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  • 1901.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bolin, Lena
    Nilsson, Camilla
    Kompetensutveckling i äldreomsorgen i fyra kommuner2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under en rad år har kommunernas äldreomsorg haft möjlighet att söka statliga medel förkompetensutveckling och kvalitetsförbättring i satsningarna Kompetensstegen och Stimulansmedel.I bakgrunden finns ett ökat behov av att höja utbildningsnivån hos personalen i äldreomsorgen, attfinna nya former för kunskapsöverföring, att förbättra kvaliteten i det brukarnära arbetet och attmöta de kommande behoven av omsorg från ett ökande antal äldre. Syftet med den här studien1 varatt undersöka om de kurser, utbildningar och förändringsarbeten som bedrivits åren 2006-2009 ifyra kommuner kan relateras till hur man ser på arbetet med brukarna och kontakten med derasanhöriga och kompetensutveckling, kunskap och lärande. De fyra kommuner som deltog i studienvar Umeå, Skellefteå, Lycksele och Vännäs. Studien innehöll en kartläggning och en enkät ochutfördes i samarbete med utvecklingsansvariga i respektive kommun. Enkäten skickades till 375undersköterskor och vårdbiträden och 219 (58%) svarade. Frågeställningarna var: Finns detskillnader mellan kommunerna och kan utbildningsinsatserna och förändringsarbetet ha sambandmed hur personalen uppfattar omsorgsarbetet, lärandestrategier, lärandeklimat och användning avkunskapskällor? Resultaten pekade mot att omorganisation kan vara en orsak till vissa skillnadermellan kommunerna men att geografi och kommunstorlek inte verkade ha betydelse. Resultatenvisade också att en kombination av aktiviteter som bestod av förändringsarbete på arbetsplatsenoch kurser eller utbildningar utgjorde en markant positiv skillnad jämfört med de som enbart hadedeltagit i ett av alternativen. Slutligen diskuteras studiens bidrag till en ökad kunskap om olikaaktiviteters och insatsers betydelse när det gäller kompetensutveckling.

  • 1902.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hauer, Esther
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Learning climate and work group skills in care work2009In: Journal of Workplace Learning, ISSN 1366-5626, E-ISSN 1758-7859, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 581-594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The overall aim of the present study was to investigate the learning climate and work group skills perceived by managers and their subordinates in the municipal elderly care, prior to a development project. The specific research questions were: Are managers' and their subordinates' perceptions of the learning climate related? and Does the manager's assessment of the work group skills correlate with the work group's perception of the learning climate?

    Design/methodology/approach – A total of 12 managers and 130 of their subordinates were selected, and answered a questionnaire. The subordinates belonged to work groups with five to 19 care assistants working in elderly care. The majority of the participants were women (92 per cent). The mean age was 43 years old, range 20-63.

    Findings – Results suggest that the perception of the learning climate has a correspondence between the organisational levels (managers and their subordinates) and that there is a correspondence between managers' ratings of work group skills, in particular skills for effectively managing change, and the work groups' perception of their learning climate, in particular decision autonomy and developmental and collaborative potentials.

    Research implications/limitations – The manager sample was small and from one single organisation.

    Practical implications – The relations between the learning climate and the assssment of staff skills are important to the actions taken in order to facilitate workplace learning and development.

    Originality/value – This study contrasted the managers' assessment of skills with their work groups' perceptions of learning climate, which is quite unusual in learning climate studies.

  • 1903.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hjelte, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. UFFE, Social Services, Umeå, Sweden.
    The impact of elderly care competenceand quality improvement programme in four Swedish municipalities2013In: Journal of Vocational Education and Training, ISSN 1363-6820, E-ISSN 1747-5090, Vol. 65, no 3, p. 319-332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During a number of years Swedish municipalities have work with improvment of competence and long-term quality in elderly care. The overall aim of the present study was to compare different learning activities (workplace improvement and/or courses), and to relate these activities to learning climate, learning strategies, and perception of care quality. In addition, the effect of organisational changes was tested. Four Swedish municipalities were selected and 219 nursing assistants filled in a questionnaire (response rate, 58%). Documentation of the learning activities was collected. A two-way multivariate analysis of variance was computed to answer the research questions. The results showed that there was a main effect for learning activities and organisational change on learning climate and learning strategies, but not on the perception of care quality. A combination of courses and workplace improvement practices yielded better results compared with only one of these activities, and organisational changes had a negative effect. The results suggest that the workplace should not only be regarded as an area for non-formal training but should also be included as a part of a training programme. Organisational changes should be avoided during the programme, otherwise the expected effects of the time and effort invested may be wasted.

  • 1904.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hjelte, Jan
    The Field Research and Development Unit in Social Services, Umea Municipality, Umea, Sweden.
    Josefsson, Sara
    Unit Manager in Home Help Services, Norrköping Municipality, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Understanding eldercare users' views on quality of care and strategies for dealing with problems in Swedish home help services2017In: Health & Social Care in the Community, ISSN 0966-0410, E-ISSN 1365-2524, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 621-629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to gain a deeper understanding of eldercare users’ strategies for dealing with problems in the quality of care and care satisfaction in relation to home help services. Based on earlier research and evaluations, it was assumed that users would express satisfaction and gratitude, but also be unwilling to complain. The specific research questions were: a) What, if any, quality of care problems do the users mention?, b) How do the users explain the reasons for these problems?, and c) What strategies do the users employ to deal with these problems?

    A total of 35 interviews were conducted in November 2013 with 15 men and 20 women (66 to 92 years). The data were analysed using thematic and qualitative content analysis.

    The results showed that almost all users expressed overall satisfaction with their care. However, all but one also mentioned problems. The users stated very clearly and explicitly the reasons for these problems, and in most cases they referred to the work conditions, work organization and lack of other resources in the eldercare organization. Two strategies were commonly used to deal with these problems: trivialization and adaptation. A third strategy was expressed dissatisfaction, where the problem led to actions or plans to take action. One interpretation of the findings is that what is actually measured in official quality assessments and follow-ups may be care users’ understanding of the work conditions and work organization of eldercare. The understanding attitude may prevent them from complaining because it lowers their expectations.

  • 1905.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Pienaar, Jacobus
    Department of Psychology at Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Romeo, Marina
    University of Barcelona, Spain.
    Yepes-Baldó, Montserrat
    University of Barcelona, Spain.
    Organizational change and commitment: Effects on well-being, turnover intent and quality of care in Spanish and Swedish eldercare2018In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Frequent organizational changes have been a rule rather than an exception in many European countries for decades. The present study investigates how affective organizational commitment relates to and moderates the effects of having been exposed to organizational restructuring on employee well-being, quality of care and turnover intentions among 530 eldercare employees in Sweden and Spain. The results show that there was a main effect of employees’ experiences of being affected by change on well-being and turnover intentions but not on quality of care. Restructuring changes were moderated by affective commitment on turnover intentions. However, the buffering effect of affective commitment in terms of protecting employees from turnover intentions was weak.

  • 1906.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Strandberg, Sara
    Rehabilitation Centre, Kalmar, Sweden .
    Showering is more than resistance: cognitive interview sequences in residental homes for elderly clients with dementia2007In: Qualitative Research in Psychology, ISSN 1478-0887, Vol. 4, no 1/2, p. 15-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An interview method, based on the cognitive interview, was used to capture critical work situations in elderly care, in this case showering elderly clients suffering from dementia. Generally, this experience causes clients to become agitated and aggressive. Twelve nursing assistants participated in individual and group interviews. This study explored whether it was possible to distinguish different sequences and themes in the staff descriptions of shower situations. The results were analyzed with a grounded theory approach and showed that it was possible to distinguish seven sequences in the shower situation, each with different themes and with diverse qualities. The themes showed that there were sequences that contained cooperation, participation, and satisfaction. Two sequences were typically met with resistance. This study also comments on the usefulness of the results and the interview method with respect to education planning and clinical practice.

  • 1907.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Changes in commitment to change among leaders in home help services2015In: Leadership in Health Services, ISSN 1751-1879, E-ISSN 1751-1887, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 216-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of the this study was to explore the development of commitment to change among leaders in the home help services during organizational change and to study this development in relation to workload and stress. During organizational change initiatives, commitment to change among leaders is important to ensure the implementation of the change. However, little is known of development of commitment of change over time. Design/methodology/approach: The study used a qualitative design with semi-structured interviews with ten leaders by the time an organizational change initiative was launched and follow-up one year later. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze the interviews. Findings: Commitment to change is not static, but seems to develop over time and during organizational change. At the first interview, leaders had a varied pattern reflecting different dimensions of commitment to change. One year later, the differences between leaders’ commitment to change was less obvious. Differences in commitment to change had no apparent relationship with workload or stress. Research limitations/implications: The data were collected from one organization, and the number of participants were small which could affect the results on workload and stress in relation to commitment to change. Practical implications: It is important to support leaders during organizational change initiatives to maintain their commitment. One way to accomplish this is to use management team meetings to monitor how leaders perceive their situation. Originality/value: Qualitative, longitudinal and leader studies on commitment to change are all unusual, and taken together, this study shows new aspects of commitment.

  • 1908.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The importance of leadership style and psychosocial work environment to staff-assessed quality of care: implications for home help services2014In: Health & Social Care in the Community, ISSN 0966-0410, E-ISSN 1365-2524, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 461-468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work in home help services is typically conducted by an assistant nurse or nursing aide in the home of an elderly person, and working conditions have been described as solitary with a high workload, little influence and lack of peer and leader support. Relations between leadership styles, psychosocial work environment and a number of positive and negative employee outcomes have been established in research, but the outcome in terms of quality of care has been addressed to a lesser extent. In the present study, we aimed to focus on working conditions in terms of leadership and the employee psychosocial work environment, and how these conditions are related to the quality of care. The hypothesis was that the relation between a transformational leadership style and quality of care is mediated through organisational and peer support, job control and workload. A cross-sectional survey design was used and a total of 469 questionnaires were distributed (March-April 2012) to assistant nurses in nine Swedish home help organisations, including six municipalities and one private organisation, representing both rural and urban areas (302 questionnaires were returned, yielding a 65% response rate). The results showed that our hypothesis was supported and, when indirect effects were also taken into consideration, there was no direct effect of leadership style on quality of care. The mediated model explained 51% of the variance in quality of care. These results indicate that leadership style is important not only to employee outcomes in home help services but is also indirectly related to quality of care as assessed by staff members.

  • 1909.
    Westerberg, Sandra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sjöberg, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    EFFEKT AV ENSTAKA PULSHÖJANDE AKTIVITET PÅ ARBETSMINNESKAPACITET2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare studier har visat på ett positivt samband mellan konditionsträning och förbättrade minnesfunktioner Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka den direkta effekten av en enstaka pulshöjande aktivitet på arbetsminnet. Detta gjordes genom en kvantitativ interventionsstudie där deltagarnas prestation på ett arbetsminnestest (Digit Span Backwards) jämfördes före och efter ett enstaka träningstillfälle. Träningen innefattade elva minuter cykling på en träningscykel. Deltagarna bestod av åtta studenter i åldern 21-34 år. Deltagarna förväntades uppvisa statistiskt signifikant bättre arbetsminnesprestation vid post-testet jämfört med deras prestation vid pre-testet. Resultatet visade inte på en statistiskt signifikant skillnad i prestation vid pre- och post-test. Vi jämförde även prestationen mellan deltagarna som intagit koffein och de som inte intagit koffein, här fanns en tydlig men inte heller signifikant skillnad.

  • 1910.
    Westerlund, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Simma, Maria
    Det gäller att vara bestämd och verkligen vila, och familjen måste acceptera att det är så det är: Upplevelser av MS-fatigues påverkan på familjelivet2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fatigue är ett av de vanligaste och mest besvärande symtomen hos personer som ärdiagnostiserade med multipel skleros (MS). Många av de som drabbas av MS är mitt ilivet och lever i familj. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka upplevelser av att levamed MS-fatigue i familj. Nio semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med MS-sjukapersoner som upplevde fatigue som ett av sina mest framträdande symtom. Intervjuernaanalyserades med tematisk analys. Analysen utmynnade i tre huvudteman: Att lärakänna sig själv igen, Familjens förståelse för min trötthet är helt avgörande och Vi måstejobba aktivt för att det ska fungera. Resultatet visade hur deltagarna beskriver sina egnasamt deras partners anpassning till de nya förutsättningarna som avgörande för hur välfamiljelivet fungerar. Vidare visade sig fatigue leda till både positiva och negativakonsekvenser för deltagarnas upplevda föräldraskap. I studien diskuteras fatigue som ettsymtom vars konsekvenser behöver förstås i den kontext det uppstår i och inte som ettisolerat symtom. Vidare föreslås ett mer utbrett familjeperspektiv i de vårdinsatser somerbjuds för MS-patienter.

  • 1911. Westfelt, Petter
    et al.
    Hedman, Leif
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindkvist, Mikael Axelsson
    Enochsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Fellander-Tsai, Li
    Schmidt, Peter Thelin
    Training nonanesthetist administration of propofol for gastrointestinal endoscopy in scenario-based full-scale hybrid simulation - a pilot study2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, ISSN 0036-5521, E-ISSN 1502-7708, Vol. 48, no 11, p. 1354-1358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. The use of nonanesthetist-administered propofol (NAAP) in GI endoscopy has long been controversial. In the setting of NAAP, acute situations can develop during endoscopy and thus training before starting with NAAPs is considered crucial. The aim was to evaluate a pilot study on crew resource management (CRM)-based training of teams of endoscopists and endoscopy nurses in NAAP in a full-scale hybrid simulation consisting of a full-scale human patient simulator and an endoscopy simulator. Our hypothesis was that the training would increase the self-efficacy of the participants. Material and methods. Four scenarios were created, each with typical side effects of propofol administration. All scenarios included the need for prompt decision-making and treatment. Colonoscopy, gastroscopy or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) cases were assigned to the course participants in coherence with their main clinical expertise in order to facilitate situated and contextualized training. Twenty-one participants (ten doctors and eleven nurses) completed a questionnaire on self-efficacy before and after the course. A questionnaire regarding the quality and yield of the course was also completed. Results. For all participants, the self-efficacy score was 26.0 (24.0-28.0; interquartile range) before training and 30.0 (27.0-30.5) after training (p = 0.0003). The ten doctors had a self-efficacy score before training of 26.5 (25.0-29.5) and 30.0 (29.0-33.0) after (p = 0.0078). The eleven nurses scored 24.0 (22.0-26.0) before and 28.0 (27.0-30.0) after training (p = 0.0098). Conclusions. Systematic target focused scenario-based training with hybrid simulation of NAAP in endoscopy resulted in increased self-efficacy in both nurses and physicians.

  • 1912.
    Westin, Kerstin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Eriksson, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Gun, Lidestav
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Karppinen, Heimo
    University of Helsinki.
    Haugen, Kataria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Individual forest owners in context2017In: Globalisation and change in forest ownership and forest use: natural resource management in transition / [ed] E. Carina H. Keskitalo, Ume: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, p. 57-95Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, changes that have taken place on an overarching level in society, such as globalisation, supranational agencies, privatisation and restitution, are discussed from the forest owners' perspective. The forces influencing forest owners and forest ownership as described in Chap. 2 in this volume are scrutinised and interpreted here on a micro level. Urbanisation, economic restructuring, demographic change and new ownership constellations are both drivers and consequences of changes in lifestyles, forest owner identity, place attachment and attitudes to the forest resource.

  • 1913.
    Westin, Kerstin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM).
    Jansson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE). Lund University School of Economics and Management, Sweden.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The importance of socio-demographic characteristics, geographic setting, and attitudes for adoption of electric vehicles in Sweden2018In: Travel Behaviour & Society, ISSN 2214-367X, E-ISSN 2214-3688, Vol. 13, p. 118-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the number of different types of EVs is increasing, they still constitute only a small share of the total vehicle market. There are a number of barriers to car owners' adoption of an EV: travel needs, charging infrastructure, the individual car owner's socio-economic characteristics, attitudinal factors, and environmental concern. In this study, the characteristics and geographic location of all private car owners in Sweden (N = 4,447,118) are charted. Through analysis of survey data (N = 1192), the importance of socio-demographic attributes, geographic conditions, car interest, personal and social norms, and environmental concern is estimated. Mapping EV ownership shows that, so far, EV adoption has mainly occurred in metropolitan areas and also to some extent in hotspots outside the metropolitan areas, and that these hotspots are tourist regions that may be exposed to EVs via, for example, Norwegian tourists in the Swedish case. Logistic regression analyses show that age and education level have positive impacts on EV ownership. Residential area also has an influence to some extent, pointing to a slight neighborhood effect in EV adoption. However, the most important factor influencing EV ownership is the individual's personal norms. In addition to showcasing EV adoption patterns in Sweden, the contribution of this study is to point to the importance of the attitudinal factor of personal norm even when geographical conditions and socio-demographic characteristics are controlled for. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  • 1914.
    Westman, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    ADHD hos vuxna: Uppföljning ett år efter utredning2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att följa upp det kliniska utfallet för vuxna som genomgått en neuropsykiatrisk utredning och fått diagnosen Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) efter ett år, samt att ta reda på hur patienterna upplevt utredningsprocessen. 16 personer som utretts inom ramarna för ett samverkansprojekt i Umeå följdes upp med avseende på självupplevd symtomnivå och kognitiva funktioner med fokus på ADHD‐relaterad problematik. Deltagarnas upplevelse av utredningsprocessen undersöktes med hjälp av en halvstrukturerad intervju.

    Resultaten visade minskad symtomnivå och förbättrad kognitiv prestation, framför allt för test som mäter snabbhet.  Deltagarna var till stor del nöjda med utredningsförfarandet medan de upplevde vissa brister i åtföljande åtgärder och uppföljning. Utredningen bidrog enligt deltagarna till förändringar på ett personligt och relationellt plan medan mer genomgripande förändringar i vardagen, såsom förbättring av arbetssituationen eller i form av stödjande/vårdande kontakter med myndigheter och vårdgivare upplevdes svårare att uppnå. Ytterligare utveckling av samordnade insatser och konkreta åtgärder utifrån utredningsunderlaget skulle kunna bidra till att nå ökad egenförsörjning och livskvalitet för vuxna med ADHD.

  • 1915.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Arbetslagshandledning alternativt konsultation i arbetslag: Vad innebär dessa professionella samarbetsformer?2003In: Psykisk hälsa, ISSN 0033-3212, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 123-137Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1916.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Att växa till vuxen - utveckling genom behov, krav och begär1996In: Själens vård och psykologin: En bok om den nya själavården och Göte Bergsten / [ed] Carl-Erik Brattemo och Sixten Lundgren, Stockholm: Verbum Förlag AB , 1996, p. 184-204Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1917.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Barns utveckling av temporal struktur: Exemplifierat genom innebörden av begreppet tid i olika faser av personlighetsutvecklingen2002In: Mellanrummet - Nordisk tidskrift för barn- och ungdomspsykoterapi, ISSN 1404-5559, no 6, p. 74-94Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1918.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    En grupphandledningsmodell på psykodynamisk grund för arbetslag2002In: Vart leder handledning? En lägesbeskrivning efter två decennier: Minnesskrift från PHI / [ed] Britt Wiberg, Stockholm: PsykoterapiHandledarnas Intresseförening , 2002, p. 65-87Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1919.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Förord1995In: Gestaltterapi på svenska / [ed] Inger Mannerstråle, Stockholm: Wahlström & Widstrand , 1995, p. 7-11Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1920.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hur jag blir ett jag1988In: Barndomen / [ed] E. Bylund, Bjästa: CEWE-Förlaget , 1988, p. 19-30Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1921.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    I begynnelsen - barnets första levnadstimme2001In: Insikten, ISSN 1400-0936, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 46-54Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1922.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    I begynnelsen var relationen... eller "själva livet är en interaktion"1993In: S:t Lukasbrevet, ISSN 1101-3559, no 2, p. 5-25Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1923.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The first hour of life: description of the early reciprocal interaction : mother-infant behaviour and development of their mutual relationship1990Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The immediate post partum period may be particularly important for the developing relationship between mother and infant. This report consists of two studies: the first study (paper I) gives descriptions of the interaction between infants and their parents during the first hour post partum and the second study (papers II-IV) in this report examines the effect of extra contact during the first hour following delivery.

    In the first, descriptive study, the study group consisted of 12 families, who were videotaped immediately after the birth of their infant. The aims of this study were to examine the absolute first contact between the newborn and its parents and to test Mahler's theory (1975) of the normal autistic phase. The videotapes were analysed by independent observers, who have examined the activities of the infants, the mothers, and the fathers with special emphasis on interaction. The typical process of activity development is presented and commented on and one case study is described in detail as an example (in Swedish in Appendix IV of paper I). The newborn's own capacity of intentionality and interaction through movements and sounds gives the mother a feeling of being the person who is sought by the infant during the first post partum hour. As this typical process is one of activity and of non-verbal interaction, it seems more appropriate to call this period a turning point phase or a phase of reciprocal adjustment immediately after delivery rather than a normal autistic phase as it was termed by Mahler.

    In the second, longitudinal, prospective study, an extra naked skin-to-skin contact and suckling contact, during 15-20 minutes during the first hour post partum, was given to 22 primiparous mothers and their infants (P+ group). A control group of 20 primiparous mothers and their infants received routine care immediately after delivery (P group). The aim of the study was to examine what possible influence extra contact, in contrast to routine care, might have on the behaviour of mother and infant and on the development of their mutual relationship, also taking the sex of the infant into account. Follow-up studies were made at 36 hours, 3 months, 1 year, and 3 years after the birth of each infant. In this thesis the results of the 1-year and 3-year follow-up studies are included, both presenting main effects between the experimental group and the control group and effects in relation to boys and girls. The results of this study are discussed to some extent in relation to Mahler's theory of symbiosis and individuation.

  • 1924.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The first post partum hour: a descriptive study of the activities of the newborn, the mother, the father, and their interaction1990Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of the present study is to examine the absolute first contact between the newborn and its parents during the time that the infant is lying on its mother's chest and abdomen immediately after birth. This examination is done in two ways: by seeing (observing) the first contact between the newborn and its parents. Hie activities of the infants, the mothers, the fathers, and their interaction have been observed, described, and analysed; and by hearing (listening to) how the parents verbalize the process of giving birth to and having a child. Another aim of this study is to test the theory of the normal autistic phase, which Margaret S. Mahler et al (1975) has theorized. In order to accomplish these aims, videotape recordings were made of twelve newborns and their parents starting immediately after the infant was delivered and the midwife had placed it on its mother's chest and abdomen. Later, these videotapes were systematically analysed. All the infants were very active and also remarkably bright and lively directly after birth. Most of them became relatively calm when they were placed on the mother's chest and it seemed as if they were carefully trying to adapt themselves to their new surroundings. Hie infants varied as to degree of activity, but all infants followed a strict process of development during their first hour of life, which consisted of the following stages: birth cry, rest/passivity, awakening/eye-to-eye-contact, mouth movements, crawling movements, grasping movements, seeking movements and finally sucking its mother's breast. Hie interaction between the newborn and its parents started immediately after delivery. Hie most common and clear response of the newborn infant to the parents' activities was direct reactions to touch. When the infant cried or whimpered the parents tried to comfort or help it in various ways, for example the mother rocked and cradled the infant or answered it with baby-talk, other sounds or words. The mother and the father sometimes tried to verbalize the infant's cry or whimpering by talking for the infant. The processes of the newborn and their parents were mutual and parallel. This early non-verbal interaction between the newborn infant and its parents could in psychological terms be named an early "coining" or emotional imprinting, in which both the infant and the parents confirm each other. The newborns own capacity of intentionality and early interaction through movements and sounds contradicts a normal autistic phase, in Mahler's full sense of the word, during these infants' first hour of life.

  • 1925.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tiden och identiteten, del 1: Ett utvecklingsperspektiv1999In: Insikten, ISSN 1400-0936, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 61-69Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1926.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tiden och identiteten, del 2: Tidsuppfattning i olika kliniska tillstånd1999In: Insikten, ISSN 1400-0936, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 65-68Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1927.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vart leder handledning? En lägesbeskrivning efter två decennier: Minnesskrift från PHI2002Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 1928.
    Wiberg, Britt
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aastad, Johanna
    Lindqvist, Maria
    Det nyfödda barnets samspel med sina föräldrar – belyst genom begreppen medvetandetillstånd och intentionalitet2002In: Insikten, ISSN 1400-0936, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 36-45Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1929.
    Wiberg, Britt
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    de Chateau, Peter
    Effets à long terme sur le comportement mère-enfant d'un contact supplémentaire pendant la première heure du post-partum: Plan de l'ètude et méthodes1985In: L'enfant dans sa famille: Enfants dans la tourmente: parents de demain / [ed] E.J. Anthony & C. Chiland, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, Le fil rouge , 1985, 7, p. 137-164Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1930.
    Wiberg, Britt
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sircova, Anna
    DIS Copenhagen.
    Wiberg, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Balanced time perspective: developing empirical profile and exploring its stability over time2017In: Time perspective: theory and practice / [ed] Aleksandra Kostić, Derek Chadee, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, p. 63-95Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Balanced time perspective (BTP) is characterized by flexible switching between a person's past, present and future time orientations, depending on situational demands, personal resources, experiences, and social evaluations. The present study aimed to explore the psychological characteristics of people with a BTP profile and attain a deeper understanding of the BTP construct. Seven people with BTP profiles were investigated using in-depth interviews, self-report instruments, and a projective test. By testing the participants on two occasions within an 18-month interval, we investigated the stability of BTP. Analyses showed that participants were aware of the "now" and had a synchronicity between the present and the past, and also between the present and the future. Results indicated a degree of temporal stability in the BTP profile and that people's interpretations and interactions within the surrounding context of events influences their time perspectives.

  • 1931.
    Wiberg, Britt
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thurfjell, Inger
    Lefvert, Harriet
    Depression - Ett förhållningssätt till livet eller en kärleksgåva till den/det frånvarande: Beskrivning och utvärdering av en grupphandledningsmodell för kvinnor med depressionsreaktioner1999In: Psykisk hälsa, ISSN 0033*3212, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 314-332Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1932.
    Wiberg, Britt
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Villemoes, Palle
    Godkännande - Underkännande i psykoterapeututbildning1997In: Insikten, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 39-45Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1933.
    Wiberg, Britt
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sircova, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A qualitative and quantitative study of seven persons with balanced time perspective (BTP) according to S-ZTPI2012In: 1st international conference on time perspective and research: converging paths in psychology time theory and research / [ed] Maria Paula Paixao, Victor E.C. Ortuno, Pedro Cordeiro, Rute David, ESPACOBRANCO , 2012, p. 120-120Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The theoretical notion of balanced time perspective (BTP) has been suggested by a number of authors and some attempts to operationalize BTP (Boniwell, 2005; Drake, Duncan, Sutherland, Abernethy & Henry, 2008; Sircova & Mitina, 2008; Boniwell, Osin, Linley & Ivanchenko, 2010) has been done. The aim of the present study was to get a deeper understanding of the BTP-concept by studying seven BTP-persons with both interviews and self-rating scales (e.g. SCL-90, Life Events scale, Scales of Psychological Well-Being (C. Ryff) and Satisfaction with Life Scale (E.Diener) at two occasions. Swedish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI) (Carelli, Wiberg & Wiberg, 2011) was administered in order to study the stability and change in BTP-level. The results showed a great stability in the BTP-level (Wiberg, Sircova, Wiberg& Carelli, in press), although a small change was observed. The 14 interviews were analyzed according to Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). The result shows a consciousness about the "now" among the participants and a synchronicity between the present and the past and also between the present and the future. The results give strength to a holistic present scale (Zimbardo & Boyd, 2008) and an "extended now".

  • 1934.
    Wiberg, Britt
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Betydelsen av kunskap och medvetenhet om subjektiv tidsuppfattning2015In: SeniorPsykologen, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 12-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1935.
    Wiberg, Britt
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Betydelsen av kunskap och medvetenhet om subjektiv tidsuppfattning hos individer vid bedömning, behandling och i grupper och organisationer2015In: Seniorpsykologen, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 12-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1936.
    Wiberg, Marie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Sircova, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Operationalizing balanced time perspective in a Swedish sample2012In: The International Journal of Educational and Psychological Assessment, ISSN 2094-0734, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 95-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Past research suggests that biases in temporal orientation may have systematic effects ongoal-directed behavior and that physical and mental well-being is associated with balanced time perspective (BTP, Zimbardo and Boyd, 1999). The aim of this study was to examine different operationalizations of the BTP, and to present an alternative proposal in which BTP is measured as a multidimensional, rather than a binary, construct. Two versions of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) were administered to a sample of 502 individuals. The proposed operationalization shows important advantages in terms of ecological validity of the multidimensional definition, sample independency and possibility to adjust for country differences. Our proposal may also have practical implications both for individuals and groups, e.g. in working teams, psychological counseling, psychotherapy and when recruiting personal forleading positions.

  • 1937.
    Widlund Jakobsson, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Att identifiera sig som judinna: En kvalitativ studie med unga svenska kvinnor2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning visar att ungdomar med minoritetstillhörighet möter andra utmaningar i identitetsskapande än ungdomar med enkom majoritetstillhörighet. Trots sådan kunskap finns få psykologiska studier som undersöker upplevelser representerade hos den svenska minoritetsgruppen judar. Studiens syfte var att lyfta berättelser om vilken betydelse det har för sex unga svenska kvinnor att identifiera sig som judinnor samt att analysera deras berättelser ur ett psykologiskt identitetsperspektiv. Teorier om minoritets- och majoritetsgruppers interaktionsmönster samt teorier om social identitet utgjorde studiens bakgrund. Sex personer som identifierade sig som kvinnor, svenskar och judinnor, deltog i telefonintervjuer. Intervjumaterialet bearbetades genom tematisk analys vilket genererade huvudtemat Jag hör hemma på flera ställen men ibland undrar jag om jag hör hemma någonstans”. I studien diskuteras hur dubbel kulturell tillhörighet kan upplevas beroende på kontextuella förutsättningar, hur delaktighet i gemenskaper kan underlätta i identitetsskapande samt hur upplevelser av att vara annorlunda kan ha en central roll i identitetsutvecklingen hos unga judinnor.

  • 1938.
    Wiik, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Physical activity and physical self-perception among Nicaraguan female university students2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Most research on physical activity and physical self-perception is based on data from Western societies. The aim of this study was to investigate the level of physical activity and its relation to physical self-perception among female university students in Nicaragua. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and the Physical Self-Perception Profile (PSPP) were completed by 44 females; 70 % reported high or moderate levels of physical activity while 30 % reported low level of physical activity. The highest mean value score on the PSPP was found on the subscale physical conditioning while the lowest score was found on the subscale bodily attractiveness. There was no statistically significant correlation between level of physical activity and physical self-perception. This could be a result of cultural differences in how people perceive themselves physically in collectivistic and individualistic societies as well as gender aspects.

  • 1939.
    Wikdahl, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Samförekomst mellan miljökänsligheter och inflammationssjukdomar i luftvägarna: En tvärsnittsstudie i Kvarkenregionen2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental sensitivities are related to substantial suffering. Symptoms are medically unexplained, although likely related to individual and environmental factors. In this study, associations between inflammatory airway diseases (chronic sinusitis, allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and environmental sensitivities (self-reported and clinical chemical intolerance and sick building syndrome) were investigated, using cross-sectional data from both the Västerbotten and the Österbotten Environmental Health Study. Out of 13126 randomly selected participants from the general public, 4941 replied to questionnaires regarding environmental sensitivities. Depending on their answers, they were sorted to environ-mental sensitivity groups or a referent group. Logistic regression analyses revealed that each inflammatory airway disease was significantly more frequent (p<0,003) in participants reporting any of the investigated environmental intolerances in 15 out of 16 possible cases (odds ratios between 3,2 and 30,5), even when controlling for sex, age and smoking (odds ratios between 3,3 and 26,9). It was concluded that the investigated environmental intolerances most likely are associated with inflammatory airway diseases.

  • 1940.
    Wikgren, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Maripuu, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning.
    Nordfjäll, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hultdin, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Del-Favero, Jurgen
    VIB, Department of Molecular Genetics.
    Roos, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Department of Psychology .
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Norrback, Karl-Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Short telomeres in depression and the general population are associated with a hypocortisolemic state2012In: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 71, no 4, p. 294-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis plays a central role in stress regulation, and leukocyte telomere length (TL) has been suggested to represent a cumulative measure of stress. Depression is intimately related with stress and frequently exhibits a dysregulated HPA axis. We aimed to study the relationships between TL and biological and psychological facets of stress in recurrent major depressive disorder and controls.

    Methods: Leukocyte TL was measured in 91 subjects with recurrent major depressive disorder and 451 control subjects. Stress was assessed from both a biological perspective, by assessing HPA axis function with a weight-adjusted very-low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (DST), and a psychological perspective, with self-report questionnaires.

    Results: TL was shorter among patients compared with control subjects (277 base pairs, p = .001). Overall, short TL was associated with a hypocortisolemic state (low post-DST cortisol and high percentage of cortisol reduction after the DST) among both patients and control subjects but more pronounced among patients. This state, which was overrepresented among patients, was characterized by high familial loading of affective disorders among patients (p = .001) and high C-reactive protein levels among control subjects (p = .040). TL was also inversely associated with stress measured with the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (rs = −.258, p = .003).

    Conclusions: Short TL is associated with depression and hypocortisolism. Because hypocortisolism has been shown to develop from chronic stress exposure, our findings corroborate the concept of TL as a cumulative measure of stress and provide novel insights into the detrimental role of stress in depressive illness and the general population.

  • 1941.
    Wiklund-Hörnkvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Karlsson, Linnea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    The neural mechanisms underlying test-enhanced learning: An event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study2012In: Earli-SIG 22: Neuroscience and Education" 24th-26th May 2012, Institute of Education, London, 2012, p. 9-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considerable research in cognitive psychology has demonstrated that testing improves the performance on later retention tests, a phenomenon called the testing-effect. However, the neural mechanisms of test-enhanced learning are not well understood. The current study examined changes in functional brain networks in relation to repeated retrieval (i.e. test-enhanced learning).

    Participants (n=20) first studied 60 Swahili-Swedish word-pairs. Subsequently, they underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while being tested on each study item three times.

    Successful repeated retrieval was characterized by decreased activity in prefrontal and premotor regions and in the right caudate, compared to items not successfully retrieved at consecutive tests. Successful repeated retrieval was also characterized by increased activity in right middle temporal cortex (BA 37 & 21).

    Tentatively, these results imply that the benefits of test-enhanced learning in part is due to decreased need for executive processing along with strengthening of semantic representations.

    The current results generate novel information on the effectiveness of testing as a learning method and thus contribute to bridge the current gap between cognitive neuroscience and educational research.

  • 1942.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Brain-based teaching: behavioral and neuro-cognitive evidence for the power of test-enhanced learning2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A primary goal of education is the acquisition of durable knowledge which challenges the use of efficient pedagogical methods of how to best facilitate learning. Research in cognitive psychology has demonstrated that repeated testing during the learning phase improves performance on later retention tests compared to restudy of material. This empirical phenomenon is called the testing effect. The testing effect has shown to be robust across different kinds of material and when compared to different pedagogical methods. Despite the extensive number of published papers on the testing effect, the majority of the studies have been conducted in the laboratory. More specific, few studies have examined the testing effect in authentic settings when using course material during the progress of a course. Further, few studies have investigated the beneficial effects with test-enhanced learning by the use of neuroimaging methods (e.g. fMRI). The aim with the thesis was to investigate the effects of test-enhanced learning in an authentic educational context and how this is related to individual differences in working memory capacity (Study I and II) as well as changes in brain activity involved in successful repeated testing and long term retention (Study III).

    In study I, we examined whether repeated testing with feedback benefitted learning compared to rereading of introductory psychology key concepts in a sample of undergraduate students. The results revealed that repeated testing with feedback was superior compared to rereading both immediate after practice and at longer delays. The effect of repeated testing was beneficial for students irrespectively of WMC. In Study II, we investigated test-enhanced learning in relation to the encoding variability hypothesis for the learning of mathematics in a sample of fifth-grade children. Learning was examined in relation to both practiced and transfer tasks. No differences were found for the practiced tasks. Regarding the transfer tasks, the results gave support for the encoding variability hypothesis, but only at the immediate test. In contrast, when we followed up the durability of learning across time, the results showed that taking the same questions over and over again during the intervention resulted in better performance across time compared to variable encoding. Individual differences in WMC predicted performance on the transfer tasks, but only at the immediate test, regardless of group.

    Together, the results from Study I and Study II clearly indicate that testenhanced learning is effective in authentic settings, across age-groups and also produces transfer. Integrate current findings from cognitive science, in terms of test-enhanced learning, by the use of authentic materials and assessments relevant for educational goals can be rather easily done with vi computer based tasks. The observed influence of individual differences in WMC between the studies warrant further study of its specific contribution to be able to optimize the learning procedure.

    In Study III, we tested the complementary hypothesis regarding the mechanisms behind memory retrieval. Recurrent retrieval may be efficient because it induces representational consistency or, alternatively, because it induces representational variability - the altering or adding of underlying representations as a function of successful repeated retrieval. A cluster in right superior parietal cortex was identified as important for items successfully repeatedly retrieved Day 1, and also correctly remembered Day 7, compared to those successfully repeatedly retrieved Day 1 but forgotten Day 7. Representational similarity analysis in this region gave support for the theoretical explanations that emphasis semantic elaboration.

  • 1943.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Neural activations associated with feedback and retrieval success2017In: npj Science of Learning, E-ISSN 2056-7936, Vol. 2, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is substantial behavioral evidence for a phenomenon commonly called “the testing effect”, i.e. superior memory performance after repeated testing compared to re-study of to-be-learned materials. However, considerably less is known about the underlying neuro-cognitive processes that are involved in the initial testing phase and thus underlies the actual testing effect. Here, we investigated functional brain activity related to test-enhanced learning with feedback. Subjects learned foreign vocabulary across three consecutive tests with correct-answer feedback. Functional brain-activity responses were analyzed in relation to retrieval and feedback events, respectively. Results revealed up-regulated activity in fronto-striatal regions during the first successful retrieval, followed by a marked reduction in activity as a function of improved learning. Whereas feedback improved behavioral performance across consecutive tests, feedback had a negligable role after the first successful retrieval for functional brain-activity modulations. It is suggested that the beneficial effects of test-enhanced learning is regulated by feedback-induced updating of memory representations, mediated via the striatum, that might underlie the stabilization of memory commonly seen in behavioral studies of the testing effect.

  • 1944.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Börjesson, A
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jonsson, Bert A
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Working memory, reading comprehension and learning strategies among 5(th) grade children2010In: XIV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY (ECDP), Bologna: Medimond, 2010, p. 105-108Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the relationship between reading comprehension, working memory (WM) and learning strategies. The results revealed that working memory predicted reading comprehension, both immediate and with one week delay. Having a strategy benefits comprehension and children with high WM span outperformed low span individuals in terms of more elaborated strategies. In addition, girls used significantly more and more elaborated strategies than boys.

  • 1945.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    An fMRI study of the supportive role of feedback during test-enhanced learning2016In: ICOM-6 Conference Programme: Konferensbidrag. Abstract (Refereegranskat), 2016, 2016, p. 29-29Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considerable research in cognitive psychology has demonstrated that testing improves the performance on later retention tests (i.e., the testing-effect).

    One key factor is the inclusion of feedback which enhances the benefits. Participants (n=21) first studied 60 Swahili-Swedish word-pairs. Subsequently, they underwent fMRI while being tested on each study-item either with or without feedback.

    Contrary to no feedback, several regions were identified as a feedback-network with the strongest contribution from the bilateral MTL regions (anterior hippocampus, amygdala), insula and left IFC. Several of these responses were modulated by type of response (correct/incorrect) and repetition (1,2,3).

    These findings link the effect of feedback on learning to strengthening of semantic representations, providing novel insights about the crucial role of feedback during test-enhanced learning.

  • 1946.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Korhonen, Johan
    Faculty of Education and Welfare Studies, Åbo Akademi University, Vaasa, Finland.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Untangling the Contribution of the Subcomponents of Working Memory to Mathematical Proficiency as Measured by the National Tests: A Study among Swedish Third Graders2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, article id 1062Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with the present study was to examine the relationship between the subcomponents in working memory (WM) and mathematical performance, as measured by the National tests in a sample of 597 Swedish third-grade pupils. In line with compelling evidence of other studies, individual differences in WM capacity significantly predicted mathematical performance. Dividing the sample into four groups, based on their mathematical performance, revealed that mathematical ability can be conceptualized in terms of different WM profiles. Pupils categorized as High-math performers particularly differed from the other three groups in having a significant higher phonological ability. In contrast, pupils categorized as Low-math performers were particularly characterized by having a significant lower visuo-spatial ability. Findings suggest that it is important for educators to recognize and acknowledge individual differences in WM to support mathematical achievement at an individual level.

  • 1947.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    How to learn? The Effects of Repeated Testing with Feedback compared to Rereading of Educational Material2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An obvious way to promote acquisition of new information is to repeat the learning/encoding phase. However, recent evidence (Roediger & Butler, 2010) indicate that repeating the test phase may be even more effective, particularly when combined with feedback on response correctness.

    The aim of this ongoing study is to examine whether repeated testing with feedback benefits learning compared to rereading of introductory psychology text-book facts in an educational context. The effect was examined immediate after practice, after 18-days, and at a five-week delay in a sample of undergraduate students.

    Preliminary analyses revealed that repeated testing with feedback significantly enhanced learning compared to rereading at all delays, thus indicating that repeated retrieval enhances retention compared to repeated encoding in the short- and long-term. Learning methods including elements of repeated retrieval are important to consider by the educational system.

  • 1948.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Strengthening concept learning by repeated testing2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 10-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine whether repeated testing with feedback benefits learning compared to rereading of introductory psychology key-concepts in an educational context. The testing effect was examined immediately after practice, after 18 days, and at a five-week delay in a sample of undergraduate students (= 83). The results revealed that repeated testing with feedback significantly enhanced learning compared to rereading at all delays, demonstrating that repeated retrieval enhances retention compared to repeated encoding in the short- and the long-term. In addition, the effect of repeated testing was beneficial for students irrespectively of working memory capacity. It is argued that teaching methods involving repeated retrieval are important to consider by the educational system.

  • 1949.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Transfer in mathematical learning: a comparison study of elementary school children in an educational contextManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies in cognitive psychology have shown that repeated testing enhances learning, a phenomenon called the testing effect. The aim with the present study was to investigate the encoding variability hypothesis in relation to both practiced and transfer mathematical tasks in a sample of fifth-grade children. Learning was assessed immediately after practice, 3-days, and five weeks after initial learning. Encoding variability was manipulated by re-formulate some of the questions in one group (Variable-Test group), versus keeping them constant in a second group (Same-Test group), but with the same amount of total practice for both groups. The results gave support for the encoding variability hypothesis with regard to transfer tasks, but only at the immediate test. At the delayed tests, the encoding variability hypothesis was disclaimed. Clickers were used during both the learning phase and the following tests. Individual differences in working memory capacity predicted performance on the transfer tasks, but only at the immediate test, regardless of group.

  • 1950.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenlund, Tova
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Are episodic memory differentially related to the effects of test-enhanced learning compared to group discussions?2016In: ICOM-6 Conference Programme.: Konferensbidrag. Abstract (Refereegranskat), 2016, p. 84-84Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite compelling evidence for test-enhanced learning as superior compared to other pedagogical methods, less is known about how cognitive level affects performance.

    The beneficial effects has been ascribed to an episodic context account; in which subjects rely on the use of a temporal context while retrieving from memory.

    We examined individual differences in episodic memory in relation to different learning methods.

    Participants (n=103) were randomized to three groups: testing with feedback, group-discussion with or without feedback. The to-be-learned material was a chapter from a psychology textbook.

    Learning were assessed immediately, one and, at four weeks after initial learning.

    Results revealed that the testing-group performed significantly better across time compared to both group discussion groups. A significant positive relationship between episodic memory and learning for both group-discussion groups, but not the testing-group. The results indicates that individual differences in episodic memory is less sensitive when learning from repeated testing - suggesting that test-enhanced learning is equally beneficial for all individuals independent of cognitive ability. In contrast learning from group discussions relies more on individual differences in episodic memory, so those with better episodic memory learns better compared to those with lower episodic memory.  

     

363738394041 1901 - 1950 of 2046
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