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  • 1901.
    Wänerstam, Gustav
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Samband mellan transformellt ledarskap, arbetstillfredsställelse och brukarkvalitet2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    De positiva sambanden mellan transformellt ledarskap, arbetstillfredsställelse för personal och effektivitet i arbetet med att uppnå organisationens genomgående mål, är väl utforskade områden. De tidigare studierna har huvudsakligen gjorts inom vinstdrivande organisationer och i en mindre utsträckning hos de som är icke vinstdrivande. Generaliserbarheten mellan dessa två organisationstyper är liten då de skiljer sig åt i sina genomgående mål; generera maximal vinst mot att bidra maximalt till någon specifik del av allmännyttan. Den här kvantitativa studien undersöker de här sambanden med hjälp av tre olika självskattningsinstrument och personalen från den icke vinstdrivande organisationen hemtjänsten. I studien deltog 244 undersökningsdeltagare men en könsfördelning på 205 kvinnor (84%) och 36 män (16%). Studiens resultat indikerar på positivt signifikanta samband mellan transformellt ledarskap, arbetstillfredsställelse och hemtjänstens genomgående mål, brukarkvalitet. Det antyder att även icke vinstdrivande organisationer kan ha nytta av att tillämpa ett transformellt ledarskap.

  • 1902.
    Wänerstam, Gustav
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sambanden mellan transformellt ledarskap, arbetstillfredsställelse och brukarkvalitet2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1903.
    Wåhlin, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kihlström, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    TIDSPERSPEKTIV I RELATION TILL ÅNGEST, DEPRESSION, ORO, ÄLTANDE OCH INHIBERING2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The way we humans relate to the past, present and future reflect our personality and can be linked with our mental health. The aim of this study was to examine the relations between time perspective, depression, anxiety, worry and rumination. The aim was also to study if a deficient capacity of inhibition could be explained by worry and rumination. The study consisted of 65 participants from a non-clinical sample; 44 women and 21 men in the age of 19 to 40 years. The self report inventories included in the study was Swedish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Response Style Questionnaire and Pennstate Worry Questionnaire, a Colour-Word test measured the Stroop effect. The result indicated that worry but also rumination was the best predictors to a negative future orientation while anxiety and negative future orientation best predicted worry. Rumination was mainly explained by a negative future orientation. The results of the inhibition processes was contradictory. Further research of executive funcions, worry and rumination are needed. The authors are arguing for a stronger relationship between anxiety and depression could be found in a clinical sample. More knowledge about the underlying mechanisms of depression and anxiety is of importance for a more effective clinical treatment.

  • 1904.
    Yacoub, Jocelyne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Odor detection sensitivity and response bias in relation to aspects of health2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical intolerance (CI) means that the affected individual experience symptoms from the smell of the weak concentrations of conventional chemicals in the environment that most people are not bothered by. This study aimed to examine whether response bias (beta) and sensitivity index (d´) for odor detection correlate with self-rated health, CI, stress and distress. The questionnaires that were used to answer the question were self-rated health (SRH), CI (assessed with the Chemical Sensitivity Scale), stress (Perceived Stress Scale) and distress (Symptom Check List-90). A group of 23 adult individuals between the ages of 18 to 55 years expected to vary in degree of CI were exposed to various concentration of n-butanol for a signal detection test for about 2 hours. The data processing was done by correlational analyses. The results showed no statistically significant correlations between beta and the variables SRH, CI, stress and distress, but tendencies of significant correlations between d´ and the variables SRH, CI and stress, such that individuals who were high in CI, stress and who generally felt poorly had a lower odor sensitivity (d´). These tendencies encourage continued study of the associations with larger sample size.    

  • 1905.
    Ybrandt, Helen
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Changes in self-image in a psychotherapy supervisor training program2009In: The Clinical Supervisor, ISSN 0732-5223, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 113-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB) was  used to assess the self-image of psychotherapists enrolled in a psychotherapy supervisor training program in the initial and final phases of their training, as well as four months after the completion of their training. Their self-image was compared to that of experienced supervisors. The results show that the self-image of the supervisor trainees changed over the course of the training. By the end of the training, their self-image was as autonomous as that of experienced supervisors. Positive self-acceptance also developed. The relation between the outcome of psychotherapy, the style of trainees’ supervisor, and changes in the self-image of the trainees is also discussed.

  • 1906.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A normative study of the Swedish adolescent drug abuse diagnosis (ADAD)2013In: Journal of Substance Use, ISSN 1465-9891, E-ISSN 1475-9942, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 138-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to provide a standardization of the use of the Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis (ADAD) among Swedish adolescents using interview self-reported and interviewer-rated problem severity. Data relating to nine life areas (medical status, school history and status, employment, social activities and peer relations, family background and relationships, psychological status and problems, legal involvement, alcohol use and drug use) were gathered from a randomized population-based sample of 847 adolescents aged 13–18 years. The results show that the effects of age, gender and geographic region were small but significant, with older adolescents, girls and adolescents in cities scoring higher for problem severity. Adolescents’ scorings were in the range “no problems” to “small problems” and the interviewer severity ratings were in the range “no real problems” to “no need for further help”. The conclusion is that individual score variations are much greater than can be attributed to age, gender or residential area. Consequently, the ADAD has the potential to serve as an instrument for assessing individual adolescents’ self-reported problems in Sweden.

  • 1907.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Risky alcohol use, peer and family relationships and legal involvement in adolescents with antisocial problems2010In: Journal of Drug Education, ISSN 0047-2379, E-ISSN 1541-4159, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 243-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine risk and vulnerability factors contributing to problems with alcohol use in adolescence. Data relating to seven life areas (medical status, school status, social relationships, family background and relationships, psychological functioning, legal involvement, and alcohol use) was gathered using the ADAD (Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis) interview. A total of 1163 Swedish adolescents (809 boys and 354 girls) between the ages of 12 and 20 years old were interviewed. All had antisocial problems and were detained at special youth homes. It was found that for those aged between 12 and 18 years, the general risk factors for alcohol use were leisure and peer problems, problems associated with family background and relationships, and criminal behavior. These results suggest that drug abuse treatment planning should focus on altering the predisposing factors that exist in these domains. It was also found that the ADAD problem areas seem to be most useful as prognostic indicators of treatment outcome for adolescents with antisocial problems who are under 18 years of age.

  • 1908.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ten-year trends in self-reported family and psychological problems among swedish adolescents2014In: European Journal of Mental Health, ISSN 1788-4934, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 54-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to compare problem severity among Swedish adolescents, using self-reported and interviewer-rated data from 2000 and 2010, gathered with the Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis (ADAD) interview. Data relating to family relationships, psychological status and problems were collected in two samples randomly selected from the adolescent population aged 15–17 years (121 adolescents in the year 2000 and 485 adolescents in the year 2010). The results show that the self-rated and interviewer-rated problem severity of adolescents in 2000 and in 2010 seems to be unchanged, with no increased polarisation for sex and socio-economic groups. There was a difference, however, was of girls reporting more severe problems in family relationships compared to boys. In 2010, compared to 2000, adolescents reported on fewer psychological problems (e.g. experiences of serious anxiety and tension, comprehension and concentration disorder, memory loss and, in addition, problems with relationships in and outside the family sphere – e.g. problems with getting along with siblings, and with trusting other people). In order to promote the mental health of adolescents, it is essential, during the next decade to reveal relationship problems, such as problems of insecurity with people outside the family.

  • 1909.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The relation between self-concept and social functioning in adolescence2008In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A model of the relation between self-concept and internalizing and externalizing problem behaviours in adolescence, with the self-concept influencing problem behaviours (S→IE), was assessed using a sample of 277 Swedish adolescents. The model was tested in a path analysis with data from Youth Self Report (YSR) and Structural Analysis of Social Behaviour (SASB) questionnaires. Consistent with the model, a positive self-concept was found to be the most important factor for adjustment and for protection against common problem behaviour. A negative self-concept combined with female gender were risk factors for internalized problems. Self-control had only a direct effect on externalizing behaviour for boys. Adolescents of 15, 16 years of age had a stronger relationship between a negative self-concept and externalizing problem behaviour than younger and older adolescents. Internalizing problem behaviours such as anxiety and depression predicted aggressive and delinquent behaviour. These findings highlight the importance of promoting of a positive self-concept in every adolescent in various psychosocial contexts.

  • 1910.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adolescents' mental health and their images of self and parents2010In: European Journal of Mental Health, ISSN 1788-4934, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 59-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relation between images of self and parents as defined in interpersonal theory and by the Structural Analysis of Social Behaviour (Benjamin), and internalizing and externalizing problems, as defined by the Youth Self-Report (Achenbach) was studied in a sample of 199 nonclinical adolescents (92 boys and 107 girls) aged between 13 and 17 years. Regression analyses showed that the pattern relating images of self and parents to mental health problems was different for boys and girls. Internalizing problems for girls were best predicted from aspects of their self-image while for boys parental behaviour played a larger role. A pattern of self-blame and lower self-affirmation together with parental blame was important for girls’ externalizing problems and a pattern of self-neglect and low self-autonomy and an uncertainty of parental love were important for boys externalizing problems. Results emphasize that boys and girls have different kinds of vulnerabilities as risk factors for mental health problems.

  • 1911.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Peer aggression and mental health problems: self-esteem as a mediator2010In: School Psychology International, ISSN 0143-0343, E-ISSN 1461-7374, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 146-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined whether self-esteem mediates the association problems in adolescents. A total of 204 Swedish adolescents aged between 12- and 16-years-old completed self-report measures; self-esteem was assessed with ‘I think I am’ (ITIA) and internalizing and externalizing problems with Youth Self-Report (YSR). Our results showed that internalizing problems in peer aggressors could be understood as problems with low self-esteem, while internalizing problems in peer victims could be understood both as problems with low selfesteem and as an effect of being victimized. Externalizing problems in peer aggressors and peer aggressor–victims could be understood as problems with being involved in peer aggression, while the same problems in peer victims could be understood as problems with low self-esteem. This article also discusses the importance of self-esteem in adolescents’ development of their own identities and for peer aggressive- related psychological psychopathology.

  • 1912.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Börjesson, Josefine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Measurments instruments scales tests: The Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis composite scores in Swedish normal and antisocial adolescents2008In: Substance Use & Misuse, ISSN 1082-6084, E-ISSN 1532-2491, Vol. 43, no 10, p. 1411-1423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study evaluates the utility and issues around the composite scores in Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis (ADAD). Participants were Swedish normal adolescents (121) and adolescents manifesting antisocial problems (1,168), ages 10 to 21. The results show that the interviewer severity ratings seem to be the most appropriate outcome when the objective is to differentiate between normal and antisocial adolescents. The composite scores appear to function as an indicator of current problems in all areas except for Medical and Alcohol sections. The critical items within the Medical and Alcohol composite scores are explored and discussed.

  • 1913.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordqvist, Stefan
    SiS-placerade ungdomars problematik i relation till andra ungdomar: en jämförelse med referensdata insamlade med ADAD 20102015Report (Refereed)
  • 1914.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundin, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Capone, Georgina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Trainee therapists' wievs on the alliance in psychotherapy and supervision: a longitudinal study2016In: British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, ISSN 0306-9885, E-ISSN 1469-3534, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 530-539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shape of alliance in psychotherapy and supervision using growth curve modeling was examined for clinically inexperienced trainee therapists, who were engaged in long-term cognitive behavioral - or psychodynamic individual psychotherapy at a Psychology Clinic in Sweden. Trainee therapists rated their view of the alliance with their clients and their supervisors on the Working Alliance Inventory at five time points. The alliance to the client show a consistent, positive development throughout the therapy. The alliance to the supervisors show initially a decrease, followed by an increase, and then again, the rate of increase in the supervisory alliance ratings slowed down indicating a more complex view of the supervisory alliance compared to the view of the alliance in psychotherapy.

  • 1915.
    Yepes-Baldó, Montserrat
    et al.
    Universitat de Barcelona.
    Romeo, Marina
    Universitat de Barcelona.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Job crafting, employee well-being, and quality of care2018In: Western Journal of Nursing Research, ISSN 0193-9459, E-ISSN 1552-8456, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 52-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective is to study the effects of job crafting activities of elder care and nursing home employees on their perceived well-being and quality of care in two European countries, Spain and Sweden. The Job Crafting, the General Health, and the Quality of Care questionnaires were administered to 530 employees. Correlations and hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Results confirm the effects of job crafting on quality of care (r = .291, p < .01; β = .261, p < .01; ΔR2 = .065, p < .01) and employees’ well-being (r = .201, p < .01; β = .171, p < .01; ΔR2 = .028, p < .01). A positive linear relationship was found between job crafting and well-being in Spain and Sweden and with quality of care in Spain. On the contrary, in Sweden, the relationship between job crafting and well-being was not linear. Job crafting contributes significantly to employees’ and residents’ well-being. Management should promote job crafting to co-create meaningful and productive work. Cultural effects are proposed to explain the differences found.

  • 1916.
    Yttergård, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Föräldrars stöd/press och motivationens påverkan på idrottande ungdomars psykiska hälsa2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare forskning har visat att föräldrars stöd/press påverkar idrottares motivation och faktorer som ingår i den psykiska hälsan. Denna studie syftar till att undersöka om föräldrars stöd/press och motivation påverkar den psykiska hälsan. Självskattningsformulär skickades ut till elever, ålder 16‐20 år, vid landets skidgymnasier vid tvåtillfälen. Vid mäning 1 hade 78 män och 67 kvinnor komplett data och vid mätning 2 hade 83 män och 73 kvinnor komplett data. Resultaten visar att föäldrars stöd/press tillsammans med motivation föklarar 31‐50% av variansen gällande den psyksiska hälsan för män och kvinnor, vilket också styrktes med korrelationsanalyser. Mamman var den förälder som hade mest effekt gällande utfallet påden psykiska hälsan. Idrottarnas psykiska hälsa befinner sig inom ramen för normalpopulationens väden. Tränare måste bli bättre på att identifiera de elever som mår dåligt och föäldrar måste utbildas i hur de bäst kan stödja idrottande ungdomar.

  • 1917.
    Yu, Jeong Jin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Trajectories of body dissatisfaction among South Korean youth: Findings from a nationally representative sample2016In: Body image, ISSN 1740-1445, E-ISSN 1873-6807, Vol. 19, p. 186-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed to identify qualitatively different classes of growth trajectories of body dissatisfaction and to investigate the antecedents associated with the classes. The survey included a nationally representative sample of 2844 Korean children who started Grade 4 (younger cohort) and 3449 adolescents who began Grade 8 (older cohort) at baseline. Participants completed self-report surveys across five or six measurement periods separated by 1 year each. General growth mixture modeling was used and results revealed several distinct longitudinal patterns. Findings from this study clearly suggest the importance of early intervention efforts. Interventions aimed at boosting autonomy may be valuable in reducing body dissatisfaction among children. The findings also highlight the critical importance of parent-child connectedness and friendship closeness in the success of the intervention.

  • 1918.
    Yu, Jeong Jin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lim, Gum Ok
    Gamble, Wendy C.
    Big five personality traits and physical aggression between siblings in South Korea: an actor-partner interdependence analysis2017In: Journal of family Violence, ISSN 0885-7482, E-ISSN 1573-2851, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 257-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined actor and partner effects of the Big Five personality traits, assessed by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, on physical aggression within sibling dyadic interactions. Data were collected from 86 target adolescents receiving counseling services, their mothers, and closest-age siblings in South Korea. Mothers rated their children's personalities. Target adolescents and siblings reported their own personality, as well as their sibling's and their own perpetration of physical aggression against one another. Substantial self-other (i.e., mother and sibling) agreement was found for personality traits. Both actor and partner effects were found for the negative associations between extraversion, openness to experience, and conscientiousness and physical aggression among siblings. The current findings increase our understanding of personality traits implicated in physical aggression in general, and specifically aggression among siblings.

  • 1919.
    Yu, Jeong Jin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Park, Su Jung
    Predictors and the distal outcome of general Internet use: the identification of children's developmental trajectories2017In: British Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0261-510X, E-ISSN 2044-835X, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 483-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the predictors and distal outcome in relation to the frequency of online activities and investigated the presence of prototypical trajectories following different patterns of general Internet use over 5years. The data set consisted of a nationally representative sample of 2,840 fourth graders (M-age=9.86years) in South Korea at baseline. Analyses revealed rank-order stability in general Internet use with four latent classes: high stable (5.8%), high quadratic (20.3%), moderate stable (32.7%), and low stable (41.2%). Youth with higher levels of perceived parental monitoring knowledge, friendship closeness, and depressed mood at baseline were more likely to belong to the high stable class, while girls were more likely to be in the high quadratic or moderate stable classes relative to the low stable class. The high stable class had the greatest odds of reporting alcohol use at grade eight, whereas the low stable class had the lowest odds.

  • 1920. Zajenkoswski, M
    et al.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ledzinska, M
    Cognitive processes in Time perspective2015In: Time perspective Theory; Review, Research and Application: Essays in Honor of Philip G. Zimbardo / [ed] Stolarski, Maciej, Fieulaine, Nicolas, van Beek, Wessel, New York: New York: Springer , 2015, p. 243-255Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter we explore the role of cognitive processes in time perspective. Extending previous findings, we present how individual differences in time orientation are related to intelligence, goal-directed behaviour, executive control and meta-cognition. First, we show that present fatalistic TP is negatively related to intelligence, and that future-oriented individuals tend to have higher general abilities. Further, we present the data, proving that risk taking is negatively correlated with the future positive scale. Another finding discussed here is that working memory development is a strong predictor of temporal orientation. Children who have efficient working memory updating functions in early school age exhibit higher tendency toward future positive when they are adolescents. Finally, our studies indicate, that time perspectives tend to correlate with meta-cognitive skills, knowledge and experiences, suggesting that the temporal orientation influences meta-cognition.

  • 1921.
    Zambianchi, Manuela
    et al.
    Department of psychology Bologna university.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Positive attitudes towards technologies and facets of well-being in older adults2018In: Journal of Applied Gerontology, ISSN 0733-4648, E-ISSN 1552-4523, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 371-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study investigates the relevance of positive attitudes toward Internet technologies for psychological well-being and social well-being in old age. A sample of 245 elderly people (Mean age = 70; SD =9.1) filled in the Psychological Well-Being Questionnaire, the Social Well-Being Questionnaire, and Attitudes Toward Technologies Questionnaire (ATTQ). Favorable attitudes toward Internet technologies showed positive correlations with overall social well-being and all its components with the exception of social acceptance. Positive correlations with overall psychological well-being and two of its components, namely, personal growth and purpose in life, were also found. Two hierarchical multiple regression models underscored that positive attitudes toward Internet technologies constitute the most important predictor of social well-being, and it appears to be a significant predictor for psychological well-being as well. Results are discussed and integrated into the Positive Technology theoretical framework that sustains the value of technological resources for improving the quality of personal experience and well-being.

  • 1922. Zambianchi, M.G
    et al.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The relevance of time perspective for attitudes toward technologies in old age2014In: II International Conference on Time Perspective, Warsaw, Poland, 29 th July,-1th August, Warsawa, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1923.
    Zandler, Jonna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Job Crafting, psykisk hälsa och vårdkvalitet: Jämförelse av anställdas formande av sina arbeten i två europeiska länders äldreomsorg2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Job Crafting (JC) är en teori om hur anställda aktivt formar sina jobb. I denna tvärsnittsstudie undersöktes hur 530 anställda och chefer i svensk och spansk äldreomsorg skattade JC. Syftet var att undersöka hur land, position och JC kunde predicera psykisk hälsa och vårdkvalitet. JC mättes med Job Crafting Questionnaire, JCQ. Variablernas relation analyserades med multipel hierarkisk regressionsanalys. Huvudresultaten visade att variabelmodellen i viss mån predicerade psykisk hälsa och vårdkvalitet. Land gav högst grad av utfall. De svenska skattningarna visade lägre psykisk hälsa och vårdkvalitet än de spanska. Fler studier kan ge förståelse skillnaderna mellan länderna som framkom. För kunskap om JC behövs longitudinella studier av både kvalitativ och kvantitativ art. Det kan visa sätt att hantera europeisk äldreomsorgs framtida rekryteringsbehov och arbetsvillkor.

  • 1924.
    Zhang, Anran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    How emotional videos influence motor timing and retrospective duration judgments.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An emotionally involved event may subsequently appear shorter than an event of relative indifference for people. How are time-related behaviors influenced while people are emotionally affected? The purpose of this study was to test if ongoing estimates and retrospective reports of duration are similarly affected by emotional states. To test, 30 s emotional video clips were rated for Valence and Arousal by six participants. The videos were then used in a timing experiment where a new set of participants (twenty-five persons) carried out a repetitive motor timing paradigm while watching the videos and subsequently reported the perceived duration of the clip. In each of ten trials, participants first synchronized to a 700 ms isochronous interval with their index finger, and then continued unsupported as five different video clips were played in sequence, with each clip lasting 30s. At the end of each trial, participants reported their retrospective duration judgment of every video clip, and rated every video chip for Valence and Arousal. Emotion ratings suggested that the videos affected the subjects’ emotional states. Repetitive motor timing was not reliably affected by emotional states. Instead, retrospective reports of durations were affected by emotional states such that the durations estimated under high arousal conditions were significantly longer than those under low arousal conditions. The difference in results between repetitive motor timing and retrospective reports may be accounted for by the interval of 700 ms being too short to be cognitive-related.

  • 1925.
    Zouagui, Amina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Svedström, Amanda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Genusperspektiv i handledningsrummet: Handledares berättelser om attityder till genus och tillämpning av ett genusperspektiv i handledning av studentterapeuter2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to explore: a) what attitudes do supervisors have towards gender? b) what attitudes do supervisors have towards an application of a gender perspective in supervision?, and c) how do supervisors describe their practice of gender perspectives in supervision?, with a focus on the students’ professional development. This was explored through semi-structured interviews with six participants, and then analyzed with thematic analysis. The result showed that the respondents have a general attitude that it is important to be conscious about gender questions, that there is some skepticism against application of a gender perspective due to the risk of incorrect usage, and finally that most of the respondents have a passive application of a gender perspective. The result is in line with a notion that consciousness and positive attitudes towards gender equality and gender issues has become a passive part of the national identity of the Swedish people. The result is also in line with earlier studies describing that psychologists seem to have a neutral knowledge ideal leading to a focus on the individual, which makes it harder to implement a gender perspective in supervision since it is anchored in a social constructivist view of the individual, and therefore demands a wider social perspective.

  • 1926.
    Álvarez, Bernardo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The relationship of self-reported reading habits and declarative memory2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined the possibility that reading books might support declarative memory, and potentially contribute to the cognitive reserve and thereby minimize age-related decline in memory functions. It was a crosssectional study, where data were taken from 566 Betula Study participants, as well as the scores of declarative memory assessment tasks, and book reading reports. The tasks of episodic memory were sentence learning with and without encoding enactment –free and cued recall. The tasks of semantic memory were word fluency, initial letter A, M fivewords, B profession names, and SRB –vocabulary. Three-way analysis of variance was performed for hypothesis testing. The results showed that book reading might support declarative memory. There was a significant relationship between education and book reading. Was not found if book reading might minimize age-related decline. In conclusion, the study showed that book reading and years of education might support declarative memory.

  • 1927.
    Åberg, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johansson, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    ACTUA!: En utvärdering av ett internetbaserat självhjälpsprogram med beteendeaktivering för behandling av depression2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioral activation is an effective treatment for depression. There is limited research on internet administered behavioral activation. Hence, this study evaluated treatment effects of two internet administered self-help programs with therapist support. In total, 42 participants with mild to moderate depression were randomized, after assessment, to one of the treatment conditions or a control group. The treatment consisted of eight text modules including exercises. A significant effect of time regarding depression and quality of life was shown for all conditions. A significant interaction effect regarding anxiety was shown between the treatment condition and the control group. No significant interaction effects were found between the two treatment conditions. Moderate to large within groups effect sizes where shown in all groups regarding depression. The reason that no significant interaction effect could be shown between the treatment condition and the control group is probably due to the fact that the control group improved a lot as well. Since depression tends to occur in cycles and be season bound this could have had an impact on the improvement of the control group. The results could be problematized further due to the fact that not all participants completed the treatment and because of small sample sizes. In summary this study indicates that internet administered behavioral activation is an effective treatment for mild to moderate depression and could be a complement or alternative to live therapy.

  • 1928.
    Ådén Wadenholt, Gustaf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Expected information gain predicts curiosity2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Curiosity has been defined as an intrinsic motivation for performing actions that result in a gain of knowledge (Berlyne, 1966; Loewenstein, 1994). As positive effects of curiosity on memorization of new knowledge were found by Kang et al., 2009, exploring the mechanisms behind curiosity can have great practical applications. Although information theoretic concepts have been linked to curiosity (Berlyne, 1966; Kang et al., 2009; Gottlieb, Oudeyer, Lopes & Baranes, 2013), this has not been tested empirically through an actual information theoretic operationalisation. This study aims to correct this by individually measuring the prior knowledge of participants and computing the expected information gain (IG) of an information rewarding action. To quantify the incentive value of curiosity a time delay was imposed on IG, forcing participants to a trade-off between maximizing information and minimizing time spent on the task. Through linear regression analysis, it is shown that curiosity is proportional to expected IG and that participants were prepared to invest 0.4 seconds per bit.

  • 1929.
    Ådén Wadenholt, Gustaf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Look, but don't touch: The effect of curiosity on eye and mouse interaction2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The tradeoff between satisfying curiosity and maximizing performance was investigated. Subjects were given a two-armed-bandit task, in which they should select squares from two areas with different probabilities to reward points. With each choice, subjects also got to see part of a face. The intention was to spark curiosity about the identity, as faces are known to be of special interest to humans. Also, a method for interaction by eye fixation was conceived, and compared against interaction with a mouse. The study examined if subjects were willing to sacrifice task performance to satisfy their curiosity, and if eye interaction was more susceptible to this distraction. An effect of the face distractors on learning performance was found. Eye and mouse interaction showed different patterns of square selections, but no difference in the overall task performance could be measured. Possible improvements to the paradigm are considered.

  • 1930. Åkerstedt, T.
    et al.
    Alfredsson, L.
    Westerholm, P.
    Fischer, H.
    Nilsson, L. -G
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fatigue/sleepiness and important aspects of sleep restoration improve across aging2014In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 23, p. 241-241Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1931.
    Åkerstedt, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A study of risks of threats and violence toward hospital staff in relation to patient access to electronic medical records2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2012, the county of Uppland in Sweden launched a service granting patients online access to their electronic medical record (EMR), including the list of staff who have logged into the record (the “log list”). Patients seem predominantly positive to this service whereas many professionals, physicians specifically, have expressed concerns about, for example, increased risks of threats and violence towards healthcare staff. One year after launch the present study was conducted to examine whether staff whose patients had gained access to online EMRs experienced greater risks of threats and violence, and were exposed to more threats and violence, than those whose patients had not yet gained access. The extent to which professional role, gender, work experience and staff attitudes to the service were important factors was also examined. A total of 174 professionals at Uppsala University Hospital responded to a web survey (35% response rate). 83 represented the emergency department, whose patients had online EMR access, and 91 represented the psychiatric department, whose patients had not. 40% of all participating professionals, emergency physicians and psychiatric staff specifically, believed that risks of threats and violence increase after launch. The results did not, however, support a correlation between patient access to online EMRs and more incidents of threats and violence, and only one respondent reported that patient access had played any significant negative role in relation to an incident. These and other results may prove useful as the online EMR service is now being launched in other Swedish counties as well.

  • 1932.
    Åkesson, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Repeated testing with feedback enhances learning of educational material compared to re-study2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1933.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Being in balance or stuck in time: exploring facets of time processing in relation to mental health2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Time is central in human functioning and crucial for adaptive behavior. The aim of the current thesis was to investigate aspects of people’s subjective experience of time and their relationship with mental health, specifically anxiety and subjective well-being. Two time concepts were of key interest in the thesis: time estimation, which refers to the ability to estimate time durations; and time perspective, which refers to people’s habitual way of relating to the past, the present, and the future.

     The thesis comprehends four studies. In the first three studies, time perspective and time estimation were investigated in persons with varying degrees of anxiety, ranging from mild symptoms to anxiety disorders. The results of these studies showed that in particular negative past time perspective and negative future time perspective were associated with anxiety. These time perspectives were further strongly associated with the tendency to ruminate and worry. Time estimation did not largely deviate between persons with anxiety and healthy controls, although there was some evidence that subcomponents of anxiety might be differentially related to time estimation. More specifically, state anxiety was moderately related to retrospective time estimation, such that higher levels of state anxiety was associated with judging time intervals in retrospect as longer.

     In the final study of the thesis, balanced time perspective (BTP) was examined in relation to subjective well-being and age. BTP can be described as an optimal way of relating to the past, the present and the future and has been suggested to facilitate mental health and well-being. However, there are several ways to measure BTP, and there are also indications that what constitutes a BTP is not completely age-invariant or equally associated with well-being across age. The fourth study of the thesis thus aimed at examining three methods of measuring BTP, and each methods distinct association with subjective well-being and age were examined. The study was conducted in a population-based sample of older adults (age range 60 – 90 years of old). Results of this study indicated subjective well-being is strongly related to BTP, particularly methods of measuring BTP that incorporates negative future time perspective. However, the strong (and inverse) relationship between negative future time perspective and subjective well-being diminished with increasing age. Instead, and among the oldest participants in the sample (80+ years), fatalistic views of the present had more bearing on subjective well-being.

  • 1934.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Exploring multiple concepts of psychological time in relation to anxiety2014In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 60, p. S11-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time is a central part of human experience. Different timing functions are vital for adequate behavioral outcomes, and individual differences in time perspective can be associated with both well-being and mental distress.The aim of this study is to discuss several aspects of temporal processing in relation to anxiety. Specifically, our findings suggest that moderate anxiety is associated with systematic biases in Future Negative- and Past Negative time perspectives. Further, in exploring the possible underlying mechanisms that mediate time perspective in anxiety, preliminary data on the relationship between aspects of cognitive control (inhibition), time perspective and anxiety will be presented. The findings will be discussed according to their clinical and theoretical implications.

  • 1935.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Exploring the links between time perspective, anxiety, rumination and aspects of cognitive control2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1936.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sircova, A
    Wiberg, Marie
    Time perspective, time stimation and time reproduction in anxiety.2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1937.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Seif, Ali
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Getting "stuck" in the future or the past: Relationships between dimensions of time perspective, executive functions, and repetitive negative thinking in anxietyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 1938.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Time estimation in patients with anxiety disorders: Relationships with worry and state anxietyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 1939.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sircova, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Insights into features of anxiety through multiple aspects of psychological time2014In: Journal of Integrative Psychology and Therapeutics, ISSN 2054-4723, Vol. 2, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is well-recognized that emotions and emotional disorders may alter the experience of time. Yet relatively little is known about different aspects of psychological time in relation to anxiety. The purpose of the present study was to explore several aspects of temporal processing, including time perspective, prospective and retrospective time estimation, in persons with anxiety symptoms.

    Methods: A total of 110 individuals with varying degrees of anxiety participated in two studies. They were assigned to two groups (anxiety–control) based on their scores on anxiety measurements. Participants also completed an inventory of time perspective and several time estimation tasks which were analyzed on a group-level. Depressive symptoms were assessed and used as a covariate in the second study.

    Results: Anxiety was significantly associated with Past Negative and Future Negative time perspectives as measured by the Swedish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI), even when controlling for the effect of depressive symptoms. No other significant differences were found.

    Conclusion: Exploring time perspective in persons with anxious symptoms may provide important insights into features of anxiety. These findings may offer new ways of conceptualizing anxiety and provide suggestions for treatment strategies.

  • 1940.
    Åström, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adelmann, Siri
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    DAILY THOUGHTS OF LEAVING THE PROFESSION AMONGST NEWLY GRADUATED PSYCHOLOGISTS2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis was to investigate how thoughts of leaving the profession amongst newly graduated psychologists were influenced by different factors, such as Basic psychological needs (BPN), Job satisfaction, and perceived preparation and support in the transitions from 1) studies to supervised practice (from here on referred to as the Swedish term PTP) and 2) from supervised practice to working as licensed psychologist. This was investigated based on a resource and motivation perspective including Job-Demands Resources theory and Self- Determination theory. A questionnaire was distributed to psychologists within three years from date of graduation (n=1077). The present sample included 529 psychologists either licenced or PTP. A binary logistic regression demonstrated that higher perceived levels of support and preparation in the transition from education to PTP (Transition 1), was negatively related to thoughts of leaving the profession. The influence of Transition 1 lost its significance when the dimensions of the BPNs were added for the PTP sample, and when the transition from PTP to licensed (Transition 2) was added as a predictor for the licensed psychologists. Transition 2 for the licensed psychologists was no longer significant when adding the BPNs. Higher levels of Job satisfaction were negatively related to thoughts of leaving the profession only among licensed psychologists. The results indicate that the influence of BPNs should not be underestimated in this kind of study nor during the first years in the profession. 

  • 1941. Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Sundin, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Intervjuer som prognosinstrument för studieframgång2005In: Nordisk Psykologi: teori, forskning, praksis, ISSN 0029-1463, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 271-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two different admission procedures (high school grades/scholastic tests and high school grades/scholastic tests/interview) to the five-year Master's Program in Professional Psychology at Stockholm University were examined. The analyses were based on data from students who were admitted on a combination of high school grades/scholastic test and interview, and students who were admitted based only on high school grades/scholastic test. In the final semester of the five-year Psychologist Program, the students and their supervisors rated the student's development of psychotherapeutic knowledge and skills, and their relation to the supervisor and the supervision group. A self rating scale was used. The results showed that students who were admitted upon interview and their supervisors, rated significantly higher on all factors. Moreover, students admitted upon interview rated their development of psychotherapeutic skill significantly higher than students admitted traditionally. The corresponding difference between supervisor ratings was not significant. Both student and supervisor ratings indicated that the students admitted by an interview had a better relation to their supervisor and to their supervision group.

  • 1942. Ögren, ML
    et al.
    Jonsson, CO
    Sundin, EC
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Group supervision in psychotherapy: The relationship between focus, group climate, and perceived attained skill2005In: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, ISSN 0021-9762, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 373-388Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1943.
    Öhberg, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Paul, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The How or the What: The Impact of Narrative Style on Empathy2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Narratives in the forms of music or literature have traditionally been highlightedfor their ability to evoke empathy; however, the specific features of the narrativethat serve as the underlying mechanisms responsible for this effect remain unclear.The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of a narrative’s style onempathy. An experimental repeated measures research design was used with 41participants (31 female, 10 male; age range 20-63 yrs, M=30.2 yrs) that underwentthree conditions each comprised of a different stimulus (i.e., a song, a piece ofprose and a poem), with the same narrative content but differing in style. The orderof the stimuli was randomized across participants. After each stimulus, empatheticresponses were captured via self reports, measuring valence and arousal of theparticipant, as well as their perceived valence and arousal of the main character ofthe narrative. The song had a strong correlation between participant-rating andcharacter-rating on valence and arousal, thus evoking a stronger (affective)empathetic response than the other two styles of stimuli, having moderatecorrelations. The character-rating barely differed between the style of stimuli, andthe narrative first presented lowered the participants’ valence regardless of style.These findings could possibly be explained by cognitive empathy responding to thenarrative, evoking the same understanding of another person, whereas affectiveempathy seem more prone to respond to stylistic features. Future research andpossible therapeutic implications are discussed.

  • 1944.
    Öhlund, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
     Brain Areas Involved in the Retrieval of Updated Memories: The Long-Term Effects2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1945.
    Öhman, Albin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Enkvist, Hampus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Riskfaktorer för stabil insomni: Demografi, livsstil, mental ohälsa och funktionella somatiska syndrom2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Risken att drabbas av insomni har visat sig samvariera med flera demografiska och livsstilsrelaterade variabler, diagnostiserade sjukdomar och syndrom samt grad av psykisk ohälsa. Syftet med studien var att klarlägga huruvida detta samband även uppvisas för stabil insomni definierat som insomni vid två mätpunkter med tre års mellanrum. Stickprovet i studien utgjordes av 2336 personer ur normalbefolkningen i åldrarna 18-79 år. Utfallsvariablerna utgjordes av frågor om demografi, livsstil och läkarbaserade diagnoser om psykiatriska tillstånd och funktionella somatiska syndrom, samt totalvärden på validerade enkätinstrument för kvantifiering av grad av stress, utbrändhet, ångest och depression. Resultaten visade att risken för stabil insomni var förhöjd i åldrarna 18-29 år, för kvinnor, vid samtliga diagnostiserade sjukdomar och syndrom samt vid högre grad av psykisk ohälsa. För att tillhandahålla en god vård kan det därför vara nödvändigt att även adressera eventuella sömnproblem hos dessa patientgrupper, särskilt kvinnor och unga.

  • 1946.
    Öhman, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Perceived chronic stress, health and cognition2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this licentiate thesis was to examine consequences of chronic stress for stressrelated diseases and to investigate the chronic stress – cognition relationship. In the first study data covering ten years was used from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study (Nilsson et al., 1997). Based on the ratings on a stress scale, matched samples between 40 and 65 years of age were divided into a high and low stress group. The reported incidence of cardiovascular, diabetes, psychiatric, tumor, and musculoskeletal diseases wasassessed five and ten years after a baseline assessment. The incidence of diseases five years after baseline assessment showed no differences between the groups. After ten years, there was a higher incidence of psychiatric diseases in the high stress group as well as a significant effect for tumors. These results indicated that moderately elevated stress levels may have an impact on psychiatric diseases, especially depression, and possibly also some tumor diseases, but it was concluded that prolonged moderate stress does not appear to be very harmful to health in general. In the second study cognitive performance was studied in chronic stress outpatients and matched controls. A battery of cognitive tests assessing processing speed, attention, episodic-, semantic- and working memory was used. Performance decrements for thechronic stress patients were found in episodic memory, particularly in learning across repeated trials, and in tasks requiring divided attention under either encoding or retrieval of words. Performance differences were also seen in aspects of working memory, mental tempo, semantic access (letter fluency) and prospective memory. It was concluded that executive functioning may be suboptimal in chronic stress patients and that letter fluency and prospective memory tests can be useful as clinical tools when evaluating chronic stressstates. Taken together, the findings indicate that there is no clear association between moderately elevated chronic stress and increased incidence of stress related diseases, whereas certain cognitive functions such as executive functioning appear vulnerable to chronic stress.

  • 1947.
    Öhman, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Longitudinal analysis of the relation between moderate long-term stress and health2007In: Stress and Health, ISSN 1532-3005, E-ISSN 1532-2998, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 131-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main goal of the present work was to longitudinally examine consequences of long-term moderately elevated levels of stress for various health outcomes. To address this issue, data covering 10 years was used from the ongoing Swedish population-based prospective Betula Study. Based on the ratings on a validated self-reported stress scale, matched subsamples between 40 and 65 years of age were divided into a high (n = 137) and low (n = 211) stress group. The reported incidence of cardiovascular, diabetes, psychiatric, tumour and musculoskeletal diseases was assessed 5 and 10 years after baseline (baseline = 1993–1995) without contaminating effects of past health history. The incidence of diseases 5 years after baseline assessment showed no differences between the groups. After 10 years, there was a significantly higher incidence of psychiatric diseases, mainly depression in the high-stress group as well as a significant effect for tumours, although the number of cases was low. Although moderately elevated stress level may have a possible impact on psychiatric diseases especially depression and some tumours, it seems that prolonged moderate stress does not appear to be harmful to other stress-related diseases.

  • 1948.
    Öhman, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Slunga Birgander, Lisbeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Enviromental Medicine.
    Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cognitive function in outpatients with perceived chronic stress2007In: Scand J Work Environ Health, ISSN 0355-3140, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 223-232Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1949.
    Öhman, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Davidsson, Jennie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Att träna eller inte träna: En dagboksstudie om sambanden mellan fysisk aktivitet, motivation och atletisk identitet2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet för en ökad fysisk aktivitet hos befolkningen är komplext, då många faktorer påverkar en individs aktivitetsnivå. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka dagliga och generella samband mellan atletisk identitet, motivation och träningsmängd. I studien användes en dagboksdesign och data samlades in med en webbenkät varje dag under sju dagar. Studenter från tre universitet deltog och datamaterialet härrörde från 156 personer och 686 mättillfällen. Data analyserades med flernivåanalys, vilket möjliggjorde separering av effekter på två nivåer; inomindivids- och mellanindividsnivå. På inomindividsnivå predicerade identifierad reglering högre träningsmängd, vilket indikerade att internaliserade värderingar, som kan tänkas påverkas av sociala intryck, är viktiga för individers dagliga träningsmängd. Även amotivation visade ett dagöverskridande samband, och predicerade lägre träningsmängd. På mellanindividsnivå predicerade introjicerad reglering lägre träningsmängd, vilket kan förklaras av externa faktorer som associeras med urvalsgruppen. Resultatet visade en trend mot att individer med starkare atletisk identitet generellt tränade mer, detta i linje med tidigare studier. Starkare atletisk identitet visade även ett samband med mer autonoma typer av motivation, vilket teoretiskt kan förklaras av begreppens liknande processer där externa motiv integreras i individens värderingar och påverkar dennes beteende. Studien belyser värdet av att inom idrottsforskning studera samband på flera nivåer. Fler studier bör undersöka sambanden mellan olika psykologiska faktorer, för att bättre förstå hur de samvarierar och påverkar individers träningsbeteende.

  • 1950.
    Ölund, Victor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Att komma hem: Vägen till att återanpassa sig till det civila Sverige för svenska veteraner utforskad genom tolkande fenomenologisk analys2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are many obstacles that veterans experience when readjusting, something that this study aim to explore due to lacking research within the area. The main problem the five participating veterans experience is lacking understanding from society, lacking support from their closer friends and relatives, that the swedish armed forces don’t do enough and that civilian health care lack satisfactory competence. The participants also express signs of uncertainty around their self-identity when coming home, not knowing what is expected from them. Through all this the participants show compassion and care for comrades even if they themselves have experienced substance abuse and two suicide attempts. In a nutshell the participants would like to see a more educated society in order to ease the readjustment to society and that the swedish armed forces increase their responsibility for taking care about their veterans.

3637383940 1901 - 1950 of 1963
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