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  • 151.
    Broman, Karolina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Mårell-Olsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Johnels, Dan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Andersson, C. David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Chorell, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Westerlind, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Boström, Jonas
    Norrby, Magnus
    Spatial Ability in Organic Chemistry – Can Virtual and Augmented Reality be Valuable?2019In: 7:e Utvecklingskonferensen för Sveriges ingenjörsutbildningar, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the roles of digital technologies as Virtual Reality (VR), and Augmented Reality (AR), are discussed to explore how biotechnology engineering students develop their spatial ability in organic chemistry. We have, through stereochemistry workshops, followed how students, in specific, visualise and rotate molecular representations and how the use of digital tools influences the students’ interest.

  • 152.
    Broman, Karolina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Mårell-Olsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Lindfors, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Uvell, Hanna
    Vestling, Monika
    Gymnasiearbetet: en länk mellan skola och universitet2019In: Forum för forskningsbaserad NT-undervisning, Linköping, 17-18 oktober, 2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 153.
    Broman, Karolina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Parchmann, Ilka
    IPN Leibniz Institute for Science and Mathematics Education, University of Kiel, Germany.
    Students’ application of chemical concepts when solving chemistry problems in different contexts2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context-based learning approaches have been implemented in school science over the last 40 years as a way to enhance students’ interest in, as well as learning outcomes from, science. Contexts are used to connect science with the students’ lives and to provide a frame in which concepts can be learned and applied on a ‘need-to-know’-principle. While effects on interest are coherently reported as positive, they are more diverse regarding cognitive learning outcomes. Hence, the demand for further research on criteria of context-based problems and problem-solving processes has been stated. In this talk, a study is presented investigating students’ application of chemical concepts when solving context-based chemistry problems. Tasks for context-based problem solving have been designed systematically, using different combinations of contexts, topics and chemistry concepts in relation to the syllabus. Empirical data were collected using think-aloud interviews where 20 upper secondary students used their chemical content knowledge to solve the problems. The 15 context-based problems raised challenges within organic chemistry where concepts like electronegativity, polarity and solubility had to be applied. The difficulty to differentiate between intra- and intermolecular bonding emphasised in earlier research has also been apparent in this study. Besides the structural formula, which was an important part for the students when solving the tasks, the contextualisation of the problems was often used in the responses; students related their answers to the personal, societal or professional context in different ways. Results will be discussed and implications for context-based teaching, learning and assessment will be given.

  • 154.
    Broman, Karolina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Parchmann, Ilka
    IPN Leibniz Institute for Science and Mathematics Education, University of Kiel, Germany.
    Students' application of chemical concepts when solving chemistry problems in different contexts2014In: Chemistry Education Research and Practice, ISSN 1756-1108, E-ISSN 1756-1108, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 516-529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context-based learning approaches have been implemented in school science over the last 40 years as a way to enhance students' interest in, as well as learning outcomes from, science. Contexts are used to connect science with the students' lives and to provide a frame in which concepts can be learned and applied on a ‘need-to-know’-principle. While effects on interest are coherently reported as positive, they are more diverse regarding cognitive learning outcomes. Hence, the demand for further research on criteria of context-based problems and problem-solving processes has been stated. In this paper, a study is presented investigating students' application of chemical concepts when solving context-based chemistry problems. Tasks for context-based problem solving have been designed systematically, using different combinations of contexts, topics and chemistry concepts in relation to the syllabus. Empirical data were collected using think-aloud interviews where 20 upper secondary students used their chemical content knowledge to solve the problems. The 15 context-based problems raised challenges within organic chemistry where concepts like electronegativity, polarity and solubility had to be applied. The difficulty to differentiate between intra- and intermolecular bonding emphasised in earlier research has also been apparent in this study. Besides the structural formula, which was an important part for the students when solving the tasks, the contextualisation of the problems was often used in the responses; students related their answers to the personal, societal or professional context in different ways. The paper explores the results and gives implications for context-based teaching, learning and assessment.

  • 155.
    Broman, Karolina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Parchmann, Ilka
    IPN Leibniz Institute for Science and Mathematics Education, University of Kiel, Germany.
    Upper Secondary Students’ Application of Content Knowledge When Solving Context-Based Chemistry Problems2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 156.
    Broman, Karolina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Parchmann, Ilka
    IPN Kiel.
    Bernholt, Sascha
    IPN Kiel.
    Context-based items – systematic analyses of task difficulty, task interest and problem-solving strategies2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 157.
    Broman, Karolina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Silfver, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Johnels, Dan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Swine flu and Tamiflu®: context-based chemistry in Swedish upper secondary school2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 158.
    Broman, Karolina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Simon, Shirley
    Institute of Education, University of London, UK.
    Upper secondary school students' choice and their ideas on how to improve chemistry education2015In: International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, ISSN 1571-0068, E-ISSN 1573-1774, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 1255-1278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, there is concern about fewer students taking chemistry courses in higher education, especially at university level. Using a survey, this study investigates the reasons upper secondary school chemistry students choose to follow the Swedish Natural Science Programme. In addition, students’ views about their chemistry education are sought and their ideas about how to improve their chemistry experience. A questionnaire with closed and open questions was completed by 495 chemistry students from different schools in Sweden. The analysis shows that most students have high interest-enjoyment value of chemistry, but both positive and negative responses about their chemistry education refer to the importance of the teacher and the structure of lessons. To improve their chemistry experience, students suggest making it relevant to everyday life and being more practical and more student centred. For positively inclined students to maintain their value of chemistry beyond schooling into choice at university level, the programme should take these suggestions into account. 

  • 159.
    Brynolfsson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Matematikattityder - är de föränderliga?2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Intresset för ämnet till denna uppsats väcktes vid undervisning för vuxenstuderande där flertalet verkade ha haft en mer negativ attityd till matematik än vad de hade nu. Syftet med denna uppsats var att ta reda på om denna upptäckt gick att styrka med en undersökning. Genom en enkätundersökning bland 71 elever i årskurs nio undersöktes deras nuvarande attityder till matematik samt att de fick spekulera om och hur de trodde att deras attityder till matematik skulle förändras i framtiden. Enkätundersökningen genomfördes även bland 43 vuxenstuderanden och där undersöktes hur de kom ihåg att deras attityder till matematik varit under högstadiet samt deras nuvarande attityder till matematik och förändringar där emellan. Resultatet visar att elever i årskurs nio placerar matematik ungefär på mitten på en skala över hur roligt ämne det är, att övervägande del är positiva till lektionernas utformning, att matematik inte är ett så svårt ämne men väldigt viktigt att kunna i vardagen och som allmänbildning och att en majoritet inte tror eller är tveksamma till att deras attityd till matematik kommer att förändras i framtiden. Bland de vuxenstuderande hade många haft en negativ attityd till matematik under högstadiet även om flera gav positiva svar. En majoritet tycker att det nu är roligt att gå till matematiklektionerna, att de får lära sig matematik med den metod som passar dem bäst, att matematik inte är ett så svårt ämne men viktigt både som skolämne och för dem personligen i och med att de behöver betyget och kunskaperna för studier, jobb, i vardagen och för självförtroendet. En klar majoritet tycker att deras attityd till matematik har förändrats sedan högstadiet och nästan alla tycker att den har blivit mer positiv. Olika motiveringar till det är att de är mer mogna nu, att de fått ett mål med studierna, är mer koncentrerade och motiverade samt får studera i egen takt och på egen nivå. 

  • 160.
    Bränberg, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Holmgren, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Gulliksson, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Didaktik för ingenjörslärare2013In: 4:e Utvecklingskonferensen för Sveriges Ingenjörsutbildningar, 2013, p. 9-11Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Didaktik är vetenskapen om alla faktorer sompåverkar undervisningen och dess innehåll, och sätter fokus pålärande och hur lärande organiseras. Didaktik berör alltså vadläraren skall tänka på vid undervisning, dess mål och medel samtsambandet dem emellan. Ämnesdidaktiken fokuserar på vilkavillkor som är av betydelse för lärandet av ett specifikt ämne påolika nivåer, exempelvis matematikdidaktik eller språkdidaktik.Målet för professionsutbildningar (exempelvisingenjörsutbildningarna) skiljer sig från ämnesorienteradeutbildningar genom att fokus ligger på yrkesrollen, vad denexaminerade studenten ÄR, vad den GÖR och kanske i tredjehand vad han eller hon KAN. Detta påverkar hur vi somingenjörslärare hanterar de didaktiska frågorna VARFÖR, HURoch VAD? Rundabordsdiskussionen berör frågeställningar kringutvecklandet av en ingenjörsdidaktik samt hinder ochmöjligheter för denna didaktik att få ett större genomslag i dendagliga didaktiska praktiken. Diskussionen tar avstamp i ennyutkommen bok ”Didaktik för ingenjörslärare” [1].

  • 161.
    Bränberg, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Holmgren, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Gulliksson, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Didaktik för ingenjörslärare: konsten och glädjen med att utbilda ingenjörer2013 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 162.
    Bränberg, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Häggström, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Moström, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Problembaserat lärande på en dag: en flygande start på konstruktionsuppgiften2019In: 7:e utvecklingskonferensen för Sveriges ingenjörsutbildningar, Luleå, 27-28 november, 2019, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det kan vara svårt att uppnå det nationella målet som rör helhetssyn, och att analysera och utvärdera olika tekniska lösningar. I ett försök att uppnå detta har vi använt oss av endags-PBL som en introduktion till en konstruktionsuppgift. Införandet innebar en planeringsdag, genomförande av PBL-dagen samt utvärdering. PBL-dagen har genomförts under fyra år. Resultaten från utvärderingen visar att studenterna kommit längre i arbetet med att utforma och analyser sina tekniska lösningar än tidigare. Slutsatsen är att endags-PBL är en arbetsform som lämpar sig väl för ingengörsutbildningar.

  • 163.
    Bäck, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Vallès, Lola
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Police students' perceptions of professional competences: a comparative study of Catalonia and Sweden2017In: Police Practice & Research, ISSN 1561-4263, E-ISSN 1477-271X, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 478-491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is part of the European cooperation project, Recruitment, Education, and Career in the Police. The overall aim of this study is to compare how Swedish and Catalan police students perceive different competence dimensions in relation to their future profession, and how the perceptions of these competence dimensions change from the beginning to the end of the training program. The empirical data is based on identical questionnaires that were distributed to police students in Sweden and Catalonia. The results show different patterns in how Catalan and Swedish police students perceive the importance of the different competences at the beginning and at the end of their basic training programs. The implications of this study show that more knowledge is needed about the next step; that is, how the police students use these competencies in their professional work.

  • 164.
    Bäckström, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Organisering, matematiskt innehåll och feedback i specialundervisning: En kvalitativ fallstudie av några specialpedagogers matematikundervisning2008Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Summary

    This is a qualitative case study of five special educators work with special education in mathematics. The aim is to identify their work and ideas by describing and analyzing how they organize their teaching of mathematics, how they teach the subject matter, how they give feedback to students in the classroom, how they describe what they perceive to be the special education component of their teaching. For the collection of empirical data, a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews and observations in the form of audio recordings and unstructured field notes during classes was used. Frame factor theory, phenomenographic theory, learning theories and case study have leaded me through the way of processing and analyzing the empirical material. Results show that the learning that four of the special educators offer the students contributes to a surface approach to learning, and the feedback they offer contributes to external motivation. The special education components they say are important: to see the person behind a behavior, have positive expectations, let the teaching be based on the child’s experience, to be personal, to like the students and to be concrete in teaching. The fifth special educator offers the students a contribution to deep approach to learning and she offers a way to work at the lessons that creates motivation and willingness to learn. The special education component she thinks is important is to find out what knowledge the child has, and work from there so the child has the possibility to understand what he or she hasn’t understood.

  • 165.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of Creative Studies (Teacher Education).
    Aktivitetslådor som arbetsmetod: En studie kring elevarbeten som utgår från uppgifter vilka presenterats med aktivitetslådor i slöjdundervisningen2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien har genomförts i syfte att undersöka vad en arbetsmetod som utgår från aktivitetslådor kan tillföra elever i undervisningen av textilslöjd. Forskningsfrågorna har varit: Hur arbetar eleverna med aktivitetslådorna i textilslöjden? Hur kan de fungera i undervisningen av textilslöjd? Vilka personliga förmågor kan arbetet med aktivitetslådor ge elever övning i? Undersökningen har utförts genom att observera tre elevgrupper vid tre tillfällen, på två olika grundskolor. De observerade eleverna svarade efter avslutad övning på tre frågor och samtliga deltagare fyllde i en ”känsloenkät”. Resultatet visade att aktivitetslådorna skapade nyfikenhet hos eleverna och att detta motiverade till arbete. Det visade sig att eleverna övade sig i samarbete, att kommunicera med varandra samt att självständigt lärande kräver självtillit. Läraren fick ta rollen som en handledare och i vissa fall räckte det att stötta eleverna i deras lärande.

  • 166.
    Carlsson, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    16 år och inte godkänd av samhället: -en mattelärares dilemma2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Innan eleverna lämnar grundskolan ska de ha nått upp till de mål som är satta för godkänt i matematik för år 9. Syftet med detta arbete är att få en inblick i hur några skolor i en norrländsk stad arbetar med problematiken att alla elever ska bli godkända i matematik när de går ut grundskolan. De forskningsfrågor jag utgått från är: Hur kan en matematiklärare vid en högstadieskola i en norrländsk stad angripa problematiken att alla elever ska ha godkänt i matematik när de lämnar grundskolan? Vad känner matematiklärare vid högstadieskolor i en norrländsk stad inför uppgiften att få alla elever godkända i matematik innan de lämnar grundskolan? För att ta reda på detta har jag valt att göra tre djupintervjuer med matematiklärare, samt en mer kvantitativ enkätundersökning bland matematiklärarna på respektive skola för att få reda på deras känslor. Resultatet visar bl.a. att för att eleverna ska nå upp till de nationella målen krävs det mer resurser. Resurser i form av välutbildade matematiklärare och någon typ av nivågruppering, det krävs också bra stöd från kollegor. För att detta ska gå att genomföra måste politiker och skolledningen våga satsa. I slutändan är det ett politiskt beslut, vilka politiker som får möjlighet att ta beslut har vi var och en i samhället makt över i form av rösträtt.

  • 167.
    Castberg, Katja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Mer av det goda, mer ut av världen: Fanfictionens didaktiska potential2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to discern the didactic potential of fanfiction and transmedial storyworlds in a classroom context. This is studied through the analysis of works from two transmedial storyworlds: Star Trek and Sherlock Holmes. The works are examined using Herman’s (2009) four narrative elements. The study shows that fanfiction writers change one or more narrative elements of a story to build their own narrative. Some writers keep the narrative elements intact but instead write stories that reflect their own lives. Both the Star Trek and Sherlock Holmes narratives are prototypical stories that are easy to follow and recreate and that might be why they are popular in a fanfiction context. The study shows that fanfiction has a didactic potential and that one important aspect of using fanfiction in the classroom is to be open to student’s interpretations of the narrative.

  • 168.
    Charisis, Georgina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Mina språk: Tredjeklassares uppfattningar om språkligt kapital, flerspråkighet samt modersmål2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to investigate thoughts of pupils in third grade about language, language acquisition, multilingualism and mother tongue. The group is highly multicultural and multilingual which has resulted in many opinions regarding the following issues of conduct: How do the pupils describe their use of their language skills and what do they do to develop them? What thoughts do they have about multilingualism? To what and when do the pupils make use of their mother tongue? A mixed method has been used which makes the study equally quantitative and qualitative. The results show that language is a means of communication encountering people in your daily life, in example at home, school and in your free time. The children show great skills in language usage when they cross the different social arenas during a normal day and also an awareness regarding learning strategies. The pupils’ mother tongues are being used mostly with family though and although multilingualism is considered positive the children do not use all their language capacity when learning a second language.

  • 169.
    Christensson, Camilla
    et al.
    Katedralskolan, Lund.
    Broman, Karolina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Kontextbaserad problemlösning inom ämnesområdet läkemedel2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 170.
    Cripps, Helen
    et al.
    Edith Cowan University.
    Mejtoft, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Abhay, Singh
    Macquarie University.
    The use of a business simulation through an online collaboration platform to improve students' collaborative and communication skills2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 171.
    Dahllöf-Wik, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Söderberg, Mia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Vardagsmatematik i förskolan: En jämförelse mellan förskollärares och barnskötares attityder2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet behandlar begreppet vardagsmatematik och syftet med studien är att ta reda på förskollärares respektive barnskötares syn på och attityder till vardagsmatematik samt jämföra dem. Arbetet går bland annat ut på att ta reda på hur verksamma förskollärare och barnskötare ser på ämnet idag. Intervjuer gjordes med fyra förskollärare och fyra barnskötare med hjälp av semistrukturerad- kvalitativ intervjumetod. I resultatet framkom det att skillnaderna och likheterna mellan förskollärarna och barnskötarna inte är beroende av deras utbildning utan resultatet visade att skillnaderna och likheterna ligger hos individens kunskap och intresse till ämnet. Detta visade sig genom att informanterna uttryckte liknande attityder till vardagsmatematiken och dess betydelse.

  • 172.
    Dahlquist-Sjöberg, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Matematik och genus: en studie av lärares agerande och attityder2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna undersökning var att studera vilka förutsättningar tjejer och killar har i matematikundervisningen på gymnasiet utifrån lärarens agerande och attityder. För att undersöka detta observerades fyra matematiklärare på ett gymnasium under totalt femton lektioner och därefter intervjuades lärarna. Min observationsstudie visade att lärarna inte behandlade eleverna olika under genomgångarna, men att tjejerna hade mest lärarkontakt under lektionernas räkneövningar. Dessutom hade tjejerna generellt längre samtal och fler samtal med ett matematiskt innehåll jämfört med killarna. De flesta av lärar-elev-interaktionerna startade eleverna själva, men tjejerna inledde fler lärarinteraktioner än killarna. Däremot gav lärarna själva fler initiativ till killarna än vad de gav till tjejerna. När det gäller lärarnas attityder och tankar visade intervjuerna att den generella bilden av en tjej är en flitig och lydig elev som når goda studieresultat, medan beskrivningen av en kille ger en klurig och halvsmart elev som är lat och inte bryr sig så mycket. Eleverna har således väldigt olika roller och förväntningar på sig utifrån deras kön. Vidare vill lärarna gärna beskriva matematikämnet som könsneutralt, men de ser ändå en viss koppling till en manlig tradition. Lärarna har ambitionen att behandla alla lika och att ge tjejer och killar samma förutsättningar, men samtidigt är de osäkra och inte helt medvetna om sitt agerande.

  • 173.
    Danielsson, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet, Sverige.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    Berge, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Methodological considerations in the analysis of the co-production of knowledge and power in secondary school physics classrooms2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this presentation, we explore the co-production of knowledge and power in secondary school physics classrooms. The basic premise is that the privileging of certain content in teaching has consequences for what the students are given the opportunity to learn, and can thus be regarded as an aspect of power (cf. Foucault 1982/2002; Öhman, 2010). The presentation will focus on the methodological considerations involved in analysing the co-construction of knowledge and power and outline the findings of our analysis. The empirical data consists of video recordings and field notes from physics lessons in three lower secondary schools (14-15 years old students), where the students are differently situated in terms of socioeconomic and cultural background. A key construct in our analysis is ‘governance’: we analyse power aspects in the teaching of physics by identifying actions that guide or direct other people's actions (cf. Foucault, 1982/2002). Thereafter, we investigate similarities and differences in the classrooms in terms of how governance is staged and what potential consequences this can have (see Danielsson, Berge and Lidar (2017) and Östman, Öhman, Lundqvist and Lidar (2015) for similar approaches used in science education). Teachers from all three schools adhere to a rather traditional interpretation of a physics curriculum, in that moral and political aspects are largely excluded. However, a more in-depth analysis highlights differences between the classrooms, in that the students in the three classrooms are given very different opportunities for participating in the teaching and learning, and creating relationships with the content. For example, in two of the studied classrooms, the teacher to a large extent controls the content progression, but in one classroom this takes place by inviting students to contribute physics knowledge that has not yet been presented, whereas in the other classroom it takes place by asking questions of a controlling character (thus, checking that they have followed what just have been said). Hence, the conditions for taking part in knowledge-making in the classrooms vary greatly. In the context of this symposium, we are interested in discussing how the production of categories of difference (such as social class and gender) can be taken into account in an analysis of didactical interactions, in ways that highlight potential inequalities without reproducing those through the analysis.

  • 174.
    Danielsson, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Silfver, Eva
    Umeå University.
    Berge, Maria
    Umeå University.
    Engineering Identities: Affordances and Constraints of Different Methods for Exploring Engineering Students’ Identity Work2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous engineering education research concerned with inclusion and exclusion has typically focused on female underrepresentation and the identity work necessary for women in engineering (cf. Tonso 1999, Phipps 2008). This presentation has dual purposes; one empirical and one methodological. The empirical object under investigation is how social class is negotiated in male engineering students’ narratives about ‘educational choice’ and professional trajectories, with a particular focus on how trajectories into, through, and out of engineering educations are constructed. The methodological purpose is to discuss the affordances and constraints of using a small-scale ethnographic approach for exploring students’ identity constitution in the context of engineering education. The empirical data was collected within the bachelor Engineering Mechanics Programme (EMP) and consists of interviews with six engineering students, video-diaries recorded by the interviewed students, ethnographic field-notes from lectures and video-recordings or project work. Engineering educations are currently being transformed, both to attract new groups of students (e.g. women) and to provide the students with broader skill-sets than those traditionally included in engineering educations (e.g. team working skills). The EMP was chosen as it, as educating for a traditional branch of engineering, is likely to incorporate tensions between traditional and contemporary notions of engineering. The ethnographic observations and video-recordings of project work show an enactment of a passion for technology, but also an instrumental approach to the education and the completion of the project (see also, Ottemo 2015). The interviews and video-diaries provide additional means of exploring this passion/instrumental tension in relation to the students’ conceptualisation of engineering education practices, in particular the extent to which they take pride in the completion of the product of their project work. A reoccurring theme in the interviews and video-diaries is also students’ negotiations of tensions between practical and theoretical/analytical aspects of engineering, something that can be interpreted in relation to a doing of social class (Gonsalves et al. 2016). The presentation will discuss further examples of findings, as related to particular methods for data collection and how the data collection methods complement one another.

  • 175.
    Danielsson, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Silfver, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Berge, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Masculinities and social class in the engineering mechanics programme2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 176.
    Danielsson, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Silfver, Eva
    Umeå University.
    Gonsalves, Allison
    McGill University.
    Ottemo, Andreas
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Berge, Maria
    Umeå University.
    Video-diaries in engineering identities research: Some methodological considerations2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 177.
    Danielsson, Anna T.
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Berge, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University.
    Knowledge and power in the technology classroom: a framework for studying teachers and students in action2018In: Cultural Studies of Science Education, ISSN 1871-1502, E-ISSN 1871-1510, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 163-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to develop and illustrate an analytical framework for exploring how relations between knowledge and power are constituted in science and technology classrooms. In addition, the empirical purpose of this paper is to explore how disciplinary knowledge and knowledge-making are constituted in teacher–student interactions. In our analysis we focus on how instances of teacher–student interaction can be understood as simultaneously contributing to meaning-making and producing power relations. The analytical framework we have developed makes use of practical epistemological analysis in combination with a Foucauldian conceptualisation of power, assuming that privileging of educational content needs to be understood as integral to the execution of power in the classroom. The empirical data consists of video-recorded teaching episodes, taken from a teaching sequence of three 1-h lessons in one Swedish technology classroom with sixteen 13–14 years old students. In the analysis we have identified how different epistemological moves contribute to the normalisation and exclusion of knowledge as well as ways of knowledge-making. Further, by looking at how the teacher communicates what counts as (ir)relevant knowledge or (ir)relevant ways of acquiring knowledge we are able to describe what kind of technology student is made desirable in the analysed classroom.

  • 178.
    Danielsson, Anna T
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Berge, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala universitet.
    Ingerman, Åke
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala universitet.
    Svensson, Maria
    Göteborgs universitet.
    A bridge to understanding?: An approach for analysing the construction of power/knowledge in atechnology classroom2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 179.
    Danielsson, Anna T.
    et al.
    Department of Education, Uppsala University Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gonsalves, Allison J.
    Department of Integrated Studies in Education, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
    Silfver, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Berge, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    The Pride and Joy of Engineering? The Identity Work of Male Working-Class Engineering Students2019In: Engineering Studies, ISSN 1937-8629, E-ISSN 1940-8374, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 172-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we explore the identity work done by four male, working-class students who participate in a Swedish mechanical engineering program, with a focus on their participation in project work. A focus on how individuals negotiate their participation in science and technology disciplines has proven to be a valuable way to study inclusion and exclusion in such disciplines. This is of particular relevance in engineering education where it is widely argued that change is needed in order to attract new groups of students and provide students with knowledge appropriate for the future society. In this study we conceptualized identity as socially and discursively produced, and focus on tracing students’ identity trajectories. The empirical data consists of ethnographic field notes from lectures, video-recordings of project work, semi-structured interviews, and video-diaries recorded by the students. The findings show that even though all four students unproblematically associate with the ‘technicist’masculinity of their chosen program it takes considerable work to incorporate the project work into their engineering trajectories. Further, ‘laddish’ masculinities re/produced in higher education in engineering also contribute to a ‘troubled’ identity trajectory for one of the interviewed students.

  • 180.
    Danielsson, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Wiksten Folkeryd, Jenny
    Uppsala University.
    Berge, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University.
    Scientific Norms And Evaluative Language Use – A Lesson Example From Grade 9 (Physics)2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to explore how some characteristics of school physics knowledge are reproduced but also contested in student-teacher interaction, here exemplified through the teaching and learning of nuclear power in secondary physics.

    The difficulty to recruit students (in particular women and minorities) in science and technology is an international concern throughout the Western world (cf. Sjøberg & Schreiner, 2010). Politicians, policy makers, and science education researchers all agree that a widened and increased student participation and engagement in the physical sciences and technology is pivotal both in order to secure a pool of future scientists and in order for individuals to function in an increasingly technologically advanced society (SOU 2010:28;  House of Lords 2012). Research also shows that the last years of compulsory schooling is a key period for students’ engagement in science and technology; it is during these years that many students lose interest in the subjects (Archer et al., 2010; Lindahl, 2003). The difficulties to identify, and thereby engage, with science for many students have by critical science education researchers been connected to the sociohistorical legacy of science, how it is perceived as an objective, privileged way of knowing that is not accessible to everyone (Barton & Yang, 2000; Carlone, 2004; Lemke, 1990). Such descriptions of science’s sociohistorical legacy draws on the work by philosophers and historians of science who have argued that physics is constructed as a discipline that produce value-neutral, universal, and objective knowledge (Harding, 1986; Schiebinger, 1991). School science in particular tends to be characterised as fact-oriented with clear separations between facts and values (Gyberg & Lee, 2010). Barton and Yang (2000) describe how people and social contexts are often hidden in textbooks and other curricular materials, and summarise: ‘The result is often a fact-oriented science which appears decontextualized, objective, rational, and mechanistic.’ (p. 875). As a consequence, Lemke (2001) has argued for the inclusion of other components of science (such as aesthetic, intuitive and emotional) in order to challenge the too narrowly rationalistic and abstract school science.

    In this paper we aim to further the exploration of how school physics is constructed in classroom practices by focusing on a module about a potentially politically and emotionally charged physics content area (nuclear power). More specifically the use of evaluative language resources is focused in order to discuss characteristics of school physics within this module. In other words, the research question investigated in this paper is:

    How are characteristics of school physics constructed through evaluative language use?

    The issue is thus analytically approached from a linguistic standpoint, and the theoretical framework for analyses found within a social semiotic perspective. According to Halliday (1978), the semiotic systems that we live by are considered to form a meaning resource. It is from this meaning resource that we choose when we articulate and structure meaning.  By these choices, certain aspects are put in the background or completely excluded while others are foregrounded and thereby emphasized. In this respect, the selected language forms, and especially evaluative language resources, are highly significant and coloured with ideology.

    In interpreting results from the linguistic analyses, an important theoretical point is also that any learning situation will involve socialisation (Roberts & Östman 1998). In other words, in teaching and learning activities much more than the content knowledge being taught is learnt, we learn about norms and values and who we can and want to be in relation to those norms and values (Brickhouse 2001). The characteristics of school physics are understood as interactively constituted by teacher and students, while also adhering to broader societal discourses about science and science learning.

    Method

    The empirical data for the paper was collected in a Swedish secondary school during a physics teaching module about energy sources. The teaching module as a whole took place over six one hour lessons, but in this paper we focus on the introductory lesson concerning nuclear power. The primary focus of the introductory lesson was on the physics of the nuclear reactor. The lesson began with a 25 minutes teacher briefing, which also included conversations between teacher and students. Subsequently, the students worked in groups with an assignment sheet, a film about nuclear power was then shown, and the lessons ended with a whole class discussion about the film. The classroom was video-recorded using two cameras. The teacher was audio-recorded using a clip-on microphone and the students audio-recorded using four audio-recorders. Two observers were present in the classroom and took field-notes. The audio-recording from the teacher’s clip-on microphone have been transcribed verbatim by a professional transcriber. In the analysis we primarily worked with the transcripts, but turned to the recordings to check, for example, unclear references made by the teacher. The content area was chosen for analysis since the socio-scientific character of it could allow for a wider range of knowledge expressions. The class consisted of 19 students, grade nine (14-15 years old). Prior to the video-recording, the students and their guardians had been given information about the research project and had given consent to participation. All names in the paper are pseudonyms. As previously mentioned, the analytical framework for the study is found within a social semiotic perspective (Halliday 1978), a perspective which provides a well-developed theoretical framework for detailed analyses of different dimensions of meaning-making in students’ texts (written as well as spoken). More specifically, student texts are discussed from the point of view of the semantic framework Appraisal. Linguistically the investigation thus explores evaluative language resources used in the texts to construct emotion (words of Affect such as ‘happy eagles’), judge behaviour in ethical terms (words of Judgement such as ‘competent operator’) and value objects aesthetically (words of Appreciation such as ‘beautiful process’). In addition evaluative language resources that turn up or lower the evaluative volume through using graduation (such as very happy, a little bit afraid) are also investigated (Martin & White 2005, Folkeryd 2006).

    Expected Outcomes

    Preliminary results show that evaluative language resources are used throughout the module, although to various degrees and of different types depending on the topical focus for the teacher-student conversations. In the construction of the physics content, the process in the nuclear reactor is constructed as simple, rational and natural by using evaluative language resources that construct emotion as well as value objects and processes positively. The components of the process are constructed as well-known and not harmful by using positive appreciation, e.g. ‘ordinary water’ and the handling of the nuclear reactor constructed as a positive rational process. The short-term effects of the process are constructed as benign (e.g. the warm water let out by the power plant contributes to a flourishing biotope including ‘happy eagles’). However, long-term effects of the final storage of radioactive waste are constructed as potentially dangerous and difficult to fully grasp, thereby breaking up the rationality of the process. In students’ relationship to the content science is continuously constructed as not demanding much work (the teacher repeatedly uses graduation such as ‘some questions’, ‘work a little bit in pairs’. This is a construction we argue need to be understood against a backdrop of cultural conceptions of physics as difficult and inaccessible. To summarise, while the analysed lesson concerns a topic with political, moral and emotional overtones the analysis reveals that many of the typical characteristics of school science are still preserved (such as rationality). However, such characteristics are also challenged as humans and their emotions are brought into the classroom physics discourse. Interestingly enough, both when these characteristics are re-produced and challenged this to a large extent occurs through the use of evaluative language resources. This study thereby gives an important contribution to the discussion of how characteristics of school physics are constructed in the classroom.

    References

    Archer, L., DeWitt, J., Osborne, J., Dillon, J., Willis, B., & Wong, B. (2010). “Doing” science versus “being” a scientist: Examining 10/11‐year‐old schoolchildren's constructions of science through the lens of identity. Science Education, 94(4), 617-639. Barton, A. C., & Yang, K. (2000). The Culture of Power and Science Education: Learning from Miguel. Journal of Research in Science Education, 37(8), 871-889. Carlone, H. B. (2004). The cultural production of science in reform-based physics: girls' access, participation, and resistance. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 41(4), 392-414. Folkeryd, J. W. (2006). Writing with an attitude : appraisal and student texts in the school subject of Swedish. Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis Gyberg, P., & Lee, F. (2010). The Construction of Facts: Preconditions for meaning in teaching energy in Swedish classrooms. International Journal of Science Education, 32(9), 1173-1189. doi:10.1080/09500690902984800 Halliday, M.A.K. (1978). Language as social semiotic. The social interpretation of language and meaning. London; Edward Arnold. Harding, S. (1986). The science question in feminism. Milton Keynes: Open university press. House of Lords (2012). Higher education in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subjects. London: The Stationery Office Limited. Lemke, J. L. (1990). Talking science: Language, learning, and values. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Lemke, J. L. (2001). Articulating Communites: Sociocultural Perspectives on Science Education. Journal of Research in Science Education and Technology, 38(3), 296-316. Lindahl, B. (2003). Lust att lära naturvetenskap och teknik? En longitudinell studie om vägen till gymnasiet. Gothenburg: University of Gothenburg. Martin, J., & White, P. (2005). The language of evaluation: Appraisal in English: Palgrave Macmillan. Schiebinger, L. (1991). The mind has no sex? Women in the origins of modern science. United States of America: Harvard University Press. Sjøberg, S., & Schreiner, C. (2010). The ROSE project. An overview and key findings. SOU (2010:28). Vändpunkt Sverige – ett ökat intresse för matematik, naturvetenskap, teknik och IKT. (Teknikdelegationen). Stockholm: Fritzes.

  • 181.
    Danielsson, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Kommunikation i matematikundervisningen2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Jag har i min studie undersökt hur pedagogerna anser att de jobbar mot de kommunikativa mål som finns i läroplanen. Syftet med denna studie var att öka kunskapen om hur pedagoger upplever arbetet med kommunikation om matematik i undervisningen. Detta har jag gjort genom att besvara två forskningsfrågor; Vilken allmän syn har pedagogerna gällande vad kommunikation om matematik är? och Hur menar pedagogerna att de jobbar med att stärka elevernas förmåga att kommunicera om matematik och vilka hinder menar de finns? I studien intervjuades fyra lärare och två speciallärare som alla undervisar i matematik på mellanstadiet vid en och samma skola.

    Alla pedagoger menar att det är viktigt att kommunicera om matematik för att eleverna ska kunna beskriva sin lösningsgång vid problemlösning. Några av pedagogerna menar att kommunikation endast sker muntligt medan de andra pedagogerna betonar att kommunikation även kan ske i skrift och i bild. De vanligaste arbetssätten för att stärka elevernas förmåga att kommunicera om matematik är genomgångar följt av att eleverna får räkna på egen hand i sina matematikböcker. Pedagogerna framhåller att de då stärker elevernas förmåga att kommunicera om matematik genom att förklara hur begreppen ska användas samt hur eleverna ska lösa olika uppgifter i matematikboken.

    Flera av pedagogerna belyser problemet med att vissa elever har språkstörning och därmed har svårare att kommunicera om matematik. Samtliga pedagoger anser att de inte hinner tillägna varje elev tillräcklig med tid för att utveckla elevernas kommunikationsförmåga i matematik. Detta medför, enligt pedagogerna själva, att de är osäkra på vad eleven kan och vad eleven behöver utveckla i sin förmåga att kommunicera om matematik. En annan pedagog menar att en del elever har svårt att förstå varför man behöver förklara sina tankegångar när man ändå vet svaret och menar vidare att det är hinder för både den muntliga och skriftliga kommunikationen.

    Gemensamt för pedagogernas utsagor är att tiden inte räcker till för att planera utan att de många gånger tvingas gå till lektionen oförberedda. Gemensamt är också att ingen av de medverkande pedagogerna verkar se det som ett problem att de inte förstår vad det innebär att kommunicera om matematik. Forskning har visat att lärares brist på tid att planera och didaktiska ämneskunskaper kan förklara varför svenska elevers matematikkunskaper inte nått en tillfredställande nivå de senaste åren.

  • 182.
    Daubjerg, Peer
    et al.
    Aalborg universitet, Danmark.
    Lindfors, Eila
    Tammerfors universitet, Finland.
    Dal, Michael
    Islands universitet.
    Henriksen, Espen
    Högskolan i Bodö, Norge.
    Ottander, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Utvikling av naturvitenskapeligtalent og kreativitet: et nordisk perspektiv2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    De nordiske utdannings- og forskningsministre ønsker å fremme kreativitet, innovasjon og entreprenørskap i utdannelsene. Dette var bakgrunnen for at ministrene i april 2009 besluttet at Nordisk ministerråd skulle gjennomføre en nordisk komparativ studie av hvordan kreativitet, innovasjon og entreprenørskap er integrert i de nordiske utdanningssystemene.

    Som tilleggsoppdrag til denne studien, ble det i 2010 under det danske formannskapet i Nordisk ministerråd, tatt initiativ til ytterligere to studier om henholdsvis de praktisk musiske fag og de nordiske lands arbeid med talentutvikling og kreativitet i relasjon til naturvitenskap.

    Studiene er en del av Nordisk ministerråds globaliseringsprosjekt "En god opplæring til ungdom og voksne" som har som ett av fire delmål å fremme kreativitet, innovasjon og entreprenørskap i utdanningen.

    Studiene er gjennomført under ledelse av Universitet i Nordland, Norge, på oppdrag fra Nordisk ministerråd.

  • 183.
    Davidsson, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Transidentiteter i skönlitteratur: En undersökning av föreställningar om könsidentitet i tre romaner2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to investigate how depictions of transgenders in fiction can be used to discuss gender identity. The essay examines how transgenders is portrayed in three novels and how these novels can be used in Swedish schools. Transgenders in literature has historically only been used to normalize cisgender. The Swedish school is an arena dominated by norms and the cisgender-norm controls the students, furthermore it penetrates the school curriculum. At the same time, there is room for teachers to criticize norms and to choose the literature that best suits their purpose. The characters that appear in literature are supposed to be able to say something about real people, and the analysis of the novels is made from a queer feminist perspective. The novels Skarven and Jag, En have some norms to debate and stereotypes to problematize, therefore they are useful when transgender is to be elucidated through fiction. Pojkarna, on the other hand, have a disrespectful portrayal of the transgendered character which instead risks confirming the view of cisgender as the normal and transgender as the abnormal.

  • 184.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Debating across borders2011In: Informed design of educational technologies in higher education: enhanced learning and teaching / [ed] Anders D. Olofsson and J. Ola Lindberg, Hershey PA: Information Science Reference , 2011, 1, p. 241-269Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internationally, virtual world environments such as Second Life® (SL) have become accepted as platforms for innovative educational activities at many universities in recent years. One such activity includes innovative ways of students coming in contact with other students in so-called telecollaborations. The present case study explores the initial stages in an Action Research process, namely the design and initial implementation of a telecollaborative language learning activity between four universities in Second Life under the EU-funded Avalon project. The chapter describes how theoretical frameworks including the Ecology of Language Learning (van Lier, 2004), the Five Stage Model of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (Salmon, 2004) and Activity Theory (Leont'ev, 1978) were used in order to address different aspects of the design of the course. Based on questionnaire responses from students and observations, the chapter then goes on to evaluate the relative success/failure of the first course trial. Finally, the chapter discusses the implications of the lessons learnt from this pilot project on further developments of the course concept in the action research process, and goes on to discuss implications of the findings for the use of virtual worlds in more mainstream educational settings.

  • 185.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Vu, Mai Trang
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Computer assisted language learning in language education: an overview of theories, methods, and current practices2015In: Språkdidaktik: researching language teaching and learning / [ed] Eva Lindgren & Janet Enever, Umeå: Department of Language Studies, Umeå University , 2015, 1, p. 43-60Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 186.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Zelime, Justin
    University of Seychelles.
    “I used to like writing in Kreol but now I only use English”: an exploratory study of language attitudes and examination performance among primary and secondary school pupils in the Seychelles2015In: Island Studies, ISSN 1694-2582, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 36-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to a colonial legacy, numerous nations have been struggling to find the role of indigenous languages in officialdom. In many such contexts, the ex-colonial language/s (often English) still represent the path to economic success and prestige, while local vernaculars are low in status and confined to less formal domains. In this respect, Creole languages have traditionally been particularly stigmatised.

    In the following article, we will examine pupils’ (year one to nine) language attitudes towards the three national languages in the Seychelles – the mother tongue Kreol Seselwa, and the two ex-colonial languages English and French – in two schools, and explore how these attitudes compare with the general performance in the national examinations. The results show that pupils in primary school are positive towards Kreol in all four literacy skill domains, and that these positive attitudes are mirrored in the P6 national examinations. In contrast, there is a clear change in attitudes towards writing and reading in Kreol, once pupils enter the secondary level; secondary school pupils do not seem to favour Kreol as a written medium. We are also able to show that the positive attitudes pupils in primary and secondary schools also hold towards English are not reflected in exam results. English together with Mathematics are the two subjects with the lowest national average grades in the P6 examinations. Finally, our results indicate that girls hold more favourable attitudes towards all the key literacy skills in all the languages investigated, and that these attitudes are reflected in the performance in the national examinations; girls outscore boys in all the language subjects and the poor performance of boys, especially in written English, is of concern. We argue that the positive attitudes and results in Kreol in primary school should be built on in order to increase general literacy in all language subjects, and that extending the role of Kreol as an academic subject into secondary levels may help in this pursuit and raise literacy levels as well as the general status of the language. Further the findings have greater implications for language-in-education policies in post-colonial contexts, some of which are discussed below. 

  • 187.
    Domander, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Säger en bild mer än tusen ord?: Multimodalitet och bedömning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study examines how multimodal texts in the Swedish subject in the upper secondary school is assessed. The first two issues investigates through a hermeneutical text interpretation how multimodal texts are described in policy documents and how they are reflected in the assessment base. The last issue examine how teachers today assess students work with audiovisual elements trough interviews with three Swedish teachers. The analysis of policy documents shows an inconsistency in how multimodal texts are described and assessed. The inconsistency is causing a limitation in how multimodal texts are used in teaching. The results of the interviews confirm this and highlights how the design of teaching is largely controlled by the assessment base and its interpretation. The study shows how the absence of clear wording in policy documents prevents recognition of multi-modal texts in school, at the same time as the National Agency for education emphasize its relevance. Furthermore it shows how audiovisual texts have the potential to deepen and expand on the content instead of merely act as support to spoken and written text. And finally how a multimodal approach contributes to creating an equal education for all students regardless of background.

  • 188.
    Due, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Physics.
    Fysik, lärande samtal och genus.: En studie av gymnasieelevers gruppdiskussioner i fysik.2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates how students in upper secondary school solve problems and discuss physics in small groups. The study examines how gender, knowledge in physics and the image of the subject physics are constructed in the students’ conversation and how these processes are related to each other. The theoretical framework includes a sociocultural perspective on learning and a gender perspective that views gender as both process and discourse and focus on how femininity and masculinity are constructed in social relations. 28 students in two classes at the science program participated in the study. 8 videotaped group discussions and 15 audiotaped interviews where analysed through thematic analysis and discourse analysis according to different research questions.

    The results show the complexity of a learning conversation. The character of the dialogue in the groups, the difficulties the student encounter when dealing with the tasks, and the social interaction in the groups, has a deep impact on the possibilities to develop the discussion about physics phenomena and concepts. The images of the subject physics and the images of a student skilled in physic that are constructed in the interviews are reconstructed in the students’ discussions and in their acting in the groups. But there are also inconsistencies and counter discourses. The possibilities for learning are related to the construction of gender and to equality issues within the groups. Traditional gendered positions are to a large extent reconstructed in the students’ interaction. Boys are for instance positioned as more competent in physics than girls. But traditional gendered positions are also resisted and challenged.

  • 189.
    Due, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Tellgren, Britt
    örebro universitet.
    Areljung, Sofie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Ottander, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Sundberg, Bodil
    Örebro univ, NT-akademin.
    Inte som i skolan - pedagoger positionerar naturvetenskap i förskolan: Preschool teachers talk about science – Positioning themselves and positioning science2018In: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 411-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses how preschool teachers, who include a scientific content in their practice, describe their practice and their view of science in preschool. The study is based on 20 interviews in 9 Swedish preschools. The theoretical and analytical framework combine "communities of practice"(Lave & Wenger) and "positioning theory" (Harré & Langehove). The stories reveal a strong position for the pre-school curriculum and traditions. A prominent storyline is that Science in preschool is something different from science in school. This includes an anti-authoritarian view with a focus on "the competent child". The preschool teachers affirm fantasy, creativity and intuition as a part of science and they position science as easy to access. They also position themselves as pedagogues competent to manage science in preschool. One of the dilemmas is about letting children’s interests and initiatives drive the activities while educators curriculum- based goals have certain intentions to fulfill.

  • 190.
    Dyrvold, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Difficult to read or difficult to solve?: The role of natural language and other semiotic resources in mathematics tasks2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When students solve mathematics tasks, the tasks are commonly given as written text, usually consisting of natural language, mathematical notation and different types of images. This is one reason why reading and interpreting such texts are important parts of being mathematically proficient, at least within the school context. The ability utilized when dealing with aspects of mathematical text is denoted in this thesis as a mathematical reading ability; this ability is useful when reading mathematical language, for example, in task text. There is, however, a lack of knowledge of what characterizes this mathematical language, what students need to learn regarding the mathematical language, and exactly which mathematical language that tests should preferably assess. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the knowledge of aspects of difficulty related to textual features in mathematics tasks. In particular, one aim is to distinguish between a difficulty that has to do with a mathematical ability and another that has not. Different types of text analyses are utilized to capture textural features that might be demanding for the students when reading and solving mathematics tasks. Aspects regarding vocabulary are investigated both in a literature review and in a study where corpora are used to analyse word commonness. Other textual analyses focus on textual features that concern mathematical notation and images, besides natural language. Statistical methods are used to analyse potential relations between the textual features of interest and both task difficulty and task demand on reading ability. The results from the research review are sparse regarding difficult vocabulary, since few of the reviewed studies analyses word aspects separately. Several of the analysed textual features are related to aspects of difficulty. The results show that tasks with more words that are uncommon both in a mathematical context and in an everyday context, may favour students with good reading ability rather than students with good mathematical ability. Another textual feature that is likely to be demanding for students, is if the task texts contains many meaning relations, for example, when several words refer to the same or similar object. These results have implications for the school practice both regarding textual features that are important from an educational perspective and regarding the construction of tests. The research does also contribute to an understanding of what characterizes a mathematical language.

  • 191.
    Dyrvold, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Relations between various semiotic resources in mathematics tasks: a possible source of students’ difficultiesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reading and solving mathematics tasks often involves reading and interpreting different semiotic resources such as natural language, mathematical notation and images. In the current study the purpose is to enhance the knowledge about how meaning relations (cohesive ties) between and within different semiotic resources are related to how difficult mathematics tasks are to read and solve. Statistical analyses are conducted of relations between the presence of different types of cohesive ties in relation to quantitative measures for how difficult the tasks are to read and solve. The results reveal a difficulty aspect related to the extent to which a task has cohesive ties, of any kind, but that a non-mathematics specific reading demand is not part of this difficulty aspect. For cohesive ties between different semiotic resources there is only a week relation between presence of such ties and task difficulty.

  • 192.
    Dyrvold, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    The role of semiotic resources when reading and solving mathematics tasks2016In: Nordisk matematikkdidaktikk, ISSN 1104-2176, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 51-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One part of being proficient in mathematics is to be able to read and solve mathematics tasks where mathematics is represented using different semiotic resources (i.e. natural language, mathematical notation, and different types of images). In the current study, statistical methods are used to investigate the potential meaning that the presence and co-occurrences of semiotic resources have for how demanding a mathematical task is to read and solve. The results reveal that the number of different semiotic resources in a mathematical task is not related to difficulty, but that difficulty is related to the particular combinations of semiotic resources where pictorial images are one of the resources. The results also indicate that the difficulty related to these semiotic characteristics is not related to an unnecessary reading demand.

  • 193.
    Dyrvold, Anneli
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Uncommon vocabulary in mathematical tasks in relation to demand of reading ability and solution frequency2015In: Nordisk matematikkdidaktikk, ISSN 1104-2176, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 5-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports on the relation between commonness of the vocabulary used in mathematics tasks and aspects of students’ reading and solving of the tasks. The vocabulary in PISA tasks is analyzed according to how common the words are in a mathematical and an everyday context. The study examines correlations between different aspects of task difficulty and the presence of different types of uncommon vocabulary. The results show that the amount of words that are uncommon in both contexts are most important in relation to the reading and solving of the tasks. These words are not connected to the solution frequency of the task but to the demand of reading ability when solving the task.

  • 194.
    Edholm, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Kottar, rörelse och frisk luft i undervisningen: En studie om elevers syn på utomhusmatematik2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning visar att matematikundervisningen i skolan är för stillasittande och läroboksbunden. Utomhusmatematik som ämne har potential att överbrygga dessa brister i den ordinarie matematikundervisningen samtidigt som elevernas kunskaper i matematik utvecklas. Detta tillsammans med att forskning visar att elevers lust att lära i matematik påverkas positivt av konkreta upplevelser och praktisk tillämpning ledde fram till syftet med studien. Syftet är att beskriva elevers perspektiv på utomhusmatematik. De frågeställningar som besvaras i undersökningen handlar om elevers uppfattningar om utomhusmatematik och deras antaganden om varför de har utomhusmatematik. Studien är förankrad i ett sociokulturellt perspektiv och för att uppnå syftet och besvara frågeställningarna har en fenomenografisk ansats valts där eleverna har besvarat en enkät samt att sex elever har intervjuats enskilt. Det utgör huvudresultatet i undersökningen. För att få en kontext till detta har en lärare intervjuats samt att fyra matematiklektioner utomhus har observerats. Samtliga lektioner har genomförts av den intervjuade läraren. Resultatet visar att ingen elev är negativ till att ha utomhusmatematik. Eleverna kan se både positiva och negativa delar med pedagogiken. Några av de positiva delar de kan se är att de får frisk luft och får lära sig saker, medan kyla och avsaknad av lekar nämns som negativa delar. De ser sitt eget lärande under lektionerna och kan ge antaganden om varför de har utomhusmatematik. Alla eleverna är eniga om att de vill fortsätta att ha utomhusmatematik även i fortsättningen.

  • 195.
    Edman, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Zakrisson, Helen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    "Bråk, ett krångligt sätt att räkna"2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med det här examensarbetet är att ge en inblick i elevers uppfattningar av bråkbegreppet. Vi har kartlagt två klasser med elever i årskurs åtta med hjälp av en enkät. Intervjuerna har vi gjort utifrån de två grupper som visade sig när vi sammanställde enkäterna. En grupp som räknar med bråk och en grupp där eleverna omvandlar bråken till decimaltal. De skillnader vi främst såg i dessa två grupper var att grupp 1, som räknade med decimaltal, såg bråkuttryck som en operation. Grupp 2, som räknade med bråk, tyckte att det fanns fördelar med att räkna med bråk, som att det blev exakt, det var enklare att slippa omvandla och de tyckte dessutom att det var en sak man behövde kunna. De flesta i grupp 2 såg bråkuttrycket som både tal och operation.

  • 196.
    Edmonds-Wathen, Cris
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Indigenous language speaking students learning mathematics in English: Expectations of and for teachers2015In: Australian Journal of Indigenous Education, ISSN 1326-0111, E-ISSN 2049-7784, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 48-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective mathematics teaching for Indigenous language speaking students needs to be based on fair expectations of both students and teachers. Concepts of ‘age-appropriate learning’ and ‘school readiness’ structure assessment expectations that entire cohorts of Indigenous language speaking students are unable to meet. This institutionalises both student and teacher failure, as both are exhorted to meet unachievable expectations. The voices of teachers teaching in a very remote school provide insight into teachers’ responses to the mismatch between the system expectations and the teaching context. Teacher interviews in a small Northern Territory school, conducted within an ethnographic study, showed that teachers’ decisions regarding the level of mathematics curriculum taught were informed by students’ prior learning and by the language dynamic in their classrooms. The need and pressure to teach Standard Australian English also affected how mathematics was taught. This leads to a reformulation of the concept of school readiness to ask how schools can be more ready for their Indigenous language speaking students in terms of preparing and supporting teachers.

  • 197.
    Edmonds-Wathen, Cris
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Comparing mathematics tasks in different languages2016In: Proceedings of the 40th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education / [ed] Csíkos, C., Rausch, A., & Szitányi, J., Szeged, Hungary: PME , 2016, Vol. 1, p. 151-151Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 198.
    Edmonds-Wathen, Cris
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University.
    Framework of linguistic properties to compare mathematics tasks in different languages2016In: ICT in mathematics education: the future and the realities: Proceedings of MADIF 10 The tenth research seminar of the Swedish Society for Research in Mathematics Education Karlstad, January 26–27, 2016 / [ed] Johan Häggström, Eva Norén, Jorryt van Bommel, Judy Sayers, Ola Helenius, Yvonne Liljekvist, Göteborgs universitet , 2016, p. 146-146Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to construct a framework of linguistic properties of mathematical tasks that can be used to compare versions of mathematics test tasks in different natural languages. The framework will be useful when trying to explain statistical differences between different language versions of mathematical tasks, for example, differences in item functioning (DIF) that are due to inherent properties of different languages. Earlier research suggests that different languages might have different inherent properties when it comes to expressing mathematics. We have begun with a list of linguistic properties for which there are indications that they might affect the difficulty of a task. We are conducting a structured literature review looking for evidence of connections between linguistic properties and difficulty. The framework should include information about each property including methods used to measure the property, empirical and/or theoretical connections to aspects of difficulty, and relevance for mathematical tasks.

  • 199.
    Edmonds-Wathen, Cris
    et al.
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Trinick, Tony
    The University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Durand-Guerrier, Viviane
    University of Montpellier, France.
    Impact of differing grammatical structures in mathematics teaching and learning2016In: Mathematics education and linguistic diversity: the 21st ICMI study / [ed] Richard Barwell, Philip Clarkson, Anjum Halai, Mercy Kazima, Judit N. Moschkovich, Núria Planas, Mamokgethi Phakeng, Paola Valero, Martha Villavicencio Ubillús, Switzerland: Springer, 2016, 1, p. 23-46Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book examines multiple facets of language diversity and mathematics education. It features renowned authors from around the world and explores the learning and teaching of mathematics in contexts that include multilingual classrooms, indigenous education, teacher education, blind and deaf learners, new media and tertiary education. Each chapter draws on research from two or more countries to illustrate important research findings, theoretical developments and practical strategies. (From book cover)

  • 200.
    Egelström, Monica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Damber, Ulla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Reading and the role of the teacher2015In: Språkdidaktik: researching language teaching and learning / [ed] Eva Lindgren and Janet Enever, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2015, p. 141-155Chapter in book (Other academic)
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