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  • 1901.
    Åberg, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johansson, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    ACTUA!: En utvärdering av ett internetbaserat självhjälpsprogram med beteendeaktivering för behandling av depression2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioral activation is an effective treatment for depression. There is limited research on internet administered behavioral activation. Hence, this study evaluated treatment effects of two internet administered self-help programs with therapist support. In total, 42 participants with mild to moderate depression were randomized, after assessment, to one of the treatment conditions or a control group. The treatment consisted of eight text modules including exercises. A significant effect of time regarding depression and quality of life was shown for all conditions. A significant interaction effect regarding anxiety was shown between the treatment condition and the control group. No significant interaction effects were found between the two treatment conditions. Moderate to large within groups effect sizes where shown in all groups regarding depression. The reason that no significant interaction effect could be shown between the treatment condition and the control group is probably due to the fact that the control group improved a lot as well. Since depression tends to occur in cycles and be season bound this could have had an impact on the improvement of the control group. The results could be problematized further due to the fact that not all participants completed the treatment and because of small sample sizes. In summary this study indicates that internet administered behavioral activation is an effective treatment for mild to moderate depression and could be a complement or alternative to live therapy.

  • 1902.
    Ådén Wadenholt, Gustaf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Expected information gain predicts curiosity2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Curiosity has been defined as an intrinsic motivation for performing actions that result in a gain of knowledge (Berlyne, 1966; Loewenstein, 1994). As positive effects of curiosity on memorization of new knowledge were found by Kang et al., 2009, exploring the mechanisms behind curiosity can have great practical applications. Although information theoretic concepts have been linked to curiosity (Berlyne, 1966; Kang et al., 2009; Gottlieb, Oudeyer, Lopes & Baranes, 2013), this has not been tested empirically through an actual information theoretic operationalisation. This study aims to correct this by individually measuring the prior knowledge of participants and computing the expected information gain (IG) of an information rewarding action. To quantify the incentive value of curiosity a time delay was imposed on IG, forcing participants to a trade-off between maximizing information and minimizing time spent on the task. Through linear regression analysis, it is shown that curiosity is proportional to expected IG and that participants were prepared to invest 0.4 seconds per bit.

  • 1903.
    Ådén Wadenholt, Gustaf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Look, but don't touch: The effect of curiosity on eye and mouse interaction2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The tradeoff between satisfying curiosity and maximizing performance was investigated. Subjects were given a two-armed-bandit task, in which they should select squares from two areas with different probabilities to reward points. With each choice, subjects also got to see part of a face. The intention was to spark curiosity about the identity, as faces are known to be of special interest to humans. Also, a method for interaction by eye fixation was conceived, and compared against interaction with a mouse. The study examined if subjects were willing to sacrifice task performance to satisfy their curiosity, and if eye interaction was more susceptible to this distraction. An effect of the face distractors on learning performance was found. Eye and mouse interaction showed different patterns of square selections, but no difference in the overall task performance could be measured. Possible improvements to the paradigm are considered.

  • 1904. Åkerstedt, T.
    et al.
    Alfredsson, L.
    Westerholm, P.
    Fischer, H.
    Nilsson, L. -G
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fatigue/sleepiness and important aspects of sleep restoration improve across aging2014In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 23, p. 241-241Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1905.
    Åkerstedt, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A study of risks of threats and violence toward hospital staff in relation to patient access to electronic medical records2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2012, the county of Uppland in Sweden launched a service granting patients online access to their electronic medical record (EMR), including the list of staff who have logged into the record (the “log list”). Patients seem predominantly positive to this service whereas many professionals, physicians specifically, have expressed concerns about, for example, increased risks of threats and violence towards healthcare staff. One year after launch the present study was conducted to examine whether staff whose patients had gained access to online EMRs experienced greater risks of threats and violence, and were exposed to more threats and violence, than those whose patients had not yet gained access. The extent to which professional role, gender, work experience and staff attitudes to the service were important factors was also examined. A total of 174 professionals at Uppsala University Hospital responded to a web survey (35% response rate). 83 represented the emergency department, whose patients had online EMR access, and 91 represented the psychiatric department, whose patients had not. 40% of all participating professionals, emergency physicians and psychiatric staff specifically, believed that risks of threats and violence increase after launch. The results did not, however, support a correlation between patient access to online EMRs and more incidents of threats and violence, and only one respondent reported that patient access had played any significant negative role in relation to an incident. These and other results may prove useful as the online EMR service is now being launched in other Swedish counties as well.

  • 1906.
    Åkesson, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Repeated testing with feedback enhances learning of educational material compared to re-study2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1907.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Being in balance or stuck in time: exploring facets of time processing in relation to mental health2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Time is central in human functioning and crucial for adaptive behavior. The aim of the current thesis was to investigate aspects of people’s subjective experience of time and their relationship with mental health, specifically anxiety and subjective well-being. Two time concepts were of key interest in the thesis: time estimation, which refers to the ability to estimate time durations; and time perspective, which refers to people’s habitual way of relating to the past, the present, and the future.

     The thesis comprehends four studies. In the first three studies, time perspective and time estimation were investigated in persons with varying degrees of anxiety, ranging from mild symptoms to anxiety disorders. The results of these studies showed that in particular negative past time perspective and negative future time perspective were associated with anxiety. These time perspectives were further strongly associated with the tendency to ruminate and worry. Time estimation did not largely deviate between persons with anxiety and healthy controls, although there was some evidence that subcomponents of anxiety might be differentially related to time estimation. More specifically, state anxiety was moderately related to retrospective time estimation, such that higher levels of state anxiety was associated with judging time intervals in retrospect as longer.

     In the final study of the thesis, balanced time perspective (BTP) was examined in relation to subjective well-being and age. BTP can be described as an optimal way of relating to the past, the present and the future and has been suggested to facilitate mental health and well-being. However, there are several ways to measure BTP, and there are also indications that what constitutes a BTP is not completely age-invariant or equally associated with well-being across age. The fourth study of the thesis thus aimed at examining three methods of measuring BTP, and each methods distinct association with subjective well-being and age were examined. The study was conducted in a population-based sample of older adults (age range 60 – 90 years of old). Results of this study indicated subjective well-being is strongly related to BTP, particularly methods of measuring BTP that incorporates negative future time perspective. However, the strong (and inverse) relationship between negative future time perspective and subjective well-being diminished with increasing age. Instead, and among the oldest participants in the sample (80+ years), fatalistic views of the present had more bearing on subjective well-being.

  • 1908.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Exploring multiple concepts of psychological time in relation to anxiety2014In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 60, p. S11-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time is a central part of human experience. Different timing functions are vital for adequate behavioral outcomes, and individual differences in time perspective can be associated with both well-being and mental distress.The aim of this study is to discuss several aspects of temporal processing in relation to anxiety. Specifically, our findings suggest that moderate anxiety is associated with systematic biases in Future Negative- and Past Negative time perspectives. Further, in exploring the possible underlying mechanisms that mediate time perspective in anxiety, preliminary data on the relationship between aspects of cognitive control (inhibition), time perspective and anxiety will be presented. The findings will be discussed according to their clinical and theoretical implications.

  • 1909.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Exploring the links between time perspective, anxiety, rumination and aspects of cognitive control2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1910.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sircova, A
    Wiberg, Marie
    Time perspective, time stimation and time reproduction in anxiety.2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1911.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Seif, Ali
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Getting "stuck" in the future or the past: Relationships between dimensions of time perspective, executive functions, and repetitive negative thinking in anxietyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 1912.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Time estimation in patients with anxiety disorders: Relationships with worry and state anxietyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 1913.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sircova, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Insights into features of anxiety through multiple aspects of psychological time2014In: Journal of Integrative Psychology and Therapeutics, ISSN 2054-4723, Vol. 2, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is well-recognized that emotions and emotional disorders may alter the experience of time. Yet relatively little is known about different aspects of psychological time in relation to anxiety. The purpose of the present study was to explore several aspects of temporal processing, including time perspective, prospective and retrospective time estimation, in persons with anxiety symptoms.

    Methods: A total of 110 individuals with varying degrees of anxiety participated in two studies. They were assigned to two groups (anxiety–control) based on their scores on anxiety measurements. Participants also completed an inventory of time perspective and several time estimation tasks which were analyzed on a group-level. Depressive symptoms were assessed and used as a covariate in the second study.

    Results: Anxiety was significantly associated with Past Negative and Future Negative time perspectives as measured by the Swedish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI), even when controlling for the effect of depressive symptoms. No other significant differences were found.

    Conclusion: Exploring time perspective in persons with anxious symptoms may provide important insights into features of anxiety. These findings may offer new ways of conceptualizing anxiety and provide suggestions for treatment strategies.

  • 1914.
    Åström, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adelmann, Siri
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    DAILY THOUGHTS OF LEAVING THE PROFESSION AMONGST NEWLY GRADUATED PSYCHOLOGISTS2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis was to investigate how thoughts of leaving the profession amongst newly graduated psychologists were influenced by different factors, such as Basic psychological needs (BPN), Job satisfaction, and perceived preparation and support in the transitions from 1) studies to supervised practice (from here on referred to as the Swedish term PTP) and 2) from supervised practice to working as licensed psychologist. This was investigated based on a resource and motivation perspective including Job-Demands Resources theory and Self- Determination theory. A questionnaire was distributed to psychologists within three years from date of graduation (n=1077). The present sample included 529 psychologists either licenced or PTP. A binary logistic regression demonstrated that higher perceived levels of support and preparation in the transition from education to PTP (Transition 1), was negatively related to thoughts of leaving the profession. The influence of Transition 1 lost its significance when the dimensions of the BPNs were added for the PTP sample, and when the transition from PTP to licensed (Transition 2) was added as a predictor for the licensed psychologists. Transition 2 for the licensed psychologists was no longer significant when adding the BPNs. Higher levels of Job satisfaction were negatively related to thoughts of leaving the profession only among licensed psychologists. The results indicate that the influence of BPNs should not be underestimated in this kind of study nor during the first years in the profession. 

  • 1915. Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Sundin, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Intervjuer som prognosinstrument för studieframgång2005In: Nordisk Psykologi: teori, forskning, praksis, ISSN 0029-1463, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 271-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two different admission procedures (high school grades/scholastic tests and high school grades/scholastic tests/interview) to the five-year Master's Program in Professional Psychology at Stockholm University were examined. The analyses were based on data from students who were admitted on a combination of high school grades/scholastic test and interview, and students who were admitted based only on high school grades/scholastic test. In the final semester of the five-year Psychologist Program, the students and their supervisors rated the student's development of psychotherapeutic knowledge and skills, and their relation to the supervisor and the supervision group. A self rating scale was used. The results showed that students who were admitted upon interview and their supervisors, rated significantly higher on all factors. Moreover, students admitted upon interview rated their development of psychotherapeutic skill significantly higher than students admitted traditionally. The corresponding difference between supervisor ratings was not significant. Both student and supervisor ratings indicated that the students admitted by an interview had a better relation to their supervisor and to their supervision group.

  • 1916. Ögren, ML
    et al.
    Jonsson, CO
    Sundin, EC
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Group supervision in psychotherapy: The relationship between focus, group climate, and perceived attained skill2005In: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, ISSN 0021-9762, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 373-388Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1917.
    Öhberg, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Paul, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The How or the What: The Impact of Narrative Style on Empathy2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Narratives in the forms of music or literature have traditionally been highlightedfor their ability to evoke empathy; however, the specific features of the narrativethat serve as the underlying mechanisms responsible for this effect remain unclear.The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of a narrative’s style onempathy. An experimental repeated measures research design was used with 41participants (31 female, 10 male; age range 20-63 yrs, M=30.2 yrs) that underwentthree conditions each comprised of a different stimulus (i.e., a song, a piece ofprose and a poem), with the same narrative content but differing in style. The orderof the stimuli was randomized across participants. After each stimulus, empatheticresponses were captured via self reports, measuring valence and arousal of theparticipant, as well as their perceived valence and arousal of the main character ofthe narrative. The song had a strong correlation between participant-rating andcharacter-rating on valence and arousal, thus evoking a stronger (affective)empathetic response than the other two styles of stimuli, having moderatecorrelations. The character-rating barely differed between the style of stimuli, andthe narrative first presented lowered the participants’ valence regardless of style.These findings could possibly be explained by cognitive empathy responding to thenarrative, evoking the same understanding of another person, whereas affectiveempathy seem more prone to respond to stylistic features. Future research andpossible therapeutic implications are discussed.

  • 1918.
    Öhlund, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
     Brain Areas Involved in the Retrieval of Updated Memories: The Long-Term Effects2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1919.
    Öhman, Albin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Enkvist, Hampus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Riskfaktorer för stabil insomni: Demografi, livsstil, mental ohälsa och funktionella somatiska syndrom2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Risken att drabbas av insomni har visat sig samvariera med flera demografiska och livsstilsrelaterade variabler, diagnostiserade sjukdomar och syndrom samt grad av psykisk ohälsa. Syftet med studien var att klarlägga huruvida detta samband även uppvisas för stabil insomni definierat som insomni vid två mätpunkter med tre års mellanrum. Stickprovet i studien utgjordes av 2336 personer ur normalbefolkningen i åldrarna 18-79 år. Utfallsvariablerna utgjordes av frågor om demografi, livsstil och läkarbaserade diagnoser om psykiatriska tillstånd och funktionella somatiska syndrom, samt totalvärden på validerade enkätinstrument för kvantifiering av grad av stress, utbrändhet, ångest och depression. Resultaten visade att risken för stabil insomni var förhöjd i åldrarna 18-29 år, för kvinnor, vid samtliga diagnostiserade sjukdomar och syndrom samt vid högre grad av psykisk ohälsa. För att tillhandahålla en god vård kan det därför vara nödvändigt att även adressera eventuella sömnproblem hos dessa patientgrupper, särskilt kvinnor och unga.

  • 1920.
    Öhman, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Perceived chronic stress, health and cognition2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this licentiate thesis was to examine consequences of chronic stress for stressrelated diseases and to investigate the chronic stress – cognition relationship. In the first study data covering ten years was used from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study (Nilsson et al., 1997). Based on the ratings on a stress scale, matched samples between 40 and 65 years of age were divided into a high and low stress group. The reported incidence of cardiovascular, diabetes, psychiatric, tumor, and musculoskeletal diseases wasassessed five and ten years after a baseline assessment. The incidence of diseases five years after baseline assessment showed no differences between the groups. After ten years, there was a higher incidence of psychiatric diseases in the high stress group as well as a significant effect for tumors. These results indicated that moderately elevated stress levels may have an impact on psychiatric diseases, especially depression, and possibly also some tumor diseases, but it was concluded that prolonged moderate stress does not appear to be very harmful to health in general. In the second study cognitive performance was studied in chronic stress outpatients and matched controls. A battery of cognitive tests assessing processing speed, attention, episodic-, semantic- and working memory was used. Performance decrements for thechronic stress patients were found in episodic memory, particularly in learning across repeated trials, and in tasks requiring divided attention under either encoding or retrieval of words. Performance differences were also seen in aspects of working memory, mental tempo, semantic access (letter fluency) and prospective memory. It was concluded that executive functioning may be suboptimal in chronic stress patients and that letter fluency and prospective memory tests can be useful as clinical tools when evaluating chronic stressstates. Taken together, the findings indicate that there is no clear association between moderately elevated chronic stress and increased incidence of stress related diseases, whereas certain cognitive functions such as executive functioning appear vulnerable to chronic stress.

  • 1921.
    Öhman, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Longitudinal analysis of the relation between moderate long-term stress and health2007In: Stress and Health, ISSN 1532-3005, E-ISSN 1532-2998, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 131-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main goal of the present work was to longitudinally examine consequences of long-term moderately elevated levels of stress for various health outcomes. To address this issue, data covering 10 years was used from the ongoing Swedish population-based prospective Betula Study. Based on the ratings on a validated self-reported stress scale, matched subsamples between 40 and 65 years of age were divided into a high (n = 137) and low (n = 211) stress group. The reported incidence of cardiovascular, diabetes, psychiatric, tumour and musculoskeletal diseases was assessed 5 and 10 years after baseline (baseline = 1993–1995) without contaminating effects of past health history. The incidence of diseases 5 years after baseline assessment showed no differences between the groups. After 10 years, there was a significantly higher incidence of psychiatric diseases, mainly depression in the high-stress group as well as a significant effect for tumours, although the number of cases was low. Although moderately elevated stress level may have a possible impact on psychiatric diseases especially depression and some tumours, it seems that prolonged moderate stress does not appear to be harmful to other stress-related diseases.

  • 1922.
    Öhman, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Slunga Birgander, Lisbeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Enviromental Medicine.
    Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cognitive function in outpatients with perceived chronic stress2007In: Scand J Work Environ Health, ISSN 0355-3140, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 223-232Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1923.
    Öhman, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Davidsson, Jennie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Att träna eller inte träna: En dagboksstudie om sambanden mellan fysisk aktivitet, motivation och atletisk identitet2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet för en ökad fysisk aktivitet hos befolkningen är komplext, då många faktorer påverkar en individs aktivitetsnivå. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka dagliga och generella samband mellan atletisk identitet, motivation och träningsmängd. I studien användes en dagboksdesign och data samlades in med en webbenkät varje dag under sju dagar. Studenter från tre universitet deltog och datamaterialet härrörde från 156 personer och 686 mättillfällen. Data analyserades med flernivåanalys, vilket möjliggjorde separering av effekter på två nivåer; inomindivids- och mellanindividsnivå. På inomindividsnivå predicerade identifierad reglering högre träningsmängd, vilket indikerade att internaliserade värderingar, som kan tänkas påverkas av sociala intryck, är viktiga för individers dagliga träningsmängd. Även amotivation visade ett dagöverskridande samband, och predicerade lägre träningsmängd. På mellanindividsnivå predicerade introjicerad reglering lägre träningsmängd, vilket kan förklaras av externa faktorer som associeras med urvalsgruppen. Resultatet visade en trend mot att individer med starkare atletisk identitet generellt tränade mer, detta i linje med tidigare studier. Starkare atletisk identitet visade även ett samband med mer autonoma typer av motivation, vilket teoretiskt kan förklaras av begreppens liknande processer där externa motiv integreras i individens värderingar och påverkar dennes beteende. Studien belyser värdet av att inom idrottsforskning studera samband på flera nivåer. Fler studier bör undersöka sambanden mellan olika psykologiska faktorer, för att bättre förstå hur de samvarierar och påverkar individers träningsbeteende.

  • 1924.
    Ölund, Victor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Att komma hem: Vägen till att återanpassa sig till det civila Sverige för svenska veteraner utforskad genom tolkande fenomenologisk analys2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are many obstacles that veterans experience when readjusting, something that this study aim to explore due to lacking research within the area. The main problem the five participating veterans experience is lacking understanding from society, lacking support from their closer friends and relatives, that the swedish armed forces don’t do enough and that civilian health care lack satisfactory competence. The participants also express signs of uncertainty around their self-identity when coming home, not knowing what is expected from them. Through all this the participants show compassion and care for comrades even if they themselves have experienced substance abuse and two suicide attempts. In a nutshell the participants would like to see a more educated society in order to ease the readjustment to society and that the swedish armed forces increase their responsibility for taking care about their veterans.

  • 1925.
    Örmin, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Emelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stillasittande på arbetsplatsen: Kontorsarbetares inställningar och attityder2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Långvarigt stillasittande innebär hälsorisker och bland kontorsarbetare är stillasittande ett vanligt förekommande beteende. Bristfällig forskning finns om vilka faktorer som påverkar kontorsarbetares stillasittande beteende. Syftet med studien var att undersöka kontorsarbetares inställning och attityder avseende stillasittande på arbetstid med förhoppningen om att skapa förståelse för kontorsarbetares stillasittande beteende. Beteendets ABC, Den ekologiska modellen för stillasittande beteende samt Self Determination Theory användes som teoretiskt ramverk. Undersökningsdeltagarna var 21 kontorsarbetande män och kvinnor i Umeå. Datainsamling utfördes med tre fokusgruppintervjuer och analyserades med en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Resultatet visade på faktorer som hindrar och möjliggör ett minskat stillasittande på individ-, grupp- och organisationsnivå. Faktorerna påverkar det stillasittande beteendet. Studiens slutsats var att ett minskat stillasittande för kontorsarbetare kräver insatser som involverar individen, gruppen och organisationen. 

  • 1926.
    Östberg, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Predicting depression and anxiety with a single self-rated health item2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Self-rated health (SRH) consists of a single question wherein individuals are asked to evaluate their general health status on a 5-point scale. This study investigated the relationship between SRH and depression/anxiety, with the purpose of getting a better understanding of how the two disorders are related to perceived general health, and to examine the possibility of using SRH as clinical tool for identifying individuals with increased risk for onset and persistent states of depression and anxiety. The study used cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study, a large questionnaire-based population study in northern Sweden. 2336 individuals participated at baseline (T1) and 3-year follow-up (T2). The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to measure symptoms of depression and anxiety. The results showed that those with poor SRH rated more severe symptoms of depression and anxiety, than those with good SRH. Those with poor SRH at T1 had more than twofold increased risk of falling into the depression and anxiety case groups at T2. Specifically, they more often experienced onset of symptoms at T2 as well as symptoms that persisted across the two occasions. The results corresponds in large with those from previous studies and supports the utility of SRH as a clinical tool, with the reservation that it may not be strong enough predictor on its own.

  • 1927.
    Öster, Inger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Tavelin, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Edberg Thyme, Karin
    Magnusson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lindh, Jack
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Åström, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Art therapy during radiotherapy – A five-year follow-up study with women diagnosed with breast cancer2014In: The arts in psychotherapy, ISSN 0197-4556, E-ISSN 1873-5878, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 36-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Follow-up studies on art therapy are lacking. In a randomised art therapy intervention study from 2001 to 2004 with women with breast cancer, results showed that patients benefitted from participating in art therapy for up to four months after the intervention. The aim of this study was to describe the coping resources and quality of life amongst women treated for breast cancer five to seven years after participating in individual art therapy during radiotherapy as compared to a control group. In 2009, thirty-seven women, 18 from the intervention group and 19 from the control group, answered questionnaires about their coping resources and quality of life. The results showed no significant difference between the groups regarding their coping resources or quality of life, except for an unexpected significantly lower score in the domain 'Social relations' in the study group as compared to baseline, at the time of the follow up. However, our study from 2001 to 2004 supports various positive effects of art therapy within six months of participation as compared to a control group. Consequently, attending art therapy during the treatment period for breast cancer can be of great importance to support health, coping and quality of life in a short-term perspective.

  • 1928.
    Öster, Inger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Tavelin, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Egberg Thyme, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Magnusson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lindh, Jack
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Åström, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Art therapy during radiotherapy: a five-year follow-up study with women diagnosed with breast cancer2014In: The arts in psychotherapy, ISSN 0197-4556, E-ISSN 1873-5878, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 36-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Follow-up studies on art therapy are lacking. In a randomised art therapy intervention study from 2001-2004 with women with breast cancer, results showed that patients benefitted from participating in art therapy for up to at least four months after the intervention. The aim of this study was to describe the coping resources and quality of life amongst women treated for breast cancer five - seven years after participating in individual art therapy during radiotherapy as compared to a control group. In 2009, thirty-seven women, 18 from the intervention group and 19 from the control group, answered questionnaires about their coping resources and quality of life. The results showed no significant difference between the groups regarding their coping resources or quality of life, except for an unexpected significantly lower score in the domain ‘Social relations’ in the study group as compared to baseline, at the time of the follow up. However, our study from 2001–2004 supports various positive effects of art therapy within six months of participation as compared to a control group. Consequently, attending art therapy during the treatment period for breast cancer can be of great importance to support health, coping and quality of life in a short-term perspective.

  • 1929.
    Öster, Inger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åström, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lindh, Jack
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Magnusson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Women with breast cancer and gendered limits and boundaries: Art therapy as a safe space for enacting alternative subject positions2009In: The arts in psychotherapy, ISSN 0197-4556, E-ISSN 1873-5878, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 29-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article takes its starting point from certain results from our randomized study on art therapy with women with breast cancer. Previous results from this study showed significant benefits on coping, quality of life, and symptoms for women who participated in an art therapy intervention. Analyses of interviews and diaries showed that especially women from the intervention group had distanced themselves from traditionally gendered understandings about cultural limits and boundaries. The aim of this study was to gain further knowledge about how women with breast cancer who participated in the art therapy intervention gave meaning to the gendered limits and boundaries in their daily lives, and to trace their trajectories, in therapy, towards helpful management of restraining boundaries. When analyzing the women's verbal reflections on the therapy sessions, we discerned five subject positions, defining them as follows: being someone who reacts to violation attempts; actively connecting body and self; actively locating oneself and moving forward; being in a position to see important connections throughout life; and being able to acknowledge and harbour conflicting emotions. The results of the study suggest that art therapy served as a tool that helped the women to get access to subject positions that enabled them to protect and strengthen their boundaries. This involved challenging dominating discourses and reacting against perceived boundary violations. Art therapy offered a personal, physical, and pictorial “safe space” with opportunities to deal with complex existential experiences and issues, and also make important connections throughout life. Looking back and summarizing important experiences acted as a way to prepare oneself for the future and moving forward.

  • 1930.
    Österman, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vi är KRAV-märkta: Äldreomsorgens förutsättningar ger konsekvenser för psykosocial arbetsmiljö och hälsa2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the 1990s, major changes took place in elder care in municipal activities due to changes in the municipal law which led to reorganizations, downsizing and streamlining. This contributed to poor working environment especially in health care and musculoskeletal disorders and stress increased. The purpose of this study was to examine the unit managers’ opportunity to exercise present leadership and how the psychosocial work environment is perceived by unit managers and their employees. Moreover, how leadership is perceived by the employees and how psychosocial working environment and health is investigated. Two nursing homes in Umeå municipality were included in the study. In total, three focus group interviews were conducted, one with managers and two with employees, 12 participants in total. An abductive qualitative content analysis was performed. Seven themes were found in the material. These show that the unit managers perceive that they have no opportunity to be present, and that both managers and employees perceive a high workload, lack of social support for unit managers and between unit manager and employees, and lack of communication, participation and justice. Health was perceived to be better among unit managers than employees. However, job satisfaction was reported to be good in both groups. Present leadership is in the current situation difficult to exercise due to lack of both time and support and there are deficiencies in the psychosocial work environment affecting employee health negatively.

  • 1931.
    Österman, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    "Vi är KRAV-märkta": Äldreomsorgens förutsättningar ger konsekvenser för psykosocial arbetsmiljö och hälsa2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the 1990s, major changes took place in elder care in municipal activities due to changes in the municipal law which led to reorganizations, downsizing and streamlining. This contributed to poor working environment especially in health care and musculoskeletal disorders and stress increased. The purpose of this study was to examine the unit managers’ opportunity to exercise present leadership and how the psychosocial work environment is perceived by unit managers and their employees. Moreover, how leadership is perceived by the employees and how psychosocial working environment and health is investigated. Two nursing homes in Umeå municipality were included in the study. In total, three focus group interviews were conducted, one with managers and two with employees, 12 participants in total. An abductive qualitative content analysis was performed. Seven themes were found in the material. These show that the unit managers perceive that they have no opportunity to be present, and that both managers and employees perceive a high workload, lack of social support for unit managers and between unit manager and employees, and lack of communication, participation and justice. Health was perceived to be better among unit managers than employees. However, job satisfaction was reported to be good in both groups. Present leadership is in the current situation difficult to exercise due to lack of both time and support and there are deficiencies in the psychosocial work environment affecting employee health negatively.

  • 1932.
    Östgård-Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Self-concept and perception of early mother and father behavior in normal and antisocial adolescents2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 437-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the self-concept and perceptions of early parental behavior in a group of 277 normal adolescents with respect to differences in age (12–18 years) and gender. A group of 30 antisocial adolescents of similar age (13–19 years) were included as a comparison group. The study was a cross-sectional questionnaire study and the Swedish translation of the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB) introject and mother/father questionnaires were used as measures of self- and parental concepts. Multivariate analyses of variance show that the normal adolescent self-concept and perception of early parental behavior are positive and that there are no age or gender differences. The early behavior of the mother is perceived more positively than that of the father. A positive self-concept is related to a positive perception of the parent's early behavior. The antisocial group of adolescents shows a more autonomous and negative self-concept and more negative perception of early parental behaviors. This was true especially in the group of antisocial girls. The conclusion from the study is that there is no evidence of a chaotic self-concept or tumultuous changes in the perceptions of early parental behavior during normal adolescence, but that an antisocial way of life might be reflected in a more negative and autonomous self-concept and in more negative perceptions of early parental behavior during adolescence.

  • 1933.
    Östgård-Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Self-concept, inner residue of past relationships and current social functioning.: A study of age and gender differences in normal and antisocial adolescents.2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents several studies of normative development in adolescence, focusing specifically on internalized perceptions of parents’ early behavior and how these perceptions affect the self-concept and social functioning during. Questions of possible age and gender differences in relation to perceptions of self-concept and early parental behavior are addressed. The patterns found in a normal adolescent group are compared with those in a group of adolescents with antisocial problems. Two hundred seventy-seven normal adolescents aged 12 to18 and 30 adolescents with antisocial problems aged 13-19 were investigated. The following self-administered instruments were used: self-concept assessments, the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB) introject questionnaire, perception of early parental behavior assessment, the SASB mother/father questionnaires, and the EMBU (A Swedish acronym for “own memories of upbringing”). The Youth Self Report checklist (YSR) was used to assess internalizing and externalizing problems.

    Studies I and II showed that the normal adolescent self-concept and perception of early parental behavior were positive and that there were no age or gender differences. The antisocial group of adolescents, and particularly the antisocial girls, showed a more autonomous and negative self-concept and more negative perceptions of early parental behaviors.

    Study III showed that a positive self-concept was related to a positive perception of parent’s early behavior.

    Study IV showed that an adolescent’s positive self-concept was influenced by a mix of mother acting positively and father acting with control. Adolescent self-control was indirectly influenced by parental control behavior mediated through self-affiliation.

    Study V showed that a positive self-concept was important for adjustment. A negative self-concept combined with female gender was a risk factor for internalizing problems. Self-control had only a small effect on social adjustment in adolescence. The relationship between a negative self-concept and externalizing problem behavior was stronger for adolescents aged 15 to 16 than for younger or older adolescents. Internalizing problem behavior influenced externalizing problems.

    The results presented in this thesis support a modified “storm-and-stress” view of adolescence and highlight the importance of promoting a positive self-concept in every adolescent in various psychosocial contexts.

  • 1934.
    Östgård-Ybrandt, Helene
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Perception of early mother and father behavior in adolescence.: A study of age and gender differences in groups of normal and antisocial adolescents2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined age and gender differences in the perceptions of early mother and father behavior in a group of normal adolescents. Two hundred and seventy-seven boys and girls (aged 12–18 years) completed EMBU (My memories of Upbringing), a questionnaire measuring perceptions of parental rearing behaviors, and questionnaires based on the Structural Analysis of Social behavior (SASB) model. A group of 30antisocial adolescents of similar age was included as a comparison group.The results show that the normal adolescents’ perception of earlyparental behavior is positive with no age or gender differences. The earlybehavior of the mother was perceived more positively than that of thefather. A more negative perception of early parental behaviors was foundin the antisocial adolescent group and especially in the group of antisocial girls. The results of EMBU were consistent with those of SASB with perceptions of more negative parental behavior of rejection and overprotection in the group of antisocial adolescents.

  • 1935.
    Östgård-Ybrandt, Helene
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Self-concept in adolescence.: A study of age and gender differences in groups of normal and antisocial adolescents2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the self-concept in a group of 277 normaladolescents with respect to differences in age (12-18 years) and genderand the interaction between age and gender. As a comparison, 27antisocial adolescents of similar age participated in the study. Theadolescents completed a questionnaire based on the SASB-model. Theresults showed that the normal adolescent self-concept is positive andthat there are no age or gender differences. A more autonomous andmore negative self-concept is found in the antisocial group ofadolescents. The antisocial girls seem to show more self-hate than allother groups. The conclusion from the study is that there is no evidenceof a chaotic self-concept during normal adolescence, but that anantisocial way of life might be reflected in a more negative and autonomous self-concept during adolescence.

  • 1936.
    Östgård-Ybrandt, Helene
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The relation between self-concept and concepts of early parental behavior for adolescentsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
36373839 1901 - 1936 of 1936
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