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  • 151. Yu, Zhun
    et al.
    Yang, Bin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Zhu, Neng
    Effect of thermal transient on human thermal comfort in temporarily occupied space in winter: a case study in Tianjin2015In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 93, no 2, p. 27-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The acceptable temperature ranges of temporarily occupied space (TOS) such as supermarkets could be different from the ranges of normal indoor spaces such as offices. However, current thermal comfort standards do not distinguish such a space from normal spaces and identify its design temperature range clearly. This study proposed TOS, and explored human responses to TOS with the ultimate goal of finding its optimal design temperature range in winter. Questionnaire surveys were performed at six temperature levels in a climatic chamber in Tianjin. Human participants were exposed to outdoors for 20 min and then they stayed in the chamber for 40 min. During this period their thermal sensation, comfort and preference were recorded for evaluation at five different time points. The study shows that their neutral temperature ranges from 16.9 °C to 18.4 °C. Their thermal preference maintains “no change” in the range of 15.4 °C–19.3 °C. Meanwhile, from the viewpoint of thermal comfort, a temperature range of 15.4 °C–17.4 °C is highly desirable for occupants to stay in TOS. Considering the above three ranges, the optimal design temperature range for TOS in Tianjin is recommended to be 16.9 °C–17.4 °C, which achieves highly desirable thermal comfort, neutral thermal sensation and “no change” thermal preference simultaneously. This range is significantly lower than the design temperature range in Chinese national codes (20 °C–22 °C). The results of this study can be used as reference for future code formulation and building retrofitting.

  • 152. Yu, Zhun
    et al.
    Yang, Bin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Zhu, Neng
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Energy efficient thermal comfort in temporarily occupied space – A summer case study in Tianjin2016In: CLIMA 2016 - proceedings of the 12th REHVA World Congress: volume 7, Aalborg universitet , 2016, article id Paper_36Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporarily occupied space is defined as an air-conditioned space in which most of occupants stay for less than a certain period (e.g., 40 minutes) such as post offices, supermarkets, bookstores and banks. After moving from a hot and humid outdoor environment to an air-conditioned temporarily occupied space in summer, thermal alliesthesia takes effect, which refers to ‘thermal pleasure sensation and overshoot generated by the restoration of thermal stress toward a neutral interior condition’. Because of the overshoot, occupants’ acceptable temperature ranges in temporarily occupied space are possibly elevated by less intensified air conditioning systems while they still feel comfortable. To address this issue, a human subjective response study was performed in one climatic chamber used to simulate temporarily occupied space in Tianjin. 16 healthy university students, 8 males and 8 females, were exposed to outdoor environment for 20 minutes before they stayed in the chamber for 40 minutes. Their votes on thermal sensation, comfort and preference were recorded for evaluation at different time points. The results show that, in summer, the optimal design temperature range for temporarily occupied space in Tianjin is elevated to 27 °C to 29 °C without influencing thermal comfort, enabling large amounts of cooling and dehumidification energy to be saved for air-conditioning systems. Meanwhile, thermal comfort for staffs who have long term exposure to the environment could be maintained by personal comfort systems such as desk fans or personalized ventilation in terms of spatial alliesthesia.

  • 153. Yu, Zhun
    et al.
    Yang, Bin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Zhu, Neng
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Zhang, Guoqiang
    Utility of cooling overshoot for energy efficient thermal comfort in temporarily occupied space2016In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 109, p. 199-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporarily occupied space (TOS) is defined as an air-conditioned space in which most of occupants stay for less than a certain period (e.g., 40 min) such as post offices, supermarkets, bookstores and banks. After moving from a hot and humid outdoor environment to TOS in summer, thermal alliesthesia takes effect, which refers to 'thermal pleasure sensation and overshoot generated by the restoration of thermal stress toward a neutral interior condition'. Because of the overshoot, occupants' acceptable temperature ranges in TOS are possibly elevated while they still feel thermally comfortable. To study the temperature ranges, a human subjective response study was performed in one climatic chamber used to simulate TOS in Tianjin. Real outdoor environments, instead of chamber simulated outdoor environments, were used for exploring this thermal transient process. Sixteen healthy university students, 8 males and 8 females, were exposed to an outdoor environment for 20 min before they stayed in the chamber for 40 min. Their votes on thermal sensation, comfort and preference were recorded for evaluation at different time points. The results show that the recommended design standard effective temperature (SET) range of TOS is between 24.5 degrees C and 26.5 degrees C. Meanwhile, thermal comfort for staffs who have long term exposure to TOS could be maintained by personal comfort systems such as desk fans or personalized ventilation.

  • 154. Zhou, Jin
    et al.
    Chen, Ailu
    Cao, Qingliang
    Yang, Bin
    School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore; Berkeley Education Alliance for Research in Singapore, Singapore.
    Chang, Wei-Chung
    Nazaroff, William
    Particle Exposure during the 2013 Haze in Singapore: Importance of the Built Environment2015In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 93, no 1, p. 14-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 2013 haze was the most serious air pollution event in Singapore's history. Individual exposures to particulate matter differ (a) according to time patterns of behaviour and (b) with the varying degrees of protection provided by buildings against penetration and persistence of outdoor particles. Utilizing realtime personal monitoring, we evaluated exposures to size-segregated fine particulate matter (PM) of five office workers for six days during the latter portion of the 2013 haze event. The outdoor volume concentrations of particulate matter (0.3-2.5 mu m diameter) during moderate and light haze days were in the ranges 15-21 mu m(3)/cm(3) and 7-10 mu m(3)/cm(3), respectively. More than 80% of total daily exposures occurred indoors in workplaces and residences. The daily-integrated personal exposures for the five subjects during the moderate and light haze days were 140-454 (mu m(3)/cm(3))-h and 66-239 (mu m(3)/cm(3))-h, respectively. Exposure factors for the five participants, quantifying the extent of exposure reduction associated with being indoors, had daily average values ranging from 0.32 to 0.75. The results of this study contribute toward deeper understanding the degree of protection provided by the buildings from pollution of outdoor origin. The work also contributes knowledge regarding personal exposure to particulate matter during air pollution episodes, especially for tropical climates.

  • 155.
    Öhman, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    BIM i förvaltningsfasen: En studie om möjligheter i förvaltningsfasen av en byggnad med hjälp av en väl utförd informationsmodell2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BIM – building information modelling or building information model is a well known concept that most people in the construction industry is familiar with and agrees that there is a big potential with this new technology. Despite this, the implementation of this new approach is slow in the industry. Still, BIM is most used before and during the production of new buildings and facilities, while the longest period in a building's life cycle is forgotten, namely the management of the building. New buildings often have a lifespan of over 100 years, which means that maintenance and repairs will be necessary to maintain the requirements of modern buildings. There is potential to facilitate the management of buildings with well-executed information modeling. Today there is a small demand for these well-made models from the management companies and owners of the buildings, they commonly do not acknowledge the benefits of having a building information model to help with their daily work and therefore place no special demands on the various models.

     

    The purpose of this thesis is to find out how information models can be used in the management work of the building and to find out what the projectors can add to the models that are useful in the management work. In order to find out, a literature study has been made to understand the necessary theory and facts and a reference object has been examined to find out how BIM will be used in this particular project.

    The reference object that was used in this thesis was Helios, a part of SCA's new pulp mill in Timrå, outside of Sundsvall, has a detailed model been drawn up and based on this model the necessary 2D drawings is produced and used as the basis for construction. The model does not contain more information than necessary, because few demands have been made on it. The information is gathered in other documents and descriptions used in the production and management. The model that has been drawn up can be exported to IFC format, which means that the model can be opened in the program that can be downloaded for free from the Internet. In these applications, the user can twist and turn the model and look at all details of the building. It is also possible to connect these models with other systems, for example, tabulated values in Microsoft Excel. This makes it possible to obtain an accurate visual representation of the elements of the building while further information can be read by other applications. It is possible for projectors to enter more information in the models. For example, there are links to products' websites, what kind of anti-corrosion treatment a particular element has received and what type of fire protection paint that has been used. The project Helios, the concept of BIM will be lost when the building goes into the management phase as this model will not follow. Flat drawings and a descriptions will be the basis for management work for about 100 years to come. This does not mean that BIM can not be used later in the building's life cycle. It is possible to make a model of the building afterwards, although not all information about all objects is represented in the model or in the associated system. However, in order for BIM to achieve the potential that exists, more requirements must be set in the design phase.

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