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  • 1901.
    Wiik, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Physical activity and physical self-perception among Nicaraguan female university students2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Most research on physical activity and physical self-perception is based on data from Western societies. The aim of this study was to investigate the level of physical activity and its relation to physical self-perception among female university students in Nicaragua. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and the Physical Self-Perception Profile (PSPP) were completed by 44 females; 70 % reported high or moderate levels of physical activity while 30 % reported low level of physical activity. The highest mean value score on the PSPP was found on the subscale physical conditioning while the lowest score was found on the subscale bodily attractiveness. There was no statistically significant correlation between level of physical activity and physical self-perception. This could be a result of cultural differences in how people perceive themselves physically in collectivistic and individualistic societies as well as gender aspects.

  • 1902.
    Wikdahl, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Samförekomst mellan miljökänsligheter och inflammationssjukdomar i luftvägarna: En tvärsnittsstudie i Kvarkenregionen2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental sensitivities are related to substantial suffering. Symptoms are medically unexplained, although likely related to individual and environmental factors. In this study, associations between inflammatory airway diseases (chronic sinusitis, allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and environmental sensitivities (self-reported and clinical chemical intolerance and sick building syndrome) were investigated, using cross-sectional data from both the Västerbotten and the Österbotten Environmental Health Study. Out of 13126 randomly selected participants from the general public, 4941 replied to questionnaires regarding environmental sensitivities. Depending on their answers, they were sorted to environ-mental sensitivity groups or a referent group. Logistic regression analyses revealed that each inflammatory airway disease was significantly more frequent (p<0,003) in participants reporting any of the investigated environmental intolerances in 15 out of 16 possible cases (odds ratios between 3,2 and 30,5), even when controlling for sex, age and smoking (odds ratios between 3,3 and 26,9). It was concluded that the investigated environmental intolerances most likely are associated with inflammatory airway diseases.

  • 1903.
    Wikgren, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Maripuu, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning.
    Nordfjäll, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hultdin, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Del-Favero, Jurgen
    VIB, Department of Molecular Genetics.
    Roos, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Department of Psychology .
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Norrback, Karl-Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Short telomeres in depression and the general population are associated with a hypocortisolemic state2012In: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 71, no 4, p. 294-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis plays a central role in stress regulation, and leukocyte telomere length (TL) has been suggested to represent a cumulative measure of stress. Depression is intimately related with stress and frequently exhibits a dysregulated HPA axis. We aimed to study the relationships between TL and biological and psychological facets of stress in recurrent major depressive disorder and controls.

    Methods: Leukocyte TL was measured in 91 subjects with recurrent major depressive disorder and 451 control subjects. Stress was assessed from both a biological perspective, by assessing HPA axis function with a weight-adjusted very-low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (DST), and a psychological perspective, with self-report questionnaires.

    Results: TL was shorter among patients compared with control subjects (277 base pairs, p = .001). Overall, short TL was associated with a hypocortisolemic state (low post-DST cortisol and high percentage of cortisol reduction after the DST) among both patients and control subjects but more pronounced among patients. This state, which was overrepresented among patients, was characterized by high familial loading of affective disorders among patients (p = .001) and high C-reactive protein levels among control subjects (p = .040). TL was also inversely associated with stress measured with the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (rs = −.258, p = .003).

    Conclusions: Short TL is associated with depression and hypocortisolism. Because hypocortisolism has been shown to develop from chronic stress exposure, our findings corroborate the concept of TL as a cumulative measure of stress and provide novel insights into the detrimental role of stress in depressive illness and the general population.

  • 1904.
    Wiklund-Hörnkvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Karlsson, Linnea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    The neural mechanisms underlying test-enhanced learning: An event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study2012In: Earli-SIG 22: Neuroscience and Education" 24th-26th May 2012, Institute of Education, London, 2012, p. 9-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considerable research in cognitive psychology has demonstrated that testing improves the performance on later retention tests, a phenomenon called the testing-effect. However, the neural mechanisms of test-enhanced learning are not well understood. The current study examined changes in functional brain networks in relation to repeated retrieval (i.e. test-enhanced learning).

    Participants (n=20) first studied 60 Swahili-Swedish word-pairs. Subsequently, they underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while being tested on each study item three times.

    Successful repeated retrieval was characterized by decreased activity in prefrontal and premotor regions and in the right caudate, compared to items not successfully retrieved at consecutive tests. Successful repeated retrieval was also characterized by increased activity in right middle temporal cortex (BA 37 & 21).

    Tentatively, these results imply that the benefits of test-enhanced learning in part is due to decreased need for executive processing along with strengthening of semantic representations.

    The current results generate novel information on the effectiveness of testing as a learning method and thus contribute to bridge the current gap between cognitive neuroscience and educational research.

  • 1905.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Brain-based teaching: behavioral and neuro-cognitive evidence for the power of test-enhanced learning2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A primary goal of education is the acquisition of durable knowledge which challenges the use of efficient pedagogical methods of how to best facilitate learning. Research in cognitive psychology has demonstrated that repeated testing during the learning phase improves performance on later retention tests compared to restudy of material. This empirical phenomenon is called the testing effect. The testing effect has shown to be robust across different kinds of material and when compared to different pedagogical methods. Despite the extensive number of published papers on the testing effect, the majority of the studies have been conducted in the laboratory. More specific, few studies have examined the testing effect in authentic settings when using course material during the progress of a course. Further, few studies have investigated the beneficial effects with test-enhanced learning by the use of neuroimaging methods (e.g. fMRI). The aim with the thesis was to investigate the effects of test-enhanced learning in an authentic educational context and how this is related to individual differences in working memory capacity (Study I and II) as well as changes in brain activity involved in successful repeated testing and long term retention (Study III).

    In study I, we examined whether repeated testing with feedback benefitted learning compared to rereading of introductory psychology key concepts in a sample of undergraduate students. The results revealed that repeated testing with feedback was superior compared to rereading both immediate after practice and at longer delays. The effect of repeated testing was beneficial for students irrespectively of WMC. In Study II, we investigated test-enhanced learning in relation to the encoding variability hypothesis for the learning of mathematics in a sample of fifth-grade children. Learning was examined in relation to both practiced and transfer tasks. No differences were found for the practiced tasks. Regarding the transfer tasks, the results gave support for the encoding variability hypothesis, but only at the immediate test. In contrast, when we followed up the durability of learning across time, the results showed that taking the same questions over and over again during the intervention resulted in better performance across time compared to variable encoding. Individual differences in WMC predicted performance on the transfer tasks, but only at the immediate test, regardless of group.

    Together, the results from Study I and Study II clearly indicate that testenhanced learning is effective in authentic settings, across age-groups and also produces transfer. Integrate current findings from cognitive science, in terms of test-enhanced learning, by the use of authentic materials and assessments relevant for educational goals can be rather easily done with vi computer based tasks. The observed influence of individual differences in WMC between the studies warrant further study of its specific contribution to be able to optimize the learning procedure.

    In Study III, we tested the complementary hypothesis regarding the mechanisms behind memory retrieval. Recurrent retrieval may be efficient because it induces representational consistency or, alternatively, because it induces representational variability - the altering or adding of underlying representations as a function of successful repeated retrieval. A cluster in right superior parietal cortex was identified as important for items successfully repeatedly retrieved Day 1, and also correctly remembered Day 7, compared to those successfully repeatedly retrieved Day 1 but forgotten Day 7. Representational similarity analysis in this region gave support for the theoretical explanations that emphasis semantic elaboration.

  • 1906.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Neural activations associated with feedback and retrieval success2017In: npj Science of Learning, E-ISSN 2056-7936, Vol. 2, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is substantial behavioral evidence for a phenomenon commonly called “the testing effect”, i.e. superior memory performance after repeated testing compared to re-study of to-be-learned materials. However, considerably less is known about the underlying neuro-cognitive processes that are involved in the initial testing phase and thus underlies the actual testing effect. Here, we investigated functional brain activity related to test-enhanced learning with feedback. Subjects learned foreign vocabulary across three consecutive tests with correct-answer feedback. Functional brain-activity responses were analyzed in relation to retrieval and feedback events, respectively. Results revealed up-regulated activity in fronto-striatal regions during the first successful retrieval, followed by a marked reduction in activity as a function of improved learning. Whereas feedback improved behavioral performance across consecutive tests, feedback had a negligable role after the first successful retrieval for functional brain-activity modulations. It is suggested that the beneficial effects of test-enhanced learning is regulated by feedback-induced updating of memory representations, mediated via the striatum, that might underlie the stabilization of memory commonly seen in behavioral studies of the testing effect.

  • 1907.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Börjesson, A
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jonsson, Bert A
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Working memory, reading comprehension and learning strategies among 5(th) grade children2010In: XIV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY (ECDP), Bologna: Medimond, 2010, p. 105-108Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the relationship between reading comprehension, working memory (WM) and learning strategies. The results revealed that working memory predicted reading comprehension, both immediate and with one week delay. Having a strategy benefits comprehension and children with high WM span outperformed low span individuals in terms of more elaborated strategies. In addition, girls used significantly more and more elaborated strategies than boys.

  • 1908.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    An fMRI study of the supportive role of feedback during test-enhanced learning2016In: ICOM-6 Conference Programme: Konferensbidrag. Abstract (Refereegranskat), 2016, 2016, p. 29-29Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considerable research in cognitive psychology has demonstrated that testing improves the performance on later retention tests (i.e., the testing-effect).

    One key factor is the inclusion of feedback which enhances the benefits. Participants (n=21) first studied 60 Swahili-Swedish word-pairs. Subsequently, they underwent fMRI while being tested on each study-item either with or without feedback.

    Contrary to no feedback, several regions were identified as a feedback-network with the strongest contribution from the bilateral MTL regions (anterior hippocampus, amygdala), insula and left IFC. Several of these responses were modulated by type of response (correct/incorrect) and repetition (1,2,3).

    These findings link the effect of feedback on learning to strengthening of semantic representations, providing novel insights about the crucial role of feedback during test-enhanced learning.

  • 1909.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Korhonen, Johan
    Faculty of Education and Welfare Studies, Åbo Akademi University, Vaasa, Finland.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Untangling the Contribution of the Subcomponents of Working Memory to Mathematical Proficiency as Measured by the National Tests: A Study among Swedish Third Graders2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, article id 1062Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with the present study was to examine the relationship between the subcomponents in working memory (WM) and mathematical performance, as measured by the National tests in a sample of 597 Swedish third-grade pupils. In line with compelling evidence of other studies, individual differences in WM capacity significantly predicted mathematical performance. Dividing the sample into four groups, based on their mathematical performance, revealed that mathematical ability can be conceptualized in terms of different WM profiles. Pupils categorized as High-math performers particularly differed from the other three groups in having a significant higher phonological ability. In contrast, pupils categorized as Low-math performers were particularly characterized by having a significant lower visuo-spatial ability. Findings suggest that it is important for educators to recognize and acknowledge individual differences in WM to support mathematical achievement at an individual level.

  • 1910.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    How to learn? The Effects of Repeated Testing with Feedback compared to Rereading of Educational Material2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An obvious way to promote acquisition of new information is to repeat the learning/encoding phase. However, recent evidence (Roediger & Butler, 2010) indicate that repeating the test phase may be even more effective, particularly when combined with feedback on response correctness.

    The aim of this ongoing study is to examine whether repeated testing with feedback benefits learning compared to rereading of introductory psychology text-book facts in an educational context. The effect was examined immediate after practice, after 18-days, and at a five-week delay in a sample of undergraduate students.

    Preliminary analyses revealed that repeated testing with feedback significantly enhanced learning compared to rereading at all delays, thus indicating that repeated retrieval enhances retention compared to repeated encoding in the short- and long-term. Learning methods including elements of repeated retrieval are important to consider by the educational system.

  • 1911.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Strengthening concept learning by repeated testing2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 10-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine whether repeated testing with feedback benefits learning compared to rereading of introductory psychology key-concepts in an educational context. The testing effect was examined immediately after practice, after 18 days, and at a five-week delay in a sample of undergraduate students (= 83). The results revealed that repeated testing with feedback significantly enhanced learning compared to rereading at all delays, demonstrating that repeated retrieval enhances retention compared to repeated encoding in the short- and the long-term. In addition, the effect of repeated testing was beneficial for students irrespectively of working memory capacity. It is argued that teaching methods involving repeated retrieval are important to consider by the educational system.

  • 1912.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Transfer in mathematical learning: a comparison study of elementary school children in an educational contextManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies in cognitive psychology have shown that repeated testing enhances learning, a phenomenon called the testing effect. The aim with the present study was to investigate the encoding variability hypothesis in relation to both practiced and transfer mathematical tasks in a sample of fifth-grade children. Learning was assessed immediately after practice, 3-days, and five weeks after initial learning. Encoding variability was manipulated by re-formulate some of the questions in one group (Variable-Test group), versus keeping them constant in a second group (Same-Test group), but with the same amount of total practice for both groups. The results gave support for the encoding variability hypothesis with regard to transfer tasks, but only at the immediate test. At the delayed tests, the encoding variability hypothesis was disclaimed. Clickers were used during both the learning phase and the following tests. Individual differences in working memory capacity predicted performance on the transfer tasks, but only at the immediate test, regardless of group.

  • 1913.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenlund, Tova
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Are episodic memory differentially related to the effects of test-enhanced learning compared to group discussions?2016In: ICOM-6 Conference Programme.: Konferensbidrag. Abstract (Refereegranskat), 2016, p. 84-84Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite compelling evidence for test-enhanced learning as superior compared to other pedagogical methods, less is known about how cognitive level affects performance.

    The beneficial effects has been ascribed to an episodic context account; in which subjects rely on the use of a temporal context while retrieving from memory.

    We examined individual differences in episodic memory in relation to different learning methods.

    Participants (n=103) were randomized to three groups: testing with feedback, group-discussion with or without feedback. The to-be-learned material was a chapter from a psychology textbook.

    Learning were assessed immediately, one and, at four weeks after initial learning.

    Results revealed that the testing-group performed significantly better across time compared to both group discussion groups. A significant positive relationship between episodic memory and learning for both group-discussion groups, but not the testing-group. The results indicates that individual differences in episodic memory is less sensitive when learning from repeated testing - suggesting that test-enhanced learning is equally beneficial for all individuals independent of cognitive ability. In contrast learning from group discussions relies more on individual differences in episodic memory, so those with better episodic memory learns better compared to those with lower episodic memory.  

     

  • 1914.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Karlsson, Linnea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Activity in left temporal-parietal regions characterizes long-term retention after repeated testing2013In: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, E-ISSN 1530-8898, Vol. 25, no Suppl., p. S114-S114Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1915. Wikström, Sofia
    et al.
    Josephsson, Staffan
    Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Nygård, Louise
    Engagement in activities: Experiences of persons with dementia and their caregiving spouses2008In: Dementia, ISSN 1471-3012, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 251-270Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1916.
    Wilhelmsson Göstas, Mona
    et al.
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, and Psychiatric Research Centre, Örebro, Sweden.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Engström, Ingemar
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, and Psychiatric Research Centre, Örebro, Sweden.
    Kjellin, Lars
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, and Psychiatric Research Centre, Örebro, Sweden.
    Self-reported anxious- and avoidant-related attachment correlated to interpersonal problems by patients starting psychotherapy2012In: E-Journal of Applied Psychology, ISSN 1832-7931, E-ISSN 1832-7931, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 9-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Attachment theory is an encompassing theory for understanding human reactions to life stressors, such as loss and separation, and interpersonal problems are common reasons for seeking psychotherapy. Psychotherapy may be an opportunity to revise insecure attachment and handle interpersonal problems. This study examined attachment styles and interpersonal problems in a clinical sample of psychotherapy patients (n = 168) at the start of psychotherapy. The main aim was to study how self-reported attachment styles, measured by the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ), correlated with interpersonal problems measured using the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP). Avoidant-related and anxious-related attachment scales correlated positively to the total IIP scores. Inconsistent with findings in non-clinical samples, specific interpersonal problems in the dominant and affiliative parts of the IIP correlated positively to both the anxious-related and the avoidant-related attachment scales. The findings imply that a challenge for the therapist at the start of psychotherapy is to balance providing security with encouraging exploration of feelings, thoughts, and behaviour in the patient’s interpersonal problems in current relationships. Exploring individual profiles of attachment styles helps to clarify motives in expressed interpersonal problems.

  • 1917.
    Wilhelmsson Göstas, Mona
    et al.
    Örebro University.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Neander, Kerstin
    Örebro University.
    Kjellin, Lars
    Örebro University.
    ‘Hard work’ in a new context: clients’ experiences of psychotherapy2013In: Qualitative Social Work, ISSN 1473-3250, E-ISSN 1741-3117, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 340-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe and gain an understanding of clients’ experiences of psychotherapy contracts and processes in cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and psychodynamic psychotherapy (PDT). Fourteen participants were interviewed after ending their psychotherapy. To get information richness they were selected with as great a variation as possible in relation to their life context. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the descriptions and the significance of the descriptions. Similarities between the two therapy orientations emerged throughout the informants’ experiences. These similarities were expressed in the two themes: The creation of a new context and The working method and the cooperation with the psychotherapist made up a whole. The psychotherapy process was described as ‘hard work’ in a new context, markedly different from the ordinary social context. From the informants’ perspective, the creation of a new context offered a possibility to give full attention, together with the psychotherapist, to oneself and to the problems one was grappling with. A salient feature was the informant’s responsibility for agreements in the psychotherapy contract, especially in relation to the number of sessions and the creation of cooperation with the psychotherapist. Irrespective of therapy orientation the therapeutic techniques were described as inextricably linked to the cooperation with the psychotherapist. An implication for practice and research from these findings is to give more weight to the influence of cooperation in psychotherapy techniques, irrespective of therapy orientation. Another implication is an awareness that the client’s knowledge of her/his difficulties, needs and desire for change, capacity to make an effort and to assume  responsibility always have to be highlighted and have an impact on the psychotherapy contract and process.

  • 1918.
    Wilhelmsson, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The relationship between coach and peer leadership and team cohesion within elite Swedish floorball players2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed to (1) examine the direct relationship between coach transformational leadership and peer transformational leadership on team cohesion within elite Swedish floorball players, (2) examine potential differences between coach leadership behaviours and peer leadership behaviours on team cohesion, and (3) examine gender differences in perceived coach leadership behaviours, peer leadership behaviours and team cohesion.  A cross-sectional design was used and data was collected through self-assessment questionnaires of transformational leadership and team cohesion from 87 elite floorball players (59 females, 28 males). Age varied from 16 to 33 years (Mage = 22.4, SD = 3.87). Regression analyses revealed that both coach and peer transformational leadership predicted task cohesion, but coach transformational leadership had a stronger influence. There was no correlation between coach or peer transformational leadership and social cohesion. Independent t-tests indicate that female athletes tend to rate higher on peer transformational leadership and task cohesion. There were no gender differences regarding coach transformational leadership and social cohesion. The results from this study are discussed and a co-operation between coach and peer transformational leadership are purposed to increase task cohesion. Further research could refine which specific coach and peer transformational leadership behaviours that correlate to team cohesion, and further clarify the role gender might play.

  • 1919.
    Wilhelmssons Göstas, Mona
    et al.
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, SE-701 82, Örebro, Sweden and Psychiatric Research Centre, Örebro County Council SE-701 16, Örebro, Sweden.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kjellin, Lars
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, SE-701 82, Örebro, Sweden and Psychiatric Research Centre, Örebro County Council SE-701 16, Örebro, Sweden.
    Increased participation in the life context: A qualitative study of clients´ experiences of problems and changes after psychotherapy2012In: European Journal of Psychotherapy and Counselling, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 365-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People use psychotherapy in different ways depending on how they perceive their problems and themselves. Exploring a person’s experiences of problems and changes after psychotherapy is important for evaluating outcomes of therapies. Based on descriptions from people with recent experiences of psychotherapy, the aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the participants’ problems before psychotherapy and of changes after psychotherapy. Fourteen participants selected based on variations in age, gender, marital status, occupation, number of sessions and psychotherapy orientation (cognitive behavioural therapy and psychodynamic psychotherapy) were interviewed after completing psychotherapy. A qualitative content analysis of the transcribed interviews was performed. Problems before psychotherapy showed a relationship between the categories overwhelming emotions, cognitive problems and problematic behaviours. The theme self-centredness captured the latent content of being so absorbed by problems that these prevent participation in the life context. Descriptions of changes were summarized in the categories emotions became balanced, cognitive functioning became evident and possibility to influence one’s behaviour, overlapping the two therapy orientations. The themes awareness of self-agency and tools to handle problems expressed the understanding of the descriptions of changes which made an optimal participation in the person’s life context possible. No differences between therapy groups were found.

  • 1920.
    Winberg, Carl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The influence of perceptual fluency on spending resources2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the possible effects of perceptual fluency on 16 participants’ (mean age: 22 years)willingness to spend different resources (e.g., time, money, etc.) was investigated. The participantscompleted a test consisting of 16 different scenarios where the participant had to choose, by using aslider, how much resources he or she was willing to spend. To explore if perceptual fluency had anyinfluence, the slider was presented either in the reading direction of the participant (easy toprocess) or in the opposite direction (more difficult to process). No significant differences indistance moved of the slider were found between the two directions. The only reliable effect wasthat distances were longer in the scenarios that were formulated as saving compared to those thatwere formulated as spending resources.

  • 1921.
    Winberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Mathematics, Technology and Science Education.
    Hedman, Leif
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Student attitudes toward learning, level of pre-knowledge and instruction type in a computer-simulation: effects on flow experiences and perceived learning outcomes2008In: Instructional science, ISSN 0020-4277, E-ISSN 1573-1952, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 269-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Attitudes toward learning (ATL) have been shown to influence students’ learning outcomes. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the ways in which the interaction between ATL, the learning situation, and the level of students’ prior knowledge influence affective reactions and conceptual change. In this study, a simulation of acid-base titrations was examined to assess the impact of instruction format, level of prior knowledge and students’ ATL on university-level students, with respect to flow experiences (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990) and perceived conceptual change. Results show that the use of guiding instructions was correlated with a perceived conceptual change and high levels of “Challenge,” “Enjoyment,” and “Concentration,” but low sense of control during the exercise. Students who used the open instructions scored highly on the “Control flow” component, but their perceived learning score was lower than that for the students who used the guiding instructions. In neither case did students’ ATL or their pre-test results contribute strongly to students’ flow experiences or their perceived learning in the two different learning situations.

  • 1922.
    Winman, Anders
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Juslin, Peter
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Subjective probability intervals: how to reduce overconfidence by interval evaluation2004In: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 30, no 6, p. 1167-1175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Format dependence implies that assessment of the same subjective probability distribution produces different conclusions about over- or underconfidence depending on the assessment format. In 2 experiments, the authors demonstrate that the overconfidence bias that occurs when participants produce intervals for an uncertain quantity is almost abolished when they evaluate the probability that the same intervals include the quantity. The authors successfully apply a method for adaptive adjustment of probability intervals as a debiasing tool and discuss a tentative explanation in terms of a naive sampling model. According to this view, people report their experiences accurately, but they are naive in that they treat both sample proportion and sample dispersion as unbiased estimators, yielding small bias in probability evaluation but strong bias in interval production.

  • 1923.
    Wirén, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johansson, Alexander
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    ACTUA!: Sudden gains i internetbehandling av depression2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Physical activity and behavioral activation has been shown in previous research to be effective in the treatment of depressive disorders. The purpose of ACTUA was to evaluate an Internet-based self-help program with therapist support via e-mail. A total of 71 individuals with major depressive disorder were randomized into four treatment groups, two of which contained physical activity (FA), two others comprised of behavioral activation (BA) and one waiting list. The treatment program consisted of eight modules and they were distributed to participants during a 12 week treatment period. Sudden gains, which is a phenomenon that is generally considered to influence the final outcome of treatment for an individual in a positive way was detected in 47 (66%) participants treatment process. A correlation between the occurrence of sudden gains and overall improvement during treatment could not be demonstrated in this study and there was no association between the occurrence of sudden gains and type of treatment. 

  • 1924.
    Wisting, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gender differences in oudour intensity rating2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Intolerance to odour and other compounds found in the surrounding environment is a frequently reported problem in industrialised countries. Women are overrepresented in illnesses associated with exposure to chemical compounds such as Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) and Chemical Intolerance (CI). The aim of this study was to investigate if there are any differences in the way women and men rate perceived intensity, pleasantness/unpleasantness and symptoms due to an exposure of an odour. Thirty‐four (20 women) participants were exposed to the odour of n‐Butanol, during the exposure the participants were asked to rate perceived odour intensity, pleasantness/unpleasantness and symptoms due to the exposure. There was a difference in the way participants rated the intensity of the odour, women tended to rate perceived intensity higher than men. The differences almost reached a statistical significance. There were no gender differences in the way they rated pleasantness/unpleasantness and symptoms. The result did not show any sign of a higher sensitization in women than in men, the perceived higher intensity in women were constant and did not increase over time.

  • 1925. Woodley, M.A
    et al.
    Figueredo, A.J
    Cabeza de Baca, T
    Fernandes, H. B. F
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wolf, P
    Black, C
    Strategic differentiation and integration of genomic-level heritabilities facilitate individual differences in preparedness and plasticity of human life history2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life history (LH) strategies refer to the pattern of allocations of bioenergetic and material resources into different domains of fitness. While LH is known to have moderate to high population-level heritability in humans, both at the level of the high-order factor (Super-K) and the lower-order factors (K, Covitality, and the General Factor of Personality), several important questions remain unexplored. Here, we apply the Continuous Parameter Estimation Model to measure individual genomic-level heritabilities (termed transmissibilities). These transmissibility values were computed for the latent hierarchical structure and developmental dynamics of LH strategy, and demonstrate; (1) moderate to high heritability of factor loadings of Super-K on its lower-order factors, evidencing biological preparedness, genetic accommodation, and the gene-culture coevolution of biased epigenetic rules of development; (2) moderate to high heritability of the magnitudes of the effect of the higher-order factors upon their loadings on their constituent factors, evidencing genetic constraints upon phenotypic plasticity; and (3) that heritability of the LH factors, their factor loadings, and the magnitudes of the correlations among factors, are weaker among individuals with slower LH speeds. The results were obtained from an American sample of 316 monozygotic (MZ) and 274 dizygotic (DZ) twin dyads and a Swedish sample of 863 MZ and 475 DZ twin dyads, and indicate that inter-individual variation in transmissibility is a function of individual socioecological selection pressures. Our novel technique, opens new avenues for analyzing complex interactions among heritable traits inaccessible to standard structural equation methods.

  • 1926.
    Woodley, Michael A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fernandes, Heitor B. F.
    Strategic and cognitive differentiation-integration effort in a study of 76 countries2014In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 57, p. 3-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phenomena of strategic and cognitive differentiation and integration (SD-IE and CD-IE) amongst life history indicators and cognitive abilities as a function of level of latent life history speed have been robustly demonstrated in individual differences samples. Here we examine a cross-national sample (N = 76 nations) with respect to ten aggregate life history indicators (birth rate, infant mortality, skin reflectance, prevalence of STDs, overall life satisfaction, life expectancy, national IQ, cranial capacity, savings rate and crime rate), all of which share substantive common variance stemming from a K-Super factor which accounts for 66.6% of the variance amongst these indicators. All indicators became significantly less strongly correlated with the super factor as the level of K increased indicating the presence of robust SD-IE effects. A 'cognitive' factor comprised of the national IQ and cranial capacity variables also exhibited differentiation as a function of increasing levels of K, suggesting the presence of CD-IE also. Consistently with the findings of individual differences studies investigating SD-IE, the degree to which the indicators loaded on the K super-factor positively mediated their sensitivity to the effect.

  • 1927.
    Woodley, Michael A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Center Leo Apostel for Interdisciplinary Studies, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    Fernandes, Heitor B.F.
    Institutes of Psychology and Genetics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Strategic differentiation - integration effort amongst the 47 prefectures of Japan2014In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 63, p. 64-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The strategic differentiation–integration effort (SD–IE) hypothesis holds that high-K (slow life history) individuals and populations are specialists with respect to domains of behavior and personality, and that the converse is true for low-K populations. Here, we examine SD–IE at the national level, amongst the 47 prefectures of Japan. Aggregate data on height, IQ, divorce, homicide rates, skin reflectance, fertility rates, income and infant mortality were used as life history indicators. Principal Axis Factor analysis revealed the presence of a K super-factor on which the first five of these loaded preferentially. A second factor loaded highly on income and fertility and a third on infant mortality. As Japan is among the highest-K countries, the extraction of three factors indicates strong underlying SD–IE. Amongst the five K super-factor variables, SD–IE confirmatory effects were recovered on all variables except IQ. The effect magnitudes were positively mediated by the K super-factor saturation of the indicators. We conclude that SD–IE appears to be highly general across different populations and measures of life-history traits. Finally, we discuss how the second and third factors appear to conform to recent social phenomena specific to the Japanese culture, namely increasing behavioral asexuality and high-quality universal health coverage.

  • 1928.
    Woodley, Michael A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Center Leo Apostel for Interdisciplinary Studies, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Figueredo, Aurelio Jose
    Brown, Sacha D.
    Ross, Kari C.
    Four successful tests of the Cognitive Differentiation-Integration Effort hypothesis2013In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 832-842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Cognitive Differentiation-Integration Effort (CD-IE) hypothesis predicts that the dimension of life history speed (K) regulates the strength of the correlation among cognitive abilities, such that individuals with higher K exhibit more weakly integrated abilities than those with lower K. It is predicted that this effect takes place independently of the level of g owing to the absence of an individual differences level correlation between K and g. CD-IE was examined using two student samples: (I) an all female sample (N = 121), using the ALHB as a measure of,K and the two SILS subtests of g; and (2) a combined male and female sample (N = 346), using a shorter three-indicator ("Trifecta") measure of K. a general creativity measure comprised of two subscales (writing and drawing "creative performance"), and the APM-18 measure of fluid cognition. A third, population-representative sample was obtained from the NLSY (N = 11,907). A K-Factor was constructed from convergent measures of subjective well-being, sociability, interpersonal trust, internal locus of control, and delay of gratification, and a g-factor was constructed from the 10 subscales of the ASVAB. A fourth sample, addressing the question of ethnic differences was collected encompassing eight different ethnic groups with a combined 107 specific ability correlations with g. An aggregate K-Factor was constructed for this sample based on convergent population-level indicators of longevity, total fertility rates and infant mortality. Utilizing the Continuous Parameter Estimation Model, in student sample I a significant CD-1E effect was found on the SILS Abstract subtest (beta=-.215), but not on the SILS Verbal subtest (beta=.069). In student sample 2, CD-IE was observed on the general creativity measure (beta=-.127), but not on the fluid cognitive ability measure (beta=-.057). Significant effects were also observed on both the written and drawing creative output subscales (beta=-.189 and -.183 respectively). In sample 3 (the NLSY), generally statistically significant but small-magnitude CD-1E effects were observed among all 10 ASVAB subtests (mean effect size beta=-.032). In sample four, a near-significant CD-IE effect was detected (beta=-.167). Controlling for subtest skew reduces the mean effect sizes across individual differences samples (beta=-.071 in the student samples, -.027 in the NLSY), but boosted it to significance in the ethnic differences sample (beta=-.179). Controlling for the skew of residuals reversed the signs of the CD-IE effects on the ASVAB Words and Comprehension subscales, and also on the SILS Verbal subscale, but amplified the magnitudes of the mean effects in the student and NLSY samples (beta=-.036 and -.131), while reducing the effect size slightly in the ethnic-differences sample (beta=-.172). In the individual differences samples, these effects were demonstrated to be unconfounded with sex of respondent and also unrelated to the Jensen effect. The apparent independence of the effect from both level of g and subtestg-loading suggests intriguing commonalities with the Lynn-Flynn effect.

  • 1929. Woodley, Michael A.
    et al.
    Figueredo, Aurelio Jose
    Dunkel, Curtis S.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Estimating the strength of genetic selection against heritable g in a sample of 3520 Americans, sourced from MIDUS II2015In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 86, p. 266-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between IQ and completed fertility among a sample of 3520 Americans from MIDUS II (1960's birth cohorts) is examined using a common factor comprised of eight cognitive ability measures, in order to determine the rate of phenotypic IQ loss due to genetic selection. Negative correlations are present in both the male and female subsamples, and are associated with a predicted loss in heritable g (g.h) of -.262 points per decade, increasing to -1.072 points when the additive effect of mutation accumulation is considered. The ability-fertility associations showed Jensen effects at the level of the whole sample (.167), and also separately for each sex (.185 and .147 for the females and males respectively). The magnitude of the expected g.h loss in this cohort due to selection is comparable to that derived from a meta-analysis of disattenuated decadal g.h declines from eight US studies (-.44 points per decade; N = 127,389). There is a Flynn effect in the US amounting to gains of 3.6 points per decade, which are concentrated on more environmentally plastic and specialized sources of ability variance (se) suggesting co-occurrent socio-ecological specialization with respect to narrower cognitive abilities in the present cohort.

  • 1930.
    Woodley, Michael A
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Figueredo, Aurelio José
    University of Arizona.
    Historical variability in heritable general intelligence: its evolutionary origins and socio-cultural consequences2013Book (Other academic)
  • 1931.
    Woodley, Michael A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Establishing an association between the Flynn effect and ability differentiation2013In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 387-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between the Flynn effect and ability differentiation is investigated in a reanalysis of published data on Estonian student cohorts tested in 1933/36, 1997/98 and 2006 on the National Intelligence Test (Must, te Nijenhuis, Must, & van Vianen, 2009). To determine whether there was a relationship we computed the vector correlation between the Flynn effects (d) and the change in the g loading (Delta g) between measurement occasions for each of the 10 NIT subtests and for each of the seven cohort comparisons, giving a total N of 70 effect sizes. The association between d and Delta g was robustly negative (indicating that the Flynn effects were negatively associated with changes in the g loading of subtests) for all cohort comparisons, with values of r ranging from -.100 to -.461 (N = 10). When all effect sizes were analyzed together, the vector correlation was found to be -.281 (p <= .05, N = 70). This indicates a significant association between the Flynn effect and ability differentiation. Possible causes of this association are discussed.

  • 1932. Woodley, Michael A.
    et al.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Charlton, Bruce G
    Possible dysgenic trends in simple visual reaction time performance in the Scottish Twenty-07 cohort: a reanalysis of Deary & Der (2005)2014In: Mankind Quarterly, ISSN 0025-2344, Vol. 55, no 1-2, p. 110-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a 2005 publication, Deary and Der presented data on both longitudinal and cross-sectional ageing effects for a variety of reaction time measures among a large sample of the Scottish population. This dataset is reanalysed in order to look for secular trends in mean simple reaction time performance. By extrapolating longitudinal aging effects from within each cohort across the entire age span via curve fitting, it is possible to predict the reaction time performance at the start-age of the next oldest cohort. The difference between the observed performance and the predicted one tells us whether older cohorts are slower than younger ones when age matched, or vice versa. Our data indicate a significant decline of 36 ms over a 40-year period amongst the female cohort. No trends of any sort were detected amongst the male cohort, possibly due to the well-known male neuro-maturation lag, which will be especially pronounced in the younger cohorts. These findings are tentatively supportive of the existence of secular declines in simple reaction time performance, perhaps consistent with a dysgenic effect. On the basis of a psychometric meta-analysis of the female reaction time decline, the g equivalent decline was estimated at -6.15 IQ points, or -1.54 points per decade.

  • 1933.
    Woodley, Michael A
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Meisenberg, Gerhard
    In the Netherlands the anti-Flynn effect is a Jensen effect2013In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 54, no 8, p. 871-876Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, 63 observations of secular IQ changes (both Flynn and anti-Flynn effects) are collected from three demographically diverse studies of the Dutch population for the period 1975-2005 (representing the 1950-1990 birth cohorts), along with data on g loadings and subtest reliabilities. The method of correlated vectors is used to explore the association between Flynn and anti-Flynn effect magnitudes, both independently and together, and the g loadings of subtests. Despite a positive vector correlation the Flynn effects are not associated with the Jensen effect (r=.307, ns, N=36), however the anti-Flynn effects are (r=.406, P=.05, N=27). Combined, the vector correlation becomes negative but non-significant (r=-.111, ns, N=63). Declines due to the anti-Flynn effect are estimated at -4.515 points per decade, whereas gains due to the Flynn effect are estimated at 2.175 points per decade. The N-weighted net of these is a loss of -1.350 points per decade, suggesting an overall tendency towards decreasing IQ in the Netherlands with respect to these cohorts. The Jensen effect on the anti-Flynn effect suggests that it may be related to bio-demographic changes within the Netherlands which have reduced 'genetic-g', despite the presence of large, parallel gains on subtests that may be relatively more sensitive to cultural-environmental improvements. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 1934.
    Woodley, Michael A
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rindermann, Heiner
    Bell, Edward
    Stratford, James
    Piffer, Davide
    The relationship between microcephalin, ASPM and intelligence: a reconsideration2014In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 44, p. 51-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the fact that the recently evolved Microcephalin and the related Abnormal Spindle-like Microcaphaly Associated (ASPM) alleles do not appear to be associated with IQ at the individual differences level, the frequencies of Microcephalin have been found to correlate strongly with IQ at the cross-country level. In this study, the association between these two alleles and intelligence is examined using a sample of 59 populations. A bivariate correlation between Microcephalin and population average IQ of r = .790 (p ≤ .01) was found, and a multiple regression analysis in which the Human Development Index, Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) lost due to Infectious diseases, DALY Nutritional deficiencies, and Würm glaciation temperature means were included revealed that Microcephalin remained a good predictor of IQ. Path analysis, with both direct and indirect paths from Microcephalin to intelligence, showed good model fit. These multivariate analyses revealed strong and robust associations between DALYs and Microcephalin, indicating that the former partially mediates the association between the latter and IQ. A second smaller correlational analysis involving ten country-level estimates of the frequencies of these two alleles collected from the 1000 genomes database replicated this pattern of results. To account for the findings of this study, we review evidence that these alleles are expressed in the immune system. Microcephalin is strongly associated with DNA repair, which indicates a special role for this allele in the intrinsic anti-viral immune response. Enhanced immune functioning may have advantaged both hunter–gatherer and agrarian societies coping with the heightened disease burden that resulted from population growth and exposure to zoonotic diseases, making it more likely that such growth and concomitant increases in intelligence could occur.

  • 1935.
    Woodley, Michael A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Center Leo Apostel for Interdisciplinary Studies, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    te Nijenhuis, Jan
    Work and Organizational Psychology, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Murphy, Raegan
    School of Applied Psychology, University College Cork, Ireland.
    Were the Victorians cleverer than us?: The decline in general intelligence estimated from a meta-analysis of the slowing of simple reaction time2013In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 41, no 6, Special Issue: SI, p. 843-850Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Victorian era was marked by an explosion of innovation and genius, per capita rates of which appear to have declined subsequently. The presence of dysgenic fertility for IQ amongst Western nations, starting in the 19th century, suggests that these trends might be related to declining IQ. This is because high-IQ people are more productive and more creative. We tested the hypothesis that the Victorians were cleverer than modern populations, using high-quality instruments, namely measures of simple visual reaction time in a meta-analytic study. Simple reaction time measures correlate substantially with measures of general intelligence (g) and are considered elementary measures of cognition. In this study we used the data on the secular slowing of simple reaction time described in a meta-analysis of 14 age-matched studies from Western countries conducted between 1889 and 2004 to estimate the decline in g that may have resulted from the presence of dysgenic fertility. Using psychometric meta-analysis we computed the true correlation between simple reaction time and g, yielding a decline of -1.16 IQ points per decade or -13.35 IQ points since Victorian times. These findings strongly indicate that with respect to g the Victorians were substantially cleverer than modern Western populations.

  • 1936.
    Woodley, Michael Anthony
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Center Leo Apostel for Interdisciplinary Research, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    te Nijenhuis, Jan
    University of Amsterdam, Work and Organizational Psychology, The Netherlands.
    Must, Olev
    University of Tartu, Department of Psychology, Estonia.
    Must, Aasa
    Estonian National Defence College, Estonia.
    Controlling for increased guessing enhances the independence of the Flynn effect from g: the return of the Brand effect2014In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 43, p. 27-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cause of the Flynn effect is one of the biggest puzzles in intelligence research. In this study we test the hypothesis that the effect may be even more independent from g than previously thought. This is due to the fact that secular gains in IQ result from at least two sources. First, an authentic Flynn effect that results from environmental improvements and should therefore be strongly negatively related to the g loading (and therefore the heritability) of IQ subtests. Second, a “Brand effect”, which results from an increase in the number of correct answers simply via enhanced guessing. As harder items should encourage more guessing, secular gains in IQ stemming from this Brand effect should be positively associated with subtest g loadings. Analysis of Estonian National Intelligence Test data collected between 1933 and 2006, which includes data on guessing, g loadings and secular IQ gains, corroborates this hypothesis. The correlation between gains via the Brand effect and g loadings is .95, as predicted. There is a modest negative association between raw secular gain magnitude and subtest g loadings (− .18) that increases to − .47 when these are controlled for the Brand effect. Applying five psychometric meta-analytic corrections to this estimate raises it to − .82 indicating that the authentic Flynn effect is substantially more independent from g than previously thought.

  • 1937.
    Woodley of Meine, Michael A.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Technische Universität Chemnitz, Chemnitz, Germany; Center Leo Apostel for Interdisciplinary Studies, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Cabeza De Baca, Tomás
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.
    Heitor B. F., Fernandes
    Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Figueredo, Aurelio-José
    Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.
    Aguirre, Mateo Peñaherrera
    Department of Psychology, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, Canada.
    Slow and steady wins the race: K positively predicts fertility in the USA and Sweden2017In: Evolutionary Psychological Science, E-ISSN 2198-9885, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 109-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nothing is presently known about the relationship between individual differences in fertility and life history (LH) speed, as measured by the K-Factor. To examine this relationship, the correlation between LH speed and the number of children was examined in two, large samples (MIDUS II and the Swedish STAGE dataset). Their association was positive and statistically significant in both cross-national samples. The association was robust with respect to statistically controlling for participant age. Nested model comparison of a Model looking only at linear effects with a second Model incorporating a quadratic term did not improve model fit in any instance, suggesting directional selection for slower LH, The heritability of the indicators comprising the K-Factor positively moderated the strength of selection, while K-Factor loading weakly negatively moderated selection strength, suggesting that K-Factor variance, as a multivariate latent construct, is not the primary target of selection. These results are consistent with fertility intentions data indicating positive correlations between slower LH and desired numbers of children. In modern environments, higher mating effort does not appear to result in more offspring, likely because of strategic interference suppressing the fertility of those with fast LH, stemming from influences that may be either endogenous (i.e., contraceptive usage) or exogenous (i.e., the presence of laws, such as alimony) to the individual.

  • 1938.
    Woodley of Menie, Michael A
    et al.
    Belgium.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The association between g and K in a sample of 4246 Swedish twins: a behavior genetic analysis2015In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 74, p. 270-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas the heritability of general intelligence (g) is very well documented, there are relatively few reports of the heritability of life history speed (K). Moreover, the correlation between g and K is of great theoretical significance. Here, we examine the heritabilities of g and K in a sample of 2123 complete Swedish twin pairs, as well as looking for evidence of common genetic variance between the two. We find a significant albeit very small correlation between relatively strong measures of g (the Wiener Matrizen Test) and K (the Mini-K; r = .03, p < .05). Controlling for attenuation by reliabilities and imperfect validity using validity generalization increased the correlation to rho = .05 (p < .05). There was no significant common additivity between g and K, however path elimination in behavior genetic structural equations modeling suggests that the small common variance is nonetheless likely to stem from shared additive genetic influences rather than from environmental influences. The implications of this are discussed. Our new estimate of the heritability of the life history in the Swedish population is a particularly significant result, as the heritability of life history speed has never before been established in non-US samples.

  • 1939.
    Woodley of Menie, Michael
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
    Dutton, Edward
    Figueredo, Aurelio-Jose
    University of Arizona.
    Carl, Noah
    Debes, Frodi
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Hertler, Steven
    Irwing, Paul
    Kura, Kenya
    Lynn, Richard
    Ulster Institute.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Meisenberg, Gerhard
    Miller, Edward
    te Nijenhuis, Jan
    University of Amsterdam.
    Nyborg, Helmuth
    Rindermann, Heiner
    Chemnitz University of Technology .
    Communicating intelligence research: media misrepresentation, the Gould Effect and unexpected forces2018In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 70, p. 80-87Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1940.
    Woodman, Tim
    et al.
    School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, UK.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Sport Development, University of Northumbria, UK.
    Hardy, Lew
    School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, UK.
    Callow, Nichola
    School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, UK.
    Glasscock, Ian
    School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, UK.
    Yuill-Proctor, Jason
    School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, UK.
    Emotions and sport performance: An exploration of happiness, hope and anger2009In: Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 08952779, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 169-188Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We conducted three experiments to examine the relationships between emotions and subcomponents of performance. Experiment 1 revealed that anger was associated with enhanced gross muscular peak force performance but that happiness did not influence grammatical reasoning performance. Following Lazarus (1991, 2000a), we examined hope rather than happiness in Experiment 2. As hypothesized, hope yielded faster soccer-related reaction times in soccer players. Experiment 3 was an examination of extraversion as a moderator of the anger-performance relationship. When angry, extraverts' peak force increased more than introverts'. Results are discussed and future research directions are offered in relation to Lazarus's framework.

  • 1941.
    Wretman, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ett vaccin mot framtida stresspåverkan?: En långtidsuppföljning av Acceptance and Commitment therapy för läkarstudenter2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1942.
    Wu, Naomi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A LONG-DISTANCE RELATIONSHIP: RECONNECTING HOTELS WITH THEIR GUESTS VIA INTUITIVE DESIGN2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Currently for travel planning, guests will research via hotel websites while still preferring to book through third-party sites, which leads to a disconnect between hotels and their guests. A chat widget artifact that is added onto the hotel’s website and linked through messaging applications was created by a start-up company, Bookboost, to bridge this gap. The current intuitiveness of the artifact and future improvements that may increase intuitiveness was investigated through a case study of user and expert analysis. 10 participants – 5 hotel staff users and 5 guest users – were sampled at hotel lobbies via systematic sampling and non-random sampling. Participants ranged in age from 18 to 65 years old, with 30% being millennials. Task analysis, an interview, and a questionnaire were used for user analysis. The researcher acted as an evaluator and examined the artifact for flaws and possible improvements using activity theory’s human-artifact model (HAM). Analyses suggest that current intuitiveness is fairly high, but there is room for improvement. There seems to be a difference between millennials and non-millennials, especially regarding the amount of time taken and preference for the artifact (versus more familiar methods for communicating with others). Interest and comfort in technology usage was a factor in intuitiveness. Generally, those more comfortable with technology had higher zone of proximal development (ZPD) scores. Improvements have been suggested that may increase artifact intuitiveness, although this was not tested due to the scope of the study. Future research can continue to examine if the suggested improvements have indeed increased intuitiveness in the artifact for users of all ages.

  • 1943.
    Wänerstam, Gustav
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Samband mellan transformellt ledarskap, arbetstillfredsställelse och brukarkvalitet2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    De positiva sambanden mellan transformellt ledarskap, arbetstillfredsställelse för personal och effektivitet i arbetet med att uppnå organisationens genomgående mål, är väl utforskade områden. De tidigare studierna har huvudsakligen gjorts inom vinstdrivande organisationer och i en mindre utsträckning hos de som är icke vinstdrivande. Generaliserbarheten mellan dessa två organisationstyper är liten då de skiljer sig åt i sina genomgående mål; generera maximal vinst mot att bidra maximalt till någon specifik del av allmännyttan. Den här kvantitativa studien undersöker de här sambanden med hjälp av tre olika självskattningsinstrument och personalen från den icke vinstdrivande organisationen hemtjänsten. I studien deltog 244 undersökningsdeltagare men en könsfördelning på 205 kvinnor (84%) och 36 män (16%). Studiens resultat indikerar på positivt signifikanta samband mellan transformellt ledarskap, arbetstillfredsställelse och hemtjänstens genomgående mål, brukarkvalitet. Det antyder att även icke vinstdrivande organisationer kan ha nytta av att tillämpa ett transformellt ledarskap.

  • 1944.
    Wänerstam, Gustav
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sambanden mellan transformellt ledarskap, arbetstillfredsställelse och brukarkvalitet2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1945.
    Wåhlin, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kihlström, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    TIDSPERSPEKTIV I RELATION TILL ÅNGEST, DEPRESSION, ORO, ÄLTANDE OCH INHIBERING2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The way we humans relate to the past, present and future reflect our personality and can be linked with our mental health. The aim of this study was to examine the relations between time perspective, depression, anxiety, worry and rumination. The aim was also to study if a deficient capacity of inhibition could be explained by worry and rumination. The study consisted of 65 participants from a non-clinical sample; 44 women and 21 men in the age of 19 to 40 years. The self report inventories included in the study was Swedish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Response Style Questionnaire and Pennstate Worry Questionnaire, a Colour-Word test measured the Stroop effect. The result indicated that worry but also rumination was the best predictors to a negative future orientation while anxiety and negative future orientation best predicted worry. Rumination was mainly explained by a negative future orientation. The results of the inhibition processes was contradictory. Further research of executive funcions, worry and rumination are needed. The authors are arguing for a stronger relationship between anxiety and depression could be found in a clinical sample. More knowledge about the underlying mechanisms of depression and anxiety is of importance for a more effective clinical treatment.

  • 1946.
    Yacoub, Jocelyne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Odor detection sensitivity and response bias in relation to aspects of health2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical intolerance (CI) means that the affected individual experience symptoms from the smell of the weak concentrations of conventional chemicals in the environment that most people are not bothered by. This study aimed to examine whether response bias (beta) and sensitivity index (d´) for odor detection correlate with self-rated health, CI, stress and distress. The questionnaires that were used to answer the question were self-rated health (SRH), CI (assessed with the Chemical Sensitivity Scale), stress (Perceived Stress Scale) and distress (Symptom Check List-90). A group of 23 adult individuals between the ages of 18 to 55 years expected to vary in degree of CI were exposed to various concentration of n-butanol for a signal detection test for about 2 hours. The data processing was done by correlational analyses. The results showed no statistically significant correlations between beta and the variables SRH, CI, stress and distress, but tendencies of significant correlations between d´ and the variables SRH, CI and stress, such that individuals who were high in CI, stress and who generally felt poorly had a lower odor sensitivity (d´). These tendencies encourage continued study of the associations with larger sample size.    

  • 1947. Yang, Junkai
    et al.
    Ouyang, Feiyi
    Holm, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Huang, Yingyu
    Gan, Lingyu
    Zhou, Liang
    Chao, Huizhen
    Wang, Mengye
    He, Mengxue
    Zhang, Sheng
    Yang, Bo
    Pan, Junhao
    Wu, Xiang
    Tapping ahead of time: its association with timing variability2018In: Psychological Research, ISSN 0340-0727, E-ISSN 1430-2772Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers have puzzled over the phenomenon in sensorimotor timing that people tend to tap ahead of time. When synchronizing movements (e.g., finger taps) with an external sequence (e.g., a metronome), humans typically tap tens of milliseconds before event onsets, producing the elusive negative asynchrony. Here, we present 24 metronome-tapping data sets from 8 experiments with different experimental settings, showing that less negative asynchrony is associated with lower tapping variability. Further analyses reveal that this negative mean-SD correlation of asynchrony is likely to be observed for sequence types appropriate for synchronization, as indicated by the statistically negative lag 1 autocorrelation of inter-response intervals. The reported findings indicate an association between negative asynchrony and timing variability.

  • 1948.
    Ybrandt, Helen
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Changes in self-image in a psychotherapy supervisor training program2009In: The Clinical Supervisor, ISSN 0732-5223, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 113-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB) was  used to assess the self-image of psychotherapists enrolled in a psychotherapy supervisor training program in the initial and final phases of their training, as well as four months after the completion of their training. Their self-image was compared to that of experienced supervisors. The results show that the self-image of the supervisor trainees changed over the course of the training. By the end of the training, their self-image was as autonomous as that of experienced supervisors. Positive self-acceptance also developed. The relation between the outcome of psychotherapy, the style of trainees’ supervisor, and changes in the self-image of the trainees is also discussed.

  • 1949.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A normative study of the Swedish adolescent drug abuse diagnosis (ADAD)2013In: Journal of Substance Use, ISSN 1465-9891, E-ISSN 1475-9942, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 138-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to provide a standardization of the use of the Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis (ADAD) among Swedish adolescents using interview self-reported and interviewer-rated problem severity. Data relating to nine life areas (medical status, school history and status, employment, social activities and peer relations, family background and relationships, psychological status and problems, legal involvement, alcohol use and drug use) were gathered from a randomized population-based sample of 847 adolescents aged 13–18 years. The results show that the effects of age, gender and geographic region were small but significant, with older adolescents, girls and adolescents in cities scoring higher for problem severity. Adolescents’ scorings were in the range “no problems” to “small problems” and the interviewer severity ratings were in the range “no real problems” to “no need for further help”. The conclusion is that individual score variations are much greater than can be attributed to age, gender or residential area. Consequently, the ADAD has the potential to serve as an instrument for assessing individual adolescents’ self-reported problems in Sweden.

  • 1950.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Risky alcohol use, peer and family relationships and legal involvement in adolescents with antisocial problems2010In: Journal of Drug Education, ISSN 0047-2379, E-ISSN 1541-4159, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 243-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine risk and vulnerability factors contributing to problems with alcohol use in adolescence. Data relating to seven life areas (medical status, school status, social relationships, family background and relationships, psychological functioning, legal involvement, and alcohol use) was gathered using the ADAD (Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis) interview. A total of 1163 Swedish adolescents (809 boys and 354 girls) between the ages of 12 and 20 years old were interviewed. All had antisocial problems and were detained at special youth homes. It was found that for those aged between 12 and 18 years, the general risk factors for alcohol use were leisure and peer problems, problems associated with family background and relationships, and criminal behavior. These results suggest that drug abuse treatment planning should focus on altering the predisposing factors that exist in these domains. It was also found that the ADAD problem areas seem to be most useful as prognostic indicators of treatment outcome for adolescents with antisocial problems who are under 18 years of age.

363738394041 1901 - 1950 of 2009
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