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  • 151.
    Chotai, Jayanti
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    On the lod score method in linkage analysis.1984Ingår i: Annals of Human Genetics, ISSN 0003-4800, E-ISSN 1469-1809, Vol. 48, nr Pt 4, s. 359-78Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic epidemiology deals with the interaction of environmental and genetic determinants in common diseases. Linkage analysis is an important branch of this field. The current practice of claiming linkage between two genetic loci when the maximum lod score z(theta) exceeds 3 has not received theoretical justification, whether considered as a sequential or as a fixed sample size test. Within the framework of significance testing, Wald's (1947) formulae are not applicable to allow this procedure a sequential interpretation. Considered as a fixed sample size test, we find that a chi 2 approximation would instead be very adequate. Since repeated significance testing is performed on linkage data, the nominal significance level should be more stringent for each test than the overall level. Some recent developments in group sequential trials by Pocock (1977) and in repeated significance testing by Woodroofe (1979) seem to indicate that the critical value of the maximum lod score should lie roughly between 0.9 and 3.3, depending on the maximum number of repetitions anticipated, on whether the significance level is desired to be 0.05, 0.01 or 0.001, and on whether the test is derived from a one-sided or a two-sided consideration. In terms of the group sequential approach, if a maximum of twenty repetitions is allowed, if z(theta) greater than log10 A is considered as a one-sided test and assumed to be symmetric when linkage is absent, then the type I error is approximately given by 1/A. We also treat the confidence interval approach for exclusion of unlikely recombination values.

  • 152.
    Chotai, Jayanti
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Season of birth in suicidology: neurobiological and epidemiological studies1999Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Several neuropsychiatrie disorders have shown season of birth associations. Low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of the serotonin metabolite 5-HIAA and the dopamine metabolite HVA have been associated with suicidal behaviour, impulsivity, and aggression. This thesis investigated associations between the season of birth, the CSF levels of three monoamine metabolites (including MHPG of norepinephrine), the scales of the diagnostic interview for borderline patients (DIB), and psychiatric diagnoses. Also, the methods of suicide were investigated in relation to the season of birth.

    Methods: We studied a clinical sample of 241 patients in Stockholm with mood, anxiety and adjustment disorders with respect to the CSF levels of monoamine metabolites in relation to the season of birth, and in relation to the DIB in an overlapping sample. We also analysed all completed suicides during the 42 years 1952- 1993inVästerbottenin northern Sweden (1466 cases) by multiple logistic regressions to relate suicide methods with season of birth, gender, age, urban-rural residence, marital status, year of suicide, and season of suicide. For the 20 years 1961- 1980 (693cases), psychiatric in-patient and out-patient records were also examined for any history of psychiatric contacts and psychiatric diagnoses. In two mutually independent samples, we investigated the DIB in relation to the season of birth.

    Results: In the Stockholm sample, those born during February to April had significantly lower CSF levels of 5-HIAA, and those born during October to January had significantly higher CSF levels of HVA, HVA/5-HIAA, and HVA/MHPG, as well as (non-significantly) higher levels of 5-HIAA. Those with an intermediate score of section II (impulse action patterns) of the DIB had significantly higher CSF levels of 5-HIAA and HVA, and they were significantly more likely to have been born during October to January. In the Västerbotten register, those born during February to April were significantly more likely to have preferred hanging rather than poisoning or petrol gases, and conversely for those born during October to January. These associations with suicide methods were found for the total sample and for those without any history of psychiatric contacts, but not for those with psychiatric contacts.

    Conclusions: Suicidal behaviour shows statistically significant variation according to the season of birth, most probably mediated by a variation in an independent trait of vulnerability to suicide based on neurodevelopmental parameters, particularly the serotonergic system. The suicidal process differs between those who seek psychiatric care compared to those who do not, reflecting differences in the diagnostic spectra and in the extent of mental illness.

  • 153.
    Chotai, Jayanti
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Suicide aggregation in relation to socio-demographic variables and the suicide method in a general population: assortative susceptibility.2005Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 59, nr 5, s. 325-30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One area of research in suicidology aims at understanding the processes underlying aggregation or clustering of suicide cases within a limited period of time or space (suicide epidemics). Susceptibility to, or propagation of, suicidal behavior due to given risk factors may be operating through media other than space, and its susceptibility for the receiver may be different within different types of strata that are determined by socio-demographic, personality-related or biological-susceptibility differences. We use the term "assortative susceptibility" for this phenomenon. Aggregated cases, comprising calendar months with an unusually large number of suicides after adjusting for seasonal and yearly variations, were defined in the register of all 1093 completed suicides during 1969-93 in the county of Västerbotten in northern Sweden. Binary multiple logistic regressions were performed to compare the aggregated cases with the remaining cases. Compared with the remaining cases, the aggregated cases included significantly more of males and of those living in the rural forested regions. Also, suicide by firearms was significantly more aggregated than the other methods. Our results suggest that middle-aged or older men from the rural areas, who have access to firearms, are likely to belong to the socio-demographic stratum that is susceptible to the processes that give rise to aggregations or clusters of suicides in this county (assortative susceptibility).

  • 154.
    Chotai, Jayanti
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Converging evidence suggests that monoamine neurotransmitter turnover in human adults is associated with their season of birth.2002Ingår i: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, ISSN 0940-1334, E-ISSN 1433-8491, Vol. 252, nr 3, s. 130-4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Separate studies on adults, including those in suicidology and another regarding personality in the general population, have indicated associations with their season of birth. We analyse each of these studies by multiple nonlinear regression employing a cosine function for the month of birth, and compare these studies regarding the birth months giving the maxima and minima. The method of suicide in suicide studies shows a significant month-of-birth variation similar to that for the serotonin metabolite 5-HIAA in the separate study on cerebrospinal fluid, with a peak around the birth month September and a nadir around birth in March. When comparing the personality study with the study on cerebrospinal fluid, the trait novelty seeking varies similar to that for the dopamine metabolite HVA or the norepinephrine metabolite MHPG, and the trait reward dependence varies similar to that for HVA. The trait self-transcendence varies similar to the ratio of the dopamine and serotonin metabolites. Dopamine turnover in adults thus shows a peak around the birth months November-December, and a nadir around the birth months May-June, suggesting a possible involvement of the length of photoperiod during their perinatal period. These results provide strong evidence for the influence of season of birth on adult monoamine neurotransmitter turnover, and give further support for the monoaminergic modulation of the temperament and character traits.

  • 155.
    Chotai, Jayanti
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Asberg, M
    Variations in CSF monoamine metabolites according to the season of birth.1999Ingår i: Neuropsychobiology, ISSN 0302-282X, E-ISSN 1423-0224, Vol. 39, nr 2, s. 57-62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the monoamine metabolites 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) as well as their ratios and correlations were analyzed in relation to the season of birth. The sample consisted of 241 drug-free patients participating in psychobiological programs and comprising the DSM-III-R diagnoses of mood, anxiety and adjustment disorders. Significant season-of-birth variations were found even after adjusting for sex, age, height, the diagnostic category and the month of lumbar puncture. Those born during February to April had significantly lower values of 5-HIAA. Values of HVA and of the ratios HVA/5-HIAA and HVA/MHPG were significantly higher for those born during October to January. Correlation coefficients also showed season-of-birth variations. These results may provide an important link for the season-of-birth variations reported for several neuropsychiatric disorders.

  • 156.
    Chotai, Jayanti
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Eisemann, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Perception of spouse in relation to perception of self by semantic differentials in depressed patients and their spouses.1994Ingår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, Vol. 90, nr 2, s. 114-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have shown correlations between personality types and affective disorders. To investigate the influence on personality assessment of the reporting individual's own schemata according to the cognitive theory of depression, we used an instrument of 29 items of semantic differentials. We obtained responses from 45 patients (18 men, 27 women) upon their recovery and from their spouses. Each of these 90 individuals indicated self-perception on one copy and his or her perception of spouse on another. Factor analysis yielded four factors. Self-perception and perception by spouse were significantly positively correlated for all these factors for the patients and their spouses, indicating lack of schemata influence. Anxiety scores were higher for patients and for women. There was negative correlation for extroversion within couples. Male (but not female) patients showed a negative correlation with their spouses for anxiety.

  • 157.
    Chotai, Jayanti
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Engström, C
    Ekholm, Birgit
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    son Berg, M L
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Nylander, P O
    Anticipation in Swedish families with schizophrenia.1995Ingår i: Psychiatric Genetics, ISSN 0955-8829, E-ISSN 1473-5873, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 181-6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nineteen parent-offspring pairs obtained from 14 two-generation families with available medical records and diagnosis of schizophrenia were studied to compare the ages of onset of the parent generation with those of the offspring generation. The mean age of onset for the parent generation was 37.3 +/- 6.0 years and for the offspring generation was 20.8 +/- 4.4. The mean difference was thus 16.5 +/- 6.2, suggesting the occurrence of anticipation in schizophrenia (p < 0.001). Although some ascertainment biases (like reduced fertility in early-onset parents or early detection of symptoms in offsprings of affected parents) may partially contribute to the occurrence of anticipation, this study replicates recent reports of anticipation in several neuropsychiatric disorders, some of which have been shown to be associated with unstable expansions of trinucleotide repeats in the genomic DNA.

  • 158.
    Chotai, Jayanti
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Forsgren, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Nilsson, L G
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Season of birth variations in the temperament and character inventory of personality in a general population.2001Ingår i: Neuropsychobiology, ISSN 0302-282X, E-ISSN 1423-0224, Vol. 44, nr 1, s. 19-26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Since several studies show season of birth variations in morbidity, suicidal behavior and CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) monoamine metabolites, we investigated season of birth variations in personality in the population. METHODS: We analyzed by multiple logistic regressions the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) for 2,130 individuals taking part in the Betula prospective random cohort study of Umeå, Sweden. RESULTS: The personality dimensions were correlated significantly with age and gender. We stratified the data according to age, gender and the season of TCI measurement. By the median split in each stratum, a high-value group and a low-value group were obtained for each of the personality dimensions. Those born during February to April were significantly more likely than those born during October to January to have high NS (novelty seeking) among women, particularly the subscale NS2 (impulsiveness vs. reflection), and to have high PS (persistence) among men. Temperament profiles also showed season of birth variations. CONCLUSIONS: We discuss the associations in the literature between personality and the monoamines serotonin and dopamine, and suggest that our results are compatible with a hypothesis of season of birth variation in the monoamine turnover. The personality traits are likely to be influenced by several genetic and environmental factors, one of them being the season of birth.

  • 159.
    Chotai, Jayanti
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Jonasson, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Hägglöf, Bruno
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Adolescent attachment styles and their relation to the temperament and character traits of personality in a general population.2005Ingår i: Eur Psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 251-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 160.
    Chotai, Jayanti
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Jonasson, Mattias
    Hägglöf, Bruno
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    The Temperament Scale of Novelty Seeking in adolescents shows an association with season of birth opposite to that in adults.2002Ingår i: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 111, nr 1, s. 45-54Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the relationship between season of birth and the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory of Personality (Junior TCI, JTCI) in adolescents. The Temperament Scale of Novelty Seeking (NS) is significantly higher for females born during October-January as compared to females born otherwise. This association is opposite to that obtained earlier for adults. For both genders pooled, NS is significantly higher for those born during October-March compared to April-September. This association is also found when examining the data for those of age up to 18 years in a third independent study on the age range 11-81 years with the adult TCI. There is a greater tendency for exploration and risk-taking behavior as the child individuates from the family. Our study suggests that the effects of such environmental and developmental changes on personality are different in those born during October-March as compared to those born during April-September. The former show a higher rise in NS during adolescence and a steeper fall in NS during the years of adulthood, compared to the latter. Dopamine turnover is likely associated with NS, and the mutually inhibitory systems of dopamine and melatonin are the paracrine signals of day and night, respectively. Thus, the maternal entrainment of these systems during the prenatal period, or the postnatal environmental influence on these systems, may be different for those born during the short photoperiod of October-March as compared to those born during the long photoperiod part of the year.

  • 161.
    Chotai, Jayanti
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Joukamaa, Matti
    Tampere School of Public Health, University of Tampere, Finland.
    Taanila, Anja
    Department of Public Health Science and General Practice, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Lichtermann, Dirk
    Methadone Maintenance Clinic "Cafe Ersatz", Bonn, Germany.
    Miettunen, Jouko
    Department of Psychiatry, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland.
    Novelty seeking among adult women is lower for the winter borns compared to the summer borns: replication in a large Finnish birth cohort2009Ingår i: Comprehensive Psychiatry, ISSN 0010-440X, E-ISSN 1532-8384, Vol. 50, nr 6, s. 562-566Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Earlier general population studies have shown that novelty seeking (NS) of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) of personality is lower for persons born in winter compared to those born in summer, particularly for women. Here, we investigate if this result can be replicated in another population. METHOD: The Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort, comprising 4968 subjects (2725 women, 2243 men), was investigated with regard to the temperament dimensions of the TCI and the season of birth. RESULTS: Novelty seeking and reward dependence (RD) showed significant variations according to the month of birth. We found that women born during winter have significantly lower levels of NS compared to women born during summer, with a minimum for the birth month November and maximum for May. These results are similar to those found in a previous Swedish study. Furthermore, our study showed that men born during spring had significantly lower mean scores of RD compared to men born during autumn, with a minimum for birth month March. This was in contrast to the Swedish study, where the minimum of RD was obtained for the birth month December. CONCLUSION: Women born in winter have lower NS as adults compared to women born in summer. Because NS is modulated by dopamine, this study gives further support to the studies in the literature that show that dopamine turnover for those born in winter is higher than for those born in summer.

  • 162.
    Chotai, Jayanti
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Kullgren, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Asberg, M
    CSF monoamine metabolites in relation to the diagnostic interview for borderline patients (DIB).1998Ingår i: Neuropsychobiology, ISSN 0302-282X, E-ISSN 1423-0224, Vol. 38, nr 4, s. 207-12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of the monoamine metabolites 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, and their ratios were studied in relation to the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline patients (DIB) evaluated retrospectively from hospital records for a sample of 202 patients participating in psychobiological programs on mood disorders. No correlations with the total DIB score were significant. Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) defined by a total DIB score of at least 7 or 6, respectively, did not differ significantly from non-BPD regarding the metabolites. However, for section II (impulse action pattern) of the DIB, those with an intermediate value of the section score had significantly higher levels of 5-HIAA and HVA, suggesting that such higher than normal concentrations may be protective against impulsive or suicidal behavior generated by an underlying psychiatric morbidity due to other risk factors.

  • 163.
    Chotai, Jayanti
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Murphy, Dennis L
    Constantino, John N
    Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolite levels in human newborn infants born in winter differ from those born in summer.2006Ingår i: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 145, nr 2-3, s. 189-97Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An earlier study has shown significant differences in the CSF monoamine metabolite levels in adults born during different seasons of the year. We study here the relationship between season of birth and CSF monoamine metabolite levels in 283 newborn febrile infants without neurological abnormalities, with an age distribution ranging from birth to about 3 months, adjusting for the confounding variables age and time at lumbar puncture, weight at birth, estimated gestational age at birth, gender, race, and medicaid status. Each of the three metabolite levels as well as their ratios HVA/5-HIAA and 5-HIAA/MHPG showed significant month-of-birth variations, but not the ratio HVA/MHPG. For HVA and MHPG levels, the maximum was obtained around the winter birth months November-December, whereas for 5-HIAA level, the maximum was obtained around the summer birth months June-July. The correlations between HVA and 5-HIAA were, in general, significantly positive within the different birth seasons and races. Among summer-born Caucasian infants, MHPG was significantly positively correlated with HVA and with 5-HIAA, whereas among winter-born Black infants, MHPG was significantly positively correlated with HVA. Season of birth is an unspecific environmental factor that may be proxy for several possible seasonally varying environmental circumstances such as the length of photoperiod, temperature, infections, nutrition, stress and lifestyle. Studies relating season of birth to monoaminergic turnover at different stages of life may yield important clues about the gestational and perinatal origins of neurodevelopment.

  • 164.
    Chotai, Jayanti
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Salander Renberg, Ellinor
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Season of birth variations in suicide methods in relation to any history of psychiatric contacts support an independent suicidality trait.2002Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 69, nr 1-3, s. 69-81Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Due to reports on season of birth variations in suicidal behaviour as well as in cerebrospinal fluid levels of monoamine metabolites, we investigated season of birth variations in suicide methods for completed suicides in relation to any history of psychiatric contacts. Relationships with the psychiatric diagnoses for those with psychiatric contacts were also studied. METHODS: Sociodemographic variables and suicide methods were examined for all the 693 suicide victims during 1961-1980 in Västerbotten, Sweden. Information on any history of psychiatric contacts was obtained from psychiatric in-patient and out-patient records. RESULTS: Gender differences in the choice of suicide method were found in the group without any history of psychiatric contacts, but not in those with such a history. Only those without a history of psychiatric contacts showed season of birth variations for suicide methods -- those born during February to April were significantly more likely, and those born during October to January significantly less likely, to have preferred hanging rather than poisoning or petrol gases. These associations were stronger for the determined suicides, for males, and for urban residence. Suicide victims with a history of psychiatric contacts were significantly younger than those without. LIMITATIONS: No psychological autopsies for those without psychiatric contacts. No information on eventual contacts with general practitioners. No measures of monoamine neurotransmitters were available. CONCLUSIONS: Season of birth association for suicide methods is likely to be mediated by a suicidality trait independently of specific major psychiatric disorders. Monoamine neurotransmitters, particularly serotonin, are likely to underlie such a trait.

  • 165.
    Chotai, Jayanti
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Salander Renberg, Ellinor
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Kullgren, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Asberg, M
    Season of birth variations in dimensions of functioning evaluated by the diagnostic interview for borderline patients.2000Ingår i: Neuropsychobiology, ISSN 0302-282X, E-ISSN 1423-0224, Vol. 41, nr 3, s. 132-8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In view of recent reports showing that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of monoamine metabolites exhibit season of birth variations, and that they are also associated with section II (impulse action patterns) of the diagnostic interview for borderline patients (DIB), we analyzed two samples of data to investigate the relationship between the season of birth and the DIB. The first sample comprised 202 patients participating in psychobiological research in Stockholm, and the second sample comprised 130 patients who had committed suicide in Västerbotten in northern Sweden. Those with intermediate score for section II (impulse action patterns) were significantly more likely to have been born during the season October to January in the pooled data, and this tendency persisted in separate analyses for the two samples and for the two diagnostic groups mood disorders and schizophrenia, respectively. Those with high score for section IV (psychosis) were significantly more likely to have been born during February to April in the pooled sample and in the nonschizophrenic group. In the group with schizophrenia, those born during February to April had significantly high scores for section III (affects). These results throw further light on the role of season of birth in suicidology and in psychiatric morbidity.

  • 166.
    Chotai, Jayanti
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Serretti, Alessandro
    Lattuada, Enrico
    Lorenzi, Cristina
    Lilli, Roberta
    Gene-environment interaction in psychiatric disorders as indicated by season of birth variations in tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and dopamine receptor (DRD4) gene polymorphisms.2003Ingår i: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 119, nr 1-2, s. 99-111Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic and environmental factors, as well as their interactions, are likely to be involved in psychiatric disorders. Considerable progress has been made in association and linkage studies with various candidate genes, at times with conflicting or ambiguous results. An environmental factor that has persistently shown associations with several psychiatric and neurological disorders is the season of birth. If it is the interaction of a specific gene allele with a specific season of birth that constitutes an increased (or decreased) risk for a disorder, then the individuals with this disorder are likely to have a season of birth variation in this gene allele. We investigated the variations in TPH, 5-HTTLPR and DRD4 gene polymorphisms according to seasonality of birth in 954 patients with unipolar affective disorder, bipolar affective disorder, and schizophrenia, respectively, and in 395 controls. We first analyzed season of birth variations in the gene alleles with one cycle or two cycles per year, and then compared specified birth seasons with each other. We found season of birth variations in these gene alleles that were different for different psychiatric disorders. Significant differences between cases and controls could be obtained when restricting the analysis within certain birth seasons but not within others. Our results thus suggest an interaction between the seasons of birth and the expression of the candidate genes, and that season of birth is a confounding variable when investigating the role of the candidate genes in susceptibility to psychiatric disorders.

  • 167.
    Chotai, Jayanti
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Serretti, Alessandro
    Lorenzi, Cristina
    Interaction between the tryptophan hydroxylase gene and the serotonin transporter gene in schizophrenia but not in bipolar or unipolar affective disorders.2005Ingår i: Neuropsychobiology, ISSN 0302-282X, E-ISSN 1423-0224, Vol. 51, nr 1, s. 3-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing focus is being given to identify possible combinations of genes related to specific clinical phenotypes. In our sample of 814 patients comprising 114 with schizophrenia, 416 with bipolar affective disorder and 284 with unipolar affective disorder, we studied interactions between the tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR), and the dopamine receptor (DRD4) genes in relation to five major psychiatric symptomatology scores. There was significant interaction between the TPH and the 5-HTTLPR genes. With an increasing number of short (s) alleles of 5-HTTLPR, the scores for delusions, disorganization and negative symptoms were significantly decreasing among subjects having the TPH genotype AA but increasing among subjects having the TPH genotype AC, yielding the highest scores for the combinations AA x ll and AC x ss. Since high scores on just delusions, disorganization and negative symptoms but low scores on excitement and depression were found among subjects with schizophrenia, we conducted comparisons among the three diagnostic categories and controls as regards the combined TPH x 5-HTTLPR genotype distribution. Schizophrenia subjects had a significantly different distribution of the genotype combination for TPH x 5-HTTLPR as compared to 241 controls or to unipolar or bipolar subjects, and had significantly higher frequencies of AA x ll and of AC x ss. Thus, an interaction between TPH and 5-HTTLPR genes constitutes susceptibility to schizophrenia, thereby yielding apparent relationships between the major psychiatric symptomatology scores and genotype combinations in samples that are obtained by pooling schizophrenia with other diagnostic categories.

  • 168.
    Chotai, Jayanti
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Smedh, Kristina
    Johansson, Carolina
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    An epidemiological study on gender differences in self-reported seasonal changes in mood and behaviour in a general population of northern Sweden.2004Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 58, nr 6, s. 429-37Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender differences have been reported regarding symptoms, prevalence and heritability of seasonal affective disorders (SAD). We focus on gender aspects in this study of self-reported seasonal changes in mood and behaviour in a general population. The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) was completed by 2620 adults (55.6% women) aged 35-85 years, enrolled in the Betula prospective random cohort study of Umeå, Sweden. October to February turned out to be suitable winter months. SAD was found in 2.2% and sub-syndromal SAD (S-SAD) in 5.7%. Women had about 1.5 times higher prevalences than men, and seasonality problems decreased with age in both genders. Preference for eating least was distributed with a peak in summer, whereas preference for eating most had a major peak in winter (winter eaters) and a minor peak in summer (summer eaters). Significantly more of winter eaters in women, and significantly more of summer eaters in men, felt worst in winter. Seasonal change in weight was considered significantly as a problem by women but not by men. Winter behaviour of sleeping most was considered significantly as a problem by men but not by women. Women reacted significantly to temperature-related changes (negatively to cold/short days and positively to hot/long days), whereas men reacted significantly to sunshine-related changes (negatively to cloudy days and positively to sunny days). Subtle gender differences may thus underlie the pathophysiology of seasonal problems. Studies of an eventual efficacy of treating SAD women with raised ambient temperature, and gender-specific comparisons with other therapies, would be of interest.

  • 169.
    Chotai, Jayanti
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Smedh, Kristina
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    A dual vulnerability hypothesis for seasonal depression is supported by the seasonal pattern assessment questionnaire in relation to the temperament and character inventory of personality in a general population.2004Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 82, nr 1, s. 61-70Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Personality structure obtained from the psychobiological Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was studied in relation to self-reported seasonal variations in mood and behavior measured by the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ). METHODS: The subjects comprised 1761 adults (57.6% women) in the age range 35-85 years, enrolled in the Betula prospective random cohort study of Umea, Sweden. RESULTS: Personality profiles of subjects who reported the occurrence of a high degree of seasonal variation as such were associated with a combination of high self-transcendence (ST) and high persistence (PS), irrespective of the level of harm avoidance (HA). Subjects who reported feeling worst in winter were associated with high HA, irrespective of the levels of ST and PS. Also, subjects feeling worst in summer or experiencing overall problems with seasonal variation were associated with high HA in their personality profiles. Using the SPAQ criteria to define seasonal affective disorder (SAD) or subsyndromal SAD (S-SAD), subjects with these disorders often had combinations of high self-transcendence (ST) and high persistence (PS), but with different associations with HA. LIMITATIONS: No evaluations were made for SAD or subsyndromal SAD according to the DSM-IV or ICD 10 criteria. CONCLUSIONS: Our results relating SPAQ with TCI give support for a dual vulnerability hypothesis for seasonal depression proposed in the literature, where it is attributed to a combination of a seasonal factor and a depression factor. Examining the literature regarding the relationships between the different TCI scales and monoamine neurotransmitter functions, those relationships suggest that these two vulnerability factors for seasonal depression may be modulated by different neurotransmitter systems.

  • 170. Chourbaji, Sabine
    et al.
    Brandwein, Christiane
    Gau, Daniel
    Depner, Martin
    Saam, Christina
    Johansson, Carolina
    Schalling, Martin
    Partonen, Timo
    Kasper, Siegfried
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Urani, Alexandre
    Lemberger, Thomas
    Schütz, Günther
    Schumann, Gunter
    Gass, Peter
    CREB-regulated diurnal activity patterns are not indicative for depression-like symptoms in mice and men.2008Ingår i: Medical Hypotheses, ISSN 0306-9877, E-ISSN 1532-2777, Vol. 70, nr 1, s. 117-21Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Activation of the transcription factor CREB by Ser142 phosphorylation is implicated in synchronizing circadian rhythmicity, which is disturbed in many depressive patients. Hence, one could assume that emotional behaviour and neuroendocrinological markers would be altered in CREB(S142A) mice, in which serine 142 is replaced by alanine, preventing phosphorylation at this residue. Moreover, associations of CREB Ser142 and seasonal affective disorder (SAD) might be detectable by the analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CREB gene close to the Ser142 residue in SAD patients. However, neither CREB(S142A) mice demonstrate features of depression, nor there is evidence for an association of SAD with the CREB genotypes. Nevertheless, in humans there is an association of a global seasonality score and circadian rhythmicity with the CREB genotypes in healthy control probands, but not SAD patients. This parallels the phenotype of CREB(S142A) mice, presenting alterations of circadian rhythm and light-induced entrainment. Thus it is reasonable to assume that CREB Ser142 represents a molecular switch in mice and men, which is responsible for the (dys)regulation of circadian rhythms.

  • 171. Crane, Catherine
    et al.
    Williams, J Mark G
    Hawton, Keith
    Arensman, Ella
    Hjelmeland, Heidi
    Bille-Brahe, Unni
    Corcoran, Paul
    De Leo, Diego
    Fekete, Sandor
    Grad, Onja
    Haring, Christian
    Kerkhof, Ad J F M
    Lonnqvist, Jouko
    Michel, Konrad
    Salander Renberg, Ellinor
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Schmidtke, Armin
    van Heeringen, Cornelius
    Wasserman, Danuta
    The association between life events and suicide intent in self-poisoners with and without a history of deliberate self-harm: a preliminary study2007Ingår i: Journal of Suicide and Life-threatening Behaviour, ISSN 0363-0234, E-ISSN 1943-278X, Vol. 37, nr 4, s. 367-378Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The associations between life events in the 12 months preceding an episode of self-poisoning resulting in hospital attendance (the index episode), and the suicide intent of this episode were compared in individuals for whom the index episode was their first, episode and in individuals in whom it was a recurrence of DSH. Results indicated a significant interaction between independent life events, repetition status, and gender in the prediction of suicide intent, the association between life events and intent being moderated by repetition status in women only. The results provide preliminary evidence to suggest the presence of a suicidal process in women, in which the impact of negative life events on suicide intent diminishes across episodes.

  • 172.
    Dadfar, Ali
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Epigenetics of HPA axis related genes in suicide attempters2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 173. Daerga, Laila
    et al.
    Sjolander, Per
    Jacobsson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Edin-Liljegren, Anette
    The confidence in health care and social services in northern Sweden: a comparison between reindeer-herding Sami and the non-Sami majority population2012Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 40, nr 6, s. 516-522Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To investigate the confidence in primary health care, psychiatry and social services among the reindeer-herding Sami and the non-Sami population of northern Sweden. Methods: A semi-randomized, cross-sectional study design comprising 325 reindeer-herding Sami (171 men, 154 women) and a control population of 1,437 non-Sami (684 men, 753 women). A questionnaire on the confidence in primary health care, psychiatry, social services, and work colleagues was distributed to members of reindeer-herding families through the Sami communities and to the control population through the post. The relative risk for poor confidence was analyzed by calculating odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals adjusted for age and level of education. Results: The confidence in primary health care and psychiatry was significantly lower among the reindeer-herding Sami compared with the control group. No differences were found between men and women in the reindeer-herding Sami population. In both the reindeer-herding Sami and the control population, younger people (<= 48 years) reported significantly lower confidence in primary health care than older individuals (>48 years). Conclusions: A conceivable reason for the poor confidence in health care organizations reported by the reindeer-herding Sami is that they experience health care staff as poorly informed about reindeer husbandry and Sami culture, resulting in unsuitable or unrealistic treatment suggestions. The findings suggest that the poor confidence constitutes a significant obstacle of the reindeer-herding Sami to fully benefit from public health care services.

  • 174. Dahl, N
    et al.
    Goonewardena, P
    Chotai, Jayanti
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Anvret, M
    Pettersson, U
    DNA linkage analysis of X-linked retinoschisis.1988Ingår i: Human Genetics, ISSN 0340-6717, E-ISSN 1432-1203, Vol. 78, nr 3, s. 228-32Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Four families with juvenile retionoschisis (RS) have been studied by linkage analysis utilizing eleven polymorphic X-chromosomal markers. The results suggest a close linkage between DXS43, DXS41, and DXS208 and the RS locus at Xp22. The RS locus is distal to the OTC locus, DXS84, and the DMD locus but proximal to DXS85. No recombination events were observed between the RS locus and DXS43 and DXS41. The maximum likelihood estimate of the recombination fraction (theta) was thus zero and the peak lod scores (z) were 4.98 (DXS43) and 4.09 (DXS41). The linkage data suggest that the gene order on Xp is DXS85-(DXS43, RS, DXS41)-DMD-DXS84-OTC.

  • 175.
    Dahlberg, Moa
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Treatment procedures in gender-affirming treatment efforts subsequent to legislative changes in Sweden 20132018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 176.
    Dahlqvist-Jönsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Department of Research, Region of Halland.
    Schön, Ulla-Karin
    Dalarna University.
    Rosenberg, David
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Sandlund, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University.
    Service users' experiences of participation in decision making in mental health services2015Ingår i: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1351-0126, E-ISSN 1365-2850, Vol. 22, nr 9, s. 688-697Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Service user participation in decision making is considered an essential component of recovery-oriented mental health services. Despite the potential of shared decision making to impact service users knowledge and positively influence their experience of decisional conflict, there is a lack of qualitative research on how participation in decision making is promoted from the perspective of psychiatric service users. In order to develop concrete methods that facilitate shared decision making, there is a need for increased knowledge regarding the users' own perspective. The aim of this study was to explore users' experiences of participation in decisions in mental health services in Sweden, and the kinds of support that may promote participation. Constructivist Grounded Theory (CGT) was utilized to analyse group and individual interviews with 20 users with experience of serious mental illness. The core category that emerged in the analysis described a 'struggle to be perceived as a competent and equal person' while three related categories including being the underdog, being controlled and being omitted described the difficulties of participating in decisions. The data analysis resulted in a model that describes internal and external conditions that influence the promotion of participation in decision making. The findings offer new insights from a user perspective and these can be utilized to develop and investigate concrete methods in order to promote user's participation in decisions.

  • 177. de Frias, Cindy M
    et al.
    Annerbrink, Kristina
    Westberg, Lars
    Eriksson, Elias
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Catechol O-methyltransferase Val(158)Met polymorphism is associated with cognitive performance in nondemented adults2005Ingår i: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, E-ISSN 1530-8898, Vol. 17, nr 7, s. 1018-1025Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The catechol O-methyltransferase ( COMT) gene is essential in the metabolic degradation of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex. In the present study, we examined the effect of a Val 158 Met polymorphism in the COMT gene on individual differences and changes in cognition ( executive functions and visuospatial ability) in adulthood and old age. The participants were 292 nondemented men ( initially aged 35-85 years) from a random sample of the population (i.e., the Betula study) tested at two occasions with a 5-year interval. Confirmatory factor analyses were used to test the underlying structure of three indicators of executive functions ( verbal fluency, working memory, and Tower of Hanoi). Associations between COMT, age, executive functioning, and visuospatial ( block design) tasks were examined using repeated-measures analyses of variance. Carriers of the Val allele ( with higher enzyme activity) compared with carriers of the Met/Met genotype ( with low enzyme activity) performed worse on executive functioning and visuospatial tasks. Individuals with the Val/Val genotype declined in executive functioning over the 5-year period, whereas carriers of the Met allele remained stable in performance. An Age x COMT interaction for visuospatial ability located the effect for middle-aged men only. This COMT polymorphism is a plausible candidate gene for executive functioning and fluid intelligence in nondemented middle-aged and older adults.

  • 178. de Frias, Cindy M
    et al.
    Annerbrink, Kristina
    Westberg, Lars
    Eriksson, Elias
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    COMT gene polymorphism is associated with declarative memory in adulthood and old age2004Ingår i: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 34, nr 5, s. 533-539Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Variation in memory performance is to a large extent explained by genes. In the prefrontal cortex, the catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is essential in the metabolic degradation of dopamine, a neurotransmitter implicated in cognitive functions. The present study examined the effect of a polymorphism in the COMT gene on individual differences and changes in memory in adulthood and old age. Tests assessing episodic and semantic memory were administered to 286 men (initially aged 35-85 years) from a random sample of the population (i.e., the Betula prospective cohort study) at two occasions followed over a 5-year period. Carriers of the Met/Met genotype (with low enzyme activity) performed better on episodic and semantic memory, as compared to carriers of the Val allele (with higher enzyme activity). Division of episodic memory into its recall and recognition components showed that the difference was specific to episodic recall, not recognition tasks; an effect that was observed across three age groups (middle-age, young-old, and old-old adults) and over a 5-year period. The COMT gene is a plausible candidate gene for memory functioning in adulthood and old age.

  • 179. de Frias, Cindy M
    et al.
    Bunce, David
    Wahlin, Åke
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Sleegers, Kristel
    Cruts, Marc
    Van Broeckhoven, Christine
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Cholesterol and triglycerides moderate the effect of apolipoprotein E on memory functioning in older adults2007Ingår i: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 62, nr 2, s. P112-P118Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We used data from the Betula Study to examine associations between total cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein E on 10-year changes in cognitive performance. Tests assessing episodic memory (recall and recognition), semantic memory (knowledge and fluency), and visuospatial ability (block design) were administered to 524 nondemented adults (initial age of 55-80 years); multilevel modeling was applied to the data. Higher triglyceride levels were associated with a decline in verbal knowledge. Lipid levels moderated the influence of apolipoprotein E on episodic memory, such that among epsilon 4 allele carriers, decline in recognition was noted for individuals with higher cholesterol levels. Cholesterol and triglyceride levels are pharmacologically modifiable risk factors that account for variation In normal cognitive aging.

  • 180. de Jong, Simone
    et al.
    Abdalla Diniz, Mateus Jose
    Saloma, Andiara
    Gadelha, Ary
    Santoro, Marcos L.
    Ota, Vanessa K.
    Noto, Cristiano
    Curtis, Charlesg
    Newhouse, Stephen J.
    Patel, Hamel
    Hall, Lynsey S.
    O'Reilly, Paul F.
    Belangero, Sintia, I
    Bressan, Rodrigo A.
    Breen, Gerome
    Wray, Naomi R.
    Ripke, Stephan
    Mattheisen, Manuel
    Trzaskowski, Maciej
    Byrne, Enda M.
    Abdellaoui, Abdel
    Adams, Mark J.
    Agerbo, Esben
    Air, Tracy M.
    Andlauer, Till F. M.
    Bacanu, Silviu-Alin
    Baekvad-Hansen, Marie
    Beekman, Aartjan T. F.
    Bigdeli, Tim B.
    Binder, Elisabeth B.
    Blackwood, Douglas H. R.
    Bryois, Julien
    Buttenschon, Henriette N.
    Bybjerg-Grauholm, Jonas
    Cai, Na
    Castelao, Enrique
    Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard
    Clarke, Toni-Kim
    Coleman, Jonathan R., I
    Colodro-Conde, Lucia
    Couvy-Duchesne, Baptiste
    Craddock, Nick
    Crawford, Gregory E.
    Davies, Gail
    Deary, Ian J.
    Degenhardt, Franziska
    Derks, Eske M.
    Direk, Nese
    Dolan, Conor, V
    Dunn, Erin C.
    Eley, Thalia C.
    Escott-Price, Valentina
    Kiadeh, Farnush Farhadi Hassan
    Finucane, Hilary K.
    Forstner, Andreas J.
    Frank, Josef
    Gaspar, Helena A.
    Gill, Michael
    Goes, Fernando S.
    Gordon, Scott D.
    Grove, Jakob
    Hansen, Christine Soholm
    Hansen, Thomas F.
    Herms, Stefan
    Hickie, Ian B.
    Hoffmann, Per
    Homuth, Georg
    Horn, Carsten
    Hottenga, Jouke-Jan
    Hougaard, David M.
    Ising, Marcus
    Jansen, Rick
    Jones, Ian
    Jones, Lisa A.
    Jorgenson, Eric
    Knowles, James A.
    Kohane, Isaac S.
    Kraft, Julia
    Kretzschmar, Warren W.
    Krogh, Jesper
    Kutalik, Zoltan
    Li, Yihan
    Lind, Penelope A.
    MacIntyre, Donald J.
    MacKinnon, Dean F.
    Maier, Robert M.
    Maier, Wolfgang
    Marchini, Jonathan
    Mbarek, Hamdi
    Mcgrath, Patrick
    Mcguffin, Peter
    Medland, Sarah E.
    Mehta, Divya
    Middeldorp, Christel M.
    Mihailov, Evelin
    Milaneschi, Yuri
    Milani, Lili
    Mondimore, Francis M.
    Montgomery, Grant W.
    Mostafavi, Sara
    Mullins, Niamh
    Nauck, Matthias
    Ng, Bernard
    Nivard, Michel G.
    Nyholt, Dale R.
    Oskarsson, Hogni
    Owen, Michael J.
    Painter, Jodie N.
    Pedersen, Carsten Bocker
    Pedersen, Marianne Giortz
    Peterson, Roseann E.
    Pettersson, Erik
    Peyrot, Wouter J.
    Pistis, Giorgio
    Posthuma, Danielle
    Quiroz, Jorge A.
    Qvist, Per
    Rice, John P.
    Riley, Brien P.
    Rivera, Margarita
    Mirza, Saira Saeed
    Schoevers, Robert
    Schulte, Eva C.
    Shen, Ling
    Shyn, Stanley, I
    Sigurdsson, Engilbert
    Sinnamon, Grant C. B.
    Smit, Johannes H.
    Smith, Daniel J.
    Stefansson, Hreinn
    Steinberg, Stacy
    Streit, Fabian
    Strohmaier, Jana
    Tansey, Katherine E.
    Teismann, Henning
    Teumer, Alexander
    Thompson, Wesley
    Thomson, Pippa A.
    Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E.
    Traylor, Matthew
    Treutlein, Jens
    Trubetskoy, Vassily
    Uitterlinden, Andre G.
    Umbricht, Daniel
    Van der Auwera, Sandra
    van Hemert, Albert M.
    Viktorin, Alexander
    Visscher, Peter M.
    Wang, Yunpeng
    Webb, Bradley T.
    Weinsheimer, Shantel Marie
    Wellmann, Juergen
    Willemsen, Gonneke
    Witt, Stephanie H.
    Wu, Yang
    Xi, Hualin S.
    Yang, Jian
    Zhang, Futao
    Arolt, Volker
    Baune, Bernhard T.
    Berger, Klaus
    Boomsma, Dorret, I
    Cichon, Sven
    Dannlowski, Udo
    de Geus, E. J. C.
    DePaulo, J. Raymond
    Domenici, Enrico
    Domschke, Katharina
    Esko, Tonu
    Grabe, Hans J.
    Hamilton, Steven P.
    Hayward, Caroline
    Heath, Andrew C.
    Kendler, Kenneth S.
    Kloiber, Stefan
    Lewis, Glyn
    Li, Qingqin S.
    Lucae, Susanne
    Madden, Pamela A. F.
    Magnusson, Patrik K.
    Martin, Nicholas G.
    McIntosh, Andrew M.
    Metspalu, Andres
    Mors, Ole
    Mortensen, Preben Bo
    Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram
    Nordentoft, Merete
    Noethen, Markus M.
    O'Donovan, Michael C.
    Paciga, Sara A.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.
    Perlis, Roy H.
    Porteous, David J.
    Potash, James B.
    Preisig, Martin
    Rietschel, Marcella
    Schaefer, Catherine
    Schulze, Thomas G.
    Smoller, Jordan W.
    Stefansson, Kari
    Tiemeier, Henning
    Uher, Rudolf
    Voelzke, Henry
    Weissman, Myrna M.
    Werge, Thomas
    Lewis, Cathryn M.
    Levinson, Douglas F.
    Borglum, Anders D.
    Sullivan, Patrick F.
    Meier, Sandra
    Strauss, John
    Xu, Wei
    Vincent, John B.
    Matthews, Keith
    Ferreira, Manuel
    O'Dushlaine, Colm
    Purcell, Shaun
    Raychaudhuri, Soumya
    Ruderfer, Douglas M.
    Sklar, Pamela
    Scott, Laura J.
    Flickinger, Matthew
    Burmeister, Margit
    Li, Jun
    Guan, Weihua
    Absher, Devin
    Thompson, Robert C.
    Meng, Fan Guo
    Schatzberg, Alan F.
    Bunney, William E.
    Barchas, Jack D.
    Watson, Stanley J.
    Myers, Richard M.
    Akil, Huda
    Boehnke, Michael
    Chambert, Kimberly
    Moran, Jennifer
    Scolnick, Edward
    Djurovic, Srdjan
    Melle, Ingrid
    Morken, Gunnar
    Corvin, Aiden
    Anjorin, Adebayo
    Kandaswamy, Radhika
    Lawrence, Jacob
    McLean, Alan W.
    Pickard, Benjamin S.
    Bergen, Sarah E.
    Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit
    Landen, Mikael
    Schalling, Martin
    Osby, Urban
    Backlund, Lena
    Frisen, Louise
    Langstrom, Niklas
    Stahl, Eli
    Dobbyn, Amanda
    Jamain, Stephane
    Etain, Bruno
    Bellivier, Frank
    Leber, Markus
    Maaser, Anna
    Fischer, Sascha B.
    Reinbold, Celine S.
    Kittel-Schneider, Sarah
    Fullerton, Janice M.
    Oruc, Lilijana
    Para, Jose G.
    Mayoral, Fermin
    Rivas, Fabio
    Czerski, Piotr M.
    Kammerer-Ciernioch, Jutta
    Vedder, Helmut
    Borrmann-Hassenbach, Margitta
    Pfennig, Andrea
    Brennan, Paul
    McKay, James D.
    Kogevinas, Manolis
    Schwarz, Markus
    Schofield, Peter R.
    Muehleisen, Thomas W.
    Schumacher, Johannes
    Bauer, Michael
    Wright, Adam
    Mitchell, Philip B.
    Hautzinger, Martin
    Kelsoe, John R.
    Greenwood, Tiffany A.
    Nievergelt, Caroline M.
    Shilling, Paul D.
    Smith, Erin N.
    Bloss, Cinnamon S.
    Edenberg, Howard J.
    Koller, Daniel L.
    Gershon, Elliot S.
    Liu, Chunyu
    Badner, Judith A.
    Scheftner, William A.
    Lawson, William B.
    Nwulia, Evaristus A.
    Hipolito, Maria
    Coryell, William
    Rice, John
    Byerley, William
    McMahon, Francis J.
    Lohoff, Falk W.
    Zandi, Peter P.
    Mahon, Pamela B.
    McInnis, Melvin G.
    Zollner, Sebastian
    Zhang, Peng
    Szelinger, Szabolcs
    St Clair, David
    Caesar, Sian
    Gordon-Smith, Katherine
    Fraser, Christine
    Green, Elaine K.
    Grozeva, Detelina
    Hamshere, Marian L.
    Kirov, George
    Nikolov, Ivan
    Collier, David A.
    Elkin, Amanda
    Williamson, Richard
    Young, Allan H.
    Ferrier, I. Nicol
    Milanova, Vihra
    Alda, Martin
    Cervantes, Pablo
    Cruceanu, Cristiana
    Rouleau, Guy A.
    Turecki, Gustavo
    Paciga, Sara
    Winslow, Ashley R.
    Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, Maria
    Ophoff, Roel
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Nordin Adolfsson, Annelie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Del-Favero, Jurgen
    Pato, Carlos
    Biernacka, Joanna M.
    Frye, Mark A.
    Morris, Derek
    Schork, Nicholas J.
    Reif, Andreas
    Lissowska, Jolanta
    Hauser, Joanna
    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila
    McGhee, Kevin
    Quinn, Emma
    Moskvina, Valentina
    Holmans, Peter A.
    Farmer, Anne
    Kennedy, James L.
    Andreassen, Ole A.
    Mattingsdal, Morten
    Bass, Nicholas J.
    Gurling, Hugh
    McQuillin, Andrew
    Breuer, Rene
    Hultman, Christina
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Huckins, Laura M.
    Leboyer, Marion
    Lathrop, Mark
    Nurnberger, John
    Steffens, Michael
    Foroud, Tatiana M.
    Berrettini, Wade H.
    Craig, David W.
    Shi, Jianxin
    Applying polygenic risk scoring for psychiatric disorders to a large family with bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder2018Ingår i: Communications Biology, ISSN 2399-3642, Vol. 1, artikel-id 163Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychiatric disorders are thought to have a complex genetic pathology consisting of interplay of common and rare variation. Traditionally, pedigrees are used to shed light on the latter only, while here we discuss the application of polygenic risk scores to also highlight patterns of common genetic risk. We analyze polygenic risk scores for psychiatric disorders in a large pedigree (n ~ 260) in which 30% of family members suffer from major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder. Studying patterns of assortative mating and anticipation, it appears increased polygenic risk is contributed by affected individuals who married into the family, resulting in an increasing genetic risk over generations. This may explain the observation of anticipation in mood disorders, whereby onset is earlier and the severity increases over the generations of a family. Joint analyses of rare and common variation may be a powerful way to understand the familial genetics of psychiatric disorders.

  • 181. De Leo, D
    et al.
    Padoani, W
    Lonnqvist, J
    Kerkhof, A J F M
    Bille-Brahe, U
    Michel, K
    Salander Renberg, Ellinor
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Schmidtke, A
    Wasserman, D
    Caon, F
    Scocco, P
    Repetition of suicidal behaviour in elderly Europeans: a prospective longitudinal study.2002Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 72, nr 3, s. 291-5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to assess any predictive factors for repeated attempted suicide and completed suicide in a 1-year follow-up on a sample of elderly European suicide attempters (60 years and over). From 1990 to 1993, 63 subjects completed the first interview and were recontacted after 1 year. At follow-up, eight subjects (12.7%) had taken their lives and seven (11.1%) had repeated at least one suicide attempt. On comparison of repeaters and non-repeaters, differences emerged in terms of death of the father in childhood and for mean Suicidal Intent Score. At the end of follow-up period, repeaters reported a more frequent desire to repeat suicidal behaviour and judged their mental health and social assistance received to be worse. Suicides and non-repeaters differed especially in relation to death of father during childhood and number of contacts with General Practitioner. Interpretation of the results must take into account the smallness of the test sample, the difficulties in obtaining complete data for the follow-up interview, the lack of a control group and a diagnosis formulated in a hospital consultation setting. The study confirms, however, the high risk of repetition of suicidal behaviour in the elderly. In old age suicidal ideation is often sustained over long periods of time and requests for help are addressed to relatives and GPs. An interesting finding is the more frequent death of the father during childhood among repeaters.

  • 182. De Leo, D
    et al.
    Padoani, W
    Scocco, P
    Lie, D
    Bille-Brahe, U
    Arensman, E
    Hjelmeland, H
    Crepet, P
    Haring, C
    Hawton, K
    Lonnqvist, J
    Michel, K
    Pommereau, X
    Querejeta, I
    Phillipe, J
    Salander Renberg, Ellinor
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Schmidtke, A
    Fricke, S
    Weinacker, B
    Tamesvary, B
    Wasserman, D
    Faria, S
    Attempted and completed suicide in older subjects: results from the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study of Suicidal Behaviour.2001Ingår i: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, ISSN 0885-6230, E-ISSN 1099-1166, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 300-10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Stockholm (Sweden), Pontoise (France) and Oxford (UK) had the highest suicide attempts rates. In most centres, the majority of elderly who attempted suicide were widow(er)s, often living alone, who used predominantly voluntary drug ingestion. Non-fatal suicidal behaviour decreased with increasing age, whereas suicide rates rose. The ratio between fatal and non-fatal behaviours was 1:2, that for males/females almost 1:1. In the years considered, substantial stability in suicide and attempted suicide rates was observed. As their age increased, suicidal subjects displayed only a limited tendency to repeat self-destructive acts. Moreover, there was little correlation between attempted suicide and suicide rates, which carries different clinical implications for non-fatal suicidal behaviour in the elderly compared with younger subjects in the same WHO/EURO study.

  • 183. De Leo, D
    et al.
    Scocco, P
    Marietta, P
    Schmidtke, A
    Bille-Brahe, U
    Kerkhof, A J
    Lonnqvist, J
    Crepet, P
    Salander Renberg, Ellinor
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Wasserman, D
    Michel, K
    Bjerke, T
    Physical illness and parasuicide: evidence from the European Parasuicide Study Interview Schedule (EPSIS/WHO-EURO).1999Ingår i: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, ISSN 0091-2174, E-ISSN 1541-3527, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 149-63Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    More careful attention to somatic conditions and their subjective implications would probably augment chances of effectively preventing suicide.

  • 184.
    Degerman, Sofie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Domellöf, Magdalena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Landfors, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Linder, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Lundin, Mathias
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    Haraldsson, Susann
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Elgh, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Roos, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Long Leukocyte Telomere Length at Diagnosis Is a Risk Factor for Dementia Progression in Idiopathic Parkinsonism2014Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 12, artikel-id e113387Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Telomere length (TL) is regarded as a marker of cellular aging due to the gradual shortening by each cell division, but is influenced by a number of factors including oxidative stress and inflammation. Parkinson's disease and atypical forms of parkinsonism occur mainly in the elderly, with oxidative stress and inflammation in afflicted cells. In this study the relationship between blood TL and prognosis of 168 patients with idiopathic parkinsonism (136 Parkinson's disease [PD], 17 Progressive Supranuclear Palsy [PSP], and 15 Multiple System Atrophy [MSA]) and 30 controls was investigated. TL and motor and cognitive performance were assessed at baseline (diagnosis) and repeatedly up to three to five years follow up. No difference in TL between controls and patients was shown at baseline, nor any significant difference in TL stability or attrition during follow up. Interestingly, a significant relationship between TL at diagnosis and cognitive phenotype at follow up in PD and PSP patients was found, with longer mean TL at diagnosis in patients that developed dementia within three years.

  • 185.
    Degerman, Sofie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Josefsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Nordin Adolfsson, Annelie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Wennstedt, Sigrid
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Landfors, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Haider, Zahra
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Pudas, Sara
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Hultdin, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Maintained memory in aging is associated with young epigenetic age2017Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 55, s. 167-171Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Epigenetic alterations during aging have been proposed to contribute to decline in physical and cognitive functions, and accelerated epigenetic aging has been associated with disease and all-cause mortality later in life. In this study, we estimated epigenetic age dynamics in groups with different memory trajectories (maintained high performance, average decline, and accelerated decline) over a 15-year period. Epigenetic (DNA-methylation [DNAm]) age was assessed, and delta age (DNAm age - chronological age) was calculated in blood samples at baseline (age: 55-65 years) and 15 years later in 52 age- and gender-matched individuals from the Betula study in Sweden. A lower delta DNAm age was observed for those with maintained memory functions compared with those with average (p = 0.035) or accelerated decline (p = 0.037). Moreover, separate analyses revealed that DNAm age at follow-up, but not chronologic age, was a significant predictor of dementia (p = 0.019). Our findings suggest that young epigenetic age contributes to maintained memory in aging.

  • 186.
    Desta, Menelik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri.
    Hägglöf, Bruno
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri.
    Kebede, Derege
    Alem, Atalay
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Psychiatric disorders in urban children in Ethiopia: a population based cross sectional surveyIngår i: Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiologyArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 187.
    Desta, Menelik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri.
    Hägglöf, Bruno
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri.
    Kebede, Derege
    Alem, Atalay
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Socio-demographic and psychopathologic correlates of enuresis in urban Ethiopian children.2007Ingår i: Acta Paediatr, ISSN 0803-5253, Vol. 96, nr 4, s. 556-560Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 188.
    Desta, Menelik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri.
    Hägglöf, Bruno
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri.
    Kebede, Derege
    Alem, Atalay
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Stenlund, Hans
    Demographic and social factors associated with disruptive behaviour disorders and anxiety disorders in children in an urban community in EthiopiaIngår i: Nordic journal of psychiatryArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 189.
    Desta, Menelik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri.
    Hägglöf, Bruno
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri.
    Kebede, Derege
    Alem, Atalay
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    The Reporting Questionnaire for Children (RQC) as a valid and simple child mental health screening instrument in EthiopiaManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 190.
    Deyessa Kabeta, Negussie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Intimate partner violence and depression among women in rural Ethiopia2010Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Several studies have reported socioeconomic, socio-demographic factors, including violence against women to be associated with depression among women, but knowledge in the area among women living under extreme poverty in developing countries remains scarce. Relationship between intimate partner violence and women’s literacy in societies where violence is normative is complex, there are only limited data describing this difference in the distribution of violence exposure by residency and literacy. Few studies have addressed consequences of maternal depression and experiencing violence among women on children’s survival.

    Objective: The aim of this thesis is to determine prevalence of depressive episode and examine its association with violence by intimate partner and socioeconomic status It also assesses contribution of residency and literacy of women on vulnerability to physical violence by intimate partner, and independent effect of intimate partner violence and maternal depression on the risk of child death in rural Ethiopia.

    Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was undertaken among 3016 randomly selected women in the age group between 15-49 years conducted from January to December 2002. A cohort study was done through following up women who gave birth to a live child within a year of the survey, in rural Ethiopia. Analysis was made using all the 3016 women, 1994 of the married women and 561 of women who gave birth within a year of the data collection time. Cases of depression were identified using the Amharic version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, experience of physical, sexual and emotional violence by intimate partner was made using the WHO multi-country study on women’s life events, and child death was measured by continuous demographic surveillance data from the Butajira Rural Health Program.

    Result: The twelve-month prevalence of depression was estimated to be 4.4%. In the analyses being currently married, divorced and widowed women, living in rural villages, having frequent khat chewing habit, having seasonal job and living in extreme poverty were factors independently associated with depression. Similarly, among the married women, experiencing physical violence, childhood sexual abuse, emotional violence and spousal control were factors independently associated with depressive episode. Women in the overall study area had beliefs and norms permissive towards violence against women. Violence against women was more prevalent in rural communities, in particular, among rural literate women and rural women who married a literate spouse. In this study, maternal depression was associated with under five child death. Although no association was seen between experiencing violence and child death, the risk of child death increases when maternal depression is combined with physical and emotional violence.

    Conclusion: Prevalence of depression among women was still in the lower range as compared to studies from high-income countries. Though depression is associated with socio-demographic factors and extreme poverty, the association is complex. The high prevalence of violence against women could be a contributing factor for preponderance of depression among women than in men. Urbanization and literacy are thought to promote changes in attitudes and norms against intimate partner violence. However, literacy within rural community might expose women to the higher risk of violence. Improving awareness of clinicians and public health workers on the devastating consequences of violence against women and depression is essential in order to identify and take measure when violence and maternal depression co-occurred.

  • 191.
    Deyessa Kabeta, Negussie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Berhane, Y
    Alem, Atalay
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Högberg, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och folkhälsovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Kullgren, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Depression among women in rural Ethiopia as related to socioeconomic factors: a community-based study on women in reproductive age groups2008Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 36, nr 6, s. 589-597Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Several previous studies have reported on socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors associated with depression among women, but knowledge in this area remains scarce regarding women living in extreme poverty in developing countries.

    OBJECTIVE: The study was aimed at examining the 12-month prevalence of depressive episodes as related to socioeconomic and sociocultural conditions of women in the reproductive age group in rural Ethiopia.

    METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was undertaken among 3016 randomly selected women in the age group 15-49 years. Cases of depression were identified using the Amharic version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. A standardized World Health Organization questionnaire was used to measure the socioeconomic status of the women and their spouses. Data were analysed among all women and then separately among currently married women.

    RESULTS: The 12-month prevalence of depression among all women was 4.4%. After adjusting for common sociodemographic characteristics, only marital status showed a significant association with depressive episode in terms of higher odds ratios (ORs) for divorced/separated women and widowed women than for not-married women (4.05 and 4.24, respectively). Among currently married women, after adjusting for common sociodemographic characteristics, living in rural villages (OR=3.78), a frequent khat-chewing habit (OR=1.61), having a seasonal job (OR=2.94) and being relatively better off in terms of poverty (OR=0.48) were independently associated with depression.

    CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of depression among women was in the lower range as compared to studies from high-income countries, but very poor economic conditions were associated with a higher prevalence of depression in this overall very poor setting. This further supports the notion that the relative level of poverty rather than the absolute level of poverty contributes to depression among women. Whether the association with khat chewing and depression is a causative effect or can be explained by self-medication remains unclear.

  • 192.
    Deyessa Kabeta, Negussie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Berhane, Y
    Emmelin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Ellsberg, MC
    Kullgren, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Högberg, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Joint effect of maternal depression and intimate partner violence on increased risk of child death in rural Ethiopia2010Ingår i: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 95, nr 10, s. 771-775Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An awareness of the devastating consequences on child survival in low income setting of violence against women and depression is needed among public health workers as well as clinicians, for both community and clinical interventions.

  • 193.
    Deyessa Kabeta, Negussie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Berhane, Yemane
    Alem, Atalay
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Ellsberg, Mary
    Emmelin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Högberg, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och folkhälsovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Kullgren, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Intimate partner violence and depression among women in rural Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study2009Ingår i: Clinical practice and epidemiology in mental health, ISSN 1745-0179, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 8-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Studies from high-income countries have shown intimate partner violence to be associated with depression among women. The present paper examines whether this finding can be confirmed in a very different cultural setting in rural Ethiopia.

    METHOD: A community-based cross-sectional study was undertaken in Ethiopia among 1994 currently married women. Using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), cases of depressive episode were identified according to the ICD-10 diagnosis. Using a standardized questionnaire, women who experienced violence by an intimate partner were identified. A multivariate analysis was conducted between the explanatory variables and depressive status of the women, after adjusting for possible confounders.

    RESULTS: The 12-month prevalence of depressive episode among the women was 4.8% (95% CI, 3.9% and 5.8%), while the lifetime prevalence of physical intimate partner violence was 49.5%. Physical violence (OR=2.56, 95% CI, 1.61, 4.06), childhood sexual abuse (OR=2.00, 95% CI, 1.13, 3.56), mild emotional violence (OR=3.19, 95% CI, 1.98, 5.14), severe emotional violence (OR= 3.90, 95% CI, 2.20, 6.93) and high spousal control of women (OR=3.30, 95% CI, 1.58, 6.90) by their partners were independently associated with depressive episode, even after adjusting for socioeconomic factors.

    CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of intimate partner violence, a factor often obscured within general life event categories, requires attention as an independent factor for depression, and thus to find new possibilities of prevention and treatment in terms of public health strategies, interventions and service provision.

  • 194.
    Deyessa Kabeta, Negussie
    et al.
    School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia .
    Berhane, Yemane
    Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Ethiopia .
    Ellsberg, Mary
    International Center for Research on Women, Washington DC, United States .
    Emmelin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Kullgren, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Högberg, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Violence against women in relation to literacy and area of residence2010Ingår i: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 3, nr 2070Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: This study explores violence against women in a low-income setting in relation to residency and literacy. SETTING: The study was conducted within the Butajira Rural Health Programme (a Health and Demographic Surveillance Site), which includes rural and semi-urban settings in south-central Ethiopia. DESIGN: This is a community-based cross-sectional study and is part of the WHO Women's Health and Life Events multi-country study. It included 1,994 randomly selected married women. METHODS: A standardised WHO questionnaire was used to measure physical violence, residency, literacy of the woman and her spouse, and attitudes of women about gender roles and violence. Analyses present prevalence with 95% confidence intervals and odds ratios derived from bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS: In urban and rural areas of the study area, the women were of varying ages, had varying levels of literacy and had spouses with varying levels of literacy. Women in the overall study area had beliefs and norms favouring violence against women, and women living in rural communities and illiterate women were more likely to accept such attitudes. In general, violence against women was more prevalent in rural communities. In particular, violence against rural literate women and rural women who married a literate spouse was more prevalent. Literate rural women who were married to an illiterate spouse had the highest odds (Adj. OR = 3.4; 95% CI: 1.7-6.9) of experiencing physical violence by an intimate partner. CONCLUSION: Semi-urban lifestyle and literacy promote changes in attitudes and norms against intimate partner violence; however, within the rural lifestyle, literate women married to illiterate husbands were exposed to the highest risks of violence.

  • 195. Diderichsen, F
    et al.
    Allebeck, P
    Bexell, A
    Hammarström, A
    Hansson, B S
    Hallqvist, J
    Janlert, U
    Lynöe, N
    Sandlund, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Westerling, R
    [The challenges of social medicine: improved public health and effective health policy demand strong and unified social medicine].1990Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 87, nr 1-2, s. 48-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 196. Dries, Daniel R.
    et al.
    Zhu, Yi
    Brooks, Mieu M.
    Forero, Diego A.
    Adachi, Megumi
    Cenik, Basar
    West, James M.
    Han, Yu-Hong
    Yu, Cong
    Arbella, Jennifer
    Nordin, Annelie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Del-Favero, Jurgen
    Lu, Q. Richard
    Callaerts, Patrick
    Birnbaum, Shari G.
    Yu, Gang
    Loss of Nicastrin from Oligodendrocytes Results in Hypomyelination and Schizophrenia with Compulsive Behavior2016Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 291, nr 22, s. 11647-11656Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The biological underpinnings and the pathological lesions of psychiatric disorders are centuries-old questions that have yet to be understood. Recent studies suggest that schizophrenia and related disorders likely have their origins in perturbed neurodevelopment and can result from a large number of common genetic variants or multiple, individually rare genetic alterations. It is thus conceivable that key neurodevelopmental pathways underline the various genetic changes and the still unknown pathological lesions in schizophrenia. Here, we report that mice defective of the nicastrin subunit of gamma-secretase in oligodendrocytes have hypomyelination in the central nervous system. These mice have altered dopamine signaling and display profound abnormal phenotypes reminiscent of schizophrenia. In addition, we identify an association of the nicastrin gene with a human schizophrenia cohort. These observations implicate gamma-secretase and its mediated neurodevelopmental pathways in schizophrenia and provide support for the "myelination hypothesis" of the disease. Moreover, by showing that schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive symptoms could be modeled in animals wherein a single genetic factor is altered, our work provides a biological basis that schizophrenia with obsessive-compulsive disorder is a distinct subtype of schizophrenia.

  • 197.
    Edenius, Bo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Gud eller Svensson: om en teori för psykos och utveckling av en behandlingsmetod1999Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The two principal elements comprising this thesis are 1) a description of the development of a theory concerning schizophrenic psychosis and 2) an attempt to develop a treatment strategy based on this theory. The theory was developed by Palle Villemoes on the basis of the French psychoanalyst Lacan's work and may be described as an ego-structuring psychotherapy with its foundation in the castration complex. The psychosis is seen as a consequence of the child's inability, for various reasons, to a apt itself to symbolic castration - i e disappointment and frustration over not constantly having its own way, and over being required to subordinate itself to universal principles and authorities. The psychotic person has not subordinated under symbolic is castration but continues to exist in the original symbiotic relation with the imagined pre-oedipal mother, When the pressures of the teenage and early adult years make themselves felt, such an ego-weak person is unable to withstand and deal with them and develops a psychotic relation to her/his surroundings,

    The- treatment strategy described in this thesis, was developed by the author and colleagues at the treatment centre Norrgården in Härnösand. It is a milieu therapyoriented treatment during which the patient optimally passes through three phases. During the first - narcissistic - phase the aim is that the patient's contact person develop such a relationship with her/him that "idolization" of the contact person occurs. This idolization is achieved by means of interest on the part of the contactperson, and a non-polarized attitude. The contact person shows interest in the patient and in her/his situation, life-story and interests. The non-polarized attitude means that little or no importance is attached to differences, particularly those due to gender and power position. The contact person avoids provoking the patient in areas about which she/he is sensitive. When a balanced, conflict-free relationship with the patient bas been achieved, treatment moves into a so- called working phase. Now the establishing of her/ his own history in the patient takes over from the idolization built up in the course of the close relationship. The patient is to become the subject of her/his own life-story, to achieve which patient and contact person go through the story together. If all goes well the patient passes through the castration complex and is able to find a realistic place for her himself in the story, the culture, and the society that has to be lived in with all its relations towards other people. The patient now begins to view her/himself, with both possibilities and limitations, more and more realistically. She/he also begins to show interest in the future and in plans for a life after treatment.

    In the final phase, progressively more responsibility for decisions is left to the patient. The aim of this phase of the treatment is to consolidate the narcissism of the patient's own ego. She/he must be released from the symbiotic dyad with the contact person who now leaves it to the patient to make choices and decisions and to be aware of the passage of time.

    The thesis discusses the development of the theory in a dialectic relation to the practical experiences of treatment work during the earliest years at Norrgården. A central place in the thesis is occupied by 11 case descriptions of the first patients who completed the treatment at Norrgården.

  • 198.
    Edin, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Diskriminerad och psykiskt störd.  Självupplevd särbehandling bland psykiatrins patienter2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 199.
    Edin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Sandlund, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Diskriminerad och psykiskt störd: självupplevd behandling bland psykiatrins patienter2013Ingår i: Psykisk hälsa, ISSN 0033-3212, Vol. 54, nr 4, s. 57-64Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 200.
    Edin-Liljegren, Anette
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Västerbottens läns landsting.
    Daerga, Laila
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Västerbottens läns landsting.
    Sahlén, Klas-Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Psychosocial Perspectives on Working Conditions among Men and Women in Reindeer Breeding in Sweden2017Ingår i: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 31-47Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this project was to describe the work organisation in the Sami communities and in reindeer-herding work and to explore the range of female duties and compare how men and women experience their psychosocial working conditions. Design: A kind of intervention study was performed by means of a questionnaire sent out to 200 individuals from seven Sami communities. Questions were asked about work organisation, communication, personal relations, solitary work, support, participation and appreciation from colleagues and women's tasks. Meetings and discussions were held about what was perceived as being important in the life of the Sami communities. Notes from 16 group discussions were written down and analysed according to themes of topics relating to how men and women in the Sami communities experience their lives. Results: Communication and relations were described as being inadequate and some respondents experienced a heavy workload. The women reported more troubled relations, less participation in decision-making and less appreciation from colleagues. Positive issues reported were the Sami identity and a strong connection to the reindeer and to nature. Conclusions: This study indicates a need for a more systematic study of the psychosocial work conditions in the Sami communities in Sweden. Measures should be taken to develop the organisation of work, e.g. through developing communication strategies and conflict management, which has been requested by several Sami communities.

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