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  • 151.
    Brinck, Katharina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Information Entropy and Ecological Energetics: Predicting and Analysing Structure and Energy Flow in Ecological Networks applying the Concept of MaxEnt2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ecological networks are complex systems forming hierarchical structures in which energy and matter is transferred between the network’s compartments. Predicting energy flows in food webs usually involves complex parameter-rich models. In this thesis, the application of the principle of maximum entropy (MaxEnt) to obtain least biased probability distributions based on prior knowledge is proposed as an alternative to predict the most likely energy flows in food webs from the network topology alone. This approach not only simplifies the characterisation of food web flow patterns based on little empirical knowledge but can also be used to investigate the role of bottom-up and top-down controlling forces in ecosystems resulting from the emergent phenomena based on the complex interactions on the level of species and individuals. The integrative measure of “flow extent”, incorporating both bottom- up and top-down controlling forces on ecosystems, is proposed as a principle behind ecosystem evolution and evaluated against empirical data on food web structure. It could be demonstrated that the method of predicting energy flow with the help of MaxEnt is very flexible, applicable to many different setting and types of questions in ecology, and therefore providing a powerful tool for modelling the energy transfer in ecosystems. Further research has to show in how far the most likely flow patterns are realised in real-word ecosystems. The concept of flow extent maximisation as a selection principle during ecosystem evolution can enhance the understanding of emergent phenomena in complex ecosystems and maybe help to draw a link between thermodynamics and ecology. 

  • 152.
    Brindefalk, Bjorn
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Ekman, Martin
    Stockholm University.
    Ininbergs, Karolina
    Stockholm University.
    Dupont, Christopher L.
    J Craig Venter Inst, USA.
    Yooseph, Shibu
    J Craig Venter Inst, USA.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Bergman, Birgitta
    Stockholm University.
    Distribution and expression of microbial rhodopsins in the Baltic Sea and adjacent waters2016In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 18, no 12, p. 4442-4455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rhodopsins are light-driven ion-pumping membrane proteins found in many organisms and are proposed to be of global importance for oceanic microbial energy generation. Several studies have focused on marine environments, with less exploration of rhodopsins in brackish waters. We investigated microbial rhodopsins in the Baltic Sea using size-fractionated metagenomic and metatranscriptomic datasets collected along a salinity gradient spanning from similar to 0 to 35 PSU. The normalised genomic abundance of rhodopsins in Bacteria, as well as rhodopsin gene expression, was highest in the smallest size fraction (0.1-0.8 mu m), relative to the medium (0.8-3.0 mu m) and large (> 3.0 mu m) size fractions. The abundance of rhodopsins in the two smaller size fractions displayed a positive correlation with salinity. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes rhodopsins were the most abundant while Actinobacteria rhodopsins, or actinorhodopsins, were common at lower salinities. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that rhodopsins have adapted independently to the marine-brackish transition on multiple occasions, giving rise to green light-adapted variants from ancestral blue light-adapted ones. A notable diversity of viral-like rhodopsins was also detected in the dataset and potentially linked with eukaryotic phytoplankton blooms. Finally, a new clade of likely proton-pumping rhodopsin with non-canonical amino acids in the spectral tuning and proton accepting site was identified.

  • 153.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Drugs cause fishy behavior2013In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 45, p. IX-IXArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 154.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Predator effects on behaviour and life-history of prey2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis I investigate predator-induced effects on behavioural and life-history characteristics of prey. At any moment a given predator is capable of attacking a small number of prey. However, the mere presence of a predator may impact a much larger number of individuals, as prey implement various behavioural and developmental mechanisms to reduce the risk of predation. It has become increasingly clear that predator induced responses have the potential to affect patterns of species abundance and distribution as well as individual fitness of prey. I study these responses by incorporating field surveys, semi-field experiments and laboratory experiments. All experiments were done in an aquatic environment using fish or large odonate larvae as predators and damselfly-or diving beetle larvae as prey.

    My work highlights the importance of monitoring prey behaviour when studying life-history characteristics. I show that fish presence is an important factor for determining species abundance and distribution of odonates, and that prey behaviour may be a good predictor for fish vulnerability. Larval damselflies react behaviourally to predator presence by reducing activity and/or restricting habitat use. I confirm that such anti-predator responses have positive effects on prey survival in the presence of a predator but negative effects on growth and development of prey. In addition, my results suggest that the increase in per capita food resources for surviving prey following a predation episode (i.e. thinning) can have a stronger positive effect on prey growth and development than the negative effect of anti-predator responses. I also show that the strength of an anti-predator response is dependent on resource availability of the prey, with prey responding less strongly when resources are scarce. My results also indicate that the strength of the anti-predator response of damselfly larvae depends on predator diet and larval age. Predators feeding on prey conspecifics induce a stronger behavioural response in young larva than predators that feed on prey heterospecifics do. This diet-effect was not found in larvae late in ontogeny, due to an increased activity of larva where predators consumed damselflies. Such increased larval activity can be explained as a reaction to a time-constraint. Finally, I found that activity of damselfly larvae is genetically determined and that this has lead to a behavioural syndrome that might limit larval plasticity to a certain activity-range. This phenomenon may have implications for how well larvae are able to react to both biotic and abiotic changes in the environment.

  • 155.
    Brodin, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Drotz, Marcus K.
    Lake Vänern Museum Nat & Cultural Hist, S-53154 Linköping, Sweden.
    Individual variation in dispersal associated behavioral traits of the invasive Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis, H. Milne Edwards, 1854) during initial invasion of Lake Vänern, Sweden2014In: Current Zoology, ISSN 1674-5507, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 410-416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding and predicting species range-expansions and biological invasions is an important challenge in modern ecology because of rapidly changing environments. Recent studies have revealed that consistent within-species variation in behavior (i.e. animal personality) can be imperative for dispersal success, a key stage in the invasion process. Here we investigate the composition and correlation of two important personality traits associated with invasion success, activity and boldness, and how they are connected to sex and individual size in a newly colonised population of the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis in Lake Vanern, Sweden. We found no effect of sex or size on behavioral expressions of E. sinensis but a clear positive correlation between boldness and activity. In addition, this study generates important baseline data for monitoring behavioral development, and thereby changing ecological impact, of an invading population over time. This has implications for predicting ecological effects of invasive species as well as for managing ecological invasions.

  • 156.
    Brodin, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Johansson, Frank
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Predator related oviposition site selection of aquatic beetles (Hydroporus spp.) and effects on offspring life-history2006In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 51, no 7, p. 1277-1285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Theory predicts that natural selection should favour females that are able to correctly assess the risk of predation and then use that information to avoid high-risk oviposition sites to reduce the risk of offspring predation. Despite the potential significance of such behaviour on individual fitness, population dynamics and community structure, relatively few studies of oviposition behaviour connected to the risk of predation have been carried out.

    2. However, some recent studies suggest that oviposition site selection in response to risk of predation may be a common phenomenon, at least among amphibians and mosquitoes. A vast majority of previous studies have, however, neglected to investigate how the offspring are affected, in terms of fitness related parameters, by the maternal oviposition site choice.

    3. In an outdoor artificial pond experiment we tested the oviposition site selection of female aquatic beetles (Hydroporus spp.) in relation to the presence or absence of a predatory fish (Perca fluviatilis). In addition, we monitored how the oviposition site selection affected the behaviour, growth and food resource of the progeny.

    4. We show that free-flying females of the aquatic beetles Hydroporus incognitus and H. nigrita prefer to oviposit in waters without fish compared with waters with fish. Larval activity of Hydroporus spp. was unaffected by fish presence. Our results indicate that beetle larvae from females that do lay eggs in waters with fish show increased growth compared with larvae in waters without fish. We explain this difference in growth by a higher per-capita food supply in the presence of a fish predator. This finding may have important implications for our understanding of how the variance of oviposition site selection in a population is sustained.

  • 157.
    Brodin, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Piovano, Susanna
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Heynen, Martina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ecological effects of pharmaceuticals in aquatic systems-impacts through behavioural alterations2014In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 369, no 1656, p. 20130580-Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of animal behaviour is important for both ecology and ecotoxicology, yet research in these two fields is currently developing independently. Here, we synthesize the available knowledge on drug-induced behavioural alterations in fish, discuss potential ecological consequences and report results from an experiment in which we quantify both uptake and behavioural impact of a psychiatric drug on a predatory fish (Perca fluviatilis) and its invertebrate prey (Coenagrion hastulatum). We show that perch became more active while damselfly behaviour was unaffected, illustrating that behavioural effects of pharmaceuticals can differ between species. Furthermore, we demonstrate that prey consumption can be an important exposure route as on average 46% of the pharmaceutical in ingested prey accumulated in the predator. This suggests that investigations of exposure through bioconcentration, where trophic interactions and subsequent bioaccumulation of exposed individuals are ignored, underestimate exposure. Wildlife may therefore be exposed to higher levels of behaviourally altering pharmaceuticals than predictions based on commonly used exposure assays and pharmaceutical concentrations found in environmental monitoring programmes.

  • 158.
    Broman, Elias
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Sachpazidou, Varvara
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Oxygenation of Hypoxic Coastal Baltic Sea Sediments Impacts on Chemistry, Microbial Community Composition, and Metabolism2017In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 8, article id 2453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea has undergone severe eutrophication during the last century, resulting in increased algal blooms and the development of hypoxic bottom waters. In this study, we sampled oxygen deficient sediment cores from a Baltic Sea coastal bay and exposed the bottom water including the sediment surface to oxygen shifts via artificial addition of air during laboratory incubation. Surface sediment (top 1 cm) from the replicate cores were sliced in the field as well as throughout the laboratory incubations and chemical parameters were analyzed along with high throughput sequencing of community DNA and RNA. After oxygenation, dissolved iron decreased in the water overlying the sediment while inorganic sulfur compounds (thiosulfate and tetrathionate) increased when the water was kept anoxic. Oxygenation of the sediment also maintained RNA transcripts attributed to sulfide and sulfur oxidation as well as nitrogen fixation in the sediment surface. Based on 16S rRNA gene and metatranscriptomic analyses it was found that oxygenation of the sediment surface caused a bloom of the Epsilonproteobacteria genus Arcobacter. In addition, the formation of a thick white film was observed that was likely filamentous zero-valent sulfur produced by the Arcobacter spp. Based on these results, sulfur cycling and nitrogen fixation that were evident in the field samples were ongoing during re-oxygenation of the sediment. These processes potentially added organic nitrogen to the system and facilitated the re-establishment of micro- and macroorganism communities in the benthic zone.

  • 159.
    Broman, Elias
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Sjöstedt, Johanna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Shifts in coastal sediment oxygenation cause pronounced changes in microbial community composition and associated metabolism2017In: Microbios, ISSN 0026-2633, Vol. 5, article id 96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    A key characteristic of eutrophication in coastal seas is the expansion of hypoxic bottom waters, often referred to as ‘dead zones’. One proposed remediation strategy for coastal dead zones in the Baltic Sea is to mix the water column using pump stations, circulating oxygenated water to the sea bottom. Although microbial metabolism in the sediment surface is recognized as key in regulating bulk chemical fluxes, it remains unknown how the microbial community and its metabolic processes are influenced by shifts in oxygen availability. Here, coastal Baltic Sea sediments sampled from oxic and anoxic sites, plus an intermediate area subjected to episodic oxygenation, were experimentally exposed to oxygen shifts. Chemical, 16S rRNA gene, metagenomic, and metatranscriptomic analyses were conducted to investigate changes in chemistry fluxes, microbial community structure, and metabolic functions in the sediment surface.

    Results

    Compared to anoxic controls, oxygenation of anoxic sediment resulted in a proliferation of bacterial populations in the facultative anaerobic genus Sulfurovum that are capable of oxidizing toxic sulfide. Furthermore, the oxygenated sediment had higher amounts of RNA transcripts annotated as sqr, fccB, and dsrA involved in sulfide oxidation. In addition, the importance of cryptic sulfur cycling was highlighted by the oxidative genes listed above as well as dsvA, ttrB, dmsA, and ddhAB that encode reductive processes being identified in anoxic and intermediate sediments turned oxic. In particular, the intermediate site sediments responded differently upon oxygenation compared to the anoxic and oxic site sediments. This included a microbial community composition with more habitat generalists, lower amounts of RNA transcripts attributed to methane oxidation, and a reduced rate of organic matter degradation.

    Conclusions

    These novel data emphasize that genetic expression analyses has the power to identify key molecular mechanisms that regulate microbial community responses upon oxygenation of dead zones. Moreover, these results highlight that microbial responses, and therefore ultimately remediation efforts, depend largely on the oxygenation history of sites. Furthermore, it was shown that re-oxygenation efforts to remediate dead zones could ultimately be facilitated by in situ microbial molecular mechanisms involved in removal of toxic H2S and the potent greenhouse gas methane.

  • 160.
    Broman, Evelina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Regulation of bacterial production in the Råne estuary, northern Baltic Sea2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies indicate that the interaction between heterotrophic bacteria and dissolved organic matter is rather different in rivers and estuaries. The aim of my thesis was to elucidate if bacteria are regulated differently in the Råne river and estuary during a spring situation. Surface water was collected at both locations and a bioassay performed to study limiting substances for bacterial production, proportion bio-available dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the water and bacterial growth efficiencies (BGE). The Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosperous concentrations were all higher in the estuary than in the river. The bioassay showed that nitrogen-phosphorus limited the bacterial production at both locations, while DOC occurred in excess. The bio-available part of the DOC pool was larger in the estuary (~6%) than in the river (~3%). However, the BGE was much higher in the river (~40%) than in the estuary (~5%), indicating that a larger proportion of the consumed DOC was used for respiration in the estuary. I conclude that heterotrophic bacteria are limited by the same substance, but that the bacterial metabolism is quite differently regulated in the river and in the estuary.

  • 161.
    Bruder, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Does restoration affect metabolism in a boreal stream?2006Student paper otherStudent thesis
  • 162. Bruno, Daniel
    et al.
    Gutierrez-Canovas, Cayetano
    Sanchez-Fernandez, David
    Velasco, Josefa
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Impacts of environmental filters on functional redundancy in riparian vegetation2016In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 846-855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Understanding and predicting ecosystem responses to multiple environmental pressures is a long-standing interest in ecology and environmental management. However, few studies have examined how the functional features of freshwater biological communities vary along multiple gradients of environmental stress. Furthermore, modelling these functional features for a whole river network constitutes a strong potential basis to improve ecosystem management. 2. We explored how functional redundancy of biological communities (FR, a functional feature related to the stability, resistance and resilience of ecosystems) responds to single and multiple environmental filters. We compared these responses with those of functional richness, evenness and divergence. We used riparian vegetation of a Mediterranean basin, and three of the main environmental filters affecting freshwater communities in such regions, that is drought, flow regulation and agricultural intensity, thus considering the potential effect of natural environmental variability. We also assessed the predictability of FR and estimated it for the entire river network. 3. We found that all functional measures decreased with increasing environmental filter intensity. However, FR was more sensitive to single and multiple environmental filters compared to other functional measures. The best-fitting model explained 59% of the FR variability and included agriculture, drought and flow regulation and the pairwise interactions of agriculture with drought and flow regulation. The parameters of the FR models differed from null model expectations reflecting a non-random decline along stress gradients. 4. Synthesis and applications. We found non-random detrimental effects along environmental filters' gradients for riparian functional redundancy (the most sensitive functional index), meaning that increased stress could jeopardize stability, resistance and resilience of these systems. In general, agriculture caused the greatest impact on functional redundancy and functional diversity measures, being the most important stressor for riparian functionality in the study area. Temporary streams flowing through an agricultural, regulated basin had reduced values of functional redundancy, whereas the free-flowing medium-sized, perennial water courses flowing through unaltered sub-basins displayed higher values of functional redundancy and potentially greater stability against human impacts. All these findings along with the predicted basin-wide variation of functional redundancy can assist environmental managers in improving monitoring and ecosystem management.

  • 163.
    Brutemark, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Granéli, Edna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Role of mixotrophy and light for growth and survival of the toxic haptophyte Prymnesium parvum2011In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 10, p. 388-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mixotrophy in Prymnesium parvum was investigated using carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotopes. The experiment was performed in light and dark. In the dark treatment we expected that the mixotrophic P. parvum would rely solely on its prey and therefore reflect the prey isotopic signatures. In the light treatment P. parvum can perform photosynthesis as well as utilize its prey, thus we expect the isotopic signatures to be between the dark mixed cultures and the monocultures, depending on how much prey was utilized. In the light treatment, addition of the ciliate Myrionecta rubra resulted in higher P. parvum cell numbers compared to monocultures. During the experiment, cell numbers in the dark monocultures and the mixed dark cultures did not increase. P. parvum had 2.5-3 times higher cellular phosphorus and nitrogen content in the dark compared to the cultures in the light whereas no difference in carbon content between treatments could be observed. This suggests that P. parvum can utilize nitrogen and phosphorus but not carbon in the dark. It thus seems as if P. parvum relies on photosynthesis to meet the carbon and energy demand required for growth. The expected isotopic signatures “become what you eat…plus a few per mil” were not observed. In the dark treatment, the δ13C did not differ between monocultures and mixed cultures. In the light treatments P. parvum δ13C became less negative then the corresponding dark treatments indicating that P. parvum used CO2 rather than carbon from the added prey. No difference in δ15N between monocultures and mixed cultures could be observed during the experiment. We argue that light is necessary for P. parvum growth and that the ability to utilize nutrients originating from their prey may be important in bloom formation.

  • 164.
    Brännström, Åke
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Johansson, Jacob
    Loeuille, Nicolas
    Kristensen, Nadiah
    Troost, Tineke A
    Lambers, Reinier Hille Ris
    Dieckmann, Ulf
    Modelling the ecology and evolution of communities: a review of past achievements, current efforts, and future promises2012In: Evolutionary Ecology Research, ISSN 1522-0613, E-ISSN 1937-3791, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 601-625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The complexity and dynamical nature of community interactions make modelling a useful tool for understanding how communities develop over time and how they respond to external perturbations. Large community-evolution models (LCEMs) are particularly promising, since they can address both ecological and evolutionary questions, and can give rise to richly structured and diverse model communities.

    Questions: Which types of models have been used to study community structure and what are their key features and limitations? How do adaptations and/or invasions affect community formation? Which mechanisms promote diverse and stable communities? What are the implications of LCEMs for management and conservation? What are the key challenges for future research?

    Models considered: Static models of community structure, demographic community models, and small and large community-evolution models.

    Conclusions: Large community-evolution models encompass a variety of modelled traits and interactions, demographic dynamics, and evolutionary dynamics. They are able to reproduce empirical community structures. They have already generated new insights, such as the dual role of competition, which limits diversity through competitive exclusion yet facilitates diversity through speciation. Other critical factors determining eventual community structure are the shape of trade-off functions, inclusion of adaptive foraging, and energy availability. A particularly interesting feature of LCEMs is that these models not only help to contrast outcomes of community formation via species assembly with those of community formation via gradual evolution and speciation, but that they can furthermore unify the underlying invasion processes and evolutionary processes into a single framework.

  • 165.
    Brännström, Åke
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Johansson, Jacob
    Loeuille, Nicolas
    Kristensen, Nadiah
    Troost, Tineke
    Hille Ris Lambers, Reinier
    Dieckmann, Ulf
    Modelling the ecology and evolution of communities: a review of past achievements, current efforts, and future promises2012In: Evolutionary Ecology Research, ISSN 1522-0613, E-ISSN 1937-3791, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 601-625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The complexity and dynamical nature of community interactions makemodelling a useful tool for understanding how communities develop over time and howthey respond to external perturbations. Large community-evolution models (LCEMs) areparticularly promising, since they can address both ecological and evolutionary questions, andcan give rise to richly structured and diverse model communities.Questions: Which types of models have been used to study community structure and what aretheir key features and limitations? How do adaptations and/or invasions affect communityformation? Which mechanisms promote diverse and stable communities? What are theimplications of LCEMs for management and conservation? What are the key challenges forfuture research?Models considered: Static models of community structure, demographic community models,and small and large community-evolution models.Conclusions: Large community-evolution models encompass a variety of modelled traits andinteractions, demographic dynamics, and evolutionary dynamics. They are able to reproduceempirical community structures. They have already generated new insights, such as the dual roleof competition, which limits diversity through competitive exclusion yet facilitates diversitythrough speciation. Other critical factors determining eventual community structure arethe shape of trade-off functions, inclusion of adaptive foraging, and energy availability. A particularly interesting feature of LCEMs is that these models not only help to contrast

  • 166.
    Brännström, Åke
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Loeuille, Nicolas
    Laboratoire Ecologie & Evolution, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France .
    Loreau, Michel
    Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
    Dieckmann, Ulf
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Evolution and Ecology Program, Laxenburg, Austria.
    Emergence and maintenance of biodiversity in an evolutionary food-web model2011In: Theoretical Ecology, ISSN 1874-1738, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 467-478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecological communities emerge as a consequence of gradual evolution, speciation, and immigration. In this study, we explore how these processes and the structure of the evolved food webs are affected by species-level properties. Using a model of biodiversity formation that is based on body size as the evolving trait and incorporates gradual evolution and adaptive radiation, we investigate how conditions for initial diversification relate to the eventual diversity of a food web. We also study how trophic interactions, interference competition, and energy availability affect a food web’s maximum trophic level and contrast this with conditions for high diversity. We find that there is not always a positive relationship between conditions that promote initial diversification and eventual diversity, and that the most diverse food webs often do not have the highest trophic levels.

  • 167. Brännäs, Eva
    et al.
    Nilsson, M. -C
    Nilsson, L.
    Gallet, C.
    Brännäs, Kurt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Berglind, R.
    Eriksson, L. -O
    Leffler, P. -E
    Zackrisson, O.
    Potential toxic effect on aquatic fauna by the dwarf shrub: Empetrum hermaphroditum2004In: Journal of Chemical Ecology, ISSN 0098-0331, E-ISSN 1573-1561, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 215-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The common evergreen dwarf shrub Empetrum hormaphroditum has influence on the functioning of boreal terrestrial ecosystems in northern Sweden. The negative effects of E. hermaphroditum are partly attributed to the production of the dihydrostilbene, batatasin-III, which is released from leaves and litter by rain and snowmelt. In this study, we investigated whether batatasin-III is carried by runoff into streams and lakes during the snowmelt period and whether it is also potentially hazardous to aquatic fauna. Sampling of water from streams and a lake for which the surrounding terrestrial vegetation is dominated by E. hermaphroditum was done during the snowmelt period in May 1993 and in 1998, and analyzed for batatasin-III. Using 24- and 48-hr standard toxicity tests, we analyzed toxicity to brown trout (Salmo trutta) alevins and juvenile water fleas (Daphnia magna). Toxicity (proportion of dead individuals) to trout was tested at pH 6.5 and compared with that of a phenol within a range of concentrations. In the toxicity (proportion of immobilized indivuals) test on D. magna, the interactive effect of pH (pH 5.5-7.0) was included. Concentration of batatasin-III was generally higher in 1998 than in 1993 and showed peak levels during snowmelt. Concentration in ephemeral runnels > the lake > streams running through clear-cuts dominated by E. hermaphroditum > control streams lacking adjacent E. hermaphroditum vegetation. The maximum concentration of batatasin-III found was 1.06 mg l-1. The proportion of dead yolk sac alevins increased significantly (P < 0.001) with increasing concentrations of batatasin-III and time of exposure. After 24 hr, EC 50 was 10 mg l-1. It was 2 mg l-1 after 48 hr. The effect of phenol was negligible, indicating a specific phytotoxic effect of the bibenzyl structure of batatasin-III. The proportion of mobile D. magna became significantly smaller (P < 0.001) with increasing concentrations of batatasin-III, with decreasing pH, and with increasing exposure time. EC 50 varied between 7 and 17 mg l-1 at pH 5.5 and 7.0, respectively. After 24 hr EC50 decreased and was 2.5 at pH 5.5 and 12 mg l-1 at pH 7.0. The levels of batatasin-III found in the field samples were below the lowest EC50 in acute toxicity tests. However, in view of the interactive effect of pH and exposure time, this study suggests that this stable plant metabolite may impose a lethal effect on the aquatic fauna in small streams.

  • 168.
    Brånin, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology.
    Vattenfysikalisk-kemiska och bottenfaunaförhållanden i ett norrländskt vattendrag påverkat av utsläpp från sulfidmalmbrytning och anrikning1979Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The raining and milling of complex zinc and copper pyrite ore is the cause of water pollution in some districts of the county of Västerbotten. To determine the effects of the wastewater from the mining process in the stream Vorm-bäcken 1971 - 1975, physical, chemical and biological investigations have been performed and evaluated.The character of the stream is changed principally by the inflow of sulphur, calcium and heavy metals. In addition to higher concentrations of a number of substances an acidification occurs, which is most distinct in the lower reaches of the stream. The pH decrease is greatest during summer and autumn, when the metal concentrations also peak. Several of the physicochemical parameters are closely correlated. Most evident is the correlation between conductivity and sulphate. But turbidity, iron, colour and pH are also related to each other in different ways. This means that for a continuous survey of the physical and chemical conditions there is redundancy of data in this comprehensive material. Within the framework of the present control program, a more careful selection of parameters and sampling times should therefore provide a considerably better overall picture of the physicochemical effects.The bottom fauna in the riffles, sampled by a simple netting technique, are qualitatively changed. The effects are most accentuated on mussels, mayflies and stoneflies. The number of taxa for the total fauna and for the combined orders mayflies, stoneflies and caddisflies is the most reliable parameter compared to the total abundance and the number of specimens of each taxon. The number of taxa also follows the changing physicochemical conditions better than the commonly used diversity index (the Shannon-Weaver index). The number of riffle fauna taxa are lowest in summer and autumn.The changes in number of taxa and diversity indices are best related to colour, conductivity, pH and turbidity. The decrease in number of taxa is also associated with the decrease in primary production, such as perifyton and mosses. Based upon these results, some alterations of the existing physical and chemical control program are proposed. As an indicator of the changed biological conditions, it is suggested that bottom fauna investigations should be performed annually each autumn.

  • 169.
    Buchadas, Ana R. C.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hof, Anouschka R.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Future breeding and foraging sites of a southern edge population of the locally endangered Black Guillemot Cepphus grylle2017In: Bird Study, ISSN 0006-3657, E-ISSN 1944-6705, Vol. 64, no 3, p. 306-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Capsule: One of the southernmost populations of the Black Guillemot Cepphus grylle is currently endangered, and the risk may be exacerbated by climate change. Aims: We evaluated the future vulnerability of the Black Guillemot by predicting the impact of climate change on the geographic distribution of its breeding and foraging range in the Baltic Sea. Methods: We used MaxEnt, a species distribution modelling technique, to predict the current and future breeding grounds and foraging sites. Results: We found that although the foraging range is expected to increase in the southern Baltic Sea in future, these areas will no longer be suitable as breeding grounds due to a changing climate, creating a spatial mismatch. Conclusion: Our predictions indicate where threats to the species may be most severe and can be used to guide conservation planning. We advocate conservation measures which integrate potential future threats and focus on breeding sites across the current and future potential geographic range of the Black Guillemot.

  • 170. Buckland, Paul C.
    et al.
    Buckland, Philip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Hughes, Damian
    Palaeoecological evidence for the Vera hypothesis?2005In: Large herbivores in the wildwood and modern naturalistic grazing systems, English Nature , 2005, p. 62-116Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report stems from work commissioned by English Nature into the role of largeherbivores in the post-glacial landscape of Britain and the potential for using free-ranginggrazing animals to create and maintain diverse landscape mosaics in modern conditions.Some aspects may be disputed or considered controversial; it is an active field of research.Therefore we stress that the views expressed are those of the authors at the current time.Subsequent research may confirm our views or lead us to modify them.We hope they will be useful in future discussions, both within English Nature and inconservation land-management circles more generally.

  • 171. Buckland, Paul C.
    et al.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Insect Remains from GUS: an interim report1998In: Man, Culture and Environment in Ancient Greenland / [ed] J. Arneborg & H.C. Gulløv, Copenhagen: Danish Polar Center, Copenhagen , 1998, p. 74-79Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 172. Buckland, Paul C.
    et al.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    The Alder Leaf Beetle Agelastica alni (L.) (Col.: Chrysomelidae) in the Dearne Valley. Climate change or poor quarantine.2014In: Sorby Record, ISSN 0260-2245, no 50, p. 2-6Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 173. Buckland, Paul C.
    et al.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Panagiotakopulu, Eva
    Department of Geography, School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh.
    Caught in a trap: landscape and climate implications of the insect fauna from a Roman well in Sherwood Forest2018In: Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences, ISSN 1866-9557, E-ISSN 1866-9565, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 125-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sherwood Forest in Nottinghamshire is often considered a well preserved ancient landscape, subsequently having survived by way of centuries of management as a hunting preserve. Archaeological evidence suggests otherwise, with an enclosed landscape beginning in the pre-Roman Iron Age and continuing through the Romanperiod. Due to the nature of the region's soils, however, there is little empirical, palaeoecological evidence on its environmental history prior to the medieval period. This paper presents an insect fauna from a Roman well in a small enclosure in north Nottinghamshire, on the edge of Sherwood Forest, and its interpretation in terms of contemporary land use. Wells and small pools act as large pitfall traps and mayeffectively sample aspects of the local and regional insect fauna. The Wild Goose Cottage fauna and its environmental implications are also compared with a number of archaeologically and geographically similar contexts.

  • 174. Buckland, Paul C.
    et al.
    Panagiotakopulu, Eva
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    What's eating Halvdan the Black?: Fossil insects and the study of a burial mound in its landscape context2004In: Halvdanshaugen: arkeologi, historie og naturvetenskap / [ed] Jan Henning Larsen og Perry Rolfsen, Oslo: University Museum of Cultural Heritage , 2004, 1, p. 353-375Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the earliest work with insects from archaeological contexts dates back to was work on Egyptian mummies in the early nineteenth century, they were not widely used in archaeological interpretation until an effective technique for concentrating their remains was developed during the 1960s by Coope and Osborne at the University of Birmingham in England. Whilst most of their research centred upon climate and environment during the Late Quaternary, Osborne in particular began to examine assemblages from archaeological sites, and his work was expanded by Kenward, initially concentrating upon Roman and early medieval deposits in the city of York and later by Robinson at Oxford, whose main interest is in the late Holocene history of the Thames valley. Funding from the Leverhulme Trust in the UK allowed Buckland to examine the origins of the insect faunas of the Atlantic islands and this work has continued until recently. Initially research was concentrated upon the Coleoptera (beetles), but Kenward added identifications of Hemiptera (true bugs), and Skidmore and Panagiotakopulu Diptera (true flies). Panagiotakopulu has also worked closely with ectoparasite remains from archaeological sites. Although identification work still relies heavily upon the availability of extensive reference collections, the development of an extensive computer-based database, BUGS, of habitat, distribution and the fossil record of Quaternary insects has made interpretation considerably easier. In Scandinavia, early work was pioneered by Henriksen and later Lindroth. More recently Lemdahl has worked extensively on Lateglacial into Holocene natural assemblages and, in association with Hellqvist, has also examined archaeological contexts. Apart from Ponel’s work in France, there has been little recent research elsewhere in Europe, and most published work concerns natural assemblages. Similarly apart from Bain’s work on post-Columbian assemblages in the eastern US and Canada, and some work by Elias in the mid-West, insects have rarely been utilised in site interpretation in the Americas and, apart from Egypt, Africa, Asia and Australasia have fared even worse. Part of the reason behind this is the scattered nature of published results, and the frequent failure of archaeologists to cost scientific aspects of work upon their sites into project design. This paper attempts to outline some of the evidence which has been obtained from the study of insect remains, as well as to outline the methods used to concentrate the fossils. The fairly extensive bibliography allows access to the published literature, particularly that relevant to the Scandinavian World.

  • 175.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    et al.
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Panagiotakopulu, Eva
    Edinburgh University, Scotland.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Perdikaris, Sophia
    Skidmore, Peter
    Insect faunas from Medieval Langenes in Arctic Norway2006In: Proceedings from the VIII Nordic Conference on the Application of Scientific Methods In Archaeology, Umeå, Sweden, 2001. / [ed] Engelmark, Roger & Linderholm, Johan, 2006, p. 17-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cultural sediments containing significant amounts of fish bone at Langenesværet, Vesterålen, Northern Norway provide an opportunity to characterise activity during and prior to the establishment of a late medieval commercial fishing station (fiskevaer). Radiometric and AMS dating techniques are used to establish a chronology for the deposits, while activities associated with the sediments are characterised fossil insect faunas. The results highlight a series of problems with the dating of the heavily disturbed organic deposits of many archaeological sites, and the need for greater care in sample selection and interpretation.

  • 176.
    Buckland, Philip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Lessons from extinctions2017In: Wood Wise, p. 22-27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Many beetles are very good at colonising new areas when changes in the landscape open up new possibilities. Equally, they are highly susceptible to local extinction in the face of landscape scale changes in their environment.

  • 177.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Department of Archaeology and Prehistory, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    ARCUS: Report on a site at Walmgate, York: Report on the fossil insect fauna from a site at Walmgate, York1995Report (Other academic)
  • 178.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Department of Archaeology and Prehistory, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Lichenometry and Soil Erosion in Northwest Iceland1994In: Environmental Change in Iceland, München: nstitut für Geographie der Universität München , 1994, p. 31-40Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 179.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    The Bugs Coleopteran Ecology Package (BugsCEP): the development and implementation of software for palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatological research2009Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book describes the development and practical application of a unique database orientated software package, BugsCEP, for environmental, climatic and biodiversity reconstruction from beetle assemblages. BugsCEP consists of a database of ecology and distribution data for over 9400 insect taxa, and includes temperature tolerance data for 436 species. It contains abundance and summary data for over 770 sites, most of the known European Quaternary fossil coleopteran record, supported by a bibliography of over 3700 sources. Built in statistics, including a specially developed habitat classification system, provide semi-quantitative environmental reconstructions to aid in the interpretation of sites. BugsCEP's querying and reporting functions also increase the efficiency with which analyses can be undertaken, including the facility to explore the fossil record of species by searching ecology and distribution data. The Mutual Climatic Range (MCR) reconstruction method is implemented and improved upon, including predictive modelling and the graphical output of reconstructions and climate space maps. BugsCEP is available from www.bugscep.com.

  • 180.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    The Bugs Coleopteran Ecology Package (BugsCEP) database: 1000 sites and half a million fossils later2014In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 341, p. 272-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Bugs database project started in the late 1980s as what would now be considered a relatively simple system, albeit advanced for its time, linking fossil beetle species lists to modern habitat and distribution information. Since then, Bugs has grown into a complex database of fossils records, habitat and distribution data, dating and climate reference data wrapped into an advanced software analysis package. At the time of writing, the database contains raw data and metadata for 1124 sites, and Russell Coope directly contributed to the analysis of over 154 (14%) of them, some 98790 identifications published in 231 publications. Such quantifications are infeasible without databases, and the analytical power of combining a database of modern and fossil insects with analysis tools is potentially immense for numerous areas of science ranging from conservation to Quaternary geology.

    BugsCEP, The Bugs Coleopteran Ecology Package, is the latest incarnation of the Bugs database project. Released in 2007, the database is continually added too and is available for free download from http://www.bugscep.com. The software tools include quantitative habitat reconstruction and visualisation, correlation matrices, MCR climate reconstruction, searching by habitat and retrieving, among other things, a list of taxa known from the selected habitat types. It also provides a system for entering, storing and managing palaeoentomological data as well as a number of expert system like reporting facilities.

    Work is underway to create an online version of BugsCEP, implemented through the Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database (SEAD) project (http://www.sead.se). The aim is to provide more direct access to the latest data, a community orientated updating system, and integration with other proxy data. Eventually, the tools available in the offline BugsCEP will be duplicated and Bugs will be entirely in the web.

    This paper summarises aspects of the current scope, capabilities and applications of the BugsCEP database and software, with special reference to and quantifications of the contributions of Russell Coope to the field of palaeoentomology as represented in the database. The paper also serves to illustrate the potential for the use of BugsCEP in biographical studies, and discusses some of the issues relating to the use of large scale sources of quantitative data.

    All datasets used in this article are available through the current version of BugsCEP available at http://www.bugscep.com.

  • 181.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Bateman, Mark D.
    Department of Geography, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK.
    Bennike, Ole
    GEUS Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, ØsterVoldgade 10, Copenhagen 1350, Denmark.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    Chase, Brian M.
    Institut des Sciences de l’Evolution-Montpellier (ISEM), Universite´ de Montpellier, CNRS, EPHE, IRD, Bat 22, CC061, Place Euge`ne Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier cedex 5, France.
    Frederick, Charles
    6Department of Geography and the Environment, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.
    Greenwood, Malcolm
    Department of Geography, Loughborough University, Leics LE11 3TU, UK.
    Murton, Julian
    Department of Geography, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9RH, UK.
    Murton, Della
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK.
    Panagiotakopulu, Eva
    Institute of Geography, University of Edinburgh, Drummond Street, Edinburgh EH8 9XP, UK.
    Mid-Devensian climate and landscape in England: new data from Finningley, South Yorkshire2019In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 6, no 7, article id 190577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While there is extensive evidence for the Late Devensian, less is known about Early and Middle Devensian (approx. 110-30 ka) climates and environments in the UK. The Greenland ice-core record suggests the UK should have endured multiple changes, but the terrestrial palaeo-record lacks sufficient detail for confirmation from sites in the British Isles. Data from deposits at Finningley, South Yorkshire, can help redress this. A channel with organic silts, dated 40 314-39 552 cal a BP, contained plant macrofossil and insect remains showing tundra with dwarf-shrub heath and bare ground. Soil moisture conditions varied from free draining to riparian, with ponds and wetter vegetated areas. The climate was probably low arctic with snow cover during the winter. Mutual climatic range (MCR), based on Coleoptera, shows the mean monthly winter temperatures of -22 to -2 degrees C and summer ones of 8-14 degrees C. Periglacial structures within the basal gravel deposits and beyond the glacial limits indicate cold-climate conditions, including permafrost. A compilation of MCR reconstructions for other Middle Devensian English sites shows that marine isotope stage 3-between 59 and 28 ka-experienced substantial variation in climate consistent with the Greenland ice-core record. The exact correlation is hampered by temporal resolution, but the Finningley site stadial at approximately 40 ka may correlate with the one of the Greenland stadials 7-11.

  • 182.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    BugsCEP, an entomological database twenty-five years on2014In: Antenna (Journal of the Royal Entomological Society), ISSN 0140-1890, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 21-28Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 183.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    BugsCEP: Coleopteran Ecology Package (software)2006Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    BugsCEP is a research and teaching aid for palaeoentomology, entomology and ecology. As well as habitat and distribution data, it includes tools for climate and environmental reconstruction, and facilities for storing site based abundance/collection data. A variety of searching and reporting functions greatly augment the efficiency of beetle based research.

    Bugs is built around a comprehensive database of beetle ecology and European fossil records which has been accumulated over the past 20 years.

  • 184.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    How can a database full of Bugs help reconstruct the climate?2002In: Archaeological Informatics - Pushing the Envelope - CAA 2001 - Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology: Proceedings of the 29th Conference, Gotland, April 2001, British Archaeological Reports , 2002, p. 453-461Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The BUGS Insect Ecology Package was originally constructed (using Dbase and Clipper) to compile Coleoptera (beetle) habitat and distribution data from a myriad of sources into one, easy to use, and publicly available database. Its primary users were researchers and teachers within the palaeoentomology field. The present system, five versions and many revisions later, is built in MS Access 2000, and covers some 5300 species, 2000 references, and 240 sites (archaeological and Quaternary), and is of value to archaeologists, ecologists, and conservationists alike.

    BUGS is essentially a relational database management system constructed around three components:

    - the species data (modern ecology and distribution)

    - the bibliography

    - the site data with species lists

    Its implementation in several institutions has greatly accelerated the efficiency with which palaeoentomological investigations can be carried out, and greatly improved the teaching of the subject.

    Palaeoenvironmental reconstructions are performed by the superimposition of the ecology and distribution of modern insect populations over fossil assemblages. At the moment, this is essentially performed semi-quantitatively by cross-reference of the data (which BUGS collates for a species list and then exports as an RTF file to any word processing package). BUGS contains a wealth of ecological data which can be employed in the interpretation of archaeological sites and contexts. In natural deposits, away from the artificial heat islands created by human activity, insect distributions are essentially constrained by climatic parameters. Tim Atkinson (UEA) and Dave Perry (formerly at Birmingham University) digitally encoded the temperature range data for over 400 species into a program for the calculation of palaeoclimates through the MCR (Mutual Climatic Range) method, and this has been extensively used in the modelling of Quaternary climates from beetle remains. The aim of our present phase of BUGS development is to implement MCR functionality into the BUGS database system. From this point it should be possible to move on to other ecological variables such as habitat and vegetation types, and increase the precision of modern climatic data, thus enhancing the value of insects in archaeological interpretation and the modelling of past climates.

  • 185.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Paleoentomology: Insects and other Arthropods in Environmental Archaeology2014In: The Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology / [ed] Claire Smith, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2014, p. 5740-5755Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Insects are the most diverse group of animals on the planet, and as suchare present in a wider variety of habitats than most other organism groups.This diversity, in addition to a long evolutionary history (Grimaldi &Engel 2005), and together with a propensity to be preserved in both desiccatingand anaerobic environments, has provided an excellent tool for thereconstruction of both Quaternary and more immediate archaeologicalenvironments. Insect remains often provide proxy environmental information onthe immediate context from which the fossils are derived, and as such may beeither complementary to the more regional picture provided by palynology orindicate site conditions, such as levels of hygiene and evidence of tradingconnections, which are rarely available from any other palaeoecological source.They therefore provide information on a broad range of habitats and conditions,on- and off-site, and in addition, in appropriate contexts, also climate.Processing of samples is essentially simple, requiring readily availablematerials, yet is time consuming, and identification of the usuallydisarticulated fragments (sclerites) requires diligence and patience and accessto well curated reference collections. Fortunately, abundant literature,computer software and database tools now exist to aid in their interpretation.

  • 186.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    Paleoentomology: insects and other arthropods in environmental archaeology2018In: Encyclopedia of global archaeology / [ed] Claire Smith, Cham: Springer, 2018, 2Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Insects are the most diverse group of animals on the planet and as such are present in a wider variety of habitats than most other complex organisms. This diversity, in addition to a long evolutionary history (Grimaldi and Engel 2005), and together with a propensity to be preserved in both desiccating and anaerobic environments, has provided an excellent tool for the reconstruction of both Quaternary and more immediate archaeological environments. Insect remains often provide proxy environmental information on the immediate context from which the fossils are derived, and as such may be either complementary to the more regional picture provided by palynology or indicate site conditions, such as levels of hygiene and evidence of trading connections, which are rarely available from any other palaeoecological source. They therefore provide information on a broad range of habitats and conditions, on- and off-site, and in addition, in appropriate contexts, also climate. Processing of samples is essentially simple, requiring readily available materials, yet is time consuming, and identification of the usually disarticulated fragments (sclerites) requires diligence and patience and access to well-curated reference collections. Fortunately, abundant literature, computer software, and database tools now exist to aid in their interpretation.

  • 187.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    Panagiotakopulu, Eva
    Sadler, Jon P.
    A Database for Egyptian Entomology2004In: Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Egypt, ISSN 1110-0885, Vol. 81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EGBUGS, the Egyptian incarnation of the BUGS Coleopteran Ecology Package is a simple yet highly valuable aid to research and education in the fields of entomology and palaeoentomology. The ability to rapidly look up species habitat and distribution data compiled from various sources in itself saves hours of library and internet searching. Added to this is the ability to query habitat data and produce ecologically defined subsets of the EGBUGS dataset, and rapidly summarise the ecology of species found at a particular site, which again are tasks that would take hours to perform manually. It is hoped that the system will greatly benefit those working in the aforementioned fields, and even inspire others to engage in similar activities. The program can be freely downloaded from the BUGS2000 WWW site at http://www.bugs2000.org, and the authors would be grateful for comments, revisions and new data for entry.

  • 188.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Eriksson, Erik J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Palm, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    SEAD - The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database: Progress Report Spring 20142014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides an overview of the progress and results of the VR:KFI infrastructure projects 2007-7494 and (825-)2010-5976. It should be considered as a status report in an on-going long-term research infrastructure development project.

  • 189.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Hammarlund, Dan
    Lund University.
    Hjärthner-Holdar, Eva
    Swedish National Historical Museums.
    Lidén, Kerstin
    Stockholm University.
    Lindahl, Anders
    Lund University.
    Palm, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University.
    The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database: a resource for international, multiproxy and transdisciplinary studies of environmental and climatic change2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate and environmental change are global challenges which require global data and infrastructure to investigate. These challenges also require a multi-proxy approach, integrating evidence from Quaternary science and archaeology with information from studies on modern ecology and physical processes among other disciplines. The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database (SEAD http://www.sead.se) is a Swedish based international research e-infrastructure for storing, managing, analysing and disseminating palaeoenvironmental data from an almost unlimited number of analysis methods. The system currently makes available raw data from over 1500 sites (>5300 datasets) and the analysis of Quaternary fossil insects, plant macrofossils, pollen, geochemistry and sediment physical properties, dendrochronology and wood anatomy, ceramic geochemistry and bones, along with numerous dating methods. This capacity will be expanded in the near future to include isotopes, multi-spectral and archaeo-metalurgical data. SEAD also includes expandable climate and environment calibration datasets, a complete bibliography and extensive metadata and services for linking these data to other resources. All data is available as Open Access through http://qsead.sead.se and downloadable software.

     

    SEAD is maintained and managed at the Environmental Archaeology Lab and HUMlab at Umea University, Sweden. Development and data ingestion is progressing in cooperation with The Laboratory for Ceramic Research and the National Laboratory for Wood Anatomy and Dendrochronology at Lund University, Sweden, the Archaeological Research Laboratory, Stockholm University, the Geoarchaeological Laboratory, Swedish National Historical Museums Agency and several international partners and research projects. Current plans include expanding its capacity to serve as a data source for any system and integration with the Swedish National Heritage Board's information systems.

     

    SEAD is partnered with the Neotoma palaeoecology database (http://www.neotomadb.org) and a new initiative for building cyberinfrastructure for transdisciplinary research and visualization of the long-term human ecodynamics of the North Atlantic funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF).

  • 190.
    Buckland, Philip I
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Johan, Olofsson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Engelmark, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    SEAD: Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database, planning report2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This document lays out a strategy for the development of SEAD – A Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database, which will facilitate the digitisation and accessibility augmentation of MAL’s existing data from nearly thirty years of work in the fields of archaeology and environmental science. SEAD will also provide a framework for the entry of data from all future research and consultancy work at MAL, and allow guest researchers and external partners to contribute to, and work with the same data. The planned system will be implemented at both local and internet levels, and be designed with an aim towards broadening its scope with external partners in the future. SEAD will be made available online in order to increase the ease of access to environmental archaeology data and encourage an expansion of both the discipline and Sweden’s role in it. This is inline with current EU strategies on enhancing research infrastructure, and providing a greater insight into human-environment interactions for long term planning.

  • 191.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Explaining Late Quaternary beetle extinctions in the UK using palaeoenvironmental databases for quantitative environmental reconstruction2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The comparison of palaeoenvironmental and archaeological records of fossil insects with modern red data books can provide a picture of local extinctions. Buckland & Buckland (2012) performed such a study on the Coleoptera of the British Isles, using the BugsCEP database for the fossil data, and looking at broad chronological divisions. The ecology of these regionally extinct beetles, all of which are extant in other parts of the World, may be used to investigate the environmental and climatic changes which may have lead to their extirpation. This process can be semi-automated and habitats quantified through the use of ecological classification and a database infrastructure which links fossil and modern ecological and climate data (Buckland & Buckland 2006; http://www.bugscep.com). Preliminary results indicate that the majority of extirpated species with mid-Holocene records were dependent on woodland environments (Buckland 2014). These investigations can be refined by using narrower time-slices, interpolating dating evidence and including more comprehensive archaeological dating evidence. The expansion of the analysis to include the full assemblages found in the samples containing the extirpated species also allows for a more comprehensive picture of the long-term relationships between biodiversity, environmental and climatic change and human activity.

  • 192.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Sjölander, Mattias
    Blombocken avslöjar forntiden: Databaser.2017In: Populär arkeologi, ISSN 0281-014, no 5, p. 28-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Databaser. Fossila insekter och förkolnade fröer kan ge mycket information om de miljöer som människor har levt i och kan liksom annan biologisk information tjäna arkeologi

  • 193.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Yuan Zhuo, Don
    University of Sheffield.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    University of Sheffield.
    Towards an Expert System in Palaeoentomology1997In: Studies in Quaternary Entomology: an Inordinate Fondness for Insects / [ed] A.C. Ashworth, P.C. Buckland & J.P. Sadler, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. , 1997, p. 71-77Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of Quaternary insect fossils, principally of Coleoptera, the beetles, are now sufficiently frequent to warrant the construction of a database to maintain easy access to the record. BUGS, however, seeks to go beyond this and provide ecological and distributional data on the modern fauna to enable more precise reconstructions of apst environments. This paper summarizes the program and its salient features and discusses the application of intra- and intersite statistics, which the database allows.

  • 194.
    Bunse, Carina
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Bertos-Fortis, Mireia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Sassenhagen, Ingrid
    Sildever, Sirje
    Sjöqvist, Conny
    Godhe, Anna
    Gross, Susanna
    Kremp, Anke
    Lips, Inga
    Lundholm, Nina
    Rengefors, Karin
    Sefbom, Josefin
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Legrand, Catherine
    Spatio-temporal interdependence of bacteria and phytoplankton during a baltic sea spring bloom2016In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 7, article id 517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In temperate systems, phytoplankton spring blooms deplete inorganic nutrients and are major sources of organic matter for the microbial loop. In response to phytoplankton exudates and environmental factors, heterotrophic microbial communities are highly dynamic and change their abundance and composition both on spatial and temporal scales. Yet, most of our understanding about these processes comes from laboratory model organism studies, mesocosm experiments or single temporal transects. Spatial -temporal studies examining interactions of phytoplankton blooms and bacterioplankton community composition and function, though being highly informative, are scarce. In this study, pelagic microbial community dynamics (bacteria and phytoplankton) and environmental variables were monitored during a spring bloom across the Baltic Proper (two cruises between North Germany to Gulf of Finland). To test to what extent bacterioplankton community composition relates to the spring bloom, we used next generation amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, phytoplankton diversity analysis based on microscopy counts and population genotyping of the dominating diatom Skeletonema rnarinoi. Several phytoplankton bloom related and environmental variables were identified to influence bacterial community composition. Members of Bacteroidetes and Alphaproteobacteria dominated the bacterial community composition but the bacterial groups showed no apparent correlation with direct bloom related variables. The less abundant bacterial phyla Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia, on the other hand, were strongly associated with phytoplankton biomass, diatom:dinoflagellate ratio, and colored dissolved organic matter (cDOM). Many bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed high niche specificities. For example, particular Bacteroidetes OTUs were associated with two distinct genetic clusters of S. marinoi. Our study revealed the complexity of interactions of bacterial taxa with inter- and intraspecific genetic variation in phytoplankton. Overall, our findings imply that biotic and abiotic factors during spring bloom influence bacterial community dynamics in a hierarchical manner.

  • 195.
    Bunse, Carina
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Karlsson, Christofer M. G.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Akram, Neelam
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Vila-Costa, Maria
    Centre d’Estudis Avançats de Blanes-CSIC, Spain.
    Palovaara, Joakim
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Svensson, Lovisa
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Holmfeldt, Karin
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    González, José M.
    University of La Laguna, Spain.
    Calvo, Eva
    Institut de Ciències del Mar—CSIC, Spain.
    Pelejero, Carles
    Institut de Ciències del Mar—CSIC, Spain.
    Marrasé, Cèlia
    Institut de Ciències del Mar—CSIC, Spain.
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Gasol, Josep M.
    Institut de Ciències del Mar—CSIC, Spain.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Response of marine bacterioplankton pH homeostasis gene expression to elevated CO22016In: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 483-487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human-induced ocean acidification impacts marine life. Marine bacteria are major drivers of biogeochemical nutrient cycles and energy fluxes1; hence, understanding their performance under projected climate change scenarios is crucial for assessing ecosystem functioning. Whereas genetic and physiological responses of phytoplankton to ocean acidification are being disentangled2, 3, 4, corresponding functional responses of bacterioplankton to pH reduction from elevated CO2 are essentially unknown. Here we show, from metatranscriptome analyses of a phytoplankton bloom mesocosm experiment, that marine bacteria responded to lowered pH by enhancing the expression of genes encoding proton pumps, such as respiration complexes, proteorhodopsin and membrane transporters. Moreover, taxonomic transcript analysis showed that distinct bacterial groups expressed different pH homeostasis genes in response to elevated CO2. These responses were substantial for numerous pH homeostasis genes under low-chlorophyll conditions (chlorophyll a <2.5 μg l−1); however, the changes in gene expression under high-chlorophyll conditions (chlorophyll a >20 μg l−1) were low. Given that proton expulsion through pH homeostasis mechanisms is energetically costly, these findings suggest that bacterioplankton adaptation to ocean acidification could have long-term effects on the economy of ocean ecosystems.

  • 196. Burrows, Ryan M.
    et al.
    Hotchkiss, Erin R.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    McKie, Brendan G.
    Sponseller, Ryan A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nitrogen limitation of heterotrophic biofilms in boreal streams2015In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 60, no 7, p. 1237-1251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrient limitation of the biofilm is fundamental to stream ecosystem processes, as microbial activity shapes the biological availability and biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nutrients. We used nutrient-diffusing substrata (NDS) to investigate heterotrophic nutrient limitation of microbial respiration (MR) across 20 streams draining boreal landscapes in northern Sweden. We also explored variation in microbial biomass and community structure of biofilms that developed on NDS using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) biomarkers. Limitation was determined as a significant response of MR and biomass production on cellulose surfaces to enrichment with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) or N+P, relative to controls. Microbial respiration was N-limited, with an average 3.3-fold increase on N-amended NDS. Nitrogen limitation decreased, and control rates of MR increased, with greater background concentrations of inorganic N across the sites. In contrast to MR, microbial biomass was primarily N-limited but was greatest for the N+P NDS. Accordingly, differences in respiratory versus biomass responses to nutrient addition resulted in significantly greater biomass-specific MR on N-amended NDS compared to all other treatments. In addition, PLFA biomarkers indicated distinct microbial communities on N and N+P NDS compared to controls and/or P NDS. Greater MR and biomass, and the development of distinct microbial communities, when supplied with inorganic N suggest that factors which alter aquatic N loading during autumn may have important implications for ecosystem processes and the biogeochemistry of boreal streams and rivers. Our findings add to a growing body of evidence that the productivity of Fennoscandian boreal landscapes is constrained by N availability.

  • 197. Burrows, Ryan M.
    et al.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    McKie, Brendan G.
    Sponseller, Ryan A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Seasonal resource limitation of heterotrophic biofilms in boreal streams2017In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 62, no 1, p. 164-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unraveling the potentially shifting controls over microbial activity among habitats and across seasonal transitions is critical for understanding how freshwater ecosystems influence broader elemental cycles, and how these systems may respond to global changes. We used nutrient-diffusing substrates to investigate seasonal patterns and constraints on microbial activity of biofilms in streams draining distinct landscape features of the boreal biome (forests, mires, and lakes). Microbial respiration (MR) largely mirrored spatial and temporal variation in water temperature. However, limitation by labile carbon (C) was a constraint to microbial activity during ice-covered periods, when MR of control nutrient-diffusing substrates fell below rates predicted from stream temperature alone. Variation in C limitation among the study streams was reflective of putative organic C availability, with C limitation of biofilms weakest in the dissolved organic C (DOC)-rich, mire-outlet stream and greatest in the relatively DOC-poor, forest stream. Incidences of nutrient limitation were only observed during warmer months. Our study illustrates how variation in processes mediated by heterotrophic biofilms and seasonal shifts in resource limitation can emerge in a stream network draining a heterogeneous landscape. In addition, our results show that, for a large portion of the year, heterotrophic processes in boreal streams can be strongly limited by the availability of labile C, despite high DOC concentrations. Metabolic constraints to dissolved organic matter processing at near-freezing temperatures, coupled with hydrological controls over the delivery of more labile organic resources to streams (e.g., soil freezing and flooding), have potentially strong influences on the productivity of boreal streams.

  • 198.
    Bystedt, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Resource use and consumption of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) under different environmental conditions during winter.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In temperate climate with pronounced seasonality, ice and snow cover reduces light conditions during winter which in turn reduce search efficiency for visual feeding consumers like fish. Furthermore, a suggested major effect of future climate change is an increased input of allochtonous DOC to aquatic systems which causes an increased brownification and hence reduced overall light conditions. In this study, I sampled YOY three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) of different sizes overwintering in clear and brown water model ecosystems to examine if consumption were dependent on light conditions (natural light variability over winter) and if consumption were reduced in brown water. Three-spined sticklebacks were able to feed at different winter conditions and the prey biomass in stomachs was higher in clear- than in brown water despite higher resource levels in brown water treatments. Moreover when light intensity increased in late winter compared to midwinter conditions prey biomass in stomachs increased in both clear and brown water systems. Dominated prey taxa in the diet were chironomids and copepods. Results from this study suggest that when fish species are able to feed at low temperature and resource availability are sufficient light conditions during winter can be an important factor affecting overwinter survival in YOY fish because visual prey encounters and hence consumption rates are affected by light conditions. Future climate change scenarios with predicted increased brownification may therefore affect over winter survival in fish because of the negative effect of low light intensity (brownification) on prey consumption in fish in turn potentially changing recruitment success and densities of fish.

  • 199.
    Byström, Pär
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ask, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Andersson, Jens
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Preference for cannibalism and ontogenetic constraints in competitive ability of piscivorous top predators2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 7, p. e70404-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We experimentally show that the piscivorous top predator Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) have higher attack rates on cannibal prey compared to the interspecific prey species ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius), and that sticklebacks are more efficient competitiors for zooplankton resources compared to juvenile char. We also conducted a literature survey that together with our experiments showed that piscivorous top consumers selected cannibal prey over interspecific prey in 9 out of 10 cases. Our literature survey also showed that specialist prey species are competitively superior compared to juvenile piscivorous species within the zooplankton niche. We discuss our results in relation to omnivory in fish communities and we suggest that the observed general preference for cannibal prey over interspecific prey in piscivores and the competitive advantage of prey species over juvenile piscivores may be major mechanisms for coexistence in fish communities.

  • 200.
    Byström, Pär
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hedström, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hotchkiss, Erin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rodríguez, Patricia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Austral Centre for Scientific Research (CADIC-CONICET), 9410 Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.
    Vasconcelos, Rivera Francisco
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Warming decrease fish population densities and biomassManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Temperature impact all biota and ecosystems through its direct effect on the vital rates of primary producers and consumers. Still, how these changes in rates translates through ecosystem feed backs to the population level of top consumers are poorly understood. Here, we studied effects of temperature increase (+ 3 ̊C during ice free season) on fish population dynamics in a replicated large scale pond ecosystem experiment over 3 years. Increased temperature had no significant effect on whole ecosystem gross primary production while top down effects of warming on intermediate consumers changed from negative to positive due to negative effects of warming on fish population abundance. Total fish density and biomass and abundance of both mature and old fish decreased with warming, while proportion of young fish increased, with warming. The effects of warming on fish population demographics were likely due to that temperature increased cohort competition and fish energy requirements relative to resource production. Our results suggest that global warming may increase competition, favor young individuals and overall decrease fish population densities and biomass. 

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