use of hydroxy-apatite and Tisseel in experimental bone defects in the rabbit1993Inngår i: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 147-153Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1433.
    Öberg, Sven
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Rosenquist, Jan
    Bone healing after implantation of hydroxyapatite granules and blocks (Interpore 200) combined with autolyzed antigen-extracted allogeneic bone and fibrin glue1994Inngår i: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, ISSN 0901-5027, Vol. 23, nr 4, s. 110-114Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1434.
    Öberg, Sven
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Rosenquist, Jan
    Gordh, Monica
    Healing of bone defects in osteopenic rabbits.: Effect of autolyzed antigen-extracted allogeneic bone substitute on calvarial and tibial bone.Manuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 1435.
    Öberg, Sven
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Rosenquist, Jan
    Johansson, Carina
    Bone formation after implantation of autolyzed antigen-extracted allogeneic bone in ovariectomized rabbits.2003Inngår i: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, ISSN 0901-5027, Vol. 32, nr 6, s. 628-632Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1436.
    Öberg, Sven
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Sennerby, Lars
    Integration of titanium implants in bone defects reconstructed with autolyzed antigen-extracted allogeneic (AAA) bone powder prior to implant placement: a histological and resonance frequency analysis study in the rabbitManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 1437.
    Öhlund, Inger
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Lif Holgerson, Pernilla
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Pedodonti.
    Lind, Torbjörn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Kariologi.
    Bäckman, Birgitta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Pedodonti.
    Diet intake and caries prevalence in four-year-old children living in a low-prevalence country.2007Inngår i: Caries Research, ISSN 0008-6568, E-ISSN 1421-976X, Vol. 41, nr 1, s. 26-33Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Preventive measures have dramatically decreased the prevalence of dental caries in children. However, risk factors for the disease in children living in low-prevalence areas remain elusive. In the present study we evaluated associations between dental caries, saliva levels of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli, and diet with special emphasis on the intake of fermentable carbohydrates and dairy products in 4-year-old children living in an area where the overall caries prevalence was low. Dietary intake was recorded in 234 infants as part of the Study of Infant Nutrition in Umea, Sweden (SINUS). Of these the parents of 124 children gave consent to participate in a follow-up at 4 years of age. Dietary intake, height and weight, dental caries, oral hygiene, including tooth brushing habits, presence of plaque and gingival inflammation, fluoride habits and numbers of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in saliva were recorded. Using multivariate stepwise logistic regression, caries experience was negatively associated with intake frequency of cheese (OR = 0.67; 95% CI = 0.44-0.98) and positively associated with the salivary level of mutans streptococci (OR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.21-2.03). Caries experience was not correlated with intake frequency or amounts of carbohydrate-containing foods, with any other particular food, or with daily intake of energy, carbohydrate or any other macro- or micronutrient. We conclude that cheese intake may have a caries-protective effect in childhood populations where the overall caries prevalence and caries experience are low and the children are regularly exposed to fluoride from toothpaste.

  • 1438.
    Öhman, Carina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Vallström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Oral mikrobiologi.
    Olofsson, Annelie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Johansson, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Larsson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Aspholm, Marina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Arnqvist, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Phase variation and expression mechanisms of the sialic acid binding adhesin SabA in Helicobacter pyloriManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial attachment to host epithelial surfaces by means of bacterial adhesion proteins is a key event in colonization. Phase variation is a mechanism used by bacteria that mediates frequent and reversible gains and losses in expression of proteins. In the inflamed stomach, H. pylori adherence to sialyl Lewis antigens (sLex) is mediated by the sialic acid binding adhesin (SabA). Instability in sLex-binding was previously reported and here we show that this is caused by the high frequency of ON/OFF switching in SabA expression. Our data shows that SabA phase variation is due to slippages in the number of CT repeat sequences in the 5’ end of the sabA gene (i.e. slipped strand mispairing). The sabA operon was defined and the sabA transcriptional start site was determined. Changes in the number of thymine bases present in a mononucleotide stretch upstream of the sabA gene and in close proximity to a -35-like promoter element did not affect the ON/OFF phase variation. Instead, we show that changes in intrinsic DNA properties are likely to influence SabA expression. The effect of growth phase on sLex-binding properties and SabA expression was also analyzed. SabA expression and sLex-binding increased as H. pylori entered late logarithmic phase. Our data show the ability of H. pylori to cycle between an adherent and non-adherent phenotype by phase variation mechanisms and adjustment of receptor binding activity. These data increase our understanding of how H. pylori adjust adherence properties during persistent infection.

  • 1439.
    Önell, Sebastian
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    NF-κB Regulates MCP-1 and Eotaxin Expression in TNF-α and IL-1β Stimulated Human Gingival Fibroblasts2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is a family of proteins, which regulates several cellular processes. Deficiencies in the function of NF-κB have been shown to play a crucial role in inflammatory response and -diseases. Periodontitis is a disease where gum-inflammation causes destruction of tooth supporting tissues and jeopardizes tooth retention in the jaws. Cytokines and chemokines are shown to play a decisive role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the intracellular signaling pathways of NF-κB in primary human gingival fibroblasts stimulated with pro-inflammatory cytokines, and to explore the possible role of NF-κB in chemokine expression of these cells.

     

    Gingival fibroblasts isolated from periodontally healthy individuals were cultured in vitro and incubated with or without the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) or interleukin 1β (IL-1β). Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses showed thatTNF-α and IL-1β caused an increased mRNA expression of theNF-κB p50. Moreover, a time-dependent decrease of theNF-κB inhibitory proteinIκB-α was shown by western blot.TNF-α and IL-1β caused a time-dependent increased mRNA expression of the chemokines eotaxin and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and addition of  pharmacological inhibitors of NF-κB, BMS-345541 or Celastrol, reduced the eotaxin and MCP-1 expression by 40% and 50-70% respectively. These results point toward that activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway is critical for increased expression of eotaxin and MCP-1 in human gingival fibroblasts exposed to the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β.

     

     

  • 1440.
    Österlund, Catharina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Klinisk oral fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Extra- and intrafusal muscle fibre type compositions of the human masseter at young age.: In perspective of growth and functional maturation of the jaw-face motor system.2011Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Muscles control body posture and movement by extrafusal and intrafusal (muscle spindle) fibres. The purpose of this thesis was to provide insight into the muscular basis for human jaw function at young age. Extrafusal and intrafusal fibres in the young masseter, and for comparison young biceps, were examined for composition of fibre types and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms by means of morphological, enzyme-histochemical, biochemical and immuno-histochemical techniques. For evaluation of plasticity during life span the data for young muscles were compared with previous reported data for adult and elderly muscles.

    The results showed significant differences in extrafusal fibre types and MyHC expression between young masseter and young biceps and between young masseter and masseter in adults and elderly. Compared with young biceps, young masseter was more intricate in composition of extrafusal MyHC expression. Muscle spindles were larger and more frequent in the masseter than in the biceps. Masseter and biceps muscle spindles showed fundamental similarities but also marked differences in MyHC expression.

    The results suggest that the young masseter is specialized in fibre types already at young age and shows a unique fibre type growth pattern. Whereas masseter extrafusal fibres display marked plasticity in fibre types and MyHC isoforms during life span muscle spindles/intrafusal fibres are morphologically mature already at young age and precede extrafusal fibres in growth and maturation. Results showed similarities in intrafusal MyHC expression between young masseter and biceps, but also differences implying muscle specific proprioceptive control. Differences in fibre types and MyHC expression between young masseter and young biceps extrafusal fibres are proposed to reflect diverse evolutionary and developmental origins and accord with the masseter and biceps being separate allotypes of muscle.

  • 1441.
    Österlund, Catharina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Klinisk oral fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Lindström, Mona
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Klinisk oral fysiologi.
    Remarkable heterogeneity in myosin heavy-chain composition of the human young masseter compared with young biceps brachii2012Inngår i: Histochemistry and Cell Biology, ISSN 0948-6143, E-ISSN 1432-119X, Vol. 138, nr 4, s. 669-682Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Adult human jaw muscles differ from limb and trunk muscles in enzyme-histochemical fibre type composition. Recently, we showed that the human masseter and biceps differ in fibre type pattern already at childhood. The present study explored the myosin heavy-chain (MyHC) expression in the young masseter and biceps muscles by means of gel electrophoresis (GE) and immuno-histochemical (IHC) techniques. Plasticity in MyHC expression during life was evaluated by comparing the results with the previously reported data for adult muscles. In young masseter, GE identified MyHC-I, MyHC-IIa MyHC-IIx and small proportions of MyHC-fetal and MyHC-alpha cardiac. Western blots confirmed the presence of MyHC-I, MyHC-IIa and MyHC-IIx. IHC revealed in the masseter six isomyosins, MyHC-I, MyHC-IIa, MyHC-IIx, MyHC-fetal, MyHC alpha-cardiac and a previously not reported isoform, termed MyHC-IIx'. The majority of the masseter fibres co-expressed two to four isoforms. In the young biceps, both GE and IHC identified MyHC-I, MyHC-IIa and MyHC-IIx. MyHC-I predominated in both muscles. Young masseter showed more slow and less-fast and fetal MyHC than the adult and elderly masseter. These results provide evidence that the young masseter muscle is unique in MyHC composition, expressing MyHC-alpha cardiac and MyHC-fetal isoforms as well as hitherto unrecognized potential spliced isoforms of MyHC-fetal and MyHC-IIx. Differences in masseter MyHC expression between young adult and elderly suggest a shift from childhood to adulthood towards more fast contractile properties. Differences between masseter and biceps are proposed to reflect diverse evolutionary and developmental origins and confirm that the masseter and biceps present separate allotypes of muscle.

  • 1442.
    Österlund, Catharina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Klinisk oral fysiologi.
    Liu, Jing-Xia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Klinisk oral fysiologi.
    Intrafusal myosin heavy chain expression of human masseter and biceps muscles at young age shows fundamental similarities but also marked differences2013Inngår i: Histochemistry and Cell Biology, ISSN 0948-6143, E-ISSN 1432-119X, Vol. 139, nr 6, s. 895-907Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Muscle spindles are skeletal muscle mechanoreceptors that provide proprioceptive information to the central nervous system. The human adult masseter muscle has greater number, larger and more complex muscle spindles than the adult biceps. For a better knowledge of muscle diversity and physiological properties, this study examined the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression of muscle spindle intrafusal fibres in the human young masseter and young biceps muscles by using a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against different MyHC isoforms. Eight MyHC isoforms were detected in both muscles-slow-tonic, I, IIa, IIx, foetal, embryonic, α-cardiac and an isoform not previously reported in intrafusal fibres, termed IIx'. Individual fibres co-expressed 2-6 isoforms. MyHC-slow tonic separated bag(1), AS-bag(1) and bag(2) fibres from chain fibres. Typically, bag fibres also expressed MyHC-I and α-cardiac, whereas chain fibres expressed IIa and foetal. In the young masseter 98 % of bag(1) showed MyHC-α cardiac versus 30 % in the young biceps, 35 % of bag(2) showed MyHC-IIx' versus none in biceps, 17 % of the chain fibres showed MyHC-I versus 61 % in the biceps. In conclusion, the result showed fundamental similarities in intrafusal MyHC expression between young masseter and biceps, but also marked differences implying muscle-specific proprioceptive control, probably related to diverse evolutionary and developmental origins. Finding of similarities in MyHC expression between young and adult masseter and biceps muscle spindles, respectively, in accordance with previously reported similarities in mATPase fibre type composition suggest early maturation of muscle spindles, preceding extrafusal fibres in growth and maturation.

  • 1443.
    Österlund, Catharina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Klinisk oral fysiologi.
    Liu, Jing-Xia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Klinisk oral fysiologi.
    Muscle spindle composition and distribution in human young masseter and biceps brachii muscles reveal early growth and maturation2011Inngår i: Anatomical Record, ISSN 0003-276X, E-ISSN 1097-0185, Vol. 294, nr 4, s. 683-693Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Significant changes in extrafusal fiber type composition take place in the human masseter muscle from young age, 3-7 years, to adulthood, in parallel with jaw-face skeleton growth, changes of dentitions and improvement of jaw functions. As motor and sensory control systems of muscles are interlinked, also the intrafusal fiber population, that is, muscle spindles, should undergo age-related changes in fiber type appearance. To test this hypothesis, we examined muscle spindles in the young masseter muscle and compared the result with previous data on adult masseter spindles. Also muscle spindles in the young biceps brachii muscle were examined. The result showed that muscle spindle composition and distribution were alike in young and adult masseter. As for the adult masseter, young masseter contained exceptionally large muscle spindles, and with the highest spindle density and most complex spindles found in the deep masseter portion. Hence, contrary to our hypothesis, masseter spindles do not undergo major morphological changes between young age and adulthood. Also in the biceps, young spindles were alike adult spindles. Taken together, the results showed that human masseter and biceps muscle spindles are morphologically mature already at young age. We conclude that muscle spindles in the human young masseter and biceps precede the extrafusal fiber population in growth and maturation. This in turn suggests early reflex control and proprioceptive demands in learning and maturation of jaw motor skills. Similarly, well-developed muscle spindles in young biceps reflect early need of reflex control in learning and performing arm motor behavior.

  • 1444.
    Österlund, Catharina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Klinisk oral fysiologi.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Differences in fibre type composition between human masseter and biceps muscles in young and adults reveal unique masseter fibre type growth pattern2011Inngår i: Anatomical Record, ISSN 0003-276X, E-ISSN 1097-0185, Vol. 294, nr 7, s. 1158-1169Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The human jaw system is different from those of other primates, carnivores, ruminants, and rodents in temporomandibular joint and muscle anatomy. In adults, jaw muscles also differ markedly from limb and trunk muscles in composition and distribution of fibre types. It can be assumed that age-related changes between young age to adulthood in terms of craniofacial growth, teeth eruption, and improvement of jaw functions are paralleled by alterations also in composition and distribution of jaw muscle fibre types. To address this question, we have examined the fibre type composition of the human masseter, a jaw closing muscle, at young age. For comparison, the young biceps brachii was examined. The results were compared with previous data for adult masseter and biceps muscles. Young masseter and biceps were similar in that type I fibres outnumbered other fibre types and were of the same diameter. However, they differed in composition of other fibre types. Young masseter contained fibre types I, IM, IIC, IIAB, IIB, and scarce IIA, with regional differences, whereas young biceps showed types I, IIA, IIAB, and few IIB. Young masseter differed from young biceps also by smaller type II fibre diameter and by containing fetal MyHC. In addition, the masseter and biceps differed in age-related changes of composition and distribution of fibre types between young age and adulthood. We conclude that the human masseter is specialized in fibre types already at young age and shows a unique fibre type growth pattern, in concordance with being a separate allotype of muscle.

  • 1445. Östman, PO
    et al.
    Anneroth, G
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Odontologi, Kariologi.
    Stegmayr, B
    Skoglund, A
    Life-style survey of patients with oral lichenoid reactions1996Inngår i: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 54, nr 2, s. 96-101Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence of different life-style patterns, including marital status, educational level, nutrition, tobacco and alcohol use, and frequency of physical activity, in patients with oral lichenoid reactions (OLR) in total or partial contact with amalgam fillings was examined. When compared with an age- and sex-matched control group, the daily intake of carbohydrates, fibers, and iron was statistically significantly higher in the OLR patients. Regarding marital status, there was a statistically significant difference between the OLR patients and the control subjects, the former group containing more people who were divorced or whose spouse had died. The frequency of physical activity was also statistically significantly higher in the OLR patients than in the control group. Hypothetical mechanisms that may lie behind the results obtained are discussed.

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