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  • 151.
    Skoglund, Nils
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Grimm, Alejandro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Boström, Dan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Combustion of biosolids in a bubbling fluidized bed part 1: main ash forming elements and ash distribution with a focus on phosphorus2014In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 1183-1190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the first in a series of three papers describing combustion of biosolids in a 5-kW bubbling fluidized bed, the ash chemistry, and possible application of the ash produced as a fertilizing agent. This part of the study aims to clarify whether the distribution of main ash forming elements from biosolids can be changed by modifying the fuel matrix, the crystalline compounds of which can be identified in the raw materials and what role the total composition may play for which compounds are formed during combustion. The biosolids were subjected to low-temperature ashing to investigate which crystalline compounds that were present in the raw materials. Combustion experiments of two different types of biosolids were conducted in a 5-kW benchscale bubbling fluidized bed at two different bed temperatures and with two different additives. The additives were chosen to investigate whether the addition of alkali (K2CO3) and alkaline-earth metal (CaCO3) would affect the speciation of phosphorus, so the molar ratios targeted in modified fuels were P:K = 1:1 and P:K:Ca = 1:1:1, respectively. After combustion the ash fractions were collected, the ash distribution was determined and the ash fractions were analyzed with regards to elemental composition (ICP-AES and SEM-EDS) and part of the bed ash was also analyzed qualitatively using XRD. There was no evidence of zeolites in the unmodified fuels, based on low-temperature ashing. During combustion, the biosolid pellets formed large bed ash particles, ash pellets, which contained most of the total ash content (54%–95% (w/w)). This ash fraction contained most of the phosphorus found in the ash and the only phosphate that was identified was a whitlockite, Ca9(K,Mg,Fe)(PO4)7, for all fuels and fuel mixtures. With the addition of potassium, cristobalite (SiO2) could no longer be identified via X-ray diffraction (XRD) in the bed ash particles and leucite (KAlSi2O6) was formed. Most of the alkaline-earth metals calcium and magnesium were also found in the bed ash. Both the formation of aluminum-containing alkali silicates and inclusion of calcium and magnesium in bed ash could assist in preventing bed agglomeration during co-combustion of biosolids with other renewable fuels in a full-scale bubbling fluidized bed.

  • 152.
    Skoglund, Nils
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry.
    Grimm, Alejandro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Boström, Dan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry.
    Effects on ash chemistry when co-firing municipal sewage sludge and wheat straw in a fluidised bed: Influence on the ash chemistry by fuel mixing2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipal sewage sludge (MSS) is of interest for co-combustion with problematic fuels, such as agricultural residues, due to its high content of inorganic elements which may improve combustion properties of such problematic fuels. Ash transformation when co-combusting MSS with the agricultural residue wheat straw was examined using a bench-scale bubbling fluidised bed (5 kW). Wheat straw pellets were combusted with MSS both in a co-pelletized form and co-firing of separate fuel particles. This was done to examine whether there is any advantage to either approach of introducing MSS together with a problematic fuel.

    Co-combusting wheat straw with MSS changed the bed agglomeration characteristics from being caused by the formation of low-temperature melting potassium silicates in the fuel ash to being caused by a higher-temperature melting bed ash. This shift in ash chemistry had a significant positive effect on the initial defluidisation temperature. The cyclone ash and fine particulate matter changed from being dominated by alkali in general and alkali chlorides in specific to an increased phosphate and sulphate formation which reduces the risk of alkali-related fouling and corrosion. The influence of aluminosilicates may also play a role in the improvement of fuel ash behaviour.

  • 153.
    Song, Xiaowei
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Boily, Jean-Francois
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Carbon dioxide binding at dry FeOOH mineral surfaces: evidence for structure-controlled speciation2013In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, no 16, p. 9241-9248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interactions between CO2(g) and mineral surfaces are important to atmospheric and terrestrial settings. This study provides detailed evidence on how differences in mineral surface structure impact carbonate speciation resulting from CO2(g) adsorption reactions. It was achieved by resolving the identity of adsorption sites and geometries of (bi)carbonate species at surfaces of nanosized goethite (alpha-FeOOH) and lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) particles. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to obtain this information on particles contacted with atmospheres of CO2(g). Vibrational modes of surface hydroxo groups covering these particles were first monitored. These showed that only one type of the surface groups that are singly coordinated to Fe atoms (-OH) are involved in the formation of (bi)carbonate species. Those of higher coordination numbers (mu-OH, mu(3)-OH) do not participate. Adsorption geometries were then resolved by investigating the C-O stretching region, assisted by density functional theoretical calculations. These efforts provided indications leaning toward a predominance of mononuclear species, -O-CO2Hx=[0,1]. In contrast, monodentate binuclear species of (-O)(2)center dot COHx=[0,1], are expected to form at particle terminations and surface defects. Finally, calculations suggested that bicarbonate is the dominant species on goethite, while a mixture of bicarbonate and carbonate species is present on lepidocrocite, a result stemming from different hydrogen bonding patterns at these mineral surfaces.

  • 154.
    Sterchele, Stefano
    et al.
    Padova, Italy; Åbo-Turku, Finland.
    Biasi, Pierdomenico
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Åbo-Turku, Finland.
    Centomo, Paolo
    Padova, Italy.
    Campestrini, Sandro
    Padova, Italy.
    Shchukarev, Andrey
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Rautio, Anne-Riikka
    Oulu, Finland.
    Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Åbo-Turku, Finland;.
    Salmi, Tapio
    Åbo-Turku, Finland.
    Zecca, Marco
    Padova, Italy.
    The effect of the metal precursor-reduction with hydrogen on a library of bimetallic Pd-Au and Pd-Pt catalysts for the direct synthesis of H2O22015In: Catalysis Today, ISSN 0920-5861, E-ISSN 1873-4308, Vol. 248, p. 40-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two sets of bimetallic Pd-Pt (Pd: 1.0; Pt: 0.25-1.0%, w/w) and Pd-Au (Pd: 1.0; Au: 0.25-1.0%, w/w) catalysts have been used, with no added promoter, in the catalytic direct synthesis (CDS) of hydrogen peroxide from its elements at 2 °C with a CO2/O2/H2 mixture (72/25.5/2.5%, respectively). The catalysts were supported on the commercial macroreticular ion-exchange resin Lewatit K2621 and were obtained from the reduction with H2 of ion-exchanged cationic precursors at 5 bar and at 60 °C. The addition of Pt or Au to Pd produced an increase of the initial overall catalytic activity in comparison with monometallic Pd with both the second metals, but with Pt the increase was much higher than with Au. Moreover, the addition of 0.25% (w/w) Pt, or more, invariably made all the Pd-Pt catalysts less selective with respect to Pd alone. In the case of Au, by contrast, the addition of 0.25% w/w produced an increase, albeit small, of the selectivity. As the result, the most active and productive Pd-Pt catalyst was 1Pd025PtK2621 with 1891 mol(H2) mo l(Pd + Pt) - 1 h- 1 initially consumed, 1875 mol(H2 O2) mo l(Pd + Pt) - 1 h- 1 initially produced, a 45% selectivity towards H2O2 at 50% conversion of H2. In the case of the Pd-Au bimetallic catalysts, 1Pd025AuK2621 was the best one, with 1184 mol(H2) mo l(Pd + Pt) - 1 h- 1 initially consumed, 739 mol(H2 O2) mo l(Pd + Pt) - 1 h- 1 initially produced, a 55% selectivity towards H2O2 at 50% conversion of H2. Although the characterization of the Pd-Pt and Pd-Au catalysts with TEM showed that the morphology of the nanostructured metal phases in the Pd-Pt and Pd-Au catalysts was very different from each family to the other, no clear correlation between the size of the nanoparticles and their distribution and the catalytic performance was apparent. These catalysts were also generally different, especially the Pd-Au ones, from previously reported related materials obtained from the same support and the same precursor, but with a different reducing agent (formaldehyde). © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 155.
    Strandberg, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Fuel conversion and ash formation interactions: a thermochemical study on lignocellulosic biomass2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass is considered to be CO2 neutral, and to be able to reduce the dependency on fossil fuels the need for expanded and sustainable biomass feedstock is increasing. Ash-related problems are some of the most important aspects of this increasing use of new biomass assortments in thermal energy conversion systems. An improved basic understanding of fuel conversion, ash formation, ash transformation and ash interactions with the converting fuel is therefore important.

    In the present thesis, the main objective was to provide new knowledge on thermochemical fuel conversion, specifically on how ash formation interacts with fuel conversion for lignocellulosic biomasses. The main methods used were experimental characterization of decomposition behavior and analysis of morphology and elemental composition of samples, using different appliances, analytical methods and fuels. Multivariate data analysis was successfully used on thermogravimetric data for prediction of compositional data and fuel properties.

    New, detailed explanations of structural changes in char morphology and ash properties during conversion were provided including descriptions of the influences of ash formation on fuel conversion rates under different conditions. The influences were found different depending on both particle size and ash composition. One implication of these findings is that for fuels with low temperature melting ash, the diffusion barrier formed causes difficulties for typical thermogravimetric experiments aiming at determination of reactivity in the kinetically controlled regime. This is recommended to carefully consider for future studies. On a single pellet level, char encapsulation was not found to dominate and limit gas transport and conversion for any of the fuels tested. In practical applications, however, the situation may be different with thick ash layers accumulating on a fuel bed surface. Another important finding was the extensive formation of cracks and internal cavities during combustion of pellets, providing new insights in the fundamentals of fuel conversion.

    Clean woody fuels, rich in calcium, formed a porous ash layer with no sign of limiting char conversion rates. The phase chemical transformations involving carbonate and oxide formation from poplar pellets was studied in detail. For grassy fuels, on the other hand, low melting point silicates are expected to form. The physical properties of K-Ca-silicates from silicon rich straw fuels were also characterized, providing new insights on ash formation on micrometer scale resolution; at high temperature, the silicate melt formed bubbles on the surface that partially covered the char, while for lower temperature a more rigid net structure was formed.

  • 156.
    Strandberg, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Holmgren, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Predicting fuel properties of biomass using thermogravimetry and multivariate data analysis2017In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 156, p. 107-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simple and reliable characterization methods for determining fuel properties of biomass are needed for several different applications. This paper describes and demonstrates such a method combining thermogravimetric analysis with multivariate data analysis, based on the thermal decomposition behavior of the fuel. Materials used for the tests were milled samples of wood chips thermally pretreated under different conditions in a torrefaction pilot plant. The predictions using the multivariate model were compared to those from a conventional curve deconvolution approach. The multivariate approach showed better and more flexible performance, with error of prediction of 2.7% for Mass Yield prediction, compared to the reference method that resulted in 29.4% error. This multivariate method could handle samples pretreated under more severe conditions compared to the curve deconvolution methods. Elemental composition, heating value and volatile content were also predicted with even higher accuracies. The results highlight the usefulness of the method and also the importance of using calibration data of good quality. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 157.
    Strandberg, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Holmgren, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Wagner, David R.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Molinder, Roger
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Effects of pyrolysis conditions and ash formation on gasification rates of biomass char2017In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 6507-6514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pyrolysis conditions and the presence of ash-forming elements significantly influence char properties and its oxidation or gasification reactivity. In this study, intrinsic gasification rates of char from high heating rate pyrolysis were analyzed with isothermal thermogravimetry. The char particles were prepared from two biomasses at three size ranges and at two temperatures. Reactivity dependence on original particle size was found only for small wood particles that had higher intrinsic char gasification rates. Pyrolysis temperature had no significant effect on char reactivity within the range tested. Observations of ash formation highlighted that reactivity was influenced by the presence of ash-forming elements, not only at the active char sites but also through prohibition of contact between char and gasification agent by ash layer formation with properties highly depending on ash composition.

  • 158.
    Strandberg, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Thyrel, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology, Umeå, Sweden.
    Skoglund, Nils
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Lestander, Torbjörn A.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology, Umeå, Sweden.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Backman, Rainer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Biomass pellet combustion: cavities and ash formation characterized by synchrotron X-ray micro-tomography2018In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 176, p. 211-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ash formation during thermochemical conversion of biomass-based pellets influences both char conversion rates and ash-related operational problems. The objective of the present study was to provide detailed insights into changes in fuel and ash properties during fuel conversion. Pellets of poplar wood and wheat straw were used as model biofuels, representing vastly different compositions of ash-forming elements. Pellet samples at different char conversion phases were analyzed by synchrotron-based 3D X-ray micro-tomography, to map and visualize the development of cracks, internal cavities, and ash layers during conversion. The analysis of ash layers was complemented by scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results provide new insights into how large cracks and internal cavities are developed already during devolatilization, for example, the poplar wood pellets had a 64% void fraction after the devolatilization stage. As expected, there were large variations between the ash layer properties for the two fuels. A porous, low density, and calcium-rich ash was formed from the poplar fuel, whereas the wheat straw ash was a high-density silicate melt that developed into bubbles on the surface. As the conversion proceeded, the wheat straw ash covered parts of the active char surface area, but without blocking the gas transport.

  • 159.
    Strandberg, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Wagner, David R.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Holmgren, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Molinder, Roger
    Energitekniskt Centrum, Piteå.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    Energitekniskt Centrum, Piteå.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå Technical University.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Influence of Biomass Particle Properties and Pyrolysis Conditions on Char Reactivity2014In: Proceedings of Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Production October 26 –31, 2014, Snowbird, Utah, USA, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 160.
    Strandberg, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    From torrefaction to gasification: Pilot scale studies for upgrading of biomass2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the share of biomass, preferably by replacing fossil fuels, is one way to mitigate the present climate change. Fossil coal can be directly replaced by co-combustion of coal and biomass and fossil engine fuels (gasoline and diesel) could potentially partly be replaced by synthetic renewable fuels produced via entrained flow gasification of biomass. The use of biomass in these processes is so far limited, partly because of the fibrous and hygroscopic nature of biomass which leads to problem in storing, transportation, handling and feeding.

    This thesis demonstrates how the challenging characteristics of raw biomass are mitigated by the pretreatment method torrefaction. Torrefaction is a process where biomass is heated in an oxygen deficient atmosphere to typically between 240 and 350°C for a time period of 2 minutes to 1 hour. Most of the torrefaction R&D in the literature have so far been performed with bench-scale batch reactors. For the purpose of carefully studying continuous torrefaction, a 20 kg/h torrefaction pilot plant was therefore designed, constructed and evaluated.

    The overall conclusion from this thesis is that the many benefits of torrefied biomass are valid also when produced with a continuous pilot plant and for typically Swedish forest biomasses. Some of the documented improved biomass properties are increased heating value, increased energy density, higher friability (lower milling energy) and less hydrophilic biomass (less moisture uptake). Most of the improvements can be attributed to the decomposition of hemicellulose and cellulose during torrefaction.

    The most common variables for describing the torrefaction degree are mass yield or anhydrous weight loss but both are challenging to determine for continuous processes. We therefore evaluated three different methods (one existing and two new suggestions) to determine degree of torrefaction that not require measurement of mass loss. The degree of torrefaction based on analyzed higher heating value of the raw and torrefied biomass (DTFHHV) predicted mass yield most accurate and had lowest combined uncertainty.

    Pelletizing biomass enhance transportation and handling but results from pelletization of torrefied biomass is still very limited in the literature and mainly reported from single pellet presses. A pelletization study of torrefied spruce with a ring die in pilot scale was therefore performed. The bulk energy density was found to be 14.6 GJ/m3 for pelletized torrefied spruce (mass yield 75%), a 40% increase compared to regular white pellets and therefore are torrefied pellets more favorable for long distance transports. More optimization of the torrefied biomass and the pelletization process is though needed for acquiring industrial quality pellets with lower amount of fines and higher pellet durability than attained in the present study.

    Powders from milled raw biomass are generally problematic for feeding and handling and torrefied biomass has been proposed to mitigate these issues. The influence of torrefaction and pelletization on powder and particle properties after milling was therefore studied. The results show that powder from torrefied biomass were enhanced with higher bulk densities, lower angle of repose as well as smaller less elongated particles with less surface roughness. Even higher powder qualities were achieved by pelletizing the torrefied biomass before milling, i.e. another reason for commercial torrefied biomass to be pelletized.

    Entrained flow gasification (EFG) is a promising option for conversion of biomass to other more convenient renewable energy carriers such as electricity, liquid biofuels and green petrochemicals. Also for EFGs are torrefied fuels very limited studied. Raw and torrefied logging residues were successfully gasified in a pilot scale pressurized entrained flow biomass gasifier at 2 bar(a) with a fuel feed corresponding to 270 kWth. Significantly lower methane content (50% decrease) in the syngas was also demonstrated for the torrefied fuel with mass yield 49%. The low milling energy consumption for the torrefied fuels compared to the raw fuel was beneficial for the gasification plant efficiency.

  • 161.
    Strandberg, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Nordin, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Kollberg, Kristoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Powder characteristics of torrefied and pelletized biomass2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Co-firing biomass with coal is an efficient way of mitigating severe climate change by reducing the total atmospheric greenhouse gas burden. Although biomass is considered close to CO2-neutral, present biomass based energy carriers all however suffer from several logistical challenges. The high moisture content, hydrophobic and fibrous nature, low energy density and bulky characteristics are all challenges impeding large-scale industrial use. The thermal pre-treatment method torrefaction enhances the above biomass fuel qualities and significantly facilitate large scale industrial use of biomass raw materials with respect to, handling, storage, feeding as well as for final conversion. In the present work we evaluate the influence of torrefaction on some fuel powder quality aspects. Five different types of torrefied pellets was compared to a reference (regular white wood pellets) with respect to milling energy and different powder characteristics such as aerated and tapped bulk density, particle size distribution, angle of repose and image analysis. Milling energy decreased by between 77 and 93 % for torrefied pellets compared to wood pellets, and the resulting black powders consisted of considerably smaller particle sizes. Particles from torrefied fuels were also less elongated and more circular/less rough, properties which positively influence flowability. Powder bulk density increased by 90 % at most. Angle of repose, previously documented to be negatively correlated to flowability, decreased from 66° for the reference powder to 57° for the torrefied sample with the lowest angle. Torrefaction temperature affected the results considerably more than moisture content prior to pelletization. The total evidences found therefore suggest a positive effect of torrefaction on both powder production and characteristics.

  • 162.
    Strandberg, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Olofsson, Ingemar
    Pommer, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Nordin, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Evaluation of existing and new approaches to determine degree of torrefactionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Torrefaction is a promising thermal pretreatment method for biomass in which many material properties are enhanced. The biomass components (hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin) degrade in this thermal process to different extents depending on type of process, treatment temperature, residence time and biomass type. Torrefaction severity is usually defined by biomass weight loss or mass yield, but other approaches to determine degree of torrefaction have also been suggested. For continuous and large scale facilities, mass yield can be challenging to determine and another approach to determine torrefaction severity is therefore desired. In this study, one existing and two new approaches for determining degree of torrefaction are presented, compared and evaluated including uncertainty analysis. The three approaches were based on analysis of; volatile matter, thermochemical properties (enthalpy of formation), and higher heating value. 

    All three methods were highly correlated to mass yield and independent of torrefaction process. The degree of torrefaction based on higher heating value predicted mass yield most accurate, had lowest measurement uncertainty and the results were independent of biomass type. In the evaluation of the method based on formation enthalpy it was revealed that the increase in heating values for torrefied biomasses could be explained by the combination of increase in enthalpy of formation and decrease in oxygen content.

  • 163.
    Strandberg, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Olofsson, Ingemar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Pommer, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Wiklund-Lindström, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Åberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Nordin, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Effects of temperature and residence time on continuous torrefaction of spruce wood2015In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 134, p. 387-398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a solid energy carrier, biomass generally has a few disadvantages, which limits its use for coal replacement and as a feedstock for entrained flow gasification. The hydrophilic and fibrous nature, the low calorific value and low bulk energy content imply high accumulated costs in the whole supply chain and severe challenges in more advanced conversion systems. By thermally pretreating the biomass by torrefaction, these properties may be significantly improved. A continuous torrefaction rotary drum reactor was designed, constructed and evaluated to enable an accurate process control and allow a homogeneous well-defined high quality product to be produced. The combined effects of torrefaction temperature (260–310 °C) and residence time (8–25 min) on a large number of product properties (> 25) were determined for Norway spruce. The resulting mass and energy yields were 46–97% and 62–99%, respectively. Exothermic reactions were evident both at low (260 °C) and high temperatures (310 °C) but with no thermal runaway observed. Increased torrefaction severity resulted in decreased milling energy consumption, angle of repose, mass and energy yield, content of volatile matter, hydrogen, cellulose and hemicellulose. Hydrophobicity, heating value, carbon and fixed carbon contents increased. For all responses, the effect of torrefaction temperature was larger than the effect of residence time. Substantial interaction effects were present for mass and energy yields, volatile matter and hydrogen content. Another correlation found was the relationship of hemicellulose degradation and the brittleness of the torrefied product. Data also suggest secondary char forming reactions during the torrefaction process, resulting in higher fixed carbon content in the torrefied material than expected. The results also suggest torrefaction temperature and residence time not to be totally interchangeable.

  • 164.
    Strandberg, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Olofsson, Ingemar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Pommer, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Wiklund-Lindström, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI.
    Åberg, Katarina
    Nordin, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Effects of temperature and residence time on torrefaction of spruce woodManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 165.
    Strunk, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Characterization of cellulose pulps and the influence of their properties on the process and production of viscose and cellulose ethers2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s market offers an ever-increasing range of cellulose pulps (derivative pulps) made fromvarious wood types through different delignification processes. Each pulp segment has its uniquecharacteristics, which makes it difficult for the producer of cellulose derivatives to choose the mostsuitable pulp for optimum processability and product quality. The objective of this study was toimprove knowledge of cellulose pulps and to describe how different pulp properties affectprocessability and quality in the production of viscose dope and cellulose ethers.Ten pulp samples were investigated, originating from both sulfite and sulfate processes, with highand low viscosities and with softwood and hardwood as raw material. The pulps were analyzed fortheir properties and then processed to viscose dope and a cellulose ether in two separate pilotfacilities. The intermediates in the viscose process as well as the quality of the viscose dope andcellulose ether were analyzed and the results correlated to pulp properties.Multivariate regression methods were applied to investigate the dominating physical and chemicalproperties of each pulp and pulp segment, and to study the use of spectroscopic analyses inpredicting pulp origin, concentration and composition of hemicelluloses as well as the content ofreducing end groups in cellulose. For the production of viscose dope, the models presented showedthe most important pulp properties for good cellulose reactivity and viscose filterability. In addition,the properties affecting gel formation, flocculation, degree of substitution and clarity in theproduction of cellulose ether were highlighted. The study also emphasized the need to supplementthe use of conventional analyses on pulps and viscose intermediates with other analytical methods,such as molecular weight distribution and carbohydrate analysis, to better predict the quality ofboth viscose dope and viscose fiber.The results of the present study could be useful to predict the origin and properties of new pulps, toreplace or supplement otherwise expensive pulp analyses, and to assess the impact of pulpproperties on the production of cellulose derivatives without extensive pilot-scale trials.

  • 166.
    Strunk, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindgren, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Agnemo, Roland
    Eliasson, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Properties of cellulose pulps and their influence on the production of a cellulose ether2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 24-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several grades of cellulose pulps were investigated for their influence on the product quality of a cellulose ether, ethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose (EHEC). The selection of the pulps was based on pulping process, original wood type and intrinsic viscosity. In total, five sulfite pulps and four sulfate pulps were chosen, of which all but one sulfate pulp were of dissolving grade. The physical and chemical properties of the pulps were analyzed as well as important qualitative parameters of the final product EHEC. The influence of pulp properties on EHEC quality was investigated by multivariate data analyses.Principal component analysis showed that due to the influence of all variables, the pulps aligned in groups in accordance to the selection criteria pulping process and wood type. Partial least square regression revealed that high gel formation in EHEC is explained by the pulp properties high intrinsic viscosity and high Mw in combination with high caustic absorption rate and high total caustic absorption. The amount of hemicelluloses, in particular xylose, also contributed to gel formation. High cloud point for an EHEC solution was explained by a high MSEO and low DSEt of the EHEC molecules, where in turn a high MSEO could be predicted by a high pore area, high PD and a low caustic absorption rate. A low DSEt could on the other hand be predicted by a low hemicellulose content and hence a high R18. In a separate model, the same pulp properties explaining MSEO and DSEt also predicted cloud point directly. Fock reactivity and viscose dope filterability, both test methods originating from the viscose manufacturing, were shown to predict cloud point but have low predictability on other EHEC quality parameters.The models achieved can thus be utilized to predict final EHEC product qualities for new pulps within the design set of the chosen pulps.

  • 167.
    Strunk, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindgren, Åsa
    AkzoNobel Functional Chemicals AB, Stenungsund, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Agnemo, Roland
    DomInnova, Domsjö Fabriker AB, Örnsköldsvik, Sweden.
    Chemical changes of cellulose pulps in the processing to viscose dope2012In: Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, ISSN 0576-9787, Vol. 46, no 9-10, p. 559-569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A selection of cellulose pulps was investigated for their chemical changes during the required process steps to viscose dope. The selection of the pulps was based on pulping process, original wood type and intrinsic viscosity. In total, five sulfite pulps and four sulfate pulps were chosen, of which all but one sulfate pulp were of dissolving grades. The physical and chemical properties of the pulps were analyzed as well as important qualitative parameters of the cellulose intermediates during mercerization, pre-aging and in the final viscose dope. Pre-aging curves were reported as a measure of each pulp's reactivity with respect to oxidative degradation, where high hemicellulose content and small pore area and pore diameter were found to hamper cellulose degradation. The correlations in pre-aged pulps of intrinsic viscosity to Mz, Mv and Mw were found to be ambiguous and show the need for a description of total molecular weight distribution of the alkali celluloses to better understand the degradation behavior of each pulp, instead of only intrinsic viscosity. It was also shown that R18 and R10 are insufficient analyses to determine pulp, and to predict viscose quality. Further, many pulps, independently of initial hemicellulose content, reached the same level of hemicellulose content after mercerization. The presence of crystalline hemicelluloses could be a possible cause for this level-off behavior, combined with hemicelluloses resistant to caustic lye treatment. The change of both low-molecular-weight celluloses and PD in the process to viscose dope was investigated due to the importance of these variables on dope spinnability and viscose fiber strength. Caustic resistance of cellulose and hemicelluloses and a more rigid fiber structure in some pulps are suggested to contribute to the different degradation behavior.

  • 168. Subhan, Sidra
    et al.
    Muhammad, Yaseen
    Sahibzada, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Subhan, Fazle
    Tong, Zhangfa
    Studies on the Selection of a Catalyst-Oxidant System for the Energy-Efficient Desulfurization and Denitrogenation of Fuel Oil at Mild Operating Conditions2019In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 33, no 9, p. 8423-8439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports the selection of an ideal catalyst–oxidant system for the energy-efficient catalytic oxidative desulfurization (CODS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) and denitrogenation (CODN) of pyridine over Mn–Co–Mo/Al2O3 and acid-functionalized 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl/ZnCl2) ionic liquid (IL) catalysts using H2O2 and NaClO as oxidants. The NaClO–catalyst system realized 100% CODS/CODN activity within 15 min at 25 °C at comparatively low activation energies of 4.9 and 5.4 kJ/mol for DBT and pyridine, respectively, under optimal conditions of oxidant-to-sulfur ratio of 4, oxidant-to-nitrogen ratio of 8, ionic liquid-to-oil ratio of 1.5/5, and 0.1 g of Mn–Co–Mo/Al2O3 catalyst for 15 mL of model fuel. Both catalytic activity and kinetics results revealed a NaClO–catalyst system with greater efficiency and lesser energy requirements than a H2O2–catalyst system, and hence the former realized enhanced CODS and CODN than the latter. Furthermore, the Mn–Co–Mo/Al2O3 catalyst favored CODS, while [Bmim]Cl/ZnCl2 possessed greater affinity for the CODN process, owing to the stronger nucleophilic interaction of the cationic species in IL toward hindered nitrogen compounds. Further justification for the CODS and CODN activities and textural characterization of the fresh and spent catalysts were provided by PXRD, XPS, SEM, EDX elemental mapping, and BET surface area characterizations. Based on the results, this study is potentially viable owing to its environmental greenness, enhancement in the calorific value of the final fuel, and genially benignant application in energy consumption via mild operating conditions and hence can be envisaged as a practicable alternative approach in industrial processing of fuel oils.

  • 169.
    Surowiec, Izabella
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Nowik, Witold
    Moritz, Thomas
    Mass spectrometric identification of new minor indigoids in shellfish purple dye from Hexaplex trunculus2012In: Dyes and pigments, ISSN 0143-7208, E-ISSN 1873-3743, Vol. 94, no 2, p. 363-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of natural dyes in historical objects is important for both conservation purposes and to determine the origin and culture that produced it. Identification of a particular dye is usually made based on the presence of its main components, while consideration of minor components is important for differentiating between dyes originating from closely related species. Tyrian purple is one of the oldest dyes known to man and derives from different species of marine molluscs. In all of these species, indigotin, indirubin and their brominated analogues are the main colouring compounds. Here, we describe the identification of minor indigoids found in extracts of the pigment obtained from one of the Tyrian purple species, Hexaplex trunculus. Identification of these compounds was made based on isotopic patterns and accurate mass measurements of protonated molecular ions and their high collision energy fragments obtained in LC-MS/MS experiments. The unknown compounds appeared to be analogues of indirubin and its mono- and dibrominated derivatives with one CO group in the indirubin backbone substituted by a CNH group. Identification of these compounds facilitates the detection of dyestuffs from H. trunculus in historical objects and increases our knowledge about the dye biosynthesis and technology of Tyrian purple production. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 170. Tranvik, AC
    et al.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry.
    Sanati, M
    Bed material deposition in cyclones of wood fuel fired circulating fluidized beds (CFBs)2007In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 104-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bed material samples were collected at different times from a full-scale combustion boiler, and bed material deposits were taken from the cyclone and the riser at two different occasions from a wood-fired circulating fluidized bed boiler (104 MWth). The bed materials and the bed material deposits were analyzed with environmental scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (ESEM/EDXS) to determine the characteristics of the formed bed particle layers and bed material deposits. On the basis of their elemental composition, the corresponding melting behavior was estimated, using data extracted from phase diagrams. The bed material was also fractionated by sieving, and the alkali metal concentration dependence on the particle size was determined. The bed material deposits found in the cyclone and the riser consisted of bed particles embedded in a low-temperature melting (sticky) alkali metal silicate (K and Na) that resemble the composition of the layer found around the cracks in older quartz bed particles. The alkali silicate formation, which is in progress in the vicinity of the formed cracks of older quartz bed particles, significantly transforms a large part of the bed particle and makes it less resistant against fragmentation. The results therefore suggest that elutriated alkali silicate-rich fragments from old quartz bed particles are responsible for bed material depositions in cyclones of wood-fired circulating fluidized beds (CFBs).

  • 171.
    Trubetskaya, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Søltofts Plads Bygning 229, Kgs. Lyngby 2800, Denmark.
    Arendt Jensen, Peter
    Degn Jensen, Anker
    Glarborg, Peter
    Hofmann Larsen, Flemming
    Larsen Andersen, Mogens
    Characterization of free radicals by electron spin resonance spectroscopy in biochars from pyrolysis at high heating rates and at high temperatures2016In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 94, p. 117-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentration and type of free radicals from the decay (termination stage) of pyrolysis at slow and fast heating rates and at high temperatures (above 1000 degrees C) in biomass char have been studied. A room temperature electron spin resonance spectroscopy study was conducted on original wood, herbaceous biomass, holocelluloses, lignin and their chars, prepared at high temperatures in a wire mesh reactor, an entrained flow reactor, and a tubular reactor. The radical concentrations in the chars from the decay stage range up between 7.10(16) and 1.5.10(18) spins g(-1). The results indicated that the biomass major constituents (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin) had a minor effect on remaining radical concentrations compared to potassium and silica contents. The higher radical concentrations in the wheat straw chars from the decay stage of pyrolysis in the entrained flow reactor compared to the wood chars were related to the decreased mobility of potassium in the char matrix, leading to the less efficient catalytic effects of potassium on the bond-breaking and radical re-attachments. The high Si levels in the rice husk caused an increase in the char radical concentration compared to the wheat straw because the free radicals were trapped in a char consisting of a molten amorphous silica at heating rates of 10(3)-10(4) K s(-1). The experimental electron spin resonance spectroscopy spectra were analyzed by fitting to simulated data in order to identify radical types, based on g-values and line widths. The results show that at high temperatures, mostly aliphatic radicals (g = 2.0026-2.0028) and PAH radicals (g = 2.0027-2.0031) were formed.

  • 172.
    Trubetskaya, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Kling, J.
    Brown, A.
    Tompsett, G.
    Umeki, K.
    Effects of Lignocellulosic Compounds on the Yield, Nanostructure and Reactivity of Soot from Fast Pyrolysis at High Temperatures2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 173.
    Trubetskaya, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Kling, Jens
    Brown, Avery
    Tompsett, Geoffrey
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Effects of Lignocellulosic Compounds on the Yield, Nanostructure and Reactivity of Soot from Fast Pyrolysis at High Temperatures2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 174.
    Trubetskaya, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Larsen Andersen, Mogens
    Talbro Barsberg, Søren
    Modeling of radical structures in biochar using DFT calculations2017In: ECI Digital Archives / [ed] Franco Berruti, Raffaella Ocone and Ondrej Masek, Digital Commons , 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon is a key ingredient for producing metals used for cellphones, laptop computers, photovoltaic panels, and related solid state silicon devices employed by mankind. Thus, introduction of an alternative reductant based on bioresources into steel manufacturing without significant investments in a new technology is of high importance and wide impact. The production of iron, steel, and many other metals can employ biocarbon as the needed reductant; but because of cost, coals are usually used instead. The anthropogenic CO2 emissions can be decreased by substitution of biochar in the production of silicon and metals due to the lower regeneration time of biomass < 10 years compared to 106-107 years for bituminous coal.

    This study aims to develop and to provide knowledge on the biochar structure at the molecular level including the presence of free radicals and oxygen heteroatoms that is essential for the understanding and prediction of biochar valuable properties in metallurgical applications. Both yields and biochar properties are important parameters for the optimization of pyrolysis conditions. Therefore, the pyrolysis conditions for the biochar application as a reducing agent in steel industry were optimized, and the molecular structure of the biochar by the combined use of experimental chemistry (Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and quantum chemistry computations (Density Functional Theory methods) was modified.

    The results indicated the formation of stable radicals from biomass pyrolysis at their termination stage which were quantified by the electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Based on the experimental and fitting results, PAH structures were selected as initial compounds for the DFT modeling. The comparison of hydroxylated with methylated PAH structures showed that hydroxylated PAH are excellent candidate to represent the radical structure based on the low bond dissociation energes. The bond dissociation energy of -10 Kcal mol-1 is in the range of the best known antioxidants. The results showed that the present DFT model predicts reasonably the biochar molecular structure, and can capture changes in the biochar molecular structure under different pyrolysis conditions.

  • 175.
    Trubetskaya, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Hofmann Larsen, Flemming
    Shchukarev, Andrey
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Ståhl, Kenny
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Potassium and soot interaction in fast biomass pyrolysis at high temperatures2018In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 225, p. 89-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate the interaction between potassium and carbonaceous matrix of soot produced from wood and herbaceous biomass pyrolysis at high heating rates at 1250°C in a drop tube reactor. The influence of soot carbon chemistry and potassium content in the original biomass on the CO2 reactivity was studied by thermogravimetric analysis. The XPS results showed that potassium incorporation with oxygen-containing surface groups in the soot matrix did not occur during high temperature pyrolysis. The potassium was mostly found as water-soluble salts such as KCl, KOH, KHCO3 and K2CO3 in herbaceous biomass soot. The low ash-containing pinewood soot was less reactive than the potassium rich herbaceous biomass soot, indicating a dominating role of potassium on the soot reactivity. However, the catalytic effect of potassium on the reactivity remained the same after a certain potassium amount was incorporated in the soot matrix during pyrolysis. Raman spectroscopy results showed that the carbon chemistry of biomass soot also affected the CO2 reactivity. The less reactive pinewood soot was more graphitic than herbaceous biomass soot samples with the disordered carbon structure.

  • 176.
    Ur Rehman, Bilal
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Modelling a Mineral Froth Flotation Process: Case Study: Minerals process at Boliden AB2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We present an approach to model the dynamic of a copper flotation process. The conventional approach of system identification is applied to model the dynamics. In this research, experiments are performed to collect process data of determined input and output variables. It is followed by data pre-processing to handle outliers and to remove high frequency disturbances. Simulation and validation responses of linear estimated models, which captured the dynamic of the process, are presented. The long term goal is to use estimated models to design a models-based control system.

  • 177.
    Vaziri, Mojgan
    et al.
    Department of Wood Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology.
    Orädd, Greger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Lindgren, Owe
    Department of Wood Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology,.
    Pizzi, Antonio
    Magnetic resonance imaging of water distribution in welded woods2011In: Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, ISSN 0169-4243, E-ISSN 1568-5616, Vol. 25, no 16, p. 1997-2003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was performed for a better understanding of water effect on welded wood and improving its water resistance. In this article, we have also attempted to demonstrate the feasibility of using Magnetic Resonance Imaging technology to study water movement in welded woods. Water distribution in welded woods of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and beech (Fagus sylvatica) was investigated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Axial specimens were cut from beech and sapwood of Scots pine in longitudinal direction of wood grain. Two pieces of each wood species were welded together by a linear vibration machine. Sub-samples measuring 30 mm x 20 mm x 100 mm were cut from the welded specimens for Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The results showed that weldline of Scots pine was more resistant to water than weldline of beech. Pine joint was still holding after 40 h immersion in water, while a rapid wetting of the beech joint resulted in breakage of the joint in even less than an hour. This preliminary study also showed that MRI is a powerful tool to measure water distribution in welded woods and highlighted the potential of this technique to enhance understanding of wood welding. (C) Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2011

  • 178.
    Viggh, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Boström, Dan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Wilhelmsson, Bodil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Raw meal and slag reactions during cement clinker formation2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural limestones as raw material for OPC clinker manufacturing contribute to emissions of CO2gases during the production of clinker. In addition, the mining of limestone can regionally be controlledby restrictions due to environmental concerns. Slags from the steel industry can replace limestone tominimize the use of the mineral deposits. Both materials have similar chemistry and are compatible asraw materials.Utilizing slags raises questions about how slag particles will react with other raw meal components asthe temperature in the kiln increases during clinker formation. This study establishes the chemical andmineralogical aspects of replacing a portion of the limestone with slags. Of interest is how the materialsreact during the formation of the liquid phase and the formation of phases containing MgO.Three different slags were examined, a basic oxygen furnace slag BOF, a crystalline blast-furnace slagand a granulated blast-furnace slag. In the study, the microstructural causes of reactivity, as well asmineral formation in the transition zone between raw meal components, developing liquid phase andslag particles were studied. Heated raw meals were studied using HT-QXRD, QXRD, SEM andthermodynamic modeling to describe the reactions of particles at higher temperatures. The resultsshow that the formation of clinker minerals is strongly influenced by the type and amount of slag. Thus,a careful selection must be done of both composition and quantity of metallurgical slags for naturallimestone replacement in order to maintain clinker quality.

  • 179. Virtanen, Pasi
    et al.
    Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka
    Åbo Akademi.
    Salmi, Tapio
    Miljövänliga katalysatorer av joniska vätskor2010In: Kemia, ISSN 0355-1628, no 6, p. 32-34Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 180. Virtanen, Pasi
    et al.
    Salmi, Tapio
    Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry and Reaction Engineering, Process Chemistry Centre, Åbo Akademi University, Piispankatu 8, FI-20500 Turku/Åbo, Finland.
    Kinetics of cinnamaldehyde hydrogenation by supported ionic liquid catalysts (SILCA)2009In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 48, no 23, p. 10335-10342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research of ionic liquids and their applications in catalysis are attracting increasing attention in chemistry and chemical engineering. A supported ionic liquid catalyst (SILCA) consists of immobilized catalytic species (e.g., transition-metal particles, metal complexes, or enzymes) residing in an ionic liquid layer immobilized on a porous solid support. The kinetics of cinnamaldehyde hydrogenation over SILCAs that contained palladium nanoparticles in ionic liquid, which, in turn, was immobilized oil active carbon cloth (ACC), was studied and modeled in detail. A mechanistic kinetic model, which describes the differences of the activity and selectivity of the catalysts consisting of different ionic liquids, was developed. The model explained the experimental results well.

  • 181. Virtanen, Pasi
    et al.
    Salminen, Eero
    Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Industrial Chemistry & Reaction Engineering, Johan Gadolin Process Chemistry Centre, Åbo Akademi University.
    Modeling of Supported Ionic Liquid Catalysts Systems: From Idea to Applications2017In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 56, no 45, p. 12852-12862Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The modeling of chemical reactions studied in small scale, often carried out in Academia, is very important since it gives more information about the system and better possibilities to scale-up the processes in the future. Supported ionic liquid catalysts (SILCAs) have been studied in a number of different processes. However, the modeling of these processes have been studied only in a few cases. In this paper the sample cases are reviewed. These processes include hydrogenation of unsaturated aldehydes as well as isomerization of terpenes, α- and β-pinene oxides.

  • 182.
    Wagner, David R.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    The effect of particle size, temperature, and residence time on biomass devolatilization behavior in a wire-mesh reactor2014In: Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Production October 26 –31, 2014, Snowbird, Utah, USA, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 183.
    Wagner, David R.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Time-dependent variations of activation energy during rapid devolatilization of biomass2016In: Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, ISSN 0165-2370, E-ISSN 1873-250X, Vol. 118, p. 98-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial gasifiers and combustors are assumed to reach particle heating rates of 10(5)-10(6) degrees C/s and understanding how particles behave in these extreme conditions can improve the utilization of solid fuels in these reactors and in downstream applications. By studying intermediate devolatilization processes during solid fuel pyrolysis, detailed models for solid fuel conversion can be formulated. Key objectives of this study included (1) investigate possible mechanisms that promote the formation of synthesis gas components and char, (2) compare the devolatilization behavior of pyrolysis by varying particle size, hold time, and temperature and (3) correlate char deactivation with hold time. The objectives of the study were accomplished using a wire-mesh reactor with a uniform heating rate of 500 degrees C/s in nitrogen under atmospheric pressure. A design of experiments approach was used to quantify the effects that hold time, temperature, and particle size had on char yield, evolved gas composition, and apparent activation energy of pine stem wood and wheat straw. Key results indicate that with increased temperature and hold time more volatiles evolve from the fuels and favor carbon monoxide and methane production at higher temperatures. Apparent activation energy of the volatile matter decreases with hold time. An abbreviated model for apparent activation energy correlates well with experimental data and assumes that along a devolatilization pathway, that not all volatiles are driven from the fuel.

  • 184.
    Wagner, David R.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Holmgren, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Strandberg, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    Energitekniskt Centrum, Piteå.
    Molinder, Roger
    Energitekniskt Centrum, Piteå.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Fate of Inorganic Species during Biomass Devolatilization in a Drop Tube Furnace2014In: Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Production October 26–31, 2014, Snowbird, Utah, USA, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 185.
    Wagner, David R.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Zhechao, Qu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Florian, Schmidt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Validation of reacting flow models via tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy2014In: Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Production October 26 –31, 2014, Snowbird, Utah, USA, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 186. Wagner, Katharina
    et al.
    Haggstrom, Gustav
    Mauerhofer, Anna Magdalena
    Kuba, Matthias
    Skoglund, Nils
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Ohman, Marcus
    Hofbauer, Hermann
    Layer formation on K-feldspar in fluidized bed combustion and gasification of bark and chicken manure2019In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 127, article id UNSP 105251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding layer formation on bed materials used in fluidized beds is a key step for advances in the application of alternative fuels. Layers can be responsible for agglomeration-caused shut-downs but they can also improve the gas composition in fluidized bed gasification. Layers were observed on K-feldspar (KAlSi3O8) impurities originating from the combined heat and power plant Senden which applies the dual fluidized bed (DFB) steam gasification technology. Pure K-feldspar was therefore considered as alternative bed material in DFB steam gasification. Focusing on the interactions between fuel ash and bed material, K-feldspar was tested in combustion and DFB steam gasification atmospheres using different fuels, namely Ca-rich bark, Ca -and P-rich chicken manure, and an admixture of chicken manure to bark. The bed particle layers formed on the bed material surface were characterized using combined scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy; area mappings and line scans were carried out for all samples. The obtained data show no essential influence of operational mode on the layer-formation process. During the combustion and DFB steam gasification of Ca-rich bark, a layer rich in Ca formed while K was diffusing out of the layer. The use of Ca -and P-rich chicken manure inhibited the diffusion of K, and a layer rich in Ca and P formed. The addition of P to bark via chicken manure also changed the underlying layer-formation processes to reflect the same processes as observed for pure chicken manure.

  • 187.
    Waltersson, Evelina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Optimization of Expancel Product and Process: Through the use of Multivariate Planning, Data Analysis and Evaluation.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The company Expancel produces expandable microspheres. The microspheres are microscopic spherical particles that consist of a polymer shell encapsulating a gas (the blowing agent). Heat causes the particles to expand. The microspheres have many application areas; they are used as additives in for example thermoplastics, coatings, civil explosives, paper and board. The microspheres are produced through a method called suspension polymerization. In suspension polymerization the starting material for the spheres (monomers, initiator and blowing agent) is through vigorous stirring split into small droplets in a surrounding water phase. Polymerization (initiated by heating the emulsion) occurs inside the microscopic droplets, the monomers react to form the polymer shell with the blowing agent captured inside. After the polymerization the product can be filtered and dried.

    This degree project consisted of two parts. In the first (and major) part the consequences of replacing a chemical used in the production of the microspheres with a more environmentally friendly alternative was examined. The goal was to produce microspheres with an alternative chemical without changing the properties of the microspheres. First five different alternative chemicals were examined in a selected production recipe in 50 ml scale. The software MODDE was used for design of these experiments and analysis of results. Then the best alternative of the five was examined in three other recipes in 50 ml scale. One of the recipes was also examined in 1 liter scale. Several of the alternative chemicals showed good results in the first recipe, but one of them showed more stable results than the others and was selected to proceed with in the other recipes. The conclusion from the experiments with this chemical was that the amount added affected the particle size, and that best results were achieved when adding the chemical before the flocculation step in the process.

    The objective of the second part was to study and evaluate a production process in order to find optimization possibilities. The chosen process was the filtering of the produced microsphere slurry for a specific recipe. Data were collected from the polymerization process, the dewatering process and the characterization analyses performed on the produced microsphere slurry. Production rate was used as response variable. The multivariate analysis software package SIMCA-P+12.0.1 was then used to analyze the data. The conclusion of the multivariate data analysis was that two factors were the most important for explaining the variation in the response variable; the particle size and a polymerization parameter called level.

  • 188.
    Wang, Da
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Servin, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Berglund, Tomas
    Algoryx Simulation AB, Umeå, Sweden.
    Mickelsson, Kjell-Ove
    LKAB R&D, Malmberget, Sweden.
    Rönnbäck, Stefan
    Optimation AB, Luleå, Sweden.
    Parametrization and validation of a nonsmooth discrete element method for simulating flows of iron ore green pellets2015In: Powder Technology, ISSN 0032-5910, E-ISSN 1873-328X, Vol. 283, p. 475-487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nonsmooth discrete element method (NDEM) has the potential of high computational efficiency for rapid exploration of large design space of systems for processing and transportation of mineral ore. We present parametrization, verification and validation of a simulation model based on NDEM for iron ore green pellet flow in balling circuits. Simulations are compared with camera based measurements of individual pellet motion as well as bulk behavior of pellets on conveyors and in rotating balling drum. It is shown that the NDEM simulation model is applicable for the purpose of analysis, design and control of iron ore pelletizing systems. The sensitivity to model and simulation parameters is investigated. It is found that: the errors associated with large time-step integration do not cause statistically significant errors to the bulk behavior; rolling resistance is a necessary model component; and the outlet flow from the drum is sensitive to fine material adhering to the outlet creating a thick coating that narrows the outlet gaps.

  • 189. Wang, Huijiao
    et al.
    Mustafa, Majid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Yu, Gang
    Östman, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Cheng, Yi
    Wang, Yujue
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Oxidation of emerging biocides and antibiotics in wastewater by ozonation and the electro-peroxone process2019In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 235, p. 575-585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the abatement of a number of antimicrobials frequently detected in municipal wastewater by conventional ozonation and a recently developed ozone-based advanced oxidation process, the electro-peroxone (E-peroxone) process. A synthetic water and a real secondary wastewater effluent were spiked with fourteen antimicrobials, including antibiotics and biocides, and then treated by the two processes. The results show that most of the antibiotics investigated (e.g., ofloxacin, trimethoprim, norfloxacin, and ciprofloxacin) readily react with ozone (O3) and could therefore be efficiently eliminated from the water matrices by direct O3 oxidation during both processes. In contrast, most of the biocides tested in this study (e.g., clotrimazole, pentamidine, bixafen, propiconazole, and fluconazole) were only moderately reactive, or non-reactive, with O3. Therefore, these biocides were removed at considerably lower rate than the antibiotics during the two ozone-based processes, with hydroxyl radical (OH) oxidation playing an important role in their abatement mechanisms. When compared with conventional ozonation, the E-peroxone process is defined by the in situ electrogeneration of hydrogen peroxide, which considerably enhances the transformation of O3 to OH. As a result, the E-peroxone process significantly accelerated the abatement of biocides and required a considerably shorter treatment time to eliminate all of the tested compounds from the water matrices than conventional ozonation. In addition, the E-peroxone process enhanced the contributions of OH fractions to the abatement of moderately ozone reactive benzotriazoles. These results demonstrate that the E-peroxone process holds promise as an effective tertiary treatment option for enhancing the abatement of ozone-resistant antimicrobials in wastewater.

  • 190.
    Wang, Zhao
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Wu, Guochao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Effects of impregnation of softwood with sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide on chemical and physical characteristics, enzymatic digestibility, and fermentability2018In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 247, p. 200-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrothermal pretreatment improves bioconversion of lignocellulose, but the effects of different acid catalysts are poorly understood. The effects of sulfuric acid (SA) and sulfur dioxide (SD) in continuous steam pretreatment of wood of Norway spruce were compared in the temperature range 195 degrees C-215 degrees C. The inhibitory effects of the pretreatment liquid on cellulolytic enzymes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast were higher for SD-than for SApretreated material, and the inhibitory effects increased with increasing pretreatment temperature. However, the susceptibility to cellulolytic enzymes of wood pretreated with SD was 2.0-2.9 times higher than that of wood pretreated with SA at the same temperature. Data conclusively show that the superior convertibility of SDpretreated material was not due to inhibition phenomena but rather to the greater capability of the SD pretreatment to reduce the particle size through partial delignification and cellulose degradation. Particle size was shown to be correlated with enzymatic digestibility (R-2 0.97-0.98).

  • 191.
    Werner, Kajsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Nils, Skoglund
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Albers, Eva
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Co-combustion of Miscanthus and Calcium Rich Brown Macroalgae2016In: 22nd International Conference of Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Production, Prague, Czech Republic, September 19-23, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The high ash content and varying ash composition from aquatic biomass is often mentioned as problematic if used for thermal energy conversion. This paper suggests a fuel design approach where detailed information on ash composition is the starting point for mixing and using fuels considered to be difficult. The procedure is demonstrated on brown macroalgae grown for biorefinery purposes in sea water. The fuel fingerprint (concentrations of the main ash forming elements) showed an interesting profile with very high Ca content together with significant amounts of Mg, K, Na, Cl, S, and also some minor contributions from Si and P. After careful considerations, it was concluded that this specific alga would be suitable for co-combustion with a silicone rich biofuel that would typically require some additive to avoid ash melting. One such fuel is Miscanthus. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare algae as a renewable source of Ca with mineral CaCO3 to reduce the risk of alkali silicate melt formation in combustion of the energy crop Miscanthus. The Miscanthus was co-pelletized with algal biomass and CaCO3, both at Ca/(K+Na) molar ratios of 1.5 and 3.0, and combusted in a bubbling fluidized bed. in. The ash reactions were assessed by analyzing samples from bed, deposit probe, cyclone, and particulate matter with SEM-EDS and P-XRD. The results showed that Ca from the algae reacted with the Miscanthus ash, forming less problematic silicate ash fractions. At the low combustion temperatures used (< 720°C) stable CaSO4 was formed, capturing some of the S that would otherwise have been available for alkali sulfation. Comparing the Ca rich algae with adding pure CaCO3 to the Miscanthus pellets indicated that the Ca in the algae ash was more prone to react with the K-silicate, and thereby more efficiently preventing ash melting.

  • 192.
    Werner, Kajsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Piotrowska, Patrycja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Gentili, Francesco
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Holmlund, Mattias
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Characterization of Thermochemical Fuel Properties of Microalgae and Cyanobacteria2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 193.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    et al.
    Energy Technology Centre, Piteå, Sweden.
    Grönberg, Carola
    Energy Technology Centre, Piteå, Sweden.
    Öhrman, Olov
    Energy Technology Centre, Piteå, Sweden.
    Boström, Dan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry.
    Influence of TiO2 additive on vaporisation of potassium during straw combustion2009In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 23, no 11, p. 5367-5374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, the influence of TiO2 on the vaporization of K during combustion of straw under fixed bed condition was investigated experimentally. Controlled combustion experiments with a varied amount of TiO2 in straw pellets were performed in an 8 kW pellet burner together with sampling of particles (impactor and absolute filter), analysis of the flue gas composition (Fourier transform infrared, FTIR), and chemical analyses of the collected particles and bottom ash (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD)). The experimental results showed that the vaporization of K from the fuel bed was significantly reduced when TiO2 was used as an additive. The vaporization of K was reduced by ~40−50% for an optimal amount of TiO2 additive. The optimal added TiO2 for the straw used in this work corresponds to a Ti/K (wt) ratio between ~0.6−1.0. If more TiO2 was added to the fuel, the release of K to the gas phase was not further reduced and unreacted TiO2 was found in the bottom ash.

  • 194. Wiinikka, Henrik
    et al.
    Toth, Pal
    Jansson, Kjell
    Molinder, Roger
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Sandström, Linda
    Lighty, JoAnn S.
    Weiland, Fredrik
    Particle formation during pressurized entrained flow gasification of wood powder: effects of process conditions on chemical composition, nanostructure, and reactivity2018In: Combustion and Flame, ISSN 0010-2180, E-ISSN 1556-2921, Vol. 189, p. 240-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of operating condition on particle formation during pressurized, oxygen blown gasification of wood powder with an ash content of 0.4 wt% was investigated. The investigation was performed with a pilot scale gasifier operated at 7 bar(a). Two loads, 400 and 600 kW were tested, with the oxygen equivalence ratio (λ) varied between 0.25 and 0.50. Particle concentration and mass size distribution was analyzed with a low pressure cascade impactor and the collected particles were characterized for morphology, elemental composition, nanostructure, and reactivity using scanning electron microscopy/high resolution transmission electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. In order to quantify the nanostructure of the particles and identify prevalent sub-structures, a novel image analysis framework was used. It was found that the process temperature, affected both by λ and the load of the gasifier, had a significant influence on the particle formation processes. At low temperature (1060 °C), the formed soot particles seemed to be resistant to the oxidation process; however, when the oxidation process started at 1119 °C, the internal burning of the more reactive particle core began. A further increase in temperature ( > 1313 °C) lead to the oxidation of the less reactive particle shell. When the shell finally collapsed due to severe oxidation, the original soot particle shape and nanostructure also disappeared and the resulting particle could not be considered as a soot anymore. Instead, the particle shape and nanostructure at the highest temperatures ( > 1430 °C) were a function of the inorganic content and of the inorganic elements the individual particle consisted of. All of these effects together lead to the soot particles in the real gasifier environment having less and less ordered nanostructure and higher and higher reactivity as the temperature increased; i.e., they followed the opposite trend of what is observed during laboratory-scale studies with fuels not containing any ash-forming elements and where the temperature was not controlled by λ.

  • 195. Wilhelmsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Backman, Rainer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Reducing the CO2 footprint of cement production byelectrification2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transformative actions in CO2 emitting industries are needed to reach the Paris climate agreement.The cement industry, which is responsible for 5-7% of the global CO2 emissions, has the possibility tomake a difference.Cement production is related to two sources of CO2; 1/3 from combustion of fuels and 2/3 fromcalcination of limestone in the cement raw meal. If all the fuels were to be substituted with non-fossilelectricity, the environmental gain would be significant. Cementa and Vattenfall are evaluatingpossibilities on how electricity can be used to substitute fuels in the cement production by 2030.By using electricity for heating, several positive effects are achieved in the production process. Thecleanness of the exhaust gas will be higher due to elimination of volatiles from fuels. The energyconsumption decreases due to lesser volume of gas to be heated. This is related to the exclusion ofnitrogen gas in the process.A feasibility study comprising literature survey and small scale tests have been performed. Electricalheating techniques showing potential are; microwave heating, plasma torches, flash calcination withelectrical heating, hydrogen combustion and a combination of the mentioned techniques.The most relevant finding is that the combustion related CO2 emissions will be eliminated; thecapturing step will be enhanced since the CO2 gas from calcination is clean and accordingly the needof storage or utilization of CO2 is decreased.

  • 196.
    Wänglund, Josefin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Undersökning av SNCR som rökgasreningsmetod för att reducera utsläpp av NOx: En utredning gjord på SCA Östrands massafabrik2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    På SCA Östrands massafabrik i Timrå produceras två olika typer av pappersmassa,blekt sulfatmassa och kemitermomekanisk massa (CTMP). Idag produceras ungefär 430 000 ton blekt sulfatmassa och 95 000 ton CTMP per år. Just nu pågåren om- och nybyggnation av sulfatmassalinjen inom projektet Helios. Målet med projektet är att under 2018 ta i drift en fabrik med en kapacitet att producera 900 000 ton blekt sulfatmassa per år. I och med utbyggnaden har fabriken fått en ny miljödom (som ett resultat av verksamhetstillståndsansökan) med villkor attförhålla sig till. I miljödomen presenteras ett antal olika villkor; utredningsvillkor, utsläppsvillkor och riktvärden. Ett av villkoren är ett utredningsvillkor som gäller utredning av rökgasreningstekniken SNCR (selektiv icke-katalytisk reduktion) för att rena rökgaserna från fabrikens ångproducerande enheter, barkpannan (ÅP1)och sodapannan (SP6), från NOx. Syftet med examensarbetet var att i ett första steg i utredningen av utredningsvillkoret undersöka möjligheterna till att använda SNCR som rökgasrening på ÅP1 för att rena rökgaserna från NOx.

    För att utreda möjligheterna att använda SNCR på ÅP1 gjordes temperaturmätningar av rökgaserna i pannans övre del och en temperaturprofil över pannan bestämdes. Vidare undersöktes olika metoder av SNCR och andra sekundära rökgasreningsmetoder i en litteraturstudie och i en undersökning av marknaden som bland annat innehöll referensbesök på anläggningar med olika SNCR-system.En grov kostnadsmässig analys genomfördes också genom att beräkna teoretiskautsläppsmängder för de nya förutsättningarna efter Helios, NOx-avgiften och kemikalieförbrukningen i ett hypotetiskt fall där SNCR installeras.

    Under de förutsättningar som temperaturmätningarna gjordes framkom det att det inte är möjligt att använda sig av SNCR för att reducera NOx-utsläppen från ÅP1. Mätningarna visade dock att det är möjligt att använda SNCR som reningsmetod vid laster högre än 72 ton ånga/h om det finns ett linjärt samband mellan last(ton ånga/h) och rökgastemperaturen.

  • 197.
    Yu, Junchun
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Yao, Mingguang
    Gröbner, Gerhard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Sundqvist, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Tonpheng, Bounphanh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Liu, Bingbing
    Andersson, Ove
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Buckminsterfullerene: A Strong, Covalently Bonded, Reinforcing Filler and Reversible Cross-Linker in the Form of Clusters in a Polymer2013In: ACS Macro Letters, ISSN 2161-1653, Vol. 2, no 6, p. 511-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Buckminsterfullerene/polyisoprene (C60/PI) composite was synthesized at high-temperature, high-pressure (HP&HT) conditions. The composite has significantly improved tensile strength and Young’s modulus, by up to 49% and 88% per wt % C60, respectively, which is much higher than for corresponding composites with carbon nanotube (CNT) fillers. The reinforcing action of C60 fillers is different from that of CNTs as C60 becomes covalently bonded to PI chains, and C60 clusters in PI form C60–C60 covalent bonds. The latter are reversible and break by heating at 1 bar, which suggests improved recyclability of the material and indicates that carbon nanostructures can be used as strong reversible cross-linkers (“vulcanizers”) in elastomers.

  • 198. Zevenhoven-Onderwater, Maria
    et al.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry.
    Skrifvars, Bengt-Johan
    Backman, Rainer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry. Åbo Akademi University.
    Nordin, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry.
    Hupa, Mikko
    Bed agglomeration characteristics of wood-derived fuels in FBC2006In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 818-824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The agglomeration tendency of five Scandinavian forest-derived biomass fuels was studied using an advanced fuel analysis, i.e., a combination of chemical fractionation analysis, controlled bed defluidization tests, and SEM/EDX analysis of bed samples. It is shown that all five fuels have a tendency to form bed agglomerates when fired in a fluidized bed with silica sand as the bed material. The agglomeration appeared to proceed by formation of a sticky layer on bed particles gluing them together. The layers on the bed particles contained Si, Ca, and K, and, in some cases, P. The combination of advanced fuel analysis by SEM/EDX showed that the soluble fraction of Ca and K (i.e., leachable from the fuel with water and acetate) may be responsible for the formation of the layer. Silicon may mainly come from the bed particles.

  • 199. Zhu, Youjian
    et al.
    Piotrowska, Patrycja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    van Eyk, Philip J.
    Boström, Dan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Kwong, Chi Wai
    Wang, Dingbiao
    Cole, Andrew J.
    de Nys, Rocky
    Gentili, Francesco G.
    Ashman, Peter J.
    Cogasification of Australian Brown Coal with Algae in a Fluidized Bed Reactor2015In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 1686-1700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the use of algae for CO2 abatement, wastewater treatment, and energy production has increasingly gained attention worldwide. In order to explore the potential of using algae as an alternative fuel as well as the possible challenges related to the algae gasification process, two species of macroalgae, Derbesia tenuissima and Oedogonium sp., and one type of microalgae, Scenedesmus sp. were studied in this research. In this work, Oedogonium sp. was cultivated with two protocols: producing biomass with both high and low levels of nitrogen content. Cogasification of 10 wt % algae with an Australian brown coal was performed in a fluidized bed reactor, and the effects of algae addition on syngas yield, ash composition, and bed agglomeration were investigated. It was found that CO and H-2 yield increased and CO2 yield decreased after adding three types of macroalgae in the coal, with a slight increase of carbon conversion rate, compared to the coal alone experiment. In the case of coal/Scenedesmus sp, the carbon conversion rate decreased with lower CO/CO2/H-2 yield as compared to coal alone. Samples of fly ash, bed ash, and bed material agglomerates were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy combined with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (SEM-EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was observed that both the fly ash and bed ash samples from all coal/macroalgae tests contained more Na and K as compared to the coal test. High Ca and Fe contents were also found in the fly ash and bed ash from the coal/Scenedesmus sp. test. Significant differences in the characteristics and compositions of the ash layer on the bed particles were observed from the different tests. Agglomerates were found in the bed material samples after the cogasification tests of coal/Oedogonium N+ and coal/Oedogonium N. The formation of liquid alkalisilicates on the sand particles was considered to be the main reason for agglomeration for the coal/Oedogonium N+ and coal/Oedogonium N tests. Agglomerates of fused ash and tiny silica sand particles were also found in the coal/Scenedesmus sp. test. In this case, however, the formation of a Fe-Al silicate eutectic mixture was proposed to be the main reason for agglomeration. Debersia was suggested to be a potential alternative fuel, which can be cogasified with brown coal without any significant operating problems under the current experimental conditions. However, for the other algae types, appropriate countermeasures are needed to avoid agglomeration and defluidization in the cogasification process.

  • 200.
    Åberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Biomass conversion through syngas-based biorefineries: thermochemical process integration opportunities2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The replacement of fossil resources through renewable alternatives is one way to mitigate global climate change. Biomass is the only renewable source of carbon available for replacing oil as a refining feedstock. Therefore, it needs to be utilized not just as a fuel but for both biochemical and thermochemical conversion through biorefining. Optimizing and combining various conversion processes using a system perspective to maximize the valorization, biomass usage, and environmental benefits is of importance. This thesis work has evaluated the integration opportunities for various thermochemical conversion processes within a biorefinery system.

    The aim for all evaluated concepts were syngas production through gasification or reforming. Two potential residue streams from an existing biorefinery were evaluated as gasification feedstocks, thereby combining biochemical and thermochemical conversion. Torrefaction as a biomass pretreatment for gasification end-use was evaluated based on improved feedstock characteristics, process benefits, and integration aspects. A system concept, “Bio2Fuels”, was suggested and evaluated for low-temperature slow pyrolysis as a way to achieve simultaneous biomass refinement and transport driven CO2 negativity.

    Syngas was identified as a very suitable intermediate product for residue streams from biochemical conversion. Resulting syngas composition and quality showed hydrolysis residue as suitable gasification feedstock, providing some adjustments in the feedstock preparation. Gasification combined with torrefaction pretreatment demonstrated reduced syngas tar content. The co-gasification of biogas and wood in a FBG was successfully demonstrated with increased syngas H2/CO ratio compared to wood gasification, however high temperatures (≥1000°C) were required for efficient CH4 conversion. The demonstrated improved feedstock characteristics for torrefied biomass may facilitate gasification of biomass residue feedstocks in a biorefinery. Also, integration of a torrefaction unit on-site at the biorefinery or off-site with other industries could make use of excess low-value heat for the drying step with improved overall thermal efficiency. The Bio2Fuels concept provides a new application for slow pyrolysis. The experimental evaluation demonstrated significant hydrogen and carbon separation, and no significant volatilization of ash-forming elements (S and Cl excluded)  in low-temperature (<400°C) pyrolysis. The initial reforming test showed high syngas CH4 content, indicating the need for catalytic reforming.

    The collective results from the present work indicate that the application of thermochemical conversion processes into a biorefinery system, making use of by-products from biochemical conversion and biomass residues as feedstocks, has significant potential for energy integration, increased product output, and climate change mitigation.

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