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  • 151.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    Avd för regional planering, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH.
    Westin, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Att bygga nätverk av städer1993In: Botnianätverket: En strategisk allians mellan nordliga kunskapsstäder / [ed] Ulf Wiberg, Umeå: CERUM , 1993, 1, p. 112-153Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 152.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Westin, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Technical change, location and trade1987Report (Other academic)
  • 153.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Westin, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Technical change, location, and trade1987In: Papers in regional science (Print), ISSN 1056-8190, E-ISSN 1435-5957, Vol. 62, no 1, p. 13-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The difference between the slow adjustment of localized resources and the faster processes of technical change and product renewal causes a relocation pressure on existing production, Introduction of new products, techniques, and establishments is stimulated by opportunities to attain temporary monopoly profits and is restrained by sunk costs in older vintages and competition for local resources;. Introduction is more frequent in nodes with a rich and varied import structure. The process can he modeled as a chain of import, production, and export cycles with relocation. Conditions for introduction and change of location are analyzed by means of a spatial vintage model.

  • 154.
    Johansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Labour Market Areas and Employment Zones1993Report (Other academic)
  • 155.
    Jonsson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Svendsberget, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Investeringsläget i Norrland: Industrins investeringar i Norrland, åren 1997-20072010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad gör en region långsiktigt hållbar? För att en region ska växa och för att människor ska välja att bo där måste det finnas en ekonomisk tillväxt och en tro på att regionen kommer att utvecklas positivt även i framtiden. Detta speglas bland annat av investeringarnas storlek i regionen. Tror företagen på regionens framtid investerar de även pengar i området. Denna rapport syftar till att kartlägga industrins bruttoinvesteringar i de fyra nordligaste länen mellan åren 1997 och 2007. Ett särskilt fokus läggs på investeringsläget i Västerbotten. I rapporten tas även en investeringsprognos fram till 2011 fram för de fyra länen. Investeras det tillräckligt i industrin i Västerbotten och de övriga norrlandslänen för att bibehålla regionernas konkurrenskraft? Detta är ännu en fråga som vi i rapporten försöker ta ställning till.

  • 156.
    Jonsson, Daniel R.
    et al.
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Adolphsson, Marcus
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Westin, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Regionala systemanalyser2015Report (Other academic)
  • 157.
    Karlqvist, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Matematiska modeller och dynamiska system1987Report (Other academic)
  • 158.
    Karlqvist, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Olsson, Mats-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Circumpolar Population: The Case of Sweden1990In: Population Review, ISSN 0032-471X, Vol. 34, no 1/2, p. 23-37Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 159. Kellerth, Jan-Olof
    et al.
    Wiberg, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Westin, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Framgångsrik regionalvetenskap: CERUM och Umeå universitet genomför sitt regionala forskningsuppdrag1999In: Västerbottens-Kuriren, ISSN 1104-0246, p. 6-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 160.
    Khakee, Abdul
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Westin, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Prispolitik för kultursektorn?1997In: Kulturrådet. Statens Kulturråd informerar, ISSN 0283-1899, no 1-2, p. 39-43Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 161.
    Kjellberg, Jeanette
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Westin, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Westin, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Helo, Petri
    Rymaszewska, Anna
    Solvoll, Gisle
    Sandberg Hanssen, Thor-Erik
    Botnia-Atlanticakorridorens transportomland och utvecklingsförutsättningar: slutrapport från Botnia-Atlanticaprojektet SimLab East-West2014Report (Other academic)
  • 162.
    Kleinhof, Andris E.
    et al.
    Department of Economics and Foreign Relations, Moscow State Forest University, Moscow, Russia.
    Carlsson, Lars
    IES, Luleå University of Technology.
    Olsson, Mats-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    The Forest Sector in Moscow Oblast1999Report (Other academic)
  • 163.
    Kobayashi, Kiyoshi
    et al.
    Graduate School of Management, Kyoto University, Japan.
    Westin, LarsUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).Westlund, HansRoyal Institute of Technology (KTH)/ CISEG, Jönköping International Business School.
    Social Capital and Development Trends in Rural Areas: Volume 32008Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 164.
    Kåpe, Leif
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Förändringar i medelstora svenska städer2000Report (Other academic)
  • 165.
    Larsson, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Lundgren, Nils-Gustav
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Socialt kapital i Västerbotten2011Report (Other academic)
  • 166.
    Layton, Ian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Rislund, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Socio-economic dimensions of agricultural diversification in Västerbotten, Northern Sweden2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over recent decades economies of scale, rationalisation and specialisation have generally taken place within industry. In agriculture, similar processes have resulted in the enlargement of farms but large reductions in the numbers of farms and employment opportunities, thereby contributing to the reduction in the rural population as a whole. Diversification offers an alternative business strategy to specialisation. This paper presents innovative onfarm diversification as a possible survival strategy for farmers and, based on a recent investigation in the county of Västerbotten in Northern Sweden, it analyses the motivations for diversifying agriculture together with its socioeconomic consequences for farm households. The low level of economic returns suggests that other less tangible values play compensatory roles, such as quality of life and lifestyles.

  • 167.
    Lidström, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Multi-Level Governance: the Case of Umeå2004Report (Other academic)
  • 168.
    Liljenfeldt, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Keskitalo, Carina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Kriterier och indikatorer på hållbar utveckling: exempel från teori och praktik2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns inte något universalt sätt att varken definiera hållbarhet eller att försöka mäta framstegen mot eller att hållbarhet uppnåtts. Tankar kring hållbar utveckling har varit en del av samhällsdebatten och politiken speciellt sedan år 1980, då begreppet introducerades i IUCN-rapporten

    World Conservation Strategy: Living resources for sustainable development (Olsson et al, 2004). Den definition som oftast citeras idag är dock den som slogs fast i Brundtland-rapporten år 1987: "Hållbar utveckling är en utveckling som tillfredsställer dagens behov utan att äventyra kommande generationers möjligheter att tillfredsställa sina behov" (NE, Internet, 2009-05-25). Idag anses hållbar utveckling oftast omfatta tre olika aspekter. För det första innebär hållbar utveckling att olika dimensioner av utveckling måste vägas samman. I allmänhet nämns här sociala, ekonomiska och ekologiska dimensioner i första hand. För det andra dyker ofta tids- och rumsförhållanden upp i diskussioner om hållbarhet. Vad gäller tidsaspekten är det här frågan om det ansvar som samhället har för kommande generationer och för att det som görs idag inte bara skall vara hållbart nu utan även leda till en hållbar framtid. Rumsförhållandet handlar om det ansvar för och påverkan som ett samhälle har på ett annat samhälles möjlighet att få en hållbar utveckling. Den tredje dimensionen som hållbarhetsbegreppet oftast innefattar relaterar till delaktighet. Detta handlar om att en hållbar utveckling bör utgå från och vara förankrad i en bred allmänhet. Det vill säga ingen enskild beslutsfattare bör på egen hand besluta om hur ett samhälles strategier för hållbarhet skall se ut. Istället kräver detta arbete att exempelvis medborgare, intresseorganisationer, privat- och offentligsektor skall samverka i detta arbete.Målet med den här rapporten är att beskriva kriterier för och indikatorer på hållbar utveckling. Studien beskriver därmed de processer och innehållsindikatorer som kan användas för att i ett praktiskt fall bedöma vilka delar och aktörer som inkluderas och prioriteras i processerna. Rapporten beskriver och sammanställer olika teoretiska och praktiska modeller med relevans för att tillämpa hållbarhetskriterier lokalt och regionalt, med målet att inkludera en bredd av hållbarhetsprocesser och exempel från mätbara och certifierbara system till generella principer. Studien lägger också specifik vikt vid system med relevans för den svenska kontexten speciellt i kommuner och regioner.

    2Med ovanstående i åtanken kommer upplägget i den här texten därför inte att vara att försöka ge svar på vad exakt hållbar utveckling eller indikatorer på det samma är. Istället kommer här att presenteras hur begreppen mer allmänt definieras samt ges förslag på hur man kan se på och kategorisera hållbar utveckling samt på hur man kan se på, kategorisera och ta fram indikatorer för hållbar utveckling (HUT-indikatorer). Ett axplock från den stora skara av lednings- och styrsystem som finns idag kommer även att beskrivas.

  • 169.
    Liljenfeldt, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Keskitalo, Carina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Regionala och kommunala mål för hållbarhetsarbete i Umeåregionen2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under 2008-2010 samverkade sex kommuner i Umeåregionen ("Hållbara Umeåregionen") runt försök att genomföra Ålborgåtagandena om hållbar utveckling – en process som kommunerna och kommunförbundet inbjudit forskning om. Inom ramen för projektet har de sex kommunerna antagit lokala hållbarhetsstrategier med kommunvisa prioriteringar. Dessa prioriteringar diskuterades inom Umeåregionssamarbetet för att eventuellt samordnas och för att nå prioriteringar som ses som lämpliga både i individuella kommuner och i regionen som helhet. Förutom arbetet på kommunal nivå och inom samarbetet existerar också regionala mål i Västerbottens län samt inom den privata sektorn (Tillväxtalliansen).

    Sammanvägningen och prioriteringen av hållbarhetsmål är komplex både i termer av vilka aktörer som ska ingå och vilka roller dessa tar, samt genom arbetet med de breda sociala, ekonomiska och miljömässiga mål som Ålborgåtagandena ställer. Detta möjliggör ett stort antal olika prioriteringar, med olika nivå av regionalisering av beslut, där även andra teoretiska och praktiska kriterier för hållbarhet kan spela in.

    Målet med den här rapporten är att undersöka och beskriva

    regionens och kommunernas förutsättningar samt arbete med Ålborgåtagandena inom Hållbara Umeåregionsprocessen.

    Vilka prioriteringsdokument existerar på regional samt kommunal nivå angående hållbarhetsfrågor?

    Vilka prioriteringar inom hållbarhetsarbete utvecklades under Hållbara Umeåregionsprojektet?

    Studien beskriver därmed ett komplext fall av regionalt arbete med hållbar utveckling i praktiken. Rapporten beskriver existerande mål och prioriteringar i olika dokument på regionala nivåer, kommunal nivå och slutligen under Ålborgsamarbetet. 

  • 170.
    Lind, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Olika uppfattningr om livsvillkoren i stora och små kommuner i norra Sverige2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Synen på vad som är viktig för länets utveckling visar på de stora kontrasterna som finns i de fyra nordligaste länen. Boende i stora kommuner tror mer på en kunskapsinriktad, högteknologisk framtid medan respondenter i små kommuner tror mer på basindustrier. Detta beror förmodligen på att basindustrin tillgodoser förhållandevis fler jobb i små kommuner medan universitet och sjukvård är etablerade i större städer. Dock så kan det få den långvariga konskevensen att den kreativa klassen flyttar till städerna samt att små kommuner kan få svårt att behålla dem.

    En effekt av finanskrisen är en mer pessimistisk syn på tillgången till jobb, skola och förutsättningarna för att starta eget i båda kommungrupperna och respondenterna i små kommuner tror att situationen kommer försämras i framtiden. Trots att framtidstron i de små kommunerna är låg så har dock situationen blivit bättre i flertalet kategorier sedan 2008. Finanskrisen stora effekt har framförallt varit på sysselsättningen och entreprenörskapet men i övriga kategorier kan man se en förbättring.

    Ett sammanfattande intryck är att även om de norrländska städerna är relativt små så har de ändå utvecklats till miljöer som i flertalet avseenden uppfattas kunna erbjuda bättre livschanser än de små, ofta glest bebyggda, kommunerna. Framtidssynen är positivare och den ekonomiska krisen har överlag slagit mindre hårt i städerna. De största kommunernas befolkningstillväxt och de små kommunernas befolkningsminskning bekräftar denna slutsats.

  • 171.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    "En ledande och samordnande funktion": om trafiksäkerhetens reglering och organisering i Sverige 1950-20072011In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 77, no 1, p. 82-103Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the organization of Swedish national road safety. The Swedish government has shown an interest in road safety since the beginning of the twentieth century, so the question is not if, but how road safety has been organized over time. Today, the ‘Vision Zero’ policy is used as the framework for road safety management within road policy as a whole. One reason for the adoption of Vision Zero was that road traffic deaths and injuries are considered a (global) public health problem and should be combated. The article presents a fresh approach to the Swedish government’s organization of road safety since the 1950s. The focus is the establishment and subsequent closure of the National Road Safety Office (TSV), and how the various and changing forms of organizations before, during, and after the TSV have been reflected in the national road plans of 1958, 1970, and 1998. Government bills and official reports reflect the national decision-making processes and the reasoning behind the founding and closure of the TSV. Before the TSV was set up in 1968, road safety had been the responsibility of the National Road Administration, which resumed responsibility when the TSV was closed down in 1993. The present study shows that the motives for the TSV’s creation and demise were the same, despite a time-frame that ran to fully twenty-five years: on each occasion road safety management was felt to be too haphazard, when it needed to be more coherent and efficient. These organizational changes were reflected in road planning, where control of the infrastructure increased, especially in recent decades. This conclusion sits well with previous research, which has shown the need for a more closely managed road network in order to implement Vision Zero.

  • 172.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Counter-Urban Migration in the Swedish Urban System2002Report (Other academic)
  • 173.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Olsson Spjut, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    From organic to fossil and in-between: new estimates of energy consumption in the Swedish manufacturing industry during 1800–19132018In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 18-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, new estimates of energy consumption in the Swedish manufacturing industry during 1800–1913 are used for interpreting the Swedish industrialisation process from an energy economic perspective. For one we conclude that the revision of previous estimates is substantial when it comes to manufacturing. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the increase of coal consumption, the expansion of the fossil or mineral energy system, to a high degree can be explained by the increased use of steam engines in manufacturing and the transport sector. Finally, we conclude that overall energy intensity patterns is largely determined by assumptions on household firewood consumption. A narrative interpretation of the interplay between energy system transformation and the industrialisation in Sweden concludes the article.

  • 174.
    Lundberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    A spatial interaction model of benefit spillovers from locally provided public services2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we test the hypotheses that recreational and cultural services provided at the local level of government are associated with bene…t spillovers between Swedish municipalities. We also test the hypothesis that municipalities with similar expenditure levels are more clustered than would be expected from merely a coincidence. A representative voter model is derived and the demand for recreational and cultural services is estimated using spatial SUR techniques. The results suggest that these expenditures are associated with bene…t spillovers and that municipalities with similar expenditure levels are clustered to a greater extent than would be expected from just a coincidence.

  • 175.
    Lundberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    A Spatial Interaction Model of Benefit Spillovers from Locally Provided Public Services2006In: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 631-644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper tests the hypotheses that recreational and cultural services provided at the local government level in Sweden are

    associated with spillovers between municipalities. A representative voter model is derived and the demand for recreational and cultural services is estimated using spatial SUR techniques. The result suggests a negative correlation between recreational and cultural services provided by neighbouring municipalities that indicate that these services are associated with spillovers. In terms of strategic behaviour, this result suggests that these services are strategic substitutes. Moreover, the results provide week evidence that recreational and cultural services provided by local governments are complements.

  • 176.
    Lundberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    On the determinants of average income growth and net migration at the municipal level in Sweden2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to study what factors determined the average income growth and net migration at the municipal level in Sweden between 1981-1990. Our results suggest a negative correlation between the initial level of average income and the subsequent average income growth, which can be interpreted in terms of conditional convergence. We also find that local government policy variables are important determinants of net migration and average income growth. However, there is no evidence to suggest that the presence of a university or a university college in the municipality affects local growth and mobility patterns.

  • 177.
    Lundberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    On the determinants of average income growth and net migration at the municipal level in Sweden2003In: The Review of Regional Studies, ISSN 0048-749X, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 229-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to study what factors determined the average income growth and net migration at the municipal level in Sweden during the 1980s. To do this, we allow for a broad set of possible determinants of the local growth pattern such as economic "opportunity" variables, local policy and national policy decisions (including local public investments), the political stability within the local council, and the local socio-economic structure. Our results suggest a negative correlation between the initial level of average income and the subsequent average income growth, which can be interpreted in terms of conditional convergence. We also find local government policy variables to be important determinants of net migration and average income growth.

  • 178.
    Lundberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Samverkan mellan forskningsinstitutioner och näringsliv2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det ställs allt större förväntningar och krav på att de resurser samhället satsar på forskning och utveckling skall ge avkastning i form av nya kommersialiserbara varor och tjänster, fler företag och arbetstillfällen. Ett av skälen till dessa förväntningar och krav är uppfattningen att den ekonomiska tillväxten drivs av teknologisk utveckling, vilken i sin tur skapas genom en medvetet organiserad, planerad och marknadsanpassad forskning, en uppfattning som även predikteras av så kallad endogen tillväxtteori. För att dessa förväntningar skall infrias krävs någon form av samverkan mellan forskningsinstitutionen och det övriga samhället. Det kan antingen ske genom att den enskilde forskaren startar ett företag baserat på ett forskningsresultat, eller att forskaren samarbetar med ett redan befintligt företag eller någon annan typ av organisation för att producera, marknadsföra och sälja produkten eller tjänsten.

    Syftet med föreliggande rapport är att ge en överblick av den forskning som utförts inom området samverkan mellan forskningsinstitutioner och övriga samhället, att ge en kortfattad överblick av det svenska systemet/systemen för samverkan samt jämföra det svenska systemet med andra jämförbara länder.

  • 179.
    Lundberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    The Regional Growth Pattern in Sweden: A Search for Hot Spots2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives an exploratory description of the regional growth pattern in Sweden during the period 1981-1999. The main issue is to test the hypothesis that municipalities with high average income growth rates are more spatially clustered than could be caused by pure chance. The paper is purely descriptive where we make use of two statistical tests for spatial correlation as well as maps to identify what we reefer to as significance, the hypotheseis that municipalities with similar average growth rates are more clustered than could be expected from pure chance. In particular, regional Hot Spots are found near the major city of Stockholm and in the Gislaved/Gnosjö region.

  • 180.
    Lundberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Using Spatial Econometrics to Analyze Local Growth in Sweden2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates factors that determine the average income growth and net migration using Swedish data. The main issue is to test the hypothesis that the growth rate in one municipality is affected by the growth rates in its neighboring municipalities. Our results support this hypothesis: we found a positive correlation between the growth rates in neighboring municipalities. In addition, we found a negative correlation between the initial level of average income and the subsequent average income growth, which can be interpreted in terms of conditional convergence. We also found that local government policy variables such as local public investments, expenditures, and income tax rates were important determinants of net migration and average income growth.

  • 181.
    Lundberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Using Spatial Econometrics to Analyze Local Growth in Sweden2006In: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 303-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper investigates factors that determine the average income growth and net migration rates in Swedish municipalities during 1981-99. The main issue is to test the hypothesis that conditional on a set of other possible determinants of regional growth, the growth rate in one municipality is affected by the growth rates in its neighbouring municipalities. The hypothesis of conditional convergence is also tested. A positive correlation is found between net migration rates in neighbouring municipalities, which suggests that net migration tends to 'spillover' to neighbouring municipalities. When it comes to average income growth, the results indicate spatial dependence in the error terms during the 1980s. However, there is no clear evidence in favour of the hypothesis of conditional convergence. Instead, the results predict conditional divergence between municipalities located in the Stockholm region throughout the period and also for municipalities outside the Stockholm region during the 1990s.

  • 182.
    Lundberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Using Spatial Econometrics to Analyze Local Growth in Sweden: Revised and Extended2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates factors that determine the average income growth and net migration rates in Swedish municipalities during the period 1981 to 1999. The main issue is to test the hypothesis that, conditional on a set of other possible determinants of regional growth, the growth rate in one municipality is affected by the growth rates in its neighboring municipalities. We also test the hypothesis that initially 'poorer' regions tend to grow faster than initially 'richer' regions conditional on the other explanatory variables in the model. We find a positive correlation between net migration rates in neighbouring municipalities, which suggests that net migration tend to 'spill over' to neighbouring municipalities. When it comes to average income growth, our results indicate spatial dependence in the error terms during the 1980´s. Such dependence is important in the sense that it indicates that shocks into the system not only affect the municipally where the shock has its origin but spread across the country.

     

    In addition, and in contrast to previous empirical findings based on Swedish data, we do not find any clear evidence in favour of the hypothesis of conditional convergence. Instead, our results predict conditional divergence between municipalities located in the Stockholm region throughout the period and also for municipalities outside Stockholm region during 1990´s.

  • 183.
    Lundberg, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Castillo-Merino, David
    Dept. of Economics and Business, Open University of Catalonia (UOC).
    Dahmani, Mounir
    Economics, University of Paris Sud, France.
    Do Online Students Perform Better than Face-to-face Students?: Reflections and a Short Review of some Empirical Findings2008In: RUSC, Revista de Universidad y Sociedad del Conocimiento, ISSN 1698-580X, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 35-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increases in the number of online courses given by universities have been quite dramatic over the last couple of years. Nowadays, many universities even give complete degree programs online where instructions and lectures in the form of, for example, streaming videos, are available for students to watch 24 hours a day. In a sense, the use of Internet and Interactive Computer Technologies (ICT) in higher education can be compared to any other type of teaching tool, such as the blackboard and overhead projectors. The motivation for using the Internet and ICT in higher education, from an economic point of view, is if they are more effective as teaching tools compared to any relevant alternative. That is, all else being equal, if the Internet is an effective teaching tool in that students who attend online courses or complete degree programs perform better in terms of marks in the final exam compared to face-to-face students. In this paper we reflect on and summarize some of the empirical findings in the literature on the effects of online teaching on student performance compared to face-to-face equivalents.

  • 184.
    Lundberg, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Distributional Effects of Lower Food Prices in a Rich Country: Calculations Based on Estimates of Household Demand for Food2008Report (Other academic)
  • 185.
    Lundberg, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Join the Club?  On the Attractiveness of Golf Club Membership2008In: The Empirical Economics Letters, ISSN 1681-8997, Vol. 7, no 11, p. 1125-1132Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 186.
    Lundberg, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Join the Club: On the Attractiveness of Golf Club Membership2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to analyze determinants of the attractiveness of membership in Swedish golfclubs. This is modeled as a utility maximization problem and is estimated using a unique data set that includes 99 percent of all golf clubs in Sweden. We find that the annual membership fees and the member profile have a significant impact on the club´s attractiveness as well as a number of other important characteristics of the club and the municipality in which the club is located. The latter result indicates that not only the characteristics of the club itself but also its location matter for its attractiveness.

  • 187.
    Lundberg, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Westin, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Hushållens efterfrågan på dagligvaror och val av dagligvarubutik i Umeå kommun.2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande rapport är att analysera vilka faktorer som påverkar hushållens efterfrågan på dagligvaror samt vilka faktorer som styr hushållens val av dagligvarubutik. Den ekonometriska analysen bygger på ett datamaterial bestående av totalt 116 enkätsvar från hushåll i Umeå kommun. Enkäten omfattar information om hushållens sammansättning, inkomstnivå, bostadsområde, val av dagligvarubutik för olika typer av inköp (stora inköp (veckohandel), medelstora inköp samt mindre inköp (kompletteringshandel)), hushållets utgifter för dagligvaror per månad, hushållets storlek etc.

    Det begränsade empiriska materialet gör det inte möjligt att utifrån de resultat som presenteras dra några statistiskt säkerställda slutsatser. Däremot ger den ekonometriska analysen möjlighet att formulera hypoteser som kan studeras ytterligare i en mer omfattande studie. Därmed skall denna rapport ses som en förstudie till en mer omfattande studie baserad på ett utskick om cirka 3 000 enkäter. Ett mer sådant empiriskt underlag skulle även göra det möjligt att använda mer sofistikerade ekonometriska metoder.

  • 188.
    Lundberg, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Müller, Dieter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Westin, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Utvärdering av forskargrupperna "Gruppen för Regionalvetenskaplig Forskning samt "Turism och Fritid" vid Karlstads Universitet.2004Report (Other academic)
  • 189.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Auction Formats and Award Rules in Swedish Procurement Auctions2007In: The Economics of Public Procurement, Palgrave Macmillan , 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 190.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Auction Formats and Award Rules in Swedish Procurement Auctions2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of outcomes from Swedish procurement auctions given award criterion and auction format. The auctions are single unit first-price sealed bid auctions or its simultaneous counterpart, and contracts can be awarded to lowest bidder or in accordance with qualitative criteria. The empirical results provide no evidence of differences in winning bids depending on the auction format. The award rule on the other hand matters, a horizontal comparison show higher winning bids on contracts awarded to some other but the lowest bidder. The effect of bidder interaction and bidder identity is also considered.

  • 191.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Auction Formats and Award Rules in Swedish Procurement Auctions2006In: Rivista di Politica Economica, ISSN 0035-6468, Vol. 96, no 1-2, p. 91-116Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 192.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Bidder Behaviour in Swedish Simultaneous Procurement Auctions2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Given no capacity constraints and the same set of competitors one would expect the same identity of the bidder having the lowest cost to complete all contracts simultaneously auctioned. Results based on bid level data from Swedish procurement auctions of internal cleaning service contracts suggests otherwise. The same bidder is found on simultaneous auctioned contracts although this bidder has not submitted the lowest bid on all contracts. A possible explanation is that bidders submit aggressive bids on some contracts in order to be given other contracts with less aggressive bids and thereby maximizing the total profit.

  • 193.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Klara, färdiga, vårda!: En utvärdering av det nätbaserade sjuksköterskeprogrammet i Lycksele2005Report (Other academic)
  • 194.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Restrictions on Competition in Municipal Competitive Procurement in Sweden2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The bidding process in public procurement in Sweden is a first-price sealed bid auction. Although there is a competitive effect on the bids in this type of auction, the contracting entity can through the choice of procurement procedure, restrict the number of bidders. This paper studies this choice and imposes an implementation cost on the contracting entity to motivate such a restriction. The results, based on data for Swedish municipalities, suggest that contract specifications and municipality characteristics (that are assumed to influence the implementation cost); affect the volume of the procurement and the number of bidders, but not necessarily the choice of procurement procedure.

  • 195.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Restrictions on Competition in Municipal Competitive Procurement in Sweden2005In: International Advances in Economic Research, ISSN 1083-0898, E-ISSN 1573-966X, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 329-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bidding process in public procurement in Sweden is a first-price sealed bid auction. Although there is a competitive effect on the bids in this type of auction, the contracting entity can, through the choice of procurement procedure, restrict the number of bidders. This paper studies this choice and imposes an implementation cost on the contracting entity to motivate such a restriction. The results, based on data for Swedish municipalities, suggest that contract specifications and municipality characteristics (that are assumed to influence the implementation cost) affect the volume of the procurement and the number of bidders but not necessarily the choice of procurement procedure.

  • 196.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Vårda(n)de resurser?: En regional och samhällsekonomisk lönsamhetsbedömning av det nätbaserade Sjuksköterskeprogrammet i Lycksele2007Report (Other academic)
  • 197.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Green Public Procurement as an Policy Instrument: Cost effectiveness2013In: Environmental Economics, ISSN 1998-6041, E-ISSN 1998-605X, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 75-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimates by the European Commission indicate that public authorities within the European Union typically purchase goods and services corresponding to approximately 16 percent of GDP per annum. Hence, it is believed, private firms can be stimulated to invest in less polluting production technologies if the market power of public bodies is exerted through Green Public Procurement (GPP) policies and legislation. It is commonly argued that there are considerable possibilities for cost-effective GPP. The aim of this paper is to scrutinize this argument by specifically answer the question whether GPP can work as a cost-effective environmental policy instrument in terms of leading firms to reducing emissions at least cost to society. Our main finding shows that this is not the case.

  • 198.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Offentlig upphandling som miljöpolitiskt styrmedel2015Report (Other academic)
  • 199.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Miljöhänsyn i offentlig upphandling: Samhällsekonomisk effektivitet och konkurrensbegränsande överväganden2009Report (Other academic)
  • 200.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Strömbäck, Elon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Is Environmental Policy by Public Procurement Effective?2016In: Public Finance Review, ISSN 1091-1421, E-ISSN 1552-7530, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 478-499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advocates of green public procurement (GPP) argue that the public sector can use its purchasing power to influence producers and consumers to reduce their negative impact on the environment. Our aim is to assess GPP as an environmental policy instrument and its ability to lead to the achievement of environmental objectives. Central to our analysis is the extent to which polluting firms choose to adapt to the public sector’s environmental requirements and to invest in greener technologies. Our theoretical finding is that the potential of GPP to function as an objective effective instrument of environmental policy is limited and can actually be counterproductive. From an environmental policy point of view, it is crucial that the GPP aims for an environmental standard beyond the technology of the polluting firms and is designed with reference to defined environmental objectives.

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