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  • 1551. Çaglar, E
    et al.
    Cildir, SK
    Ergeneli, S
    Sandalli, N
    Twetman, Svante
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Pediatric Dentistry.
    Salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli levels after ingestion of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 by straws and tablets.2006In: Acta odontologica Scandinavica, no 64, p. 314-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested that lactobacilli-derived probiotics in dairy products may affect oral ecology, but the impact of different vehicles of ingestion has received little attention. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 on the levels of salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in young adults when ingested by two different delivery systems. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The material comprised 120 healthy young adults (21-24 years) and a placebo-controlled study design with parallel arms was utilized. The subjects were randomly assigned to four equally sized groups: group A drank 200 ml of water through a prepared straw containing L. reuteri ATCC 55730 once daily for 3 weeks, while group B took 200 ml water through a placebo straw during the same period. Group C was given one tablet containing L. reuteri ATCC 55730 once daily for 3 weeks, while group D received placebo tablets without bacteria. Salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli were enumerated with chair-side kits at baseline and 1 day after the final ingestion. RESULTS: A statistically significant reduction of the mutans streptococci levels was recorded after ingestion of the probiotic bacteria via the straw (p<0.05) and the tablets (p<0.01), which was in contrast to the placebo controls. A similar but non-significant trend was seen for lactobacilli. CONCLUSIONS: A short-term daily ingestion of lactobacilli-derived probiotics delivered by prepared straws or lozenges reduced the levels of salivary mutans streptococci in young adults.

  • 1552. Çaglar, E
    et al.
    Sandalli, N
    Twetman, Svante
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Pediatric Dentistry.
    Probiotics and oral health.2006In: Prophylaxe impuls, no 10, p. 62-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Probiotics are living microorganisms that beneficially affect the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance. While the role of probiotics in preventive and therapeutic medicine is firmly established, only limited research is available on its effect on oral health. Recent findings have however suggested that strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium may inhibit mutans streptococci and candida species in the oral cavity. The present overview focuses on vehicles, installation in the mouth and possible benefits on oral ecology. Although an increasing number of studies suggest a role of lactobacilli-derived probiotics on caries pathogens, its efficacy as a preventive measure is still to be determined in randomized controlled trials.

  • 1553. Çaglar, E
    et al.
    Sandalli, N
    Twetman, Svante
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Pediatric Dentistry.
    Selvi, S
    Ergeneli, S
    Kavaloglu, S
    Effect of yoghurt with Bifidobacterium DN-173010 on salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli2005In: Acta odontologica Scandinavica, Vol. 63, no 6, p. 317-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract. Probiotic bacteria are thought to reduce the risk of disease. Previous studies have suggested that lactobacilli-derived probiotics in dairy products may affect the oral ecology but the effect of bifidobacteria has not previously been reported. The aim of the present study was to examine whether or not a short-term consumption of yogurt containing bifidobacteria would affect the salivary levels of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in young adults. A double blind, randomized crossover study was performed and 21 healthy subjects were followed over four periods. During period 2 and 4 (two weeks each), they ingested 200 g yogurt containing Bifidobacterium DN-173 010 once daily or a control yogurt without viable bacteria. Periods 1 and 3 were run-in and washout periods, respectively. Salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli were enumerated with chair-side kits. A statistically significant reduction (p<0.05) of salivary mutans streptococci was recorded after the probiotic yogurt consumption, which was in contrast to the controls. A similar trend was seen for lactobacilli but this decrease failed to reach statistical significance. In conclusion, probiotic bifidobacteria in yogurt may reduce the levels of selected caries-associated microorganisms in saliva.

  • 1554.
    Öberg, Sven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Bone Healing after implantation of bone substitute materials. Experimental studies in estrogen deficiency.2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bone formation and bone healing were studied in the mandible, tibia and skull bones in adult, healthy and estrogen deficient rabbits implanted with different bone substitutes.

    In the first study an evaluation of the differences in bone regeneration in and around solid (Alveograf *) and porous hydroxyapatite (Interpore 200*) was undertaken. The implant material was placed into experimentally made bone defects and in half of the defects hydroxyapatite was mixed with a fibrin sealant (Tisseel *). The material alone or mixed with Tisseel was also placed subperiostally in the mandible. The observation time was six month. No difference in bone regeneration was found between solid or porous hydroxyapatite granulas and the addition of Tisseel* did not seem to disturb the bone healing process. The implant material placed subperiostally did not induce bone formation nor did it provoke any bone resorption. The addition of Tisseel made the implant material much easier to handle and retain in the tissue during surgery.

    Bone healing around hydroxyapatite implants was also evaluated in the second study. Experimental cavities in the mandible and tibia were filled with hydroxyapatite in granules or blocks (Interpore 200*) but now with or without autolyzed, antigen-extracted, allogeneic bone (AAA). Also in this study Tisseel* was used to facilitate the handling of the material. All cavities implanted with AAA-bone, regardless of the combination with hydroxyapatite or Tisseel, demonstrated excessive bone formation resembling exostosis formation. Thus, hydroxyapatite, both as granules and blocks, can be successfully combined with AAA bone utilizing the bone inductive capacity of AAA bone.

    The same model was used to study the healing in ovariectomized animals in the third study. Bone cavities were implanted with or without AAA bone and left to heal. The results indicate that the osteoinductive capacity of AAA bone is in operation also in animals deprived of a normal estrogen production.

    The effect of using AAA bone prior to implant insertion was studied in paper four. The bone-implant contact was significant higher when AAA bone had been used. The implant stability did not seem to be affected.

    In paper five defects were made in skull and tibial bone in estrogen deficient animals. The deficiency of estrogen was confirmed through blood analysis, the decrease in the weight of uterus and bone mineral density. The whole body scanning with DEXA showed that the ovariectomized animals developed osteopenia. Various degree of bone formation was seen in the defects due to the influence of the bone inductive substance AAA bone.

    The studies indicate that a conductive material like hydroxyapatite in granules or blocks could be useful in oral reconstructive surgery. The combination with AAA bone enhanced the bone formation in calvarial and tibial bone in healthy and estrogen deficient animals. Tisseel* could be used to facilitate handling and retention of the material in the intended position during the healing process without negative effects.

  • 1555.
    Öberg, Sven
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Kahnberg, Karl-Erik
    Combined use of hydroxy-apatite and Tisseel in experimental bone defects in the rabbit1993In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 147-153Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1556.
    Öberg, Sven
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Rosenquist, Jan
    Bone healing after implantation of hydroxyapatite granules and blocks (Interpore 200) combined with autolyzed antigen-extracted allogeneic bone and fibrin glue1994In: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, ISSN 0901-5027, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 110-114Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1557.
    Öberg, Sven
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Rosenquist, Jan
    Gordh, Monica
    Healing of bone defects in osteopenic rabbits.: Effect of autolyzed antigen-extracted allogeneic bone substitute on calvarial and tibial bone.Manuscript (Other academic)
  • 1558.
    Öberg, Sven
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Rosenquist, Jan
    Johansson, Carina
    Bone formation after implantation of autolyzed antigen-extracted allogeneic bone in ovariectomized rabbits.2003In: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, ISSN 0901-5027, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 628-632Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1559.
    Öberg, Sven
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Sennerby, Lars
    Integration of titanium implants in bone defects reconstructed with autolyzed antigen-extracted allogeneic (AAA) bone powder prior to implant placement: a histological and resonance frequency analysis study in the rabbitManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 1560.
    Öhlund, Inger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Lif Holgerson, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Pediatric Dentistry.
    Lind, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Cariology.
    Bäckman, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Pediatric Dentistry.
    Diet intake and caries prevalence in four-year-old children living in a low-prevalence country.2007In: Caries Research, ISSN 0008-6568, E-ISSN 1421-976X, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 26-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preventive measures have dramatically decreased the prevalence of dental caries in children. However, risk factors for the disease in children living in low-prevalence areas remain elusive. In the present study we evaluated associations between dental caries, saliva levels of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli, and diet with special emphasis on the intake of fermentable carbohydrates and dairy products in 4-year-old children living in an area where the overall caries prevalence was low. Dietary intake was recorded in 234 infants as part of the Study of Infant Nutrition in Umea, Sweden (SINUS). Of these the parents of 124 children gave consent to participate in a follow-up at 4 years of age. Dietary intake, height and weight, dental caries, oral hygiene, including tooth brushing habits, presence of plaque and gingival inflammation, fluoride habits and numbers of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in saliva were recorded. Using multivariate stepwise logistic regression, caries experience was negatively associated with intake frequency of cheese (OR = 0.67; 95% CI = 0.44-0.98) and positively associated with the salivary level of mutans streptococci (OR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.21-2.03). Caries experience was not correlated with intake frequency or amounts of carbohydrate-containing foods, with any other particular food, or with daily intake of energy, carbohydrate or any other macro- or micronutrient. We conclude that cheese intake may have a caries-protective effect in childhood populations where the overall caries prevalence and caries experience are low and the children are regularly exposed to fluoride from toothpaste.

  • 1561.
    Öhman, Carina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Vallström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Oral Microbiology.
    Olofsson, Annelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Johansson, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Larsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Aspholm, Marina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Arnqvist, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Phase variation and expression mechanisms of the sialic acid binding adhesin SabA in Helicobacter pyloriManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial attachment to host epithelial surfaces by means of bacterial adhesion proteins is a key event in colonization. Phase variation is a mechanism used by bacteria that mediates frequent and reversible gains and losses in expression of proteins. In the inflamed stomach, H. pylori adherence to sialyl Lewis antigens (sLex) is mediated by the sialic acid binding adhesin (SabA). Instability in sLex-binding was previously reported and here we show that this is caused by the high frequency of ON/OFF switching in SabA expression. Our data shows that SabA phase variation is due to slippages in the number of CT repeat sequences in the 5’ end of the sabA gene (i.e. slipped strand mispairing). The sabA operon was defined and the sabA transcriptional start site was determined. Changes in the number of thymine bases present in a mononucleotide stretch upstream of the sabA gene and in close proximity to a -35-like promoter element did not affect the ON/OFF phase variation. Instead, we show that changes in intrinsic DNA properties are likely to influence SabA expression. The effect of growth phase on sLex-binding properties and SabA expression was also analyzed. SabA expression and sLex-binding increased as H. pylori entered late logarithmic phase. Our data show the ability of H. pylori to cycle between an adherent and non-adherent phenotype by phase variation mechanisms and adjustment of receptor binding activity. These data increase our understanding of how H. pylori adjust adherence properties during persistent infection.

  • 1562.
    Önell, Sebastian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    NF-κB Regulates MCP-1 and Eotaxin Expression in TNF-α and IL-1β Stimulated Human Gingival Fibroblasts2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is a family of proteins, which regulates several cellular processes. Deficiencies in the function of NF-κB have been shown to play a crucial role in inflammatory response and -diseases. Periodontitis is a disease where gum-inflammation causes destruction of tooth supporting tissues and jeopardizes tooth retention in the jaws. Cytokines and chemokines are shown to play a decisive role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the intracellular signaling pathways of NF-κB in primary human gingival fibroblasts stimulated with pro-inflammatory cytokines, and to explore the possible role of NF-κB in chemokine expression of these cells.

     

    Gingival fibroblasts isolated from periodontally healthy individuals were cultured in vitro and incubated with or without the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) or interleukin 1β (IL-1β). Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses showed thatTNF-α and IL-1β caused an increased mRNA expression of theNF-κB p50. Moreover, a time-dependent decrease of theNF-κB inhibitory proteinIκB-α was shown by western blot.TNF-α and IL-1β caused a time-dependent increased mRNA expression of the chemokines eotaxin and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and addition of  pharmacological inhibitors of NF-κB, BMS-345541 or Celastrol, reduced the eotaxin and MCP-1 expression by 40% and 50-70% respectively. These results point toward that activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway is critical for increased expression of eotaxin and MCP-1 in human gingival fibroblasts exposed to the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β.

     

     

  • 1563.
    Österlund, Catharina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Extra- and intrafusal muscle fibre type compositions of the human masseter at young age.: In perspective of growth and functional maturation of the jaw-face motor system.2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Muscles control body posture and movement by extrafusal and intrafusal (muscle spindle) fibres. The purpose of this thesis was to provide insight into the muscular basis for human jaw function at young age. Extrafusal and intrafusal fibres in the young masseter, and for comparison young biceps, were examined for composition of fibre types and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms by means of morphological, enzyme-histochemical, biochemical and immuno-histochemical techniques. For evaluation of plasticity during life span the data for young muscles were compared with previous reported data for adult and elderly muscles.

    The results showed significant differences in extrafusal fibre types and MyHC expression between young masseter and young biceps and between young masseter and masseter in adults and elderly. Compared with young biceps, young masseter was more intricate in composition of extrafusal MyHC expression. Muscle spindles were larger and more frequent in the masseter than in the biceps. Masseter and biceps muscle spindles showed fundamental similarities but also marked differences in MyHC expression.

    The results suggest that the young masseter is specialized in fibre types already at young age and shows a unique fibre type growth pattern. Whereas masseter extrafusal fibres display marked plasticity in fibre types and MyHC isoforms during life span muscle spindles/intrafusal fibres are morphologically mature already at young age and precede extrafusal fibres in growth and maturation. Results showed similarities in intrafusal MyHC expression between young masseter and biceps, but also differences implying muscle specific proprioceptive control. Differences in fibre types and MyHC expression between young masseter and young biceps extrafusal fibres are proposed to reflect diverse evolutionary and developmental origins and accord with the masseter and biceps being separate allotypes of muscle.

  • 1564.
    Österlund, Catharina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Berglund, H.
    Åkerman, M.
    Nilsson, E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Petersson, H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Lam, J.
    Alstergren, P.
    Diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders: Diagnostic accuracy for general dentistry procedure without mandatory commands regarding myalgia, arthralgia and headache attributed to temporomandibular disorder2018In: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, ISSN 0305-182X, E-ISSN 1365-2842, Vol. 45, no 7, p. 497-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The clinical examination in diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (DC/TMD) is a strict procedure and comprises mandatory commands. However, learning and using these mandatory commands in general practice have proven to be difficult and their use of DC/TMD is minimal. To investigate whether reliability on a diagnostic level for DC/TMD diagnoses differs between examiners using the mandatory commands or not. Six examiners were divided into two groups: one using the mandatory commands in DC/TMD for the clinical examination and one who did not use the mandatory commands. A reliability assessment was performed twice, one occasion for each group of examiners. The assessment was performed according to the guidelines from the International Network for Orofacial Pain and Related Disorders Methodology. Each group of examiners thereby examined 16 subjects (11 TMD patients and 5 healthy individuals) each, and the diagnostic agreement (reliability) as compared to diagnoses derived by a reference standard examiner was calculated with Cohen' s kappa coefficient. The DC/TMD diagnoses myalgia, arthralgia and headache attributed to TMD were included in the reliability assessment. There was no significant difference regarding diagnostic agreement reliability between the examiners using or not using the mandatory DC/TMD commands. This study indicates that not using the mandatory commands in DC/TMD in general practice does not impair the diagnostic reliability regarding the diagnoses myalgia, arthralgia and headache attributed to TMD compared to including the commands.

  • 1565.
    Österlund, Catharina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Lindström, Mona
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Remarkable heterogeneity in myosin heavy-chain composition of the human young masseter compared with young biceps brachii2012In: Histochemistry and Cell Biology, ISSN 0948-6143, E-ISSN 1432-119X, Vol. 138, no 4, p. 669-682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adult human jaw muscles differ from limb and trunk muscles in enzyme-histochemical fibre type composition. Recently, we showed that the human masseter and biceps differ in fibre type pattern already at childhood. The present study explored the myosin heavy-chain (MyHC) expression in the young masseter and biceps muscles by means of gel electrophoresis (GE) and immuno-histochemical (IHC) techniques. Plasticity in MyHC expression during life was evaluated by comparing the results with the previously reported data for adult muscles. In young masseter, GE identified MyHC-I, MyHC-IIa MyHC-IIx and small proportions of MyHC-fetal and MyHC-alpha cardiac. Western blots confirmed the presence of MyHC-I, MyHC-IIa and MyHC-IIx. IHC revealed in the masseter six isomyosins, MyHC-I, MyHC-IIa, MyHC-IIx, MyHC-fetal, MyHC alpha-cardiac and a previously not reported isoform, termed MyHC-IIx'. The majority of the masseter fibres co-expressed two to four isoforms. In the young biceps, both GE and IHC identified MyHC-I, MyHC-IIa and MyHC-IIx. MyHC-I predominated in both muscles. Young masseter showed more slow and less-fast and fetal MyHC than the adult and elderly masseter. These results provide evidence that the young masseter muscle is unique in MyHC composition, expressing MyHC-alpha cardiac and MyHC-fetal isoforms as well as hitherto unrecognized potential spliced isoforms of MyHC-fetal and MyHC-IIx. Differences in masseter MyHC expression between young adult and elderly suggest a shift from childhood to adulthood towards more fast contractile properties. Differences between masseter and biceps are proposed to reflect diverse evolutionary and developmental origins and confirm that the masseter and biceps present separate allotypes of muscle.

  • 1566.
    Österlund, Catharina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Liu, Jing-Xia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Intrafusal myosin heavy chain expression of human masseter and biceps muscles at young age shows fundamental similarities but also marked differences2013In: Histochemistry and Cell Biology, ISSN 0948-6143, E-ISSN 1432-119X, Vol. 139, no 6, p. 895-907Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Muscle spindles are skeletal muscle mechanoreceptors that provide proprioceptive information to the central nervous system. The human adult masseter muscle has greater number, larger and more complex muscle spindles than the adult biceps. For a better knowledge of muscle diversity and physiological properties, this study examined the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression of muscle spindle intrafusal fibres in the human young masseter and young biceps muscles by using a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against different MyHC isoforms. Eight MyHC isoforms were detected in both muscles-slow-tonic, I, IIa, IIx, foetal, embryonic, α-cardiac and an isoform not previously reported in intrafusal fibres, termed IIx'. Individual fibres co-expressed 2-6 isoforms. MyHC-slow tonic separated bag(1), AS-bag(1) and bag(2) fibres from chain fibres. Typically, bag fibres also expressed MyHC-I and α-cardiac, whereas chain fibres expressed IIa and foetal. In the young masseter 98 % of bag(1) showed MyHC-α cardiac versus 30 % in the young biceps, 35 % of bag(2) showed MyHC-IIx' versus none in biceps, 17 % of the chain fibres showed MyHC-I versus 61 % in the biceps. In conclusion, the result showed fundamental similarities in intrafusal MyHC expression between young masseter and biceps, but also marked differences implying muscle-specific proprioceptive control, probably related to diverse evolutionary and developmental origins. Finding of similarities in MyHC expression between young and adult masseter and biceps muscle spindles, respectively, in accordance with previously reported similarities in mATPase fibre type composition suggest early maturation of muscle spindles, preceding extrafusal fibres in growth and maturation.

  • 1567.
    Österlund, Catharina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Liu, Jing-Xia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Muscle spindle composition and distribution in human young masseter and biceps brachii muscles reveal early growth and maturation2011In: Anatomical Record, ISSN 0003-276X, E-ISSN 1097-0185, Vol. 294, no 4, p. 683-693Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Significant changes in extrafusal fiber type composition take place in the human masseter muscle from young age, 3-7 years, to adulthood, in parallel with jaw-face skeleton growth, changes of dentitions and improvement of jaw functions. As motor and sensory control systems of muscles are interlinked, also the intrafusal fiber population, that is, muscle spindles, should undergo age-related changes in fiber type appearance. To test this hypothesis, we examined muscle spindles in the young masseter muscle and compared the result with previous data on adult masseter spindles. Also muscle spindles in the young biceps brachii muscle were examined. The result showed that muscle spindle composition and distribution were alike in young and adult masseter. As for the adult masseter, young masseter contained exceptionally large muscle spindles, and with the highest spindle density and most complex spindles found in the deep masseter portion. Hence, contrary to our hypothesis, masseter spindles do not undergo major morphological changes between young age and adulthood. Also in the biceps, young spindles were alike adult spindles. Taken together, the results showed that human masseter and biceps muscle spindles are morphologically mature already at young age. We conclude that muscle spindles in the human young masseter and biceps precede the extrafusal fiber population in growth and maturation. This in turn suggests early reflex control and proprioceptive demands in learning and maturation of jaw motor skills. Similarly, well-developed muscle spindles in young biceps reflect early need of reflex control in learning and performing arm motor behavior.

  • 1568.
    Österlund, Catharina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Differences in fibre type composition between human masseter and biceps muscles in young and adults reveal unique masseter fibre type growth pattern2011In: Anatomical Record, ISSN 0003-276X, E-ISSN 1097-0185, Vol. 294, no 7, p. 1158-1169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The human jaw system is different from those of other primates, carnivores, ruminants, and rodents in temporomandibular joint and muscle anatomy. In adults, jaw muscles also differ markedly from limb and trunk muscles in composition and distribution of fibre types. It can be assumed that age-related changes between young age to adulthood in terms of craniofacial growth, teeth eruption, and improvement of jaw functions are paralleled by alterations also in composition and distribution of jaw muscle fibre types. To address this question, we have examined the fibre type composition of the human masseter, a jaw closing muscle, at young age. For comparison, the young biceps brachii was examined. The results were compared with previous data for adult masseter and biceps muscles. Young masseter and biceps were similar in that type I fibres outnumbered other fibre types and were of the same diameter. However, they differed in composition of other fibre types. Young masseter contained fibre types I, IM, IIC, IIAB, IIB, and scarce IIA, with regional differences, whereas young biceps showed types I, IIA, IIAB, and few IIB. Young masseter differed from young biceps also by smaller type II fibre diameter and by containing fetal MyHC. In addition, the masseter and biceps differed in age-related changes of composition and distribution of fibre types between young age and adulthood. We conclude that the human masseter is specialized in fibre types already at young age and shows a unique fibre type growth pattern, in concordance with being a separate allotype of muscle.

  • 1569. Östman, PO
    et al.
    Anneroth, G
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Cariology.
    Stegmayr, B
    Skoglund, A
    Life-style survey of patients with oral lichenoid reactions1996In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 96-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence of different life-style patterns, including marital status, educational level, nutrition, tobacco and alcohol use, and frequency of physical activity, in patients with oral lichenoid reactions (OLR) in total or partial contact with amalgam fillings was examined. When compared with an age- and sex-matched control group, the daily intake of carbohydrates, fibers, and iron was statistically significantly higher in the OLR patients. Regarding marital status, there was a statistically significant difference between the OLR patients and the control subjects, the former group containing more people who were divorced or whose spouse had died. The frequency of physical activity was also statistically significantly higher in the OLR patients than in the control group. Hypothetical mechanisms that may lie behind the results obtained are discussed.

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