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  • 151.
    Olsson, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Hedlund, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Sojka, Peter
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid-Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Lundström, Ronnie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lindström, Britta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Increased prefrontal activity and reduced motor cortex activity during imagined eccentric compared to concentric muscle actions2012In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 6, no 255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine differences in recruited brain regions during the concentric and the eccentric phase of an imagined maximum resistance training task of the elbow flexors in healthy young subjects. The results showed that during the eccentric phase, pre-frontal cortex (BA44) bilaterally was recruited when contrasted to the concentric phase. During the concentric phase, however, the motor and pre-motor cortex (BA 4/6) was recruited when contrasted to the eccentric phase. Interestingly, the brain activity of this region was reduced, when compared to the mean activity of the session, during the eccentric phase. Thus, the neural mechanisms governing imagined concentric and eccentric contractions appear to differ. We propose that the recruitment of the pre-frontal cortex is due to an increased demand of regulating force during the eccentric phase. Moreover, it is possible that the inability to fully activate a muscle during eccentric contractions may partly be explained by a reduction of activity in the motor and pre-motor cortex.

  • 152.
    Olsson, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Lundström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Using action observation to study superior motor performance: a pilot fMRI study2013In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 7, article id 819Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The most efficient way to acquire motor skills may be through physical practice. Nevertheless, it has also been shown that action observation may improve motor performance. The aim of the present pilot study was to examine a potential action observation paradigm used to (1) capture the superior performance of expert athletes and (2) capture the underlying neural mechanisms of successful action observation in relation to task experience. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure regional blood flow while presenting videos of a hockey player shooting a puck toward a hockey goal. The videos (a total of 120) where stopped at different time frames with different amount of information provided, creating a paradigm with three different levels of difficulty to decide the fate of a shot. Since this was only a pilot study, we first tested the paradigm behaviorally on six elite expert hockey players, five intermediate players, and six non-hockey playing controls. The results showed that expert hockey players were significantly (p < 0.05) more accurate on deciding the fate of the action compared to the others. Thus, it appears as if the paradigm can capture superior performance of expert athletes (aim 1). We then tested three of the hockey players and three of the controls on the same paradigm in the MRI scanner to investigate the underlying neural mechanisms of successful action anticipation. The imaging results showed that when expert hockey players observed and correctly anticipated situations, they recruited motor and temporal regions of the brain. Novices, on the other hand, relied on visual regions during observation and prefrontal regions during action decision. Thus, the results from the imaging data suggest that different networks of the brain are recruited depending on task experience (aim 2). In conclusion, depending on the level of motor skill of the observer, when correctly anticipating actions different neural systems will be recruited.

  • 153.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Blomstedt, Yulia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    No association found between cardiovascular mortality, and job demands and decision latitude: experience from the Västerbotten Intervention Programme in Sweden2014In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 117, p. 58-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current prospective study with the longest follow-up period in Northern Sweden aims to investigate the association between job demands and decision latitude and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Further, we aim to assess the effect of conventional risk factors (i.e., body mass index, alcohol consumption, physical activity, marital status, education and smoking) on the association between job demands and decision latitude and CVD mortality. The data originated from the Linnaeus database, available at the Center for Population Studies, Umeå University, Sweden. A cohort of men and women aged 40, 50 and 60 years were recruited from the Västerbotten Intervention Programme. Deaths due to stroke and myocardial infarction at the end of the follow up are considered the outcome. Baseline job characteristics were defined by the Swedish version of the Karasek demand/control model. Statistical methods include proportional Cox hazard modeling and Relative Excess Risk due to Interaction (RERI) to assess interactions. The findings from this study did not support the association between job demands and decision latitude and CVD mortality. Instead, conventional risk factors were found stronger predictors, most evidently education differentials were associated with CVD mortality. We know from previous research that the greater the attenuation of the gradient after adjustment for a given risk factor, the greater the potential to reduce educational inequality via interventions that target this factor. Based on the present findings of the experience in Västerbotten, further research is needed to identify other risk factors besides job strain and its components that would reduce the socioeconomic gradient in CVD mortality.

  • 154.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Ageing and Living Conditions (ALC).
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Blomstedt, Yulia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Life course socioeconomic position and mortality: A population register-based study from Sweden2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 785-791Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Adverse social circumstances during one’s life course have been related to an increased risk of mortality. This article extends the literature by focusing on adversity at each phase of, and cumulatively at midlife in the Swedish population.

    Methods: Data on socioeconomic indicators from 1970, 1980 and 1990 were linked to death registrations from 2000 to 2009. Relative indices of inequalities were computed for socioeconomic indicators, in order to measure the cumulative impact of inequality on mortality.

    Results: A significant cumulative effect of being in the worst-off socioeconomic groups was found. For men, almost all indicators had a significant independent impact on risk of death. Among women, significant independent impacts were found for education in 1990 and for socioeconomic index in the two census years of 1970 and 1980.

    Conclusions: Being disadvantaged during longer period in midlife has a significant negative impact on health. Policies targeted to reduce health inequality should focus on every stage of the midlife course.

  • 155.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Socioeconomic inequalities and body mass index in Västerbotten County, Sweden: a longitudinal study of life course influences over two decades2014In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 13, p. 35-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Life course socioeconomic inequalities in heart disease, stroke and all-cause mortality are well studied in Sweden. However, few studies have sought to explain the mechanism for such associations mainly due to lack of longitudinal data with multiple measures of socioeconomic status (SES) across the life course. Given the population health concern about how socioeconomic inequality is related to poorer health, we aim to tackle obesity as one of the prime suspects that could explain the association between SES inequality and cardiovascular disease and consequently premature death. The aim of this study is to test which life course model best describes the association between socioeconomic disadvantage and obesity among 60 year old inhabitants of Västerbotten County in Northern Sweden.

    METHODS: A birth cohort consisting of 3340 individuals born between 1930 and 1932 was studied. Body mass index (BMI) at the age of 60 and information on socioeconomic status at three stages of life (ages 40, 50, and 60 years) was collected. Independent samples t-test was used to compare BMI between advantaged and disadvantaged groups and one-way ANOVA was used to compare BMI among eight SES trajectories. We applied a structured modeling approach to examine three different hypothesized life course SES models (accumulation, critical period, and social mobility) in relation to BMI.

    RESULTS: We found sex differences in the way that late adulthood socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with BMI among inhabitants of Northern Sweden. Our study suggests that social adversity in all stages of late adulthood is a particularly important indicator for addressing the social gradients in BMI among women in Northern Sweden and that unhealthy behaviors in terms of smoking and physical inactivity are insufficient to explain the relationships between social and lifestyle inequalities and BMI.

    CONCLUSION: In order for local authorities to develop informed preventive efforts, we suggest further research to identify modifiable risk factors across the life course which could explain this health inequality.

  • 156.
    Pettersson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Adult children and elderly parents as mobility attractions in Sweden2009In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 343-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the extent to which elderly parents and adult children move close (or very close) to each other and how this mobility is influenced by socioeconomic conditions, family situation, gender and age. The analyses are based on register data for the years 2001 and 2002 covering all elderly parents and their adult children residing in Sweden. For instance, our analyses show a positive relationship between, on the one hand, moving close to an adult child or an elderly parent and, on the other, the presence of other family members (e.g. siblings and grandchildren). We also found that moving very close to adult children was more common among the young-old and less common among the old-old. One interpretation is that young-old parents often move close to their adult children to have social contact or assist them, but as the parents grow older and their health weakens, care becomes increasingly important and, in the Swedish welfare state, it becomes more the responsibility of public institutions.

  • 157.
    Puschmann, Paul
    et al.
    Centre for Sociological Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Grönberg, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Schumacher, Reto
    University of Geneva.
    Matthijs, Koen
    Centre for Sociological Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Access to marriage and reproduction among migrants in Antwerp and Stockholm. A longitudinal approach to processes of social inclusion and exclusion, 1846–19262014In: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 29-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A longitudinal approach is used to describe and explain processes of social inclusion and exclusion among different groups of migrants in Antwerp and Stockholm (1846–1926), in terms of access to marriage and reproduction. In this way we want to get a better idea about the factors which facilitated or hampered the social inclusion of migrants upon arrival in two different Western European port cities. The results of the discrete time event history analyses show that social inclusion of migrants was easier in Antwerp and became easier over time, while in Stockholm it was more difficult and became even more complicated over time. This finding might be interpreted as the result of greater societal openness in Antwerp, as the Belgian port-city's economic success depended largely upon foreigners and international trade. Higher odds for social inclusion in Antwerp might also have been related to differences in the chances of finding an urban niche, which in turn might have been a result of disparities in economic and demographic growth. Most likely it was a combination of differences in the local opportunity structure and the level of societal openness. Furthermore, it was found that region and place of birth, age at arrival, historical time period, and, in the case of Stockholm, gender and social class had an important impact on the chances of successful inclusion.

  • 158.
    Puschmann, Paul
    et al.
    Belgium.
    Van den Driessche, Nina
    Belgium.
    Grönberg, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Van de Putte, Bart
    Belgium.
    Matthijs, Koen
    Belgium.
    From Outsiders to Insiders?: Partner Choice and Marriage among Internal Migrants in Antwerp, Rotterdam a Stockholm, 1850-19302015In: Historical Social Research / Historische Sozialforschung, ISSN 0172-6404, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 319-358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    "Von Aussenseitem zu Etablierten? Partnerwahl und Heirat unter inleindischen Migranten in Antwerpen, Rotterdam und Stockholm, 1850-1930". Processes of social inclusion and exclusion among internal migrants in Antwerp, Rotterdam and Stockholm in the period 1850-1930 are studied with the help of data on partner choice and marriage of migrants who moved to these cities as singles. In practice, four outcomes related to meeting and mating are linked in our conceptual model to four acculturation trajectories, which form together a sliding scale in terms of social in- and exclusion. The models were tested by means of logistic regression. The results show that in all three cities social exclusion was a widespread phenomenon, and that only a small minority of the migrants became fully incorporated into urban mainstream society. Social exclusion was highly related to cultural differences between migrants and natives. Economic capital did not reduce the migrants' risk of facing marginalization, but it did facilitate the crossing of group boundaries for a specific group of migrants who were able to escape marginalization. The fact that social inclusion took place on a larger scale in Antwerp and Rotterdam compared to Stockholm suggests that large port cities facilitated the incorporation of migrants more than industrial cities.

  • 159.
    REHER, David
    et al.
    Complutense University of Madrid, Spain.
    REQUENA, Miguel
    National University of Distance Education, Spain.
    SANZ-GIMENO, Alberto
    Complutense University of Madrid, Spain.
    SÁNCHEZ-DOMÍNGUEZ, María
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Envejecimiento, familia y fecundidad. La experiencia de las madres del baby boom en España2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 160.
    REHER, David
    et al.
    Complutense University of Madrid, Spain.
    REQUENA, Miguel
    National University of Distance Education, Spain.
    SANZ-GIMENO, Alberto
    Complutense University of Madrid, Spain.
    SÁNCHEZ-DOMÍNGUEZ, María
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    The baby boom: new perspectives and new issues. A research initiative2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 161.
    Reher, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Ciencas Politicas y Sociología, Universidad Complutense, Madrid.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Dimensions of Rational Decision-making During the Demographic Transition; Aranjuez (Spain) Revisited2015In: Historical Life Course Studies, ISSN 2352-6343, Vol. 2, p. 20-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A set of linked reproductive histories taken from the Spanish town of Aranjuez during the demographic transition is used to address key issues regarding reproductive change and reproductive choice. This paper builds on the existing literature and especially on the findings first shown in Reher & Sanz-Gimeno (2007) and in Van Poppel et al. (2012) where the links between childhood survival and reproductive decision-making were specified. This paper goes beyond the original ones in two  important ways: (a) the sex composition of the surviving sibset is included in the analysis and (b) behavior is modeled by means of event history analysis. In these models, controls for the survival status of the previous child are introduced so as to distinguish between biological factors related to the cessation of breastfeeding and both short term (child replacement) and more long-term reproductive strategies. The results offer convincing proof that couples were continually regulating their fertility in order to achieve reproductive goals both in terms of net fertility and of the sex composition of the resulting sibset. Here results show that both sexes were desired by parents but that lack of surviving males had greater influence on fertility behavior. As expected, controls for the survival status of the previous-born child were important though they did not diminish appreciably the overall effect of the number of surviving offspring. This article offers strong proof for the existence of active decision-making during the demographic transition and applies a method to model these behaviors over the full reproductive history of the couple.

  • 162.
    Reher, David Sven
    et al.
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Sanz-Gimeno, Alberto
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid.
    van Poppel, Frans W. A.
    Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute (NIDI).
    Agency in Fertility Decisions in Western Europe during the Demographic Transition: The Role of Childhood Mortality and Sex-Composition2015In: Popoulation Association of America 2015 Annual Meeting: Session 150: Sex Preferences and Sex Composition Effects on Fertility Intentions, San Diego, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A set of linked reproductive histories taken from Sweden, the Netherlands and Spain for the period 1871-1960 is used to address key issues regarding reproductive change and reproductive choice. Using event history analysis the paper investigates how the hazard of additional births was influenced by childhood mortality and the sex-composition among the surviving children when the reproductive decisions were made. The preliminary results show that couples were continuously regulating their fertility to achieve reproductive goals even during the early stages of the fertility transition. Couples experiencing child fatalities as well as gender imbalance in the surviving sibset show significant increases in the hazard of additional births net of any biological impact of terminated breastfeeding. The findings offers strong proof for the existence of active decision-making during the demographic transition and applies a method to model these behaviors over the full reproductive history.

  • 163.
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Demographic Data Base.
    Arnqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Sjöstedt de Luna, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Schumann, Barbara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Association of seasonal climate variability and age-specific mortality in northern Sweden before the onset of industrialization2014In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 11, no 7, p. 6940-6954Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Little is known about health impacts of climate in pre-industrial societies. We used historical data to investigate the association of temperature and precipitation with total and age-specific mortality in Skellefteå, northern Sweden, between 1749 and 1859.

    METHODS: We retrieved digitized aggregated population data of the Skellefteå parish, and monthly temperature and precipitation measures. A generalized linear model was established for year to year variability in deaths by annual and seasonal average temperature and cumulative precipitation using a negative binomial function, accounting for long-term trends in population size. The final full model included temperature and precipitation of all four seasons simultaneously. Relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for total, sex- and age-specific mortality.

    RESULTS: In the full model, only autumn precipitation proved statistically significant (RR 1.02; CI 1.00-1.03, per 1cm increase of autumn precipitation), while winter temperature (RR 0.98; CI 0.95-1.00, per 1 °C increase in temperature) and spring precipitation (RR 0.98; CI 0.97-1.00 per 1 cm increase in precipitation) approached significance. Similar effects were observed for men and women. The impact of climate variability on mortality was strongest in children aged 3-9, and partly also in older children. Infants, on the other hand, appeared to be less affected by unfavourable climate conditions.

    CONCLUSIONS: In this pre-industrial rural region in northern Sweden, higher levels of rain during the autumn increased the annual number of deaths. Harvest quality might be one critical factor in the causal pathway, affecting nutritional status and susceptibility to infectious diseases. Autumn rain probably also contributed to the spread of air-borne diseases in crowded living conditions. Children beyond infancy appeared most vulnerable to climate impacts.

  • 164. Roda Gracia, J
    et al.
    Schumann, Barbara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Seidler, A
    Climate Variability and the Occurrence of Human Puumala Hantavirus Infections in Europe: A Systematic Review2015In: Zoonoses and Public Health, ISSN 1863-1959, E-ISSN 1863-2378, Vol. 62, no 6, p. 465-478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hantaviruses are distributed worldwide and are transmitted by rodents. In Europe, the infection usually manifests as a mild form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) known as nephropathia epidemica (NE), which is triggered by the virus species Puumala. Its host is the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). In the context of climate change, interest in the role of climatic factors for the disease has increased. A systematic review was conducted to investigate the association between climate variability and the occurrence of human Puumala hantavirus infections in Europe. We performed a literature search in the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science. Studies that investigated Puumala virus infection and climatic factors in any European country with a minimum collection period of 2 years were included. The selection of abstracts and the evaluation of included studies were performed by two independent reviewers. A total of 434 titles were identified in the databases, of which nine studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were conducted in central Europe (Belgium, France and Germany), while only two came from the north (Sweden) and one from the south (Bosnia). Strong evidence was found for a positive association between temperature and NE incidence in central Europe, while the evidence for northern Europe so far appears insufficient. Results regarding precipitation were contradictory. Overall, the complex relationships between climate and hantavirus infections need further exploration to identify specific health risks and initiate appropriate intervention measures in the context of climate change.

  • 165.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlstedt, Berit
    Blomstedt, Yulia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Secular trends in cognitive test performance: Swedish conscript data 1970-19932013In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 19-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated time-related patterns in levels of cognitive performance during the period from 1970 to 1993 based on data from Swedish draft boards. The conscripts, including more than a million 18-19-year old men, had taken one of two versions of the Swedish enlistment battery (SEB67; 1970-1979 or SEB80; 1980-1993), each composed of four subtests. The results revealed significant Flynn effects, with estimated gains of 1.2-1.5 IQ-units per decade. The effect seem to hold across ability levels, even though tendencies of more pronounced effects in the lower half of the ability distribution was observed. The largest gains were for visuospatial tests (Paper Form Board and Metal Folding), with little change, even slight losses during the second sub-period, for tests of verbal knowledge (Concept Discrimination and Synonyms) and a mixed pattern for a test of technical comprehension (losses followed by gains). Finally, comparisons of trends in cognitive performance and in standing height show that the gains in cognitive performance over the years from 1980 to 1993 occurred in the absence of overall gains in height which speaks against nutrition as the cause of the Flynn effects. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 166.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Flynn effects on sub-factors of episodic and semantic memory: Parallel gains over time and the same set of determining factors2009In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 47, p. 2174-2180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examined the extent to which time-related gains in cognitive performance, so-called Flynn effects, generalize across sub-factors of episodic memory (recall and recognition) and semantic memory (knowledge and fluency).We conducted time-sequential analyses of data drawnfromthe Betula prospective cohort study, involving four age-matched samples (35–80 years; N= 2996) tested on the same battery of memory tasks on either of four occasions (1989, 1995, 1999, and 2004). The results demonstrate substantial time-related improvements on recall and recognition as well as on fluency and knowledge, with a trend of larger gains on semantic as compared with episodic memory [Rönnlund, M., & Nilsson, L. -G. (2008). The magnitude, generality, and determinants of Flynn effects on forms of declarative memory: Time-sequential analyses of data from a Swedish cohort study. Intelligence], but highly similar gains across the sub-factors. Finally, the association with markers of environmental change was similar, with evidence that historical increases in quantity of schoolingwas a main driving force behind the gains, both on the episodic and semantic sub-factors. The results obtained are discussed in terms of brain regions involved.

  • 167.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Goran
    Effects of Perceived Long-Term Stress on Subjective and Objective Aspects of Memory and Cognitive Functioning in a Middle-Aged Population-Based Sample2013In: The Journal of Genetic Psychology, ISSN 0022-1325, E-ISSN 1940-0896, Vol. 174, no 1, p. 25-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The longitudinal effects of perceived stress on measures of memory and two other cognitive functions (word fluency, visuospatial ability) in a middle-aged sample (4060 years, M age = 47.1 years, SD = 6.1 years; n = 192) were examined. A group describing themselves as stressed in general at baseline, and at follow-up measurement 5 and 10 years later (n = 96) was compared with a matched (age, sex) low-stress group (n = 96). The results revealed more depressive symptoms over time in the high-stress group. With regard to memory, a dissociation between subjective and objective measures was observed. Specifically, participants in the high-stress group rated their memory as worse over time as compared with controls, and reported a higher frequency of occurrence of everyday memory failures, effects partly independent of depressive symptoms. However, the groups did not differ in terms of objective episodic memory performance, word fluency or block design performance, with stable levels of performance over time regardless of perceived stress. The lack of effects of stress on cognitive performance is discussed in the light of factors such as stress level, age of the participants, and other individual difference factors.

  • 168.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Vestergren, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University and Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden.
    Predictors of self-reported prospective and retrospective memory in a population-based sample of older adults2011In: The Journal of Genetic Psychology, ISSN 0022-1325, E-ISSN 1940-0896, Vol. 172, no 3, p. 266-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the authors examined predictors of self-reported everyday memory failures using the Prospective and Retrospective Questionnaire (PRMQ; Smith, Della Sala, Logie, &Maylor, 2000) in a population-based sample of older adults (age range = 60–90 years; N = 250). The results showed that a higher frequency of reported failures was associated with lower scores on the personality dimension of self-directedness as assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI; Cloninger, Dragan, Svrakic,& Przybeck, 1993) and more depressive symptoms on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; Radloff, 1977).However, PRMQscores showed no relationships with objective memory ability, as reflected by a series of retrospective memory measures and a measure of prospective memory. Neither were the PRMQ scales associated with general cognitive functioning as assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; Folstein, Folstein, & McHugh, 1977). Taken together, the results indicate that within the older population, self-reported memory as assessed by the PRMQ may reflect moodstate and personality factors rather than individual differences in memory and cognitive ability.

  • 169.
    Sandow, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Jyväskylä University School of Business and Economics, Finland.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Is your commute killing you?: On the mortality risks of long-distance commuting2014In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 1496-1516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a general belief that expanding labour-market regions, triggered by increased commuting, have positive economic effects on individuals, firms, and society. Recently, however, scholars have reported possible negative outcomes related to health and well-being. Based on these findings, this study addresses the association between long-distance commuting, and mortality. Using longitudinal individual data from between 1985 and 2008, focusing on 55-year-olds in 1994, we model mortality through propensity score matching and Kaplan–Meyer estimates of survival among long-distance commuters and matched controls from the population travelling short distances to work. The results indicate that women who have experienced long-distance commuting face a significantly higher mortality risk compared with women with short commutes to work. This seems to be driven by variations in income and education: for example, for women with long-distance commuting experience, substantially lower survival rates are found among those with low education and low income. A very different picture emerges for men, for whom mortality risks do not seem to be associated with long-distance commuting. Our findings suggest that men and women are subject to different mechanisms regarding the nexus between commuting and mortality.

  • 170.
    Sandow, Joel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Lundström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Olsson, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    När kroppen lider blir huvudet dumt2011In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 50-53Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fysisk trötthet påverkar kognitiva funktioner negativt på olika sätt. På kort sikt drabbas det episodiska minnet. På lång sikt blir de exekutiva funktionerna sämre. För att undvika enkla misstag bör till exempel skidåkare och orienterare noggrant planera de moment av träningen som är mer kognitiva.

  • 171.
    Sandstrom, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    The mid-twentieth century baby boom in Sweden: changes in the educational gradient of fertility for women born 1915-19502014In: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 120-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes changes in the educational gradient of fertility among Swedish women who participated in the mid twentieth-century baby boom. Using individual-level data covering the entire Swedish population drawn from the Population and Housing Census of 1960, and the Multi-generation Register, the study determines fertility outcomes during the baby boom across educational strata. The results indicate important differences between the first wave of the baby boom during the 1940s and the second peak in the 1960s. This is the case with regard to both education and age-specific fertility patterns. The results show that a pertinent feature of the first wave was a recovery among older women who had postponed births during the 1930s, and that the educational gradient was still strongly negative at this time. On the other hand, the second wave during the 1960s was primarily created by increased fertility among younger women below 30 years of age. For these women born in the 1930s and 1940s, who increased their educational levels compared to earlier generations, fertility differentials across educational strata were almost eliminated. This convergence of childbearing behavior between high and low educated women was an important prerequisite for the second peak of the Swedish baby boom in the 1960s, as the proportion of secondary and post-secondary educated women had increased substantially in the cohorts born since the mid 1930s.

  • 172.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    “Laws shouldn’t chain people to one another”: Attitudes toward divorce in Swedish public debate 1964-19722011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 1960s and 1970s in Sweden, both the labor force participation rate of marriedwomen and the divorce rate increased more than during any other period of the twentiethcentury. Higher levels of extramarital fertility, cohabitation among unmarried spouses andincreasing age at first birth accompanied the rise of these two rates. These developmentsexemplify phenomena associated with the second demographic transition, and weremarkedly evident in Sweden during the 1960s and 1970s. Studying the national newspapersfrom 1964 to 1969, this paper traces the impact of these demographic and socioeconomicchanges on the public debate on divorce prior to the implementation of the 1974divorce law.The Swedish divorce law of 1974 was based on unilateral no-fault and thus meant aremoval of more or less all legal constraints against divorce. The aim of this paper is toidentify the normative views of divorce that dominated the public debate during the secondhalf of the 1960s, just prior to the implementation of the new divorce law. In thispaper, the daily press is used to detect the arguments that were publically raised for andagainst an increased access to divorce and how the argumentation changed over time.With regard to gender and socio-economic position, the study further identifies the participantsin the debate and whether they represented any political or other group affiliations.Focusing on this divorce debate, the findings will contribute to the knowledge onhow changes in cultural and normative values in society interact with dramatic demographicdevelopments and institutional changes.

  • 173.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Ready, Willing and Able: The Divorce Transition in Sweden 1915-19742012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis attempts to extend the historical scope of divorce research in Sweden by providing an analysis ofhow the variations in the divorce rate over time and across geographical areas are connected to the economic, normative and institutional restructuring of Swedish society during the period 1915-1974. The thesis finds that the economic reshaping of Sweden into a modern market economy is at the center of the process that has resulted in decreased marital stability during the twentieth century. The shift from a single- to a dual-provider model and an increased integration of both men and women into market processes outside the family have resulted in lowered economic interdependence between spouses, which in turn has decreased the economic constraints to divorce. This conclusion is supported by the empirical finding that indicators of female economic self-sufficiency are associated with increased propensities for divorce, during the entire period under research in this thesis. That changes in the constraints experienced by women have been important is further emphasized by the finding that women have been more prone than men to initiate divorce, and that this gendered pattern of divorce was established already during the early twentieth century in Sweden.The results further indicate that the growth of divorce is connected not only to a shift in the provider model but also to the way sustained economic growth has resulted in a general increase in the resources available to individuals, as proposed by the socio-economic growth hypothesis. During the 1920s and 1930s, high-strata groups, such as lawyers, journalists, engineers and military officers, exhibited a divorce rate on the same level as in the general population of Sweden today. By the early 1960s, however, this positive associa- tion between social class and divorce had changed: by then it was rather couples in working-class occupations who exhibited the highest probability of divorce, which is a pattern that appears to have persisted since then. These findings indicate that a general increase and more even distribution of economic resources betweenboth genders and social classes have facilitated individuals’ possibilities to sustain themselves independent of family ties. This democratization in the access to divorce has meant that growing segments of the populationhave gained the means to act on a demand for divorce.However, another result of the thesis is that it is not possible to limit the analysis to a strictly economic perspective. Rather, economic changes have interacted with and been reinforced by changes in values, as wellas in institutions, during the periods when widespread and rapid behavioral change has occurred. In Sweden, like in most other Western countries, this was primarily the case during the 1940s and a period covering approximately the second half of the 1960s and first half of the 1970s. The studies of the thesis suggest that these two periods of rapid growth in the divorce rate stand out as periods in Swedish history when attitudes also changed more rapidly toward values that can be regarded as permissive, secular and more open to indi- vidual freedom of choice. Trenchantly, these two periods also correspond to the two harvest periods in Social Democratic welfare state policy. In the thesis it is argued that the marked increase in government services and social security at these time points integrated with and reinforced economic restructuring in a way that worked to “de-familializate” individuals by making them less dependent on family ties for social security. Institutional changes of this type have been particularly important for making single life more feasible for women and low- income groups. In the thesis, it is argued that the timings of substantial behavioral change become difficult to understand if the analytical perspective does not explicitly incorporate how such contextual-level changes in values and institutions have integrated with changes in the provider model and the economy during thesedynamic periods of the divorce transition in Sweden.

  • 174.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Socio-economic determinants of divorce in early twentieth-century Sweden2011In: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, ISSN 1081-602X, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 292-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a combination of census data and aggregated divorce statistics, this study investigates how socio-economic conditionsinfluenced the risk of divorce among men in different occupations during the 1920s and 1930s in Sweden. The results support thetheoretical presupposition that the stability of marriage was associated with the degree of economic interdependence betweenspouses. Rural, low-income, single-provider households with many children exhibit a significantly lower probability of divorcethan urban, dual-provider, high-income households with few children. This lends support to a socio-economic growth hypothesisstating that lower levels of marriage stability first developed in the more affluent strata of society living in urban settings. Thetendency of decreasing marriage stability then successively spread to the middle and lower classes as the divorce rate continued toincrease during the course of the twentieth century.

  • 175.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Time–space trends in Swedish divorce behaviour 1911–19742011In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 65-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how the divorce rate in Sweden has varied over time and across different geographical areas during the period 1911-1974, and how these variations can be connected to the political, socio-economic, and cultural development in Sweden. The analysis provides empirical support for the hypothesis that increased divorce rates has been the result of changes in the structural conditions that determine the degree of economic interdependence between spouses. There is a strong connection between the degree of urbanization and the divorce rate on a regional level for the entire research period. The statistical analysis of the regional data indicates that these patterns are connected to the more diversified economy that has developed in urban settings, in the form of a more qualified labor market and higher wages for females. These characteristics resulted in a faster and more pronounced reduction of economic interdependence between spouses, which made divorce more attainable in these areas as compared to rural settings.

  • 176.
    Sandström, Glenn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Reher, David
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid.
    Dimensions of rational decision-making during the demographic transition; Aranjuez (Spain) revisited2014In: European  Population  Conference  Budapest,  Hungary,  25-­‐28  June   2014: Presented in Session 114: Demographic transition from micro-perspective, 18-20th century, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Focusing on the issue of rational decision-making and human agency in historical contexts this paper investigates the influence of childhood mortality and the sex composition of the surviving offspring during the demographic transition in Spain. The main results show that parents adjusted their behavior in accordance with the number of surviving children and that child fatalities tended to stimulate further childbearing. Thus, parents seem to have actively regulated their fertility in order to achieve a minimum number of surviving children that would reach adulthood. Further, the results indicate that this active adjustment of fertility to compensate for child fatalities increased as the fertility transition progressed in the early twentieth century. As another indicator of agency in fertility decisions we use the sex composition of the surviving offspring. Also in this case, the results indicate that couples actively regulated their fertility to achieve a desired sex composition among the surviving children. Families that lacked surviving male offspring show a significant increase in the propensity for additional childbearing as compared to couples having a mixed or only boys sibset. Thus it seems, as the desire to have surviving boys was more important than having girls though the ideal sibset combination was one of each sex and that couples actively regulated their fertility to achieve this goal.

  • 177.
    Sandström, Glenn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Socio-economic determinants of divorce in Sweden 1960-19652014In: Social science history, ISSN 0145-5532, E-ISSN 1527-8034, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 127-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 1960s in Sweden, socio-economic differentials decreased sharply at the same time as the labor force participation of married women and aggregate divorce rates increased more rapidly than during any other period of the twentieth century. The aim of this paper is to investigate how the socio-economic composition of the couple influenced the probability of divorce during this period of rapid restructuring. The study uses a large dataset covering the entire married population of Sweden in 1960 and applies a binary model whereby the couples are analyzed as units rather than separate individuals to model divorce during the period 1960-1965. The main results show that the equalization process between genders and social classes during this period contributed to the decrease in marital stability. Dual-provider families exhibit substantially higher probabilities of divorce as compared to traditional single-provider families. We also find that the socio-economic gradient of divorce had become negative by the early 1960s and that couples with low socio-economic status contributed more to the increase in divorce than did couples in the higher strata. A difference between the results reached in this study and those from divorce research covering later decades is that children do not reduce the probability of divorce when the wife's labor force participation is controlled for. The results indicate that the determinants of divorce have varied across different phases of the divorce transition during the twentieth century and that a historical perspective is necessary if we are to understand the long-term process that has produced current marital behavior.

  • 178.
    Sandström, Glenn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Vikström, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Sex preference for children in German villages during the fertility transition2015In: Population Studies, ISSN 0032-4728, E-ISSN 1477-4747, Vol. 69, no 1, p. 57-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past, parents' sex preferences for their children have proved difficult to verify. This study used John Knodel's German village genealogies of couples married between 1815 and 1899 to investigate sex preferences for children during the fertility transition. Event history analyses of couples' propensity to progress to a fifth parity was used to test whether the probability of having additional children was influenced by the sex composition of surviving children. It appears that son preference influenced reproductive behaviour: couples having only girls experienced significantly higher transition rates than those having only boys or a mixed sibset. However, couples who married after about 1870 began to exhibit fertility behaviour consistent with the choice to have at least one surviving boy and girl. This result represents a surprisingly early move towards the symmetrical sex preference typical of modern European populations.

  • 179.
    Sanz-Gimeno, Alberto
    et al.
    Complutense University of Madrid, Spain.
    Sánchez-Domínguez, María
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Aging, Family and fertility: The Experience of Baby Boom Mothers in Spain2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 180.
    Schumann, Barbara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Edvinsson, Sören
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Demographic Data Base.
    Evengard, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    The influence of seasonal climate variability on mortality in pre-industrial Sweden2013In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 6, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recent studies have shown an association between weather and climatic factors with mortality, cardiovascular and infectious diseases. We used historical data to investigate the impact of seasonal temperature and precipitation on total mortality in Uppsala, Sweden, during the first two stages of the demographic transition, 1749-1859. Design: We retrieved mortality and population numbers of the Uppsala Domkyrka parish from digitised parish records and obtained monthly temperature and precipitation measures recorded in Uppsala during that time. Statistical models were established for year-to-year variability in deaths by annual and seasonal temperature and precipitation, adjusting for longer time trends. In a second step, a model was established for three different periods to study changes in the association of climate variability and mortality over time. Relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Results: Precipitation during spring and autumn was significantly associated with annual mortality (spring RR 0.982, CI 0.965-1.000; autumn RR 1.018, CI 1.004-1.032, respectively, per centimetre increase of precipitation). Higher springtime temperature decreased annual mortality, while higher summer temperature increased the death toll; however, both were only borderline significant (p = 0.07). The significant effect of springtime precipitation for mortality was present only in the first two periods (1749-1785 and 1786-1824). On the contrary, the overall effect of autumn precipitation was mainly due to its relevance during the last period, 1825-1859 (RR 1.024, CI 0.997-1.052). At that time, higher winter precipitation was found to decrease mortality. Conclusions: In urban Uppsala, during the 18th and 19th century, precipitation appeared to be a stronger predictor for mortality than temperature. Higher spring precipitation decreased and higher autumn precipitation increased the number of deaths. However, this association differed before and during the early stages of industrialisation. Further research shall take age-specific differences into account, as well as changes in socio-economic conditions during that time.

  • 181.
    Simonsson, Per
    et al.
    Department of Economic History, Stockholm University.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Ready, Willing, and Able to Divorce: An Economic and Cultural History of Divorce in Twentieth-Century Sweden2011In: Journal of Family History, ISSN 0363-1990, E-ISSN 1552-5473, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 210-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study outlines a long history of divorce in Sweden, recognizing the importance of considering both economic and cultural factors in the analysis of marital dissolution. Following Ansley Coale, the authors examine how a framework of multiple theoretical constructs, in interaction, can be applied to the development toward mass divorce. Applying a long historical perspective, the authors argue that an analysis of gendered aspects of the interaction between culture and economics is crucial for the understanding of the rise of mass divorce. The empirical analysis finds support for a marked decrease in legal and cultural obstacles to divorce already during the first decades of the twentieth century. However, economic structures remained a severe obstacle that prohibited significant increases in divorce rate prior to World War II. It was only during the 1940s and 1960s, when cultural change was complemented by marked decreases in economic interdependence between spouses, that the divorce rate exhibited significant increases. The authors find that there are advantages to looking at the development of divorce as a history in which multiple empirical factors are examined in conjunction, recognizing that these factors played different roles during different time periods.

  • 182.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Kunskap och kontroll: den svenska befolkningsstatistikens historia2001Book (Other academic)
  • 183.
    Sommer, Marius
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Olsson, Carl Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Timing training in female soccer players: effects on motor skill and associated changes in functional brain activityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 184.
    Stenberg, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Flexibility at a Cost: Should Governments Stimulate Tertiary Education for Adults?2015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most OECD countries experience high unemployment rates and declining growth in higher educational attainment. An often suggested government policy is therefore to allocate resources towards formal schooling for adults. However, returns on such investments are uncertain and the foregone earnings are potentially large. We use Swedish population register data from 1982 to 2011 to estimate average long run earnings returns on higher education for 29- to 55-year-olds who enrolled 1992-1993. We find substantial positive estimates, but these only fully emerge after approximately ten years. Nevertheless, calculations indicate that the benefits for society exceed the costs also under fairly pessimistic assumptions.

  • 185.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Lifestyle factors, genetics and cognitive aging2008In: International Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0020-7594, E-ISSN 1464-066X, International Journal of Psychology, Vol. 43, p. 477-477Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 186.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Bergdahl, M
    Public Dental Service Competence Centre of Northern Norway (TkNN), PB 2406, N-9271, Norway .
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Cognitive status in persons with amalgam-related complaints2010In: Journal of Dental Research, ISSN 0022-0345, E-ISSN 1544-0591, Vol. 89, no 11, p. 1236-1240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-reported cognitive symptoms are frequent in persons with amalgam-related complaints, but few studies have focused on their cognitive function. The aim was to examine a symptom profile and whether participants with amalgam-related complaints have cognitive deficits in comparison with control individuals. We drew 342 participants with amalgam-related complaints and 342 one-to-one matched control individuals from a longitudinal population-based study. For 81 of the participants with amalgam-related complaints and controls, data were available approximately five years before the onset of complaints, making a longitudinal analysis possible. All participants were assessed by a self-reported health questionnaire and a comprehensive cognitive test battery. The participants with amalgam-related complaints reported more symptoms, mainly musculoskeletal and neuropsychological, compared with control individuals (p < 0.001). The results revealed no significant difference between the amalgam and control group, either cross-sectionally or longitudinally, for any of the cognitive tests. These results suggest that cognitive decline is not associated with amalgam-related complaints.

  • 187.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Bergdahl, Maud
    Institute of Clinical Dentistry, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Stressful negative life events and amalgam-related complaints2011In: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, ISSN 0301-5661, E-ISSN 1600-0528, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 12-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives:  The role of stressful life events in the onset of self-reported amalgam-related complaints is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between life events and amalgam-related complaints.

    Method:  The participants were selected from a longitudinal population-based study. One-to-one matching of 337 participants with amalgam-related complaints to 337 participants without such complaints was performed. For 81 of the participants with amalgam-related complaints and their matched controls, data was also available approximately 5 years before the onset of complaints, making longitudinal analysis possible. All participants completed questionnaires assessing the occurrence of 55 life events.

    Results:  The results showed that many participants with amalgam-related complaints experienced negative life events before and at the onset of amalgam-related complaints. They also reported more unexpected and uncontrollable events difficult to adjust to in comparison with controls. The groups did not differ on positive or neutral life events. Somatic illness or surgical operation was the most common life event. Death of a very close family member and a major change in financial situation were also commonly reported.

    Conclusions:  This study indicates that adverse negative life events could play a vital role in understanding and explaining amalgam-related complaints.

  • 188.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Cognitive performance before and after mild head injury.2002In: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, E-ISSN 1530-8898, Vol. Suppl, no B77, p. 60-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 189.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stressful life events are not associated with development of dementia2014In: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 26, p. 147-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The impact of stressful life events as a risk factor of dementia diseases is inconclusive. We sought to determine whether stressful negative life events are associated with incidental dementia in a population-based study with long-term follow-up. We also tested the hypothesis that the occurrence of positive life events could mitigate or overcome the possible adverse effects of negative life events on dementia conversion.

    Methods: The study involved 2,462 dementia-free participants aged 55 years and older. Information on life events was ascertained at baseline from a comprehensive Life Event Inventory, which included 56 questions about specific life events. For each life event, the emotional impact (both positive and negative) and emotional adjustment were asked for.

    Results: During follow-up, 423 participants developed dementia; of these, 240 developed Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cox regression analysis showed no association between the total number of negative life events and the incidence of dementia when adjusted solely for age and gender (hazard ratio = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.92-1.02), or with multiple adjustments for a range of covariates (hazard ratio = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.91-1.01). Similarly, neither emotional impact nor emotional adjustment to these life events was associated with incident dementia. A separate analysis of AD did not alter the results.

    Conclusions: The result of this population-based study finds no association between negative or positive life events and dementia. Accordingly, our results reject the hypothesis that stressful life events trigger the onset of dementia diseases.

  • 190.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Mousavi-Nasab, Hossein
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    The relationship between marital and parental status and the risk of dementia2014In: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 749-757Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study examines the association between marital and parental status and their individual and combined effect on risk of dementia diseases in a population-based longitudinal study while controlling for a range of potential confounders, including social networks and exposure to stressful negative life events. Methods: A total of 1,609 participants without dementia, aged 65 years and over, were followed for an average period of 8.6 years (SD = 4.8). During follow-up, 354 participants were diagnosed with dementia. Cox regression was used to investigate the effect of marital and parental status on risk of dementia. Results: In univariate Cox regression models (adjusted for age as time scale), widowed (hazard ratio (HR) 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13-1.78), and not having children (HR 1.54, 95% CI = 1.15-2.06) were significantly associated with incident dementia. In multivariate analyses that included simultaneously marital and parental status and covariates that were found to be significant in univariate models (p < 0.10), the HR was 1.30 (95% CI = 1.01-1.66) for widowed, and 1.51 (95% CI = 1.08-2.10) for those not having children. Finally, a group of four combined factors was constructed: married parents (reference), married without children, widowed parents, and widowed without children. The combined effect revealed a 1.3 times higher risk (95% CI = 1.03-1.76) of dementia in widow parents, and a 2.2 times higher risk (95% CI = 1.36-3.60) in widowed persons without children, in relation to married parents. No significant difference was observed for those being married and without children. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that marital- and parental status are important risk factors for developing dementia, with especially increased risk in those being both widowed and without children.

  • 191.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Mousavi-Nasab, SM Hossein
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Relationship between marital and parental status and risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease2013In: Alzheimer's & Dementia, ISSN 1552-5260, E-ISSN 1552-5279, Vol. 9, no 4, Supplement, p. P631-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is increasing evidence that social network factors may affect risk of developing dementia. The objective of the present study was to examine the association between marital and parental status separately and their combined effect on the risk of incident dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: A total of 1707 members of a population-based prospective cohort study aged 65 and over were followed for an average period of 9.5 years. During follow-up, 393 participants were diagnosed with dementia, including 221 of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Age, sex, education, smoking, vascular diseases, depressive symptoms, and stressful negative life events were used as covariates. Results: Cox logistic regression revealed that unmarried have a greater incidence of dementia and AD compared to married. Participants that were childless were also more likely to develop dementia and AD than those who were parents. Examining the combined effects of marital and parental status revealed that the already negative effect of being unmarried was further enhanced if the individuals were also childless. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that both marital and parental statuses are associated with risk of dementia and that the effect of marital status need to be examined while taking into account parenthood. Further studies are needed to confirm our finding and to explore the mechanisms underlying this association.

  • 192.
    Sánchez-Domínguez, María
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Lundgren, Anna Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Qualitative Research on Reproduction during the Central Decades of the Twentieth Century in Spain and Sweden: A Proposal for a Transnational Approach2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 193.
    Sánchez-Domínguez, María
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Lundgren, Anna Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    The marriage boom: Spanish and Swedish women making sense of marriage during the marriage boom2015In: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 69-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes the marriage boom that took place during the middle decades of the twentieth century. The increase in nuptiality is analyzed in Spain and Sweden from a qualitative perspective, and the authors describe how cultural, social, economic and institutional transformations were understood by women who were in their reproductive period during the marriage boom. In-depth interviews were conducted in both places with 51 women born between 1919 and 1951. The authors argue that it is important that the ways in which the factors previously identified as decisive of the marriage boom are studied for their motivating power, and the way they were or were not made important in people's understandings of their marital practices. The results show that despite the differences between the national contexts of Spain and Sweden, three interrelated themes recurred when the interviewed women framed their marital choices: (1) the normalization of marriage as a life event; (2) religion; (3) and education and work life. The results also suggest that the women highlighted norm systems within which their choices and decisions were made, rather than describing individual choices and decisions as stemming from individual preferences and wishes.

  • 194.
    Sánchez-Domínguez, María
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Sanz-Gimeno, Alberto
    Complutense University of Madrid, Spain.
    Reproductive Behavior during the Baby Boom in Spain2013In: XXVII International Population Conference: Abstracts, Paris: IUSSP , 2013, p. 105-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 195.
    Tano, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Berck, Peter
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    The determinants of the choice of location among young adults: evidence from Sweden2011Other (Other academic)
  • 196.
    Tinghög, Petter
    et al.
    Department of Bioscience and Nutrition, Karolinska institutet, Huddinge.
    Carstensen, John
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping.
    Kaati, Gunnar
    Department of Bioscience and Nutrition, Karolinska institutet, Huddinge.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Sjöström, Michael
    Department of Bioscience and Nutrition, Karolinska institutet, Huddinge.
    Bygren, Lars Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Migration and mortality trajectories: a study of individuals born in the rural community of Överkalix, Sweden2011In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 73, no 5, p. 744-751Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration may result in exposure to factors that are both beneficial and harmful for good health. How the act of migration is associated with mortality, or whether the socio-economic condition of migrants prior to migration influences their mortality trajectory, is not well understood. In the present study, a cohort of 413 randomly selected individuals born in the rural community of Överkalix, Sweden, between 1890 and 1935 were followed from birth to either death or old age. Around 50% of the study-population moved away from Överkalix at one time or another. To adjust for a potential bias resulting from self-selection among the migrants, the father’s occupational status was used together with parents’ and grandparents’ longevity. Overall, migration could not be shown to predict mortality when the backgrounds of the migrants were taken into account. Nonetheless, socio-economic background conditions appeared to moderate the association, decreasing the mortality rates for migrants with relatively good pre-migratory socio-economic conditions, while increasing it for migrants with poorer pre-migratory conditions. However, further scrutiny revealed that this effect modification mainly affected the female migrants’ mortality. In conclusion, the study suggests that there is no general association between migration and mortality, but that migrants with better socio-economic resources are more likely to improve their mortality trajectories than migrants with poorer resources. Better pre-migratory conditions hence appear to be important for avoiding health-adverse circumstances and gaining access to health beneficial living conditions when moving to foreign environments – especially for women.

  • 197. Van Bavel, Jan
    et al.
    Klesment, Martin
    Beaujouan, Eva
    Brzozowska, Zuzanna
    Puur, Alan
    Reher, David
    Requena,, Miguel
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Sobotka, Tomas
    Zeman, Krystof
    Women's Education and Cohort Fertility during the Baby Boom2015In: Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America 2015: Presented in Session 48. Families and Households in Comparative and Historical Perspective, San Diego, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While today, women exceed men in terms of participation in advanced education, female enrollment rates beyond primary education were still very low in the first half of the 20th century. In many Western countries, this started to change around mid-century, with the proportion of women obtaining a degree in secondary education and beyond increasing steadily. The expected implication of rising female education was fertility decline andthepostponement of motherhood. Yet, many countries experienced declining ages at first birth and increasing total fertility instead. How can we reconcile these fertility trends with women’s increasing participation in education? Using census and large survey data for the USA  and  fourteen  European  countries,  this  paper  analyzes  trends  in  cohort  fertility underlying the Baby Boom and how they relate to women’s educational attainment. The focus is on quantum components of cohort fertility and parity progression, and their association with the age at first childbearing. We find that progression to higher parities continued to decline in all countries, in line with fertility transition trends that started back in the nineteenth century. However, in countries experiencing a Baby Boom, this was more than compensated  by  decreasing childlessness  and  parity  progression  after  the  first  child, particularly among women with education beyond the primary level. As a result, the proportions having exactly two children went up steadily in all countries and all educational groups.

  • 198.
    Vandezande, Mattijs
    et al.
    Katolieke Universiteit, Leuven.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Measuring Death Clustering: Comparing and explaining the spread of infant mortality between families in nineteenth century Belgium and Sweden2012In: Born to die: Death clustering and the intergenerational transfer of infant mortality, the Antwerp district, 1846-1905 / [ed] Mattijs Vandezande, Leuven: Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen, Katholieke Universiteit , 2012, p. 114-143Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 199.
    Vikström, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Advantages and disadvantages of mixing materials and methods: identifying women’s positions and experiences in the past2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 200.
    Vikström, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Before and after crime: life-course analyses of young offenders arrested in 19th century northern Sweden2011In: Journal of social history, ISSN 0022-4529, E-ISSN 1527-1897, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 861-888Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article combines sources to expand our view of offenders. Prison records are investigated to identify young people in Sweden who were arrested during the period 1840–1880. Their demographic characteristics and experiences of life before and after crime are acknowledged in parish registers digitized by the Demographic Data Base, Umeå University, that allow for longitudinal life-course perspectives. These perspectives indicate how offenders experienced their lives and how other people viewed them. The findings show that paupers did not dominate among them, and due to their evident local background most offenders had access to parental ties. In providing informal social control such features are believed to limit people’s criminal involvement, but this was not so for these individuals. Event-history analyses distinguish whether a stigma afflicted them upon release, as some labeling themes propose. Examining demographic events such as relocation, marriage, career and death shows that imprisonment had some negative impact on their life courses but was not equal to crisis, except for the more unfortunate thieves and the few female criminals. Whereas limited marital and survival chances characterized them upon release, the pathways suggest that most male offenders established social bonds to the surrounding people and society. 

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