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  • 151.
    Häggström, Nils
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Norrland's direct foreign trade 1850-19141971Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 152.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Changing population distribution in Sweden: long term trends and contemporary tendencies2000Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis is to describe and analyse the population redistribution in Sweden at different geographical levels from the beginning of the 19th century to the end of the 20th century. The analysis is approached in three different ways. First, the redistribution at different geographical levels is analysed (papers I and II). Second, the changing accessibility between people (interpersonal accessibility) is analysed from the beginning of the 19th century to the end of the 20th century (paper II). Third, the impacts of fertility, mortality, internal migration, international migration and geographical variations in age composition on population distribution are analysed for the last decades (papers I, III and IV).

    Measurements of concentration have been used in order to analyse the changing population distribution. For the analysis of changing interpersonal accessibility the average population within the daily reach has been calculated for different times. In order to analyse the impacts of fertility, mortality, migration and geographical variations in age composition the actual redistribution of the population is compared with the redistribution generated by a number of counterfactual scenarios. To analyse the impact of international migration the changing distribution of the population in different immigrant groups is compared to the distribution of the Swedish population.

    Some conclusions drawn from the thesis are:

    1. There is no overall trend in the population redistribution towards either concentration or dispersion. The redistribution pattern depends on the time perspective and the geographical level chosen. The population has been both concentrated and dispersed since the beginning of the 19th century. This applies to all investigated geographical levels. In the five identified phases of the redistribution the most common pattern is that concentration and dispersion of the population exist simultaneously on different geographical levels. The total effect of the redistribution between 1810 and 1990 is that today the population is more dispersed at macro-regional level, while it is more concentrated at local and regional level.

    2. Based on assumptions about the daily reach, an average person today has access to about 100 times more people locally compared with the beginning of the 19th century. The most important process for the increased accessibility has been the redistribution of the population. The process that has had the least impact is the assumed increase in daily reach. However the importance of the investigated processes changes over time. Since 1950 the increasing reach has been the most important process. However, the rate by which interpersonal accessibility increases has slowed down since 1950.

    3. The main demographic factor behind the redistribution since 1970 is the geographical differences in age composition and its effects on the natural population change. It is demonstrated that this factor lies behind the trend towards increasing concentration in Sweden, while the impact of migration affects the fluctuations from this trend to a greater extent.

    4. The study shows that immigration concentrates the population, while the internal migration during the 1970s and periodically during the 1980s dispersed the population. However during the 1990s the internal migration has had a concentrating effect on the spatial distribution of the population.

  • 153.
    Ivarsson, Anneli
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    de Luna, Xavier
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Nilsson, Karina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Registerdata om barndomen: kunskapsbas för hållbar hälsa och välfärd2010In: SVEPET. Medlemsbladet för Svensk Epidemiologisk Förening (Svep), Vol. 28, no 3, p. 4-6Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 154.
    Jansson, Bruno
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Jakobsen, Leif
    Hvidberg, M.
    Asmussen, M.
    Sandberg, M.
    Engström, C.
    Effektutvärdering av de geografiska målprogrammen inom EG:s strukturfonder2004Report (Other academic)
  • 155.
    Jansson, Bruno
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Epilogue/prologue2007In: Tourism in Peripheries: Perspectives from the Far North and South, CAB International, Wallingford , 2007, p. 220-225Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 156.
    Jansson, Bruno
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Fritidsboende i Kvarken: Ett forskningsprojekt i uppdrag av Kvarkenrådet2003Book (Other academic)
  • 157.
    Jansson, Bruno
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Loma-asuminen Merenkurkun alueella2003Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 158.
    Jansson, Bruno
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Second home plans among second home owners in northern Europe's periphery2004In: Tourism, Mobility and Second Homes: Between Elite Landscape and Common Ground, Channel View, Clevedon , 2004, p. 261-272Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 159.
    Jansson, Bruno
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Assessment of risks in society systems1994In: Planning a high-resilience society / [ed] Weissglas, Gösta, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 1994Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 160.
    Johansson, Patrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Marell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Resande och tillgänglighet i ett glesbygdsområde2000Report (Other academic)
  • 161.
    Johansson, Patrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Marell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Taxi i världen - en jämförelse av taxis villkor och verksamhet i olika länder2000Report (Other academic)
  • 162.
    Johansson, Patrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Marell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Taxis egenskaper och kundernas uppfattning 8 år efter avregleringen2000Report (Other academic)
  • 163.
    Johnsson, Rolf S.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Jordbrukspolitiska stödformer: en studie av SR-, A- och B-stödens lokala effekter 1961-19811987Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study has been to analyse the effects of state subsidies within agriculture. The goal of these policies was to build up long-term sound and profitable farms by means of both general and selective support measures. The investments affecting structure gave rise to the following questions: (a) What were the effects on a farm of a given type of aid? (b) How were the farms and the surrounding community affected? (c) In what respect was a desirable effect achieved, and in what respect were the results problematical? The investigation was carried out in three municipalities in Norrland, and considered three different forms of subsidy (SR-, A- and B-support) which were utilized during the years 1961-1978. In addition to these so-called "subsidized farms", a similar number of "comparative farms" that had not received support were selected. In all, 650 farms were investigated.

    The evaluation was mainly divided into five areas of interest: (a) Farm reconstruction, (b) Farm development, (c) The farmers, (d) Economic effects, (e) Social effects in the locality.

    The principal findings were as follows: (1) SR- and A-supported farms were characterized by farmers who were relatively young, had good education and who used a portion of their working-hours for carrying out organizational measures. The comparative farms were distinguished rather by older farmers with less education and with a higher degree of employment outside the farm. (2) All of the SR-and B-supported farms had survived. Some A-supported farms were abandoned, while the number of comparative farms was greatly reduced. (3) All types of subsidized farms exhibited growth in their areas of arable land and forest and in their stock of milk cows, whereas the comparative farms were relatively unchanged. (4) Improved production results within crop husbandry could be derived simultaneously from the increased use of pipe drainage, shorter periods between ploughing, new methods of harvesting, etc. Within all these areas the subsidized farms had higher proportions of improvements than the comparative farms. (5) Since SR-farms in particular (but even A-farms) financed their rationalization measures by means of bank loans, they all became extremely sensitive to risks. In thi s way they all too easily ended up with economic difficulties when major increases in interest rates or changes in costs or revenues occurred. (6) In the short term the rationalization of the size of subsidized farms had little effect on outmigration from the areas concerned. (7) The households were larger on subsidized farms than in the comparative group. This meant that the subsidized farms, which were increasing their relative share of the population, also comprised a stabilizing factor in a locally-dependent service sector.

  • 164.
    Jonsson, Gunilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Rotad, rotlös, rastlös: Ung mobilitet i tid och rum2003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis is to survey and analyse young peoples’ geographical movements, and illustrate the similarities and differences that exist between different individuals.. The aim of the thesis is also to examine and discuss youth’s attitudes and motivation for different forms of geographical mobility. The youth focused on in this project reside in Norrland. The first phase, Mapping of the Geographical Movement of Youth, was carried out through the use of a questionnaire, sent to graduating students in upper secondary school. The second phase, Umeå  Students Abroad, was carried out by interviewing Umeå students who had either completed or were about to begin a period of foreign exchange. The third phase, Emigrants from Sweden, is based on statistics acquired from Sweden Statistics’ (SCB) and from the TOPSWING database.

    Home: The starting point of this thesis is the conception of “home”. The choice of path to take in life, and where students wanted to live in the future had significance for how they examined the choice between moving and staying; and the role of the home town in a longer perspective as to how the students viewed Umeå.

    Away: It is not just the place that a person comes from that says something about who she is, but also the place where she is going and the way in which she takes herself there. Many of the upper secondary school students that took part in the questionnaire had been abroad one or more times. Furthermore, many of the students would like to travel abroad again. At the same time, it can be said that there are also young people that do not have extensive experiences in travelling to other countries.

    Somewhere between home and away: The study shows that students may have very different views of their time abroad. The Tourist Student is one who chooses his/her destination in order to fulfil certain criteria and then mainly stays in the university town, “taking one day at a time.” He or she does not have a thought-out strategy for how the stay abroad should be carried out. The Travelling Student is the student who searches for a particular destination and later also has the ambition to get to know the country and the people that live there. The travelling student can be said to have a thought-out strategy for how to make the most out of his or her time in a foreign country.

    When away becomes home – or when home becomes home again: The interview study shows that to live abroad or to live in Sweden acquired a different meaning if you had a family. To have a family gives rise to a reason why one may choose to move back to Sweden. On the other hand there were also students for whom the home country was not important. A large portion of those who emigrated from Sweden during the study period moved back again. For those with a college or university education, a few years abroad can be a part of their choice of life path. It is something that one wants and from a career prospective, possibly should do.

    Rooted, rootless or restless young? The rooted are those who mainly live their entire lives in one place. The rootless represent a mobile life, where there is no home base, instead they create new ones as life passes. I would like to characterise most of the young people that in one way or another is featured in my study as restless. The restless combine, in different ways, the characteristics of both the rooted and the rootless. They are not unwilling to move, within the country, as well as to other countries, but they are at the same time rooted in their home town or in their home country.

  • 165. Jourquin, Bart
    et al.
    Rietveld, Piet
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Introduction: Performance of transport networks2006In: Towards better Performing Transport Networks, London: Routledge, 2006, p. 1-13Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 166.
    Jörgensen, Hans
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Grubbström, Ann
    Uppsala University.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Private landowners’ relation to land and forest in two Estonian counties2010In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 2010, no 2, p. 33-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This comparative study is based on two large surveys of privateland and forest owners in two Estonian counties. While more than half of Põlvamaa is covered with forests, Läänemaa has a potential for summer tourism and second homes. We explore different rationales for obtaining landed property and analyse the individual property holders’ relations to—and use of—landand forests. Based on the two interlinked restitution and privatisation processes from 1991 onwards, our surveys reveal two main rationales among the owners:emotional and economic. The owners’ relations to the property are connected with legacies from both the interwar independence and the Soviet period. In addition, different rationalities, ambitions and attitudes are also related to how the property was obtained. In spite of the demand for land, many resituated landowners have chosen to maintain or recreate family property, even if the property was not actively used. In both Põlvamaa and Läänemaa the emotional bonds to land are strong among the owners of restituted or inherited property, while this is a weaker factor among those who have obtained land or forest through privatisation.

  • 167.
    Jörgensen, Hans
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Emotional links to forest ownership.: Restitution of land and use of a productive resource in Põlva County, Estonia2008In: Fennia, ISSN 0015-0010, Vol. 186, no 2, p. 95-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our survey among new land and forets owners in Põlva County in southeast Estonia focuses on the owner's different motives for obtaining land and forest property through restitution and privatization from 1992 on. In the light of the historical context presented, two clear-cut motives for obtaining property appear: emotional and economic. Based on the results from the survey we conclude that the emotional non-economic factors have been most influential for a majority of the landowners, regardless of if the actual property was restituted or purchased. The emotional bonds to landed property are related to the aspiration to regain and reposess family property and thereby related to a certain place affiliation. Another interpretation concerns the restrictions with regards to the spread of modern commercial forestry among the - foremost small-scale - property holders for which  the actual posession is around 12 ha each.

  • 168.
    Karlsson, Svante
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Växande handel och ökad mobilitet2011In: Geografiska Notiser, ISSN 0016-724X, Vol. 69, no 2, p. 70-78Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 169.
    Karlsson, Svante
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    From manufacturing to retail: Cross-border shopping and economic restructuring in West Sweden2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 170.
    Karlsson, Svante
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Har trenden vänt?: Om flyttning till och från den svenska landsbygden2014In: Plan, ISSN 0032-0560, no 2, p. 32-35Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 171.
    Keskitalo, Carina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Eklöf, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation in Swedish Forests: Promoting Forestry, Capturing Carbon and Fuelling Transports2011In: Energy, Policy, and the Environment: Modeling Sustainable Development for the North / [ed] Marja Järvelä & Sirkku Juhola, New York: Springer , 2011, p. 133-153Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 172.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    A framework for multi-level stakeholder studies in response to global change2004In: Local Envrionment (Special Issue on Multi-Level Governance), Vol. 9, no 5, p. 425-435Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 173.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    A methodology for stakeholder-based vulnerability assessment of global change: 2007 Amsterdam Conference on the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change, Amsterdam 24-25 May 2007.2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 174.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Adapting to climate change in Sweden: national policy development and adaptation measures in Västra Götaland2010In: Developing Adaptation Policy and Pracitce in Europe: Multi-level Governance of Climate Change / [ed] Keskitalo E.C.H., Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2010, p. 189-232Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Located in south-western Sweden, the Vastra Gotaland region is often seen as one of the areas of the country most vulnerable to flooding and erosion, and will be highly impacted by flooding and sea level rise as a result of climate change Drawing upon a literature study and semi-structured interviews with actors in climate policy, this chapter reviews the development of adaptation policy in Sweden The chapter focuses particularly on the Commission on Climate and Vulnerability (2007) and a government bill An Integrated Climate and Energy Policy Climate (2009) in which suggestions by the Commission were included The chapter describes the development of adaptation policy and measures on the regional and local levels in Vastra Gotaland and within select municipalities The study illustrates the national distribution of responsibility through which municipalities are given a large role in integrating adaptation measures, and describes some of the differentiated responses such responsibilities may elicit on the local level.

  • 175.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Adaptive capacity and adaptation in Swedish multi-use boreal forests: sites of interaction between different land uses2010In: Adaptive capacity and environmental governance / [ed] Derek Armitage, Ryan Plummer, Heidelberg: Springer , 2010, p. 89-106Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Governance and conflict resolution in multi-use forests require the integration of stakeholders and decision-makers in multiple sectors: forestry, reindeer husbandry, conservation, tourism and local use. To a large extent, these sectors are characterised by divergent interests and considerable power discrepancies. Drawing upon semi-structured interviews in Gällivare, a municipality in northernmost Sweden, this paper discusses adaptive capacity with regard to interaction between sectors. The chapter examines impacts of the different land uses on each other, identifies adaptation options, and describes existing interaction measures. The chapter concludes that adaptive capacity at the local level is constrained by a number of factors, one example being the institutionalised character of reindeer herding–forestry relations that may limit adaptation at the local level.

  • 176.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Arktis är inget undantag2009In: Polarår: Svenska sällskapet för antropologi och geografi / [ed] Gunhild Rosqvist och Sverker Sörlin, Stockholm: Svenska sällskapet för antropologi och geografi , 2009, p. 219-234Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 177.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Can Arctic governance support regional climate change adaptation?: 2007 Amsterdam Conference on the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change, Amsterdam 24-26 May 2007.2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 178.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Climate change adaptation as governmentality: Cases from the UK and Sweden2009In: The 7th International Science Conference on the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 179.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Climate change adaptation in the United Kingdom: England and South-East England2010In: Developing Adaptation Policy and Practice in Europe: Multi-level Governance of Climate Change / [ed] Keskitalo E.C.H., Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2010, p. 97-147Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The UK has been one of the early actors in developing adaptation to climate change, and today has a comprehensive legislative and regulative framework for including climate change effects in planning This chapter reviews the development of the UK approach, drawing on a literature study and semi-structured interviews conducted with several actors, the majority of whom are from public administration at the national, regional and local levels The study focuses on England and the South-East England region in particular, one of the areas most at risk of flooding and sea level rise in the UK In addition to discussing the national and regional levels, the chapter describes how adaptation has been integrated in a number of counties, cities and boroughs in the area All in all, the study reveals a relatively developed approach to adaptation, made possible in part as a result of both the recognised sensitivity of selected areas to climate change and the centralised nature of the political system Centralised as well as network capacities of the central government have made it possible for the national level to both include adaptation criteria in the performance assessment framework for local authorities, and for these to be broadly accepted among affected actors.

  • 180.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Climate change and globalization in the Arctic: An integrated approach to vulnerability assessment2008Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 181.
    Keskitalo, E Carina H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Climate change, vulnerability and adaptive capacity in a multi-use forest municipality in Northern Sweden2010In: Community adaptation and vulnerability in arctic regions / [ed] Grete K. Hovelsrud, Barry Smit, Springer Netherlands, 2010, p. 285-311Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The impacts of climate change may be especially large on areas where conflicts regarding renewable resources such as multi-use forests already exist, and may increasingly impact sectors where access to resources is already limited. Drawing upon the CAVIAR framework for analysing current and future exposure-sensitivity and adaptive capacity in Gallivare municipality, northern Sweden, this chapter describes the socio-economic and environmental context of, and current and potential adaptations to, changes in forestry, reindeer husbandry, and winter tourism. The chapter concludes that these land use sectors are impacted by considerable economic and market pressures, with the result that conflicts between sectors have become increasingly pronounced. While climate change will eventually affect all land use sectors, impacts may be felt most immediately by those with the smallest existing margins for their activities, such as reindeer husbandry.

  • 182.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Conclusion: the development of adaptive capacity and adaptation measures in European countries2010In: Developing Adaptation Policy and Pracitce in Europe: Multi-level Governance of Climate Change / [ed] Keskitalo E. Carina H., Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2010, p. 339-366Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume has related the development of adaptation policy and practice to a number of structural, context-based or procedural capacities, these include the extent of decentralisation, the type of planning systems, the institutionalization of environmental policy, and the occurrence of focusing events across multi-level governance systems The case study material has consisted of nested case studies on national, regional and local levels in the UK, Finland, Sweden and Italy, supplemented by comparative cases viewed mainly within the context of the European Union This chapter summarizes the results of the study with a focus on the parameters defined in the introduction and describes the significant variety in outcomes across the case study countries Differences range from a comprehensive multi-level framework for adaptation in the centralised unitary UK state, to more limited approaches in Sweden and Finland, to the failure to thus far institutionalise adaptation policy in Italy The case studies support identifying the parameters affecting adaptive capacity and the development of adaptation responses However, no single factor in itself can readily explain the variety of responses to adaptation.

  • 183.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Developing adaptation policy and practice in Europe: Multi-level governance of climate change2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 184.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Forestry and reindeer herding in northern Sweden and Finland: Presentation at the CAVIAR official side event, UNFCCC COP 13, Bali, December 20072007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 185.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Governance in vulnerability assessment: the role of decision-making networks in determining local vulnerability and adaptive capacity2009In: Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, ISSN 1381-2386, E-ISSN 1573-1596, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 185-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Community-based vulnerability assessment has often assumed that the local is the relevant level of adaptation to climate change. This paper suggests that not only do a number of levels from the international to the regional influence which adaptations can take place locally, but the governance network that is made up by actors on different levels may to a large extent be formed in responses to globalising factors, such as internationalisation of economies and the changing role of the state. The paper presents a study of adaptation in reindeer (Rangifier tarandus) herding, forestry and fishing communities in northern Norway, Sweden, and Finland, with a focus on assessing stakeholders’ own perceptions of environmental, socio-political and economic factors that affect them. In general, the paper illustrates the integration of non-subsistence economies into large and complex interactions where local adaptation is a result of the sum of stresses impacting individual entrepreneurs, and the potential they have to adapt their practices given governance (and their access to support) on different scales.

  • 186.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Hur påverkar globala miljöförändringar nordliga områden?2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 187.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Hur påverkas skogsbruk, fiske och rennäring i Barentsregionen av globalisering och klimatförändringar?2007In: Barents - ett gränsland i Norden / [ed] Hallberg, Torsten, Stockholm: Föreningen Norden , 2007Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 188.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    International region-building: The development of the Arctic as an international region2007In: Cooperation and Conflict, ISSN 0010-8367, E-ISSN 1460-3691, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 187-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Arctic has emerged as a region in international cooperation during the past 20—30 years, as manifest in the creation of the Arctic Council and its predecessor, the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy, and in the incidence of a host of scientific and political cooperation projects. The region now includes eight states over the circumpolar area; namely, the United States, Russia, Canada and the Nordic countries. How this international region has developed over time is investigated with reference to the conception of regions as understood in region-building discourse. Accordingly, the Arctic as a region that is not natural or given but as constructed by and for particular actors and interests is studied. It is concluded that the regional superstructure includes conceptions of the North that draw on images developed in historical exploration and research, shaped by a discourse of the Arctic representing North American more than Nordic understandings.

  • 189.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Introduction - adaptation to climate change in Europe: theoretical framework and study design2010In: Developing Adaptation Policy and Practice in Europe: Multi-level Governance of Climate Change / [ed] Keskitalo E.C.H., Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2010, p. 1-38Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As mitigation will not likely be sufficient to hinder climate change, adaptation to the consequences of climate change will be needed The impacts of climate change will include such phenomena as increased flooding and sea level rise, which will in turn have significant effects on densely populated and infrastructurally-developed areas in advanced industrial states Despite the potential for serious consequences very little of the existing climate change adaptation literature has focused on adaptation in the EU or the industrialised world in general This chapter and the volume at large address this gap This chapter describes the governance system of public and private actors and bodies that set the context for adaptive capacity at local, regional national and EU levels, and argues that adaptive capacity can largely be seen as related to the resource distribution and prioritisation processes within such systems The chapter further outlines the comparative approach taken by the volume, including a common methodology for the presented multi-level studies.

  • 190.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Konflikter mellan rennäring och skogsbruk i Sverige2008In: Omstridd natur: trender & utmaningar i nordisk naturförvaltning / [ed] Camilla Sandström, Sissel Hovik, Eva Irene Falleth, Umeå: Borea , 2008, 1, p. 248-268Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 191.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Negotiating the Arctic: The construction of an international region2004Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 192.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    "New Governance" in the Arctic and Its Role for Supporting Climate Change Adaptation2009In: Climate Governance in the Arctic / [ed] Timo Koivurova, E. Carina H. Keskitalo, Nigel Bankes, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2009, Vol. 50, p. 97-116Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Formal Arctic governance has developed mainly since the 1990s when the eight-state Arctic Council was established to provide a common forum for national, indigenous peoples' and environmental interests. The Arctic is seen as encompassing the northernmost areas of the Nordic states, USA, Russia and Canada, thereby including areas that will be among those impacted the earliest by the effects of climate change on sea ice and permafrost. However, most of the pollution affecting the Arctic is not released in the area, and cohesion among the states in confronting the climate change problem has been limited. Based in interviews with organisations involved in new governance initiatives (high level fora, NGOs and international organisations) in the Arctic region, this chapter discusses the capacity of the Arctic governance framework to support adaptation to climate change. The paper views adaptation in governance as requiring horizontal and vertical interlinkage between actors, and outlines the interlinkages between regional actors as well as the resources (including funding and legislation) perceived by the interviewees as available to the organisations. The paper concludes that organisational capacities will need to be strengthened for effective implementation of adaptive actions.

  • 193.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Sustainable development and human dimensions: environmentalinitiatives2005In: Encyclopedia of the Arctic / [ed] Nuttall, M., New York & London: Routledge , 2005, Vol. 3, p. 1972-1975Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 194.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    The Arctic as an international region—but for whom2004In: Arctic governance: Northern institute of environmental and minority law / [ed] Timo Koivurova, Tanja Joona and Reija Shnoro, Rovaniemi: University of Lapland , 2004, p. 2-26Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 195.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    ’The North’ – is there such a thing?: Deconstructing/contesting Northern and Arctic discourse2009In: Cold Matters: Cultural perceptions of snow, ice and cold / [ed] Heidi Hansson and Cathrine Norberg, Umeå: Umeå University and the Royal Skyttean Society , 2009, 1, p. 23-39Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 196.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Vulnerability and adaptive capacity in forestry in northern Europe: a Swedish case study2008In: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 87, no 1/2, p. 219-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is likely to present new and substantially unpredictable challenges to human societies. The prospect is of particular concern at the local and regional levels, since vulnerability and adaptive capacity are location-specific and many decisions regarding climate-induced risks are made at those levels. In this light, one is compelled to survey stakeholders’ understandings of their situation and perceived problems. Assessments should also include the context of other ongoing changes, such as globalisation, that will impact communities and exacerbate their vulnerabilities. This paper presents an assessment of vulnerability and adaptive capacity in the forestry sector in the Pite River basin in northern Sweden. The study was carried out using a multi-method design encompassing literature surveys, interviews with stakeholders, and stakeholder meetings. The paper concludes that while climate change will have an impact on the region, its effect will be superseded by that of broader socio-economic changes. The results illustrate the need to understand local and regional perceptions of adaptation in formulating appropriate policy measures.

  • 197.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Vulnerability in forestry, fishing and reindeer herding systems in northern Europe and Russia2007In: Movements, migrants, marginalisation.: Challenges of societal and political participation in Eastern Europe and the enlarged EU, Stuttgart: Ibidem Publishers , 2007, p. 203-212Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 198.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Baird, Julia
    Laszlo Ambjörnsson, Emmeline
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Plummer, Ryan
    Social network analysis of multi-level linkages: a Swedish case study on Northern forest-based sectors2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 745-758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest use in Northern Sweden is being influenced both by global trends and local situations. This results in interactions between numerous groups that may impact local forest governance. Social network analysis can here provide insight into the total pattern of positive, negative, and cross-level interactions within user group community structure (within and among groups). This study analyses interactions within selected renewable resource sectors in two northern Swedish municipalities, both with regard to whether they are positive, neutral, or negative, as well as with regard to how local actors relate to actors across levels, e.g., with regional, national, and international actors. The study illustrates that many interactions both within and outside a given sector are seen as neutral or positive, and that considerable interaction and impact are defined as national and in some cases even international. It also indicates that the impact of Sweden's only existing Model Forest may to some extent constitute a bridge between different sectors and levels, in comparison with the interactions between sectors in a municipality where such a cooperation mechanism does not exist.

  • 199.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Bergh, Johan
    Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Felton, Adam
    SLU, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Björkman, Christer
    SLU, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Berlin, Mats
    Skogforsk, Uppsala Science Park, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Axelsson, Petter
    SLU, Umeå.
    Ring, Eva
    Skogforsk, Uppsala Science Park, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Ågren, Anneli
    SLU, Umeå.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    SLU, Umeå.
    Klapwijk, Maartje J.
    SLU, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Boberg, Johanna
    SLU, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Adaptation to Climate Change in Swedish Forestry2016In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 28-, article id UNSP 28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptation to climate change in forestry has become a growing concern, in part due to the impact of storms and other events that have raised the awareness of such risks amongst forest owners. Sweden is one of Europe's most densely-forested countries, with this sector playing a major role economically. However adaptation has, to a large extent, been limited to the provision of recommendations to forest managers, most of which have only been partially implemented. This paper summarizes research with direct implications for adaptation to climate change within the forestry sector in Sweden. The focus is based in particular on providing examples of adaptations that illustrate the specific Swedish orientation to adaptation, in line with its relatively intensive forest management system. The paper thus illustrates a specific Swedish orientation to adaptation through active management, which can be contrasted with approaches to adaptation in other forestry systems, in particular those with limited management or management based on maintaining natural forests in particular.

  • 200.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Dannevig, Halvor
    CICERO Center for International Climate and Environmental Research, Gaustadalleen 21, 0373 Oslo, Norway.
    Hovelsrud, Grete K.
    CICERO Center for International Climate and Environmental Research, Gaustadalleen 21, 0373 Oslo, Norway.
    West, Jennifer J.
    CICERO Center for International Climate and Environmental Research, Gaustadalleen 21, 0373 Oslo, Norway.
    Swartling, Åsa Gerger
    Stockholm Environment Institute and Stockholm Resilience Centre, Kräftriket 2 B, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Adaptive capacity determinants in developed states: examples from the Nordic countries and Russia2011In: Regional Environmental Change, ISSN 1436-3798, E-ISSN 1436-378X, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 579-592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive capacity in a community context has so far mainly been studied in developing countries as well as indigenous communities in the industrialised world. This article adds to that literature through reviewing studies undertaken in the Nordic countries and Russia, highlighting the ways in which general determinants of adaptive capacity play out in Northern, industrialised contexts. The paper illustrates that the determinants of adaptive capacity in industrialised states exhibit systematic differences from mixed subsistence-cash based communities such as those found in Arctic Canada. We discuss in particular the importance of economic resources in a market-based system, technological competition, and infrastructure, in determining adaptive capacity of natural resource-dependent communities in the Nordic countries and Russia. The paper also illustrates differences in adaptive capacity within the case study region, including between peripheral and central locations with regard to economic resources and diversification possibilities, and between Nordic and Russian cases with regard to infrastructure and technology access. The findings indicate that understanding of determinants of adaptive capacity in resource-dependent communities would benefit from both further contextualisation and broad comparison, across different types of political and administrative systems.

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