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  • 201.
    Johansson, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Jarocka, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Westling, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Predicting incident falls: Relationship between postural sway and limits of stability in older adults2019In: Human Movement Science, ISSN 0167-9457, E-ISSN 1872-7646, Vol. 66, p. 117-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background We have previously shown that objective measurements of postural sway predicts fall risk, although it is currently unknown how limits of stability (LOS) might influence these results.

    Research question: How integrated postural sway and LOS measurements predict the risk of incident falls in a population-based sample of older adults.

    Methods: The sample for this prospective observational study was drawn from the Healthy Ageing Initiative cohort and included data collected between June 2012 and December 2016 for 2396 men and women, all 70 years of age. LOS was compared to postural sway with measurements during eyes-open (EO) and eyes-closed (EC) trials, using the previously validated Wii Force Plate. Fall history was assessed during baseline examination and incident falls were collected during follow-up at 6 and 12 months. Independent predictors of incident falls and additional covariates were investigated using multiple logistic regression models.

    Results: During follow-up, 337 out of 2396 participants (14%) had experienced a fall. Unadjusted regression models from the EO trial revealed increased fall risk by 6% (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02–1.11) per each centimeter squared increase in sway area and by 16% (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.07–1.25) per 1-unit increase in Sway-Area-to-LOS ratio. Odds ratios were generally lower when analyzing EC trials and only slightly attenuated in fully adjusted models.

    Significance: Integrating postural sway and LOS parameters provides valid fall risk prediction and a holistic analysis of postural stability. Future work should establish normative values and evaluate clinical utility of these measures.

  • 202.
    Johansson, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    Mat, träning och prestation: En studie om kost- och träningsvanor i årskurs fem2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med min studie är att ur ett genusperspektiv jämföra två årskurs femmor från en skola i Örnsköldsvik, med två årskurs femmor från en skola i Umeå, för att se eventuella skillnader och likheter när det gäller kost- och träningsvanor, samt hur kostvana påverkar elevernas prestationer i skolan. Denna studie är kvantitativ och datainsamlingen har skett med hjälp av enkäter som elever från vardera kommun har fått besvara. Enkätens syfte var att klargöra elevers uppfattningar och åsikter om kost- och träningsvanor. Därför utformades enkäten med fasta påståenden som eleverna har tagit ställning till. Resultatet i denna studie grundar sig på 88 besvarade enkäter, där deltagarna var 46 elever från Umeå och 42 elever från Örnsköldsvik. Resultatet presenteras med hjälp av diagram och har beskrivits utifrån min kunskapsöversikt. Svaren från enkäterna har inte visat några större skillnader mellan kommunerna och könen utan har påvisat flera likheter. De skillnader som dock har framkommit har varit mellan elevernas mellanmålsvanor och kostvanans inverkan på prestationer i skolan. Det har visat sig i studien att det är en större andel tjejer än killar som är aktiva i idrottsföreningar och håller på med mer än en idrott, vilket motsäger vad tidigare forskning har visat.

  • 203. Johansson, Sverker
    et al.
    Ytterberg, Charlotte
    Back, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Widen Holmqvist, Lotta
    von Koch, Lena
    The Swedish occupational fatigue inventory in people with multiple sclerosis2008In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 40, no 9, p. 737-743Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate the applicability of the Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory and its ability to identify different dimensions of fatigue in people with multiple sclerosis with varying, degrees of disease severity, and the correlation of each of its 5 dimensions with the Fatigue Severity Scale.

    Design: An observational. prospective study.

    Subjects: Two hundred and nineteen outpatients: 59.5% had mild. 170%, moderate and 23.5% severe disease severity; 83%, received immunomodulatory treatment.

    Methods: Both questionnaires were administered at inclusion, and at 12 and 24 months. Analyses of internal consistency. item-total correlation, factor analysis and tests of correlations were performed.

    Results: The instrument was completed by 97% of subjects. Internal consistency was satisfactory in the dimensions Lack of energy, Lack of motivation and Sleepiness, but not in Physical exertion and Physical discomfort. Factor analysis revealed that all but 3 items (2 in Physical exertion, 1 in Physical discomfort) loaded satisfactorily in 5 dimensions. Correlations between the dimensions and the Fatigue Severity Scale were low, except for a moderate correlation found for Lack of energy.

    Conclusion: The dimensions Lack of energy, Lack of motivation and Sleepiness appear applicable for use in people with multiple sclerosis. Further development of the physical dimensions and studies on the instrument's capacity to measure changes are needed.

  • 204.
    Jonasson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Aerobic fitness and healthy brain aging: cognition, brain structure, and dopamine2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Performing aerobic exercise and maintaining high levels of aerobic fitness may have positive effects on both brain structure and function in older adults. Despite decades of research however, there is still a rather poor understanding of the neurocognitive mechanisms explaining the positive effects of aerobic exercise on cognition. Changes in prefrontal gray matter as well as dopaminergic neurotransmission in striatum are both candidate neurocognitive mechanisms. The main aims of this thesis are: 1. To investigate the effects of aerobic exercise and fitness on cognition and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) derived gray matter volumes using data from a 6 month physical exercise intervention in older adults (Study I). 2. To simulate the effect of atrophy in longitudinal positron emission tomography (PET) which could pose a challenge to interpreting changes in longitudinal PET imaging (Study II). 3. To study the influence of aerobic exercise and fitness on the dopamine D2-receptor (D2R) system in striatum using [11C]raclopride PET as a potential mechanism for improved cognition (Study III).

    Results: In Study I, aerobic exercise was found to improve cognitive performance in a broad, rather than domain-specific sense. Moreover, aerobic fitness was related to prefrontal cortical thickness, and improved aerobic fitness over 6 months was related to increased hippocampal volume. In Study II, we identified areas in the striatum vulnerable to the effect of shrinkage, which should be considered in longitudinal PET imaging. Finally, in Study III, the effect of being aerobically fit, and improving fitness levels was found to impact dopaminergic neurotransmission in the striatum, which in turn mediated fitness-induced improvements in working memory updating performance.

    Conclusion: The findings in this thesis provide novel evidence regarding the neurocognitive mechanisms of aerobic exercise-induced improvements in cognition, and impacts the interpretation of longitudinal PET imaging. Performing aerobic exercise and staying aerobically fit at an older age have positive effects on cognition and brain systems important for memory and cognition. Specifically, fitness-induced changes to the dopaminergic system stands out as one novel neurocognitive mechanism explaining the positive effects of aerobic fitness on working-memory performance in healthy older adults.

  • 205.
    Jonasson, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Kramer, Arthur
    Departments of Psychology and Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA.
    Lundquist, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Aerobic Exercise Intervention, CognitivePerformance, and Brain Structure: results from the Physical Influences on Brain in Aging (PHIBRA) Study2017In: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, ISSN 1663-4365, E-ISSN 1663-4365, Vol. 8, p. 1-15, article id 336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have shown that aerobic exercise has the potential to improve cognition and reduce brain atrophy in older adults. However, the literature is equivocal with regards to the specificity or generality of these effects. To this end, we report results on cognitive function and brain structure from a 6-month training intervention with 60 sedentary adults (64–78 years) randomized to either aerobic training or stretching and toning control training. Cognitive functions were assessed with a neuropsychological test battery in which cognitive constructs were measured using several different tests. Freesurfer was used to estimate cortical thickness in frontal regions and hippocampus volume. Results showed that aerobic exercisers, compared to controls, exhibited a broad, rather than specific, improvement in cognition as indexed by a higher “Cognitive score,” a composite including episodic memory, processing speed, updating, and executive function tasks (p = 0.01). There were no group differences in cortical thickness, but additional analyses revealed that aerobic fitness at baseline was specifically related to larger thickness in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), and hippocampus volume was positively associated with increased aerobic fitness over time. Moreover, “Cognitive score” was related to dlPFC thickness at baseline, but changes in “Cognitive score” and dlPFC thickness were associated over time in the aerobic group only. However, aerobic fitness did not predict dlPFC change, despite the improvement in “Cognitive score” in aerobic exercisers. Our interpretation of these observations is that potential exercise-induced changes in thickness are slow, and may be undetectable within 6-months, in contrast to change in hippocampus volume which in fact was predicted by the change in aerobic fitness. To conclude, our results add to a growing literature suggesting that aerobic exercise has a broad influence on cognitive functioning, which may aid in explaining why studies focusing on a narrower range of functions have sometimes reported mixed results.

  • 206.
    Jonasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    A comparison between MOXUS modular metabolic system and AMIS 20012014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: There are various different methods to measure VO2 max in people. The Douglas Bag method is still seen as a criterion method, however, in recent years there has been a rise in the use of automatic gas analyzers that provide information in real time. It is only a few studies that have looked at gas analyzers during high intensity.

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to compare the MOXUS modular metabolic system with the AMIS 2001. Nine participants, age 29 ± 10 years, completed three VO2 max tests via The Bruce Treadmill Protocol. Two tests were measured via the MOXUS system and one via the AMIS. These were conducted in a random order. The VO2, VC02, VE and RQ were compared between tests.

    Results: At low intensities there was no significant difference between gas analyzers, however at maximum intensity the AMIS recorded higher VO2 (p<0, 01), VCO2 (p<0,001), VE (p<0, 05) and RQ (p<0,001). Between the two tests measured with the MOXUS system, there were no significant differences at maximum intensity.

    Discussion: The higher values measured via the AMIS system can perhaps be explained by differences in sensitivity to high ventilations. If there is a difference in ventilation there will obviously be a difference in VO2 and VCO2. The fact that RQ was also significantly higher at maximum intensity shows that the AMIS measures a greater difference between VO2 and VCO2 than the MOXUS system. The CV value for MOXUS between the two tests was very high in comparison to other studies, this can be because there was a relatively large difference in how well trained the participants were.

  • 207.
    Jonasson, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Sjöberg, Felicia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Att behandla ARTROS: En jämförelse mellan olika behandlingssteg för artros i knäleden2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Osteoarthritis is a chronic progressive disease which can be accomplished by primary and secondary factors. Pain, stiffness and loss of mobility in the joint are the most common symptoms. Osteoarthritis is explained as an imbalance between the demands on the joint and its ability to fulfill them. This mostly affects the knee joint and individuals of all ages. Individuals who practice sports, especially contact sports, are at higher risk of developing osteoarthritis at a young age. Today, nothing that can stop the progression of osteoarthritis, and it is therefore important to treat the disease in order to relieve pain, improve knee function and increase the life quality.

     

    To relieve the pain that may occur in osteoarthritis is for instance paracetamol, orthopedic devices and NSAIDs successful treatments. In case of very severe pain, cortisone can be used. Even weight reduction, glucosamine intake and regular exercise have positive effects. The latter not only reduces pain, but also improves life quality, knee function and may slow the disease process. In the treatment of secondary osteoarthritis, exercise in combination with glucosamine intake is the most used methods.

    There are three steps in the treatment of osteoarthritis, these are: a) basic treatment, b) adjunctive treatment, and c) surgical treatment. The basic treatment is used for mild osteoarthritis and consists of training, education and weight reduction. Adjunctive treatment is used when the basic treatment is not adequate and includes such as orthopedic devices and medicines. The last option for severe osteoarthritis is surgical procedures, which are arthroscopy, osteotomy, local treatment and arthroplasty.

    The primary treatments for osteoarthritis of the knee joint are exercise, followed by glucosamine intake, arthroplasty and weight reduction. For mild to moderate osteoarthritis is exercise the best treatment, both in terms of efficiency and cost.

  • 208.
    Jong, Mats
    et al.
    Department of Nursing, Mid Sweden University and Mid Sweden Research & Development Centre, Västernorrland County Council, Sundsvall.
    Westman, Anton
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Saveman, Britt-Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Experiences of Injuries and Injury Reporting among Swedish Skydivers2014In: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 1179-1543, E-ISSN 1179-1543, p. 102645-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to illuminate the experience of injuries and the process of injury reporting within the Swedish skydiving culture. Data contained narrative interviews that were subsequently analyzed with content analysis. Seventeen respondents (22–44 years) were recruited at three skydiving drop zones in Sweden. In the results injury events related to the full phase of a skydive were described. Risk of injury is individually viewed as an integrated element of the recreational activity counterbalanced by its recreational value. The human factor of inadequate judgment such as miscalculation and distraction dominates the descriptions as causes of injuries. Organization and leadership act as facilitators or constrainers for reporting incidents and injuries. On the basis of this study it is interpreted that safety work and incident reporting in Swedish skydiving may be influenced more by local drop zone culture than the national association regulations. Formal and informal hierarchical structures among skydivers seem to decide how skydiving is practiced, rules are enforced, and injuries are reported. We suggest that initial training and continuing education need to be changed from the current top-down to a bottom-up perspective, where the individual skydiver learns to see the positive implications of safety work and injury reporting.

  • 209. Josefsson, Torbjorn
    et al.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Boroy, Jan
    Mattsson, Emil
    Carnebratt, Jakob
    Sevholt, Simon
    Falkevik, Emil
    Mindfulness Mechanisms in Sports: Mediating Effects of Rumination and Emotion Regulation on Sport-Specific Coping2017In: Mindfulness, ISSN 1868-8527, E-ISSN 1868-8535, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 1354-1363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of the project was to examine a proposed theoretical model of mindfulness mechanisms in sports. We conducted two studies (the first study using a cross-sectional design and the second a longitudinal design) to investigate if rumination and emotion regulation mediate the relation between dispositional mindfulness and sport-specific coping. Two hundred and forty-two young elite athletes, drawn from various sports, were recruited for the cross-sectional study. For the longitudinal study, 65 elite athletes were recruited. All analyses were performed using Bayesian statistics. The path analyses showed credible indirect effects of dispositional mindfulness on coping via rumination and emotion regulation in both the cross-sectional study and the longitudinal study. Additionally, the results in both studies showed credible direct effects of dispositional mindfulness on rumination and emotion regulation. Further, credible direct effects of emotion regulation as well as rumination on coping were also found in both studies. Our findings support the theoretical model, indicating that rumination and emotion regulation function as essential mechanisms in the relation between dispositional mindfulness and sport-specific coping skills. Increased dispositional mindfulness in competitive athletes (i.e. by practicing mindfulness) may lead to reductions in rumination, as well as an improved capacity to regulate negative emotions. By doing so, athletes may improve their sport-related coping skills, and thereby enhance athletic performance.

  • 210. Josefsson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Tornberg, Rasmus
    Böröy, Jan
    Effects of Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) on Sport-Specific Dispositional Mindfulness, Emotion Regulation, and Self-Rated Athletic Performance in a Multiple-Sport Population: an RCT Study2019In: Mindfulness, ISSN 1868-8527, E-ISSN 1868-8535, Vol. 10, no 8, p. 1518-1529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to examine mediating effects of emotion regulation and sport-specific dispositional mindfulness on self-rated athletic training performance, following the Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) intervention, compared to a Psychological Skills Training (PST) control group.

    Methods: Sixty-nine competitive elite athletes who did not have any prior experience with mindfulness- and acceptance-based exercises, were recruited and randomly assigned into either a MAC group or a traditional PST group. Latent growth curve analyses were performed to examine longitudinal relationships among the study variables. Mediation analyses were conducted to test if the growth trajectory of each of the proposed mediators mediated the relationship between the intervention and perceived performance (measured at T3).

    Results: Findings showed that the MAC intervention had an indirect effect on self-rated athletic training performance through changes in dispositional mindfulness and emotion regulation respectively. Further, the MAC- group obtained greater post-test improvements in athletic mindfulness, emotion regulation abilities, and perceived performance compared to the PST group.

    Conclusions: Overall, findings suggest that dispositional athletic mindfulness and emotion regulation may function as important mechanisms in MAC, and that the MAC approach is a more effective intervention compared to the PST condition in reducing emotion regulation difficulties, as well as enhancing sport-relevant mindfulness skills and perceived athletic training performance in elite sport.

  • 211.
    Jönsson, Axel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Jakobsson, Jonna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Effekter på fysisk kapacitet och livskvalitet bland äldre efter 5 veckors styrketräning och samtal2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: All across Europe the average age of the population is steadily increasing and the cost for elderly care is expected to increase accordingly. One effective way to keep the elderly physically as well as psychologically strong and healthy is through resistance training. The aim of this intervention is to investigate the improvement in health and strength that can be achieved in elderly subjects after just a few weeks of training and regular conversation.

    Methods: Twelve elderly from two separate senior living facilities in Umeå, Sweden, were tested with sit to stand test and grip strength test and also General health questionnaire 12. Then they underwent training during five weeks. After the five weeks they were tested again to try to ascertain the effects. All participants were older than 65 years. Five of the participants had five conversations of 30 minutes each during the intervention period.

    Results: Grip strength in left hand was significantly improved (p=0,033). The right hand grips strength (p=0,057) and sit to stand test (p=0,068) did not show any significant improvement. Psychological well-being was also improved according to GHQ 12 (with a change in median from 3 to 1 in).

    Discussion: We found a tendency that training improves strength in the elderly after just five weeks of training. Simple training also seems to improve psychological well-being in a group of residents.

  • 212.
    Kadum, Bakir
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Wahlström, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery.
    Khoschnau, Shwan
    Sjödén, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Sayed-Noor, Arkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Association of lateral humeral offset with functional outcome and geometric restoration in stemless total shoulder arthroplasty2016In: Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery, ISSN 1058-2746, E-ISSN 1532-6500, Vol. 25, no 10, p. E285-E294Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Restoration of shoulder geometry is desirable in total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) and thought to influence the postoperative clinical outcome. We aimed to study the association of postoperative lateral humeral offset (LHO) changes and clinical outcome, as well as to investigate the ability of stemless anatomic TSA to restore shoulder geometry. Methods: In patients with primary shoulder osteoarthritis who underwent stemless anatomic TSA, the preoperative and postoperative clinical outcome was measured. Shoulder geometry was measured on preoperative computed tomography for the osteoarthritic shoulder and contralateral healthy shoulder and on postoperative computed tomography for the operated shoulder. Results: Forty-four patients with a minimum follow-up of 12 months (range, 12-50 months) were available for the study. Postoperatively, the clinical outcome measures improved. The postoperative difference in LHO between the operated shoulder and contralateral healthy shoulder was 1.3 +/- 4.6 mm and was correlated with scores on the short version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire at 3 months (Pearson correlation = 0.36, P =.01) and visual analog scale for pain at rest (Pearson correlation = 0.30, P =.03) and with exertion (Pearson correlation = 0.34, P =.01) at 3 months. Lengthening of LHO was associated with worsening shoulder function at 3 months but not at 12 months. The postoperative shoulder geometric parameters were restored postoperatively to acceptable ranges. Conclusion: The stemless anatomic TSA could restore shoulder geometry in an acceptable manner. At 3 months but not at 12 months, increased LHO had a negative effect on shoulder function and resulted in more shoulder pain at rest and with exertion but did not affect quality of life, health status, or range of motion.

  • 213.
    Karlsson, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Mattsson, Amanda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Påverkar smärta i ljumskarna styrkeförhållandeti höftadduktorerna-abduktorerna?: - En korrelationsstudie på subelit-fotbollsspelare i Umeå2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Groin muscle strain is the second most common muscle strain among soccerplayers and represent up to 28% of all soccer related injuries annually. There are multiple risk factors contributing to this type of injury, the strength ratio of hip adductors-abductors being one of them. Furthermore, pain has shown to decrease muscle strength. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between the strength ratio of hip adductors-abductors and perceived pain.

    Method

    One male subelite soccer team (n= 14) from Umeå participated inthis study.Thetwo tests that were conducted was the hand-held dynamometer and the Five-Second Squeeze Test (5SST). The hand-held dynamometer is a valid and reliable device used to examine the strength ratio of hip adductors-abductors and the 5SST is a valid measurement of hip and groin function insoccer players.

    Results

    No significant correlation was found between the strength ratio of hip adductors-abductors and perceived pain in the 5SST (p<0.05) in the present study.

    Conclusion

    The findings in the present study showed no significant correlation between the strength ratio of hip adductors-abductors and perceived pain in the 5SST. Based on the result, 5SST cannot be used to identify the strength ratio of hip adductors-abductors in soccer players. The present study emphasis the importance of larger studies with higher number of participants in the future to analyze the correlation of strength ratio and perceived pain.

  • 214.
    Karlsson, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Barn och ungdomars deltagande i skolidrott och föreningsidrott – en jämlikhetsfråga?: En värdering av kunskapsläget och förslag till aktion för barn och ungdomars hälsa.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Children and adolescents have the right to be equally teaches and coached in physical education (PE) at school and to be equally treated as all children in sports clubs. Physical activity can be described as all kind of movements that preformed during physical activity. Physical activity can improve physical fitness as well as it has positive effect on concentration, self-esteem and to work towards goals and getting better at planning for the school homework’s. The recommended amount of physical activity for children and adolescents, started by established health organizations, is about 60 minute’s physical activity per day, to prevent unhealthy physical states and to promote current and long term health. However the level of physical activity on children´s leisure time has decreased dramatically in recent decades. This can be explained by increased time spending indoor with computer games, TV and social media through new technologies that been developed in recent decades. This means that physical activity trough PE-classes in school and by participating in sports club. Here, the government in Sweden through the national sports federation (RF), has invested a large amount of money to increase the number of youth participating in physical activities and sports through two economic stakes called Idrottslyftet and Handslaget (www.rf.se). However, these interventions have recently been evaluated with discouraging results. An important question to explore by the future research is whether the children and adolescents who are most inactive during leisure time are the same who are least active and involved in PE-classes in school. In this case, it is urgent that the children and adolescents who are in very high need of physical activity are seen and coached during PE-classes.

     

    This essay is focused on the PE in school and children´s and adolescent’s physical activity and sports at leisure time, all in view of health and equal rights.      

     

    Keywords: Idrottsföreningar, samarbete, samverkan, föreningsidrott, skolidrott, Handslaget, Idrottslyftet, GIH, physical activity, spontanidrott, Children, adolescents, Community Interventions,

  • 215.
    Karlsson, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Finns det någon variation i CMJ som återföljs av förändringar i någon av pulsvariationerna och handstyrkan?2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Successful training is a key for athletes to make progress in their development. Training must not just involve overload, but also must prevent the combination of excessive overload plus inadequate recovery. Athletes can experience short-term performance decrement without severe psychological or lasting other negative symptoms. Too much hard exercise or too little sleep can cause overtraining, a condition in which the subject can prevent to be away from the sport for several weeks or months. Previous studies have detected that it is important to avoid overtraining. A reliable method is currently not available to detect the warning signs in time to prevent it.

    AIM:  When physical performance deteriorates with overtraining is the purpose of the current study to determine whether impaired explosive strength performance (CMJ) is related to the change in HRV and static strength (grip strength) between the best and worst test day during one season.

    Purpose and Methods: Variation in CMJ was investigated in eight elite floorball players (four women and four men). Heart rate variability (HRV) was measured using a heart rate monitor. The subjects were in supine position for ten minutes and changed into a standing position for eight minutes when HRV was recorded. After the mentees had performed HRV recording, three CMJ jumps and grip strength test was made where the best result was noted. This jump and grip strength was done to check upper and lower body strength.

    Results: Significant differences were detected in CMJ, HRV, but not in grip strength. In HRV occurred the significance of all the variables, but the most obvious differences were detected in average heart lying/standing and resting heart rate.

    Conclusions: Significant differences were detected in CMJ, HRV but not in the grip strength. Impaired explosive strength (CMJ) is related to changes in HRV, but not static strength.

    Keywords: Heart rate variability, Overreaching, Overtraining.  

  • 216.
    Klasson Svensson, Love
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    The effect of six weeks of moderate-vs highintensity interval training on autonomic function in physically inactive older adults2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With higher age there tend to be a decrease in the autonomic regulation of the cardiovascularsystem. Exercise is hypothesized to improve autonomic function but the time and intensitynecessary for substantial improvements has not been concluded. High intensity training(HIT)training poses potential time benefits that may aid physically inactive people.

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 6-week High intensity interval training(HIIT)-program vs a 6-week Moderate intensity exercise training (MIET)-program on autonomic function in physically in-active older adults.

    Home recordings of blood pressure and heart rate variability was conducted prior to and 6-weeks in to the training period. Training was carried out in a gym setting, 2 times weekly, duringa 6-week period. Participants were randomized to either the HIIT or MIET protocol with 15 participants in the HIIT group and 15 participants in the MIET group.

    There was no significant difference in Heart rate variability after a 6-week training programregardless of time and intensity of exercise. The MIET group reduced morning blood pressure parameters significantly (Mean arterial pressure mornings: 95% Confidence interval (CI)I:-5,8- -0,7, p=0,016; Morning systolic pressure: CI:-9,3- -1,3, p=0,002; Morning diastolic pressure: 95%CI:-4,2- -0,3, p=0,03), the HIIT group did not (Mean arterial pressure mornings: 95% CI: -10,3-1,8,p=0,147; Morning systolic pressure: 95% CI: -12,3-1,5, p=0,110; Morning diastolic pressure:95%CI: -9,5-2,2, p=0,196).

    A 6-week training protocol is not sufficient in order to improve autonomic function in a population of older inactive adults.

  • 217.
    Koivumäki, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Barefoot versus shod running: a review on running economy and biomechanical differences2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 218.
    Kristoffersson, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Analys av kraft-hastighetssambandet och effektutvecklingen i squat jumps hos professionella ishockeyspelare.: En metodstudie med fokus på test-retest reliabilitet av 1080 Quantum Syncro.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of 1080 Quantum syncro (1080 Motion AB, Stockholm, Sweden) using a test method of squat jumps through Average power calculations. 19 professional ice hockey players aged 18-35 who play in the Swedish second division (Allsvenskan) participated in the study. The test subjects perform a test and a retest of squat jumps at six different loads between 25-84 kg in random order with a standardized rest of about 45 sec. All test participants were also required to perform a standardized warm-up for each test and a preparatory jump series. Results were obtained from the test devices' measurement units, and then analyzed using the statistical methods Pearson's correlation (r value), Significance of r (p-value) and Standard Deviation. The results of individual test subjects showed excellent correlation r = 0.983 - 0.999 (p = 0.001) and a Standard Deviation = 147 w - 243 w. At group level, high to excellent correlation was shown r = 0.863-0.925 (p = 0.001) and slightly higher standard deviation at test 2, -1 w – 19 w relative to test 1. Based on the results shown in this study, 1080 Quantum syncro can safely provide reliable test-retest results.

  • 219.
    Kronlund, Jesper
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Palm, Matilda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Effekten av submaximala Benböj på Countermovement Jump with Arm Swing: Tvärsnittsstudie på aktiva bollidrottare2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The vertical jump ability is essential for performance in many sports. The use of complex training has in previous research been shown to provide significantly improved power development. Post-Activation Potentiation (PAP) is a physical phenomenon that increases muscle tension and the force development of the working muscles which can be implemented in complex training.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether athletes in basketball, football, handball and volleyball will have a favorable increase in Countermovement jump with arm swing (CMJa) if they perform heavier squats with a load of 50% and 80% of their estimated or measured 1 repeat maximum (RM) before CMJa.

    Method: 9 men and 2 women, age 20.6±3.3 years, height 181.4±7.4 cm, 76.9±12.6 kg body mass participated in the study. All participants were active in one of the sports basket, football, handball or volleyball. The participants performed two set of squats followed by five set of two repetition CMJas with a five minutes rest in between. An infrared sensor MuscleLab was used to analyze the jump height.

    Results: The result showed no significant difference between heavy squats and jump height in CMJa over time (p=0.98).

    Conclusion: Squats with 50% and 80% of 1RM do not seem to improve jump height performance in CMJ on team sports players. The result in this study does not support the results in previous studies showing a positive effect of heavy squats on maximal jump height.

  • 220.
    Krooks, Daniela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Johansson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Theos, Apostolos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Cancer cachexia and the effects of physical activity2016In: Gavin Journal of Orthopedic Research and Therapy, ISSN 2575-8241, no 3, article id J125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical activity is, among other things, characterized by an increased quality of life and several physiological positive results such as hypertrophy and counteracting atrophy. Cachexia has been proven to degradate muscle proteins and seems to be a death contributing factor during cancer.Cachectic muscles are resistant to anabolic effects, and this knowledge combined with the many proven positive outcomes on muscle hypertrophy by exercise led this study to investigate the previous studies conducted on this subject further. The Ubiquitin-Proteasome System (UPS) plays a significant role in protein degradation, more specifically the E3 ubiquitin ligases MuRF-1 (Muscle RING Finger protein-1) and MaFbx (Muscle atrophy F-box), which are FoxO (forkhead box-O) transcription factors. The UPS can be inhibited by substrates upregulated by physical activity, such as IGF-1 (Insulin-like Growth Factor-1) and PGC-1α (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha). In conclusion, there are a lot of pathways in both cancer cachexia and physical activity that border on each other, but the molecular mechanisms are complex and not always clear.

  • 221.
    Kryssbo, Gabriella
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Isaksson, Moa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Skillnader i hälsostatus och aktivitetsmängd mellan tätort och glesbygd i Södra Norrland2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A healthy lifestyle is important for preventing diseases and does often lead to a fuller life with more oppurtunities. Health status and the amount of physical activity are factors to take in consideration when it comes to health promotion. According to earlier studies there are differences between urban and rural areas when it comes to these factors. The purpose with this study is to examine possible differences and why they appear.

    Method: The number of participants is 61 between the ages 20-65 years, from Jämtland and Västerbotten. The participants have taken part in physical tests, blood samples have been collected and a questionnares have been filled in. The data has been processed in JMP and comparisons has been made between rural and urban population.

    Results: In health status, significant differences were found between rural and urban population in total cholesterol (6,2±1,2 vs. 5,3±1,1; p<0,05), VO2max (38,7±8,3 vs. 44,9±12; p<0,05) and systolic pressure (139,4±17,15 vs. 129,3±16,4; p<0,05) respectively. In the amount of physical activity, significant differences were found between urban and rural population in question 24a (54,2% vs. 24,3%; p<0,05), question 24b (29,2% vs. 64,9%; p<0,05), question 15a (19,3±36,3 vs. 86,6±149,4; p<0,05), question 15b (78,6±60,4 vs. 60,9±62,6; p<0,05) and question 40b (8,3% vs. 35,1%; p<0,05).

    Conclusion: There are significant results between the two populations but the similairities are greater. Yet, the results can be used in different organizations with health investments.

    Key words: urban, rural, physical activity, health status.

  • 222. Kuckertz, Jennie M.
    et al.
    Gildebrant, Elena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Liliequist, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Karlström, Petra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Väppling, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bodlund, Owe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Stenlund, Thérese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Hofmann, Stefan G.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Amir, Nader
    Carlbring, Per
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Moderation and mediation of the effect of attention training in social anxiety disorder2014In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 53, p. 30-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While attention modification programs (AMP) have shown promise as laboratory-based treatments for social anxiety disorder, trials of internet-delivered AMP have not yielded significant differences between active and control conditions. To address these inconsistencies, we examined the moderational and mediational role of attention bias in the efficacy of attention training. We compared data reported by Carlbring et al. (2012) to an identical AMP condition, with the exception that participants were instructed to activate social anxiety fears prior to each attention training session (AMP + FACT; n = 39). We also compared all attention training groups to an internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy (iCBT) condition (n = 40). Participants in the AMP + FACT group experienced greater reductions in social anxiety symptoms than both active (n = 40) and control (n = 39) groups reported by Carlbring et al., and did not differ in symptom reductions from the iCBT group. Higher attention bias predicted greater symptom reductions for participants who completed AMP, but not for the control group. Moreover, change in attention bias mediated the relationship between AMP group (active condition reported by Carlbring et al. versus AMP + FACT) and change in social anxiety symptoms. These results suggest the importance of interpreting findings related to symptom change in attention training studies in the context of bias effects. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 223.
    Kung, Charlotte
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Larsson, Josefine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Effekten av statisk stretching för ökat ROM, en jämförelse mellan stretching i vatten och på land2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Flexibility can be a major factor for the human to make movement in a smoothly and efficiently way. Range of motion (ROM) is a term that can be used to describe the body's flexibility in different joints. Several methods are used to increase the range of motion (ROM), for example static stretching. Stretching can possibly be carried out in different types of environments and one of those is in the water. By stretching in a pool, the properties of water could be utilized to have a greater effect on ROM compared to stretching on land. The purpose of the study was to see if static stretching in the water could lead to a more significant effect on ROM than static stretching on land. The interventional study design consisted of 29 individuals divided into three different groups, water group (VG), land group (LG) and control group (KG). LG together with VG stretched the lower extremities on nine occasions for three weeks and KG was instructed not to perform any stretching (control). During the three weeks of the study, none of the participants in the study had any flexibility training beyond the stretching program. The result was calculated from Δ on the muscle groups quadriceps femoris, hamstrings and adductors. The main find was that VG increased in ROM in the adductors as compared to KG p=0.0135, α=0.05. No other significant results were found but the study indicates that static water stretching may have greater effects on ROM than static stretching on land. To establish safer results, studies on water stretching should be conducted on a larger scale.

  • 224.
    Lammi, Mikko
    Department of Anatomy, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland.
    Influences of in vivo and in vitro loading on the proteoglycan synthesis of articular cartilage chondrocytes1993Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the biosynthesis of proteoglycans (PGs) was examined in articular cartilage of canine hip joint after long-distance running experiment and in bovine chondrocyte cultures during in vitro loading with hydrostatic pressure. In addition, new assays were developed for more sensitive quantitation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and PGs.

    Anterior (weight-bearing) and posterior (less weight-bearing) areas of the femoral head from young beagles were labeled after long-term, longdistance running exercise. Total sulpahte incorporation rates were determined and distribution of of the incorporated sulphate in the tissue was localized by quantitative autoradiography. Concentration and extractability of the PGs were determined, and PG structures were studied by gel filtration, agarose gel electrophoresis, and chemical determinations. In the less weight-bearing area, the amount of extractable PGs was decreased, simultaneously with an increased concentration of residual GAGs in the tissue after 4M GuCl extraction. In the weight-bearing area, no marked alterations were noticed. The congruency of the femoral head seems to protect the cartilage from untoward alterations that occur in the femoral head condyles subjected to the same running program.

    The effect of hydrostatic pressure on PG metabolism of chondrocyte cultures was examined during 20 hours' exposure of chondrocytes to 5 and 30 MPa pressures. The continuous 30 MPa pressure reduced total PG synthesis by 37 % as measured by [35S]sulphate incorporation, in contrast to the 5 MPa which had no effect. Continuous 30 MPa hydrostatic pressure also reduced the steady-state mRNA level of aggrecan. The cyclic pressures showed a frequency dependent stimulation (0.5 Hz, + 11 %) or inhibition (0.017 Hz, -17 %). Aggrecans secreted under continuous 30 MPa pressure showed a retarded migration in 0.75 % SDS-agarose gel electrophoresis and also eluted earlier on Sephacryl S-1000 gel filtration, indicative of larger molecular size. The results demonstrate that high hydostatic pressure can influence the synthesis of PGs in chondrocytes both at the transcriptionl and translational/posttranslational levels.

  • 225.
    Lammi, Pirkko
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Chemistry, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland.
    Lammi, Mikko
    Department of Anatomy, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland.
    Tammi, Raija
    Department of Anatomy, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland.
    Helminen, Heikki
    Department of Anatomy, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland.
    Espanha, Maria
    Strong hyaluronan expression in the full-thickness rat articular cartilage repair tissue.2001In: Histochemistry and Cell Biology, ISSN 0948-6143, E-ISSN 1432-119X, Vol. 115, no 4, p. 301-308, article id 11405058Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Articular cartilage lesions have a poor capacity to regenerate. In full-depth articular cartilage defects, the repair process involves an ingrowth of mesenchymal cells from the bone marrow to the injured area, and these cells attempt to restore the lesion with cartilage-like repair tissue. In this study, we investigated histologically the distribution of hyaluronan in the rat repair tissue in relation to other glycosaminoglycans. Full-depth lesions were drilled to the weight-bearing region of rat medical femoral condyle. The rats were divided into two groups: intermittent active motion (IAM) and running training (RT) groups. In the RT group, programmed exercise was started 1 week after surgery, while the rats in the IAM group could move freely in their cages. The lesions were investigated 4 and 8 weeks after the surgery. Semiquantitative histological grading showed no significant differences in the repair between the groups. In normal articular cartilage, hyaluronan was stained mainly around chondrocytes. During repair, strong hyaluronan staining was observed in loose mesenchymal tissue, while in the repair area undergoing endochondral ossification, hyaluronan was intensively stained mainly around the hypertrophic chondrocytes. Remarkably strong staining for hyaluronan was noticed in areas of apparent mesenchymal progenitor cell invasion, the areas being simultaneously devoid of staining for keratan sulphate. In conclusion, hyaluronan is strongly expressed in the early cartilage repair tissue, and its staining intensity and distribution shows very sensitively abnormal articular cartilage structure.

  • 226. Larsson, Anders
    et al.
    Svensson, Michael B
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Ronquist, Göran
    Åkerfeldt, Torbjörn
    Life style intervention in moderately overweight individuals is associated with decreased levels of cathepsins L and S in plasma2014In: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science, ISSN 0091-7370, E-ISSN 1550-8080, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 283-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue cells produce cathepsins L and S, which have proatherogenic effects. Obesity is strongly linked to atherogenesis, cardiovascular morbidity, and mortality. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to see if life style interventions/weight reduction could decrease cathepsin L and S levels in blood plasma. METHOD: Study subjects (n=31) were recruited to a life style intervention program aiming at increased physical activity, more healthy eating habits, and weight reduction for most of the participants. Blood samples were collected at inclusion and after 4 and 8 weeks. RESULTS: Cathepsin L was significantly reduced at 4 weeks (p<0.0001) and 8 weeks (p=0.0004). A similar reduction was also seen for cathepsin S at 4 weeks (p=0.03) and 8 weeks (p=0.008). No significant change in fractalkine values was observed at 4 weeks (p=0.58), but a significant increase was apparent at 8 weeks (p=0.0002). CONCLUSION: The intervention program resulted in significant reductions of cathepsin L and S levels in plasma after 4 and 8 weeks of intervention.

  • 227.
    Larsson, Hampus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Lumbopelvic movement control in competing powerlifters with and without low back pain2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Prevalence of injuries in Swedish competing powerlifters have been found to be high, with low back pain being one of the most common sites of injury. An altered movement control in individuals with LBP in a general population has been shown. Lumbopelvic movement control as a risk factor in powerlifters is not known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to measure lumbopelvic movement control in powerlifters with and without LBP.

    Method

    Thirty-two participants were included, 10 with low back pain (age: 28,4±4,8; 7 men and 3 women) and 22 healthy controls (age: 24,7±3,7; 12 men and 10 women). They performed a lumbopelvic movement control test battery consisting of seven tests, with a possible score between 0-13. The tests were filmed and rated by an experienced physical therapist.

    Results

    There was no statistically significant difference between the LBP group (Median = 6,50, CI: 2 – 9) and the control group (Median = 6,00, 95% CI: 6 – 8) (P =1,000). The effect size (Hedges g) was 0,00 (95% CI: -0,75 – 0,75). There was no statistically significant difference between the LBP group and the control group on any individual test. Nor was there any difference in total test battery score between participants with acute LBP (Median = 7), sub-acute LBP (Median = 10) and chronic participants (Median = 6) (p=0,368).

    Conclusion

    There was no difference in performance on a lumbopelvic movement test battery between powerlifters with low back pain and powerlifters without low back pain. Possibly indicating that lumbopelvic movement control is not associated with low back pain in powerlifters.

  • 228. Larsson, Helena
    et al.
    Tegern, Matthias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet.
    Monnier, Andreas
    Skoglund, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Helander, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Persson, Emelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Broman, Lisbet
    Aasa, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet.
    Content Validity Index and Intra- and Inter-Rater Reliability of a New Muscle Strength/Endurance Test Battery for Swedish Soldiers2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 7, article id e0132185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to examine the content validity of commonly used muscle performance tests in military personnel and to investigate the reliability of a proposed test battery. For the content validity investigation, thirty selected tests were those described in the literature and/or commonly used in the Nordic and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) countries. Nine selected experts rated, on a four-point Likert scale, the relevance of these tests in relation to five different work tasks: lifting, carrying equipment on the body or in the hands, climbing, and digging. Thereafter, a content validity index (CVI) was calculated for each work task. The result showed excellent CVI (>= 0.78) for sixteen tests, which comprised of one or more of the military work tasks. Three of the tests; the functional lower-limb loading test (the Ranger test), dead-lift with kettlebells, and back extension, showed excellent content validity for four of the work tasks. For the development of a new muscle strength/endurance test battery, these three tests were further supplemented with two other tests, namely, the chins and side-bridge test. The inter-rater reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC2,1 0.99) for all five tests. The intra-rater reliability was good to high (ICC3,1 0.82-0.96) with an acceptable standard error of mean (SEM), except for the side-bridge test (SEM%>15). Thus, the final suggested test battery for a valid and reliable evaluation of soldiers' muscle performance comprised the following four tests; the Ranger test, dead-lift with kettlebells, chins, and back extension test. The criterion-related validity of the test battery should be further evaluated for soldiers exposed to varying physical workload.

  • 229.
    Larsson Lund, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Lexell, Jan
    Perceived participation in life situations in persons with late effects of polio2008In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 40, no 8, p. 659-664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate how persons with late effects of polio perceive their participation and problems with participation in life situations and to determine the association between perceived problems with participation and sex, age, marital status, use of mobility aids and access to instrumental support.

    Design: Cross-sectional.

    Subjects: A total of 160 persons with prior polio 6-30 months after an individualized, goal-oriented, comprehensive inter-disciplinary rehabilitation programme.

    Methods: All subjects answered the Swedish version of the Impact on Participation and Autonomy Questionnaire.

    Results: A majority of the respondents perceived their participation as sufficient in most activities and 65% of the respondents perceived no severe problems with participation. The remaining 35% perceived 1-6 severe problems with participation. All 5 domains of participation were positively correlated with the 9 items for problem experience. Most restrictions in participation were reported in the domains of Family role, Autonomy outdoors, and Work and education. Insufficient instrumental support was most strongly associated with the perception of severe problems with participation.

    Conclusion: Rehabilitation programmes for persons with late effects of polio need to focus on areas of participation that are perceived as a problem by these persons and to promote access to a supportive environment to enhance their participation.

  • 230.
    Larsson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Pulsjakten: En fyra månaders träningsintervention2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens stillasittande samhälle, där individer är allt mindre fysiskt aktiva till följd av alla moderna bekvämligheter ökar risken för en rad sjukdomstillstånd som potentiellt kan leda till en förtidig död. Den svenska befolkningen blir allt fetare och rör på sig i mindre utsträckning. Något som skulle kunna ändras om vi visste vad som motiverar till fysisk aktivitet.

    I denna studie genomgick 113 personer, anställda på Länsförsäkringar, ett enkelt steptest. Efter testet hade de sedan fyra månader på sig att träna innan de genomgick ett återtest, som var en exakt kopia på test ett, för att se hur stor förändring som gick att få genom träning gällande puls och vikt. Deltagarna delades in i tre grupper utefter hur mycket de ökade sin träningsmängd mellan testen: en kontrollgrupp, en grupp med liten ökning av den fysiska aktiviteten och en grupp med en stor ökning av den fysiska aktiviteten. Det visade sig att ökad träning var av betydelse för att förbättra konditionen. Personerna i gruppen med stor ökning hade en större pulssänkning än de andra grupperna men det fanns även en sänkning av pulsen för gruppen med liten ökning av den fysiska aktiviteten. I gruppen med liten ökning av den fysiska aktiviteten fanns även en viktminskning.

  • 231.
    Larsson, Petter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Fysiologiska kvaliteter hos manliga tävlingscyklister och effekten av högintensiv intervallträning2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Road cycling is well established and has always been described as a highly endurance sport. To be able to compete in such a demanding sport the physiology of the athletes needs to be greatly developed. This review will focus on high intensity interval training and its impact on the physiological characteristics of competitive road cyclists. The main difference between different levels of competitive road cyclists seems to be the capacity to maintain a high sub maximal power output over a long period of time in order to succeed. High intensity interval training, from 30 seconds to 5 minutes, leads to improved VO2peak, aerobic peak power and time trial performance. The intensities used during these intervals are all based on the cyclists aerobic power output. Despite these findings, very few researches have studied the impact of interval training among professional road cyclists. Future research should therefore make us of mobile power meter units as a part to implement professional road cyclists in studies concerning interval training. In that way the cyclists will be able to train under their regularly routine in their ordinary training environment. Keywords: Competitive road cyclists, interval training, physiological characteristics, power meter. 

  • 232.
    Larsson-Tiensuu, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Inaktiva äldre personers mående under utförandet av mycket korta högintensiva cykelintervaller2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    High Intensity Training (HIT) is a time efficient training method with positive effects on several health outcomes. Although promising, HIT has found it difficult to compare with Moderate Intensity Continuous Exercise (MICT) regarding affective responses during exercise, an important predictor to future exercise behavior. The purpose of this study was to compare the affective responses during two different forms of cycle ergometer training in sedentary older adults, and to describe affective responses over time. A secondary purpose was to evaluate the relationship between affective responses and perceived exertion. A regulated supramaximal HIT protocol (10 x 6 sec) was compared to MICT (3 x 8 min). Thirty participants (aged 69,4 ± 2,9; 15women) completed physical tests and were then randomized into six weeks of HIT or MICT (12 sessions). Affective state was measured using Feeling Scale (FS) and perceived exertion through Borg’s Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE). There was no significant differences between groups regarding the affective responses assessed at the end of the final interval on any of the 12 sessions. The affective response during the last interval remained positive throughout the intervention (HIT: +3,0 to +3,7; MICT: +3,0 to +3,9). A weak correlation was observed between FS and Borg’s RPE for both interventions (HIT: p<.0001, rs = -.3724; MICT: p<.0001, rs = -.3697). This study highlights HIT with very short sprint intervals as a time efficient and feasible training method in sedentary older adults due to the participants’ positive affective responses. Future studies should examine the effects of this novel training method.

  • 233.
    Leandersson, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Kan Bosön 9+ Screening Batteri predicera skada i nedre extremitet hos orienterare?: - En prospektiv studie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Att studera en modifierad version av 9+ Screening Batteris (M9+SB) förmåga att predicera skada i nedre extremitet hos elitidrottande ungdomar i orientering. Metod: En prospektiv metodstudie. Totalt fick 60 elitidrottande ungdomar i orientering på två befintliga Riksidrottsgymnasium, ålder 15 till 19 år, genomföra rörelsetest enligt 9+ Screening Batteri och skaderegistrering med ett webbaserat frågeformulär under 52 veckor. Genom en expertgrupp anpassades 9+ Screening batteri till orientering för att kunna predicera skador i nedre extremitet och totalt inkluderades åtta rörelsetest. Mann-Whitney U Test användes för att studera skillnader i totalpoäng för M9+SB mellan skadade och icke-skadade orienterare. En ROC-kurva användes för att bestämma cut-off gräns för M9+SB och Area under curve (AUC), sensitivitet, specificitet, positivit prediktivt värde (PPV), negativt prediktivt värde (NPV) samt relativ risk beräknades. Resultat: Ingen skillnad i totalpoäng för M9+SB noterades mellan skadade och icke-skadade orienterare (p=0.77). AUC beräknades till 0.53 (95 % CI: 0.35-0.71). En cut-off gräns bestämdes till ≤17 poäng, där en sensitivitet av 0.61, specificitet av 0.47, ett positivt prediktivt värde av 0.61, ett negativt prediktivt värde av 0.47 samt en icke-signifikant relativ risk av 1.15 (95 % CI: 0.66-2.00) mellan skadade och icke-skadade orienterare noterades. Slutsats: En sammantaget låg sensitivitet, specificitet, positivt prediktivt värde och AUC noterades för M9+SB:s förmåga att predicera skada i nedre extremitet hos elitidrottande ungdomar i orientering. Användandet av totalpoängen av M9+SB i det kliniska arbetet för att predicera skada i nedre extremitet hos orienterare är därför ifrågasatt.

  • 234.
    Lehto, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Vestman, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Samband mellan excentrisk lårstyrka och förmågan att riktningsförändra: – en studie på ishockeyspelare i juniorålder2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Team sports involves high demands on the ability to change direction numerous times at high velocities during a game. Ice hockey has evolved towards more intense actions during a game with higher demands on the ability to change direction. Eccentric strength is required for an effective change of direction and science today can show that the relative eccentric strength is a factor in other types of team- sports. However, there is a lack of corresponding science in the game of ice hockey.

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between eccentric quadriceps and hamstring strength and the ability to change direction in ice hockey players. The hypothesis was that higher eccentric strength would correlate with faster performance times in the 505- test.

    Method: Twelve adolescent men (16,6 ±0,8 years, weight 82 ± 9,3 kg , height 180,4 ± 6,2 cm) underwent an eccentric protocol for quadriceps and hamstrings in a dynamometer, 60°/s och 210°/s, and a 505- test off- ice on separate testing days to explore the relationship between the two variables.

    Result: The main findings revealed significant relationships between the eccentric strength in hamstring 60°/s and performance time in the 505-test with a turn to the left. No significant relationships could be found between the other variables.

    Conclusion: The results from this study revealed that eccentric strength in hamstrings may have a role in an effective change of direction. However, further studies should aim to explore the relationship between the ability to change direction on and off ice.

  • 235.
    Liljeblad, Eddie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Pålsmarker, Alexander
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Neuromuskulär kontroll och styrka iskulderbladsmuskulaturen: Kan fyra veckors intervention påverka upplevda besvär iaxlar och nacke hos unga simmare?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    : Competitive swimming is a popular sport. The extreme repetitive motions that overhead-sports

    implies, like swimming, and inadequate stability in the shoulder joint often results in overexertions and

    injuries. A common condition is impingement syndrome and it has been reported that 40-91% of all

    swimmers have or experience problems in the shoulder joint or in the surrounding structures.

    Purpose

    : To investigate whether an intervention consisting of exercises for scapulas nearby muscles for four

    weeks can affect perceived distress in the shoulders and neck of young swimmers.

    Participants

    : Sixteen young swimmer between the age of (13±2), consisting of (10 females and 6 males)

    volunteered to participate. All the participants are performing at least four sessions of swimming a week. All

    the participants in the study are experiencing trouble in their neck or/and shoulders.

    Method

    : The participants had to fill in a (SRQ-S) form and do a Beighton-test. Participants were instructed

    in four different exercises, the purpose of the exercises were to increase neuromuscular control and strength

    in the shoulder stabilizing muscles. All exercise were to be performed before every session of swimming, at

    least once a day, for four weeks. After the four weeks of intervention the participants had to fill in a new

    (SRQ-S) form, the before and after score were compared.

    Results

    : The (SRQ-S) formulas resulted in a significant difference (p=0,0005) between before and after the

    intervention. The majority of the participants reported also a higher prosperous in their shoulder and/or neck

    area.

    Conclusion:

    The majority of the participant experienced less discomfort in their shoulder and neck area after

    the four weeks of intervention. There seems to be a relationship between increased shoulder stability and

    decrease in discomfort in the shoulder/neck. However this study can not come to a secure conclusion and

    further investigation has to be made in this area.

  • 236.
    Lindahl, Linn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Ätstörningar inom elitinnebandy: - En kvalitativ studie om elitinnebandytränares erfarenheter av ätstörning samt vilket stöd de upplever att de behöver för att stötta de aktiva2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundFloorball is Sweden's third largest sport and in elite floorball eating disorders have increasingly been noted. This may partly depend on the attitudes and demands of coaches. Studies indicate that elite coaches lack the knowledge to manage an eating disorder.

    ObjectiveTo explore elite floorball coaches experience of eating disorders and what support they feel they need to help the players.

    MethodSemi-structured interviews were conducted with five elite floorball coaches. The recruitment was conducted by the research coordinator at Swedish Floorball Research and Development Center and the development unit at the Swedish Floorball Federation. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    ResultsThe informants agreed that eating disorders was perceived as a problem in either their own, former or others teams and that the disease was difficult to identify. There were divided opinions among the coaches about the importance of body weight for the individual player. The coaches felt that it was everyone's responsibility to report a suspected eating disorder. None of the coaches had specific education in the management of eating disorders. All acted on what they believed was the correct approach, creating a great uncertainty. The most difficult part when confronting a player was the players' negative reactions. The coaches experienced guilt after a late discovery. The coaches expressed a desire for a comprehensive material to deal with eating disorders, a clarity from the federation about their position in the issue of eating disorders.

    ConclusionElite floorball coaches express somehow an uncertainty regarding the identification and confrontation of distorted eating behavior. The trainers requested a comprehensive material with clear advice from the federation was requested. This study may form the background for future deep going studies on eating disorders in elite floorball. The data can be used to develop goal oriented actions to design an eating disorder policy.

  • 237.
    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Firefighters' physical work capacity2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis was to identify valid, simple, and inexpensive physical tests that can be used for evaluation of firefighters’ physical work capacity. Paper I included fulltime- and part-time firefighters (n = 193), aged 20-60 years. Perceived physical demands of firefighting work tasks were ranked, and comparisons between subject groups rating were done with the Mann Whitney U-test and Binominal test. Papers II and III included male firefighters and civilian men and women (n = 38), aged 24-57 years. Laboratory and field tests of aerobic fitness, muscle strength and endurance, balance, and simulated firefighting work tasks were performed. Physical capacity comparisons between subject groups were done and bivariate correlations between physical tests and work capacity in the simulated firefighting work tasks analyzed. Paper IV included the same subjects as in Paper II-III (training-set), and additional 90 subjects (prediction-set), aged 20-50 years. Laboratory and field tests of aerobic fitness, muscle strength and endurance and balance, and simulated firefighting work tasks were included. Data from the training-set was used to build models for prediction of firefighters’ physical work capacity, using multivariate statistic. The prediction-set was used to externally validate the selected models. Several work tasks were rated as physically demanding and significant differences (p < 0.05) in ratings were found between full-time and part-time firefighters (Paper I). Significant differences were found between subject groups in physical capacity, and work capacity (p < 0.01) (Paper II-IV). Both laboratory and field tests were significantly (p < 0.01) correlated with work capacity time (Paper II-III). The prediction (R2) and predictive power (Q2) of firefighters’ work capacity (Carrying hose baskets upstairs, Hose pulling, Demolition at or after a fire, Victim rescue, and Carrying hose baskets over terrain) was R2 = 0.74 to 0.91, and Q2 = 0.65 to 0.85, and the external validation ranged between R2: 0.38 to 0.80 (Paper IV).

    In conclusion, rowing 500 m (s), maximal handgrip strength (kg), endurance bench press (n), running 3000 m (s and s scaled to body weight) upright barbell row (n) and standing broad jump (m) together provides valid information about firefighters’ physical work capacity. 

  • 238.
    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Gavhed, Desiree
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Oksa, Juha
    Antti, Henrik
    Multivariate statistical assessment of predictors of firefighters' muscular and aerobic work capacityArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 239.
    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine. Winternet, Boden, Sweden.
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine. Winternet, Boden, Sweden.
    Oksa, Juha
    Gavhed, Desiree
    Self-rated physical loads of work tasks among firefighters2014In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 309-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The present study sought to identify firefighters' rated physical demands for the most frequently occuring work tasks and to determine if the ratings differed between full-time and part-time firefighters to help create a basis for the development of physical employment tests for firefighters.

    Methods: An extensive questionnaire was completed by 125 and 68 firefighters in 2000 and 2010, respectively. The data were analysed with the Mann-Whitney U test and binominal test and ranked on the basis of the responses in each category.

    Results: Significant differences were seen between the full-time and part-time firefighters. The work tasks rated as the most physically strenous in terms of aerobic fitness, muscle strength, work posture and body control by most responders were smoke diving upstairs (carrying a hose), victim rescue in different ways, carrying a stretcher over terrain and pulling a hose.

    Conclusions: Physically strenous work tasks should be included in the end-point performance variables used to select physical performance tests for firefighters. The part-time firefighters with no experience in several of the work tasks suggests that work-related exercises are important if both groups of firefighters are expected to do similar work.

  • 240.
    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Idrottsmedicin. Winternet, Boden, Sweden.
    Oksa, Juha
    Antti, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Idrottsmedicin. Winternet, Boden, Sweden.
    Multivariate Statistical Assessment of Predictors of Firefighters' Muscular and Aerobic Work Capacity2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 3, article id e0118945Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical capacity has previously been deemed important for firefighters physical work capacity, and aerobic fitness, muscular strength, and muscular endurance are the most frequently investigated parameters of importance. Traditionally, bivariate and multivariate linear regression statistics have been used to study relationships between physical capacities and work capacities among firefighters. An alternative way to handle datasets consisting of numerous correlated variables is to use multivariate projection analyses, such as Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the prediction and predictive power of field and laboratory tests, respectively, on firefighters' physical work capacity on selected work tasks. Also, to study if valid predictions could be achieved without anthropometric data. The second aim was to externally validate selected models. The third aim was to validate selected models on firefighters' and on civilians'. A total of 38 (26 men and 12 women) + 90 (38 men and 52 women) subjects were included in the models and the external validation, respectively. The best prediction (R-2) and predictive power (Q(2)) of Stairs, Pulling, Demolition, Terrain, and Rescue work capacities included field tests (R-2 = 0.73 to 0.84, Q(2) = 0.68 to 0.82). The best external validation was for Stairs work capacity (R-2 = 0.80) and worst for Demolition work capacity (R-2 = 0.40). In conclusion, field and laboratory tests could equally well predict physical work capacities for fire-fighting work tasks, and models excluding anthropometric data were valid. The predictive power was satisfactory for all included work tasks except Demolition.

  • 241.
    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Oksa, Juha
    Physical Work Capacity-team, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Oulu, Finland.
    Gavhed, Désirée
    Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institute.
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Field tests for evaluating the aerobic work capacity of firefighters2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 7, p. e68047-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Working as a firefighter is physically strenuous, and a high level of physical fitness increases a firefighter's ability to cope with the physical stress of their profession. Direct measurements of aerobic capacity, however, are often complicated, time consuming, and expensive. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlations between direct (laboratory) and indirect (field) aerobic capacity tests with common and physically demanding firefighting tasks. The second aim was to give recommendations as to which field tests may be the most useful for evaluating firefighters' aerobic work capacity. A total of 38 subjects (26 men and 12 women) were included. Two aerobic capacity tests, six field tests, and seven firefighting tasks were performed. Lactate threshold and onset of blood lactate accumulation were found to be correlated to the performance of one work task (rs = -0.65 and -0.63, p<0.01, respectively). Absolute (mL·min(-1)) and relative (mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) maximal aerobic capacity was correlated to all but one of the work tasks (rs = -0.79 to 0.55 and -0.74 to 0.47, p<0.01, respectively). Aerobic capacity is important for firefighters' work performance, and we have concluded that the time to row 500 m, the time to run 3000 m relative to body weight (s·kg(-1)), and the percent of maximal heart rate achieved during treadmill walking are the most valid field tests for evaluating a firefighter's aerobic work capacity.

  • 242.
    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine. Winternet, Boden.
    Oksa, Juha
    Physical Work Capacity Team, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Oulu, Finland.
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Laboratory or field tests for evaluating firefighters' work capacity2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 3, p. e91215-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Muscle strength is important for firefighters work capacity. Laboratory tests used for measurements of muscle strength, however, are complicated, expensive and time consuming. The aims of the present study were to investigate correlations between physical capacity within commonly occurring and physically demanding firefighting work tasks and both laboratory and field tests in full time (N = 8) and part-time (N = 10) male firefighters and civilian men (N = 8) and women (N = 12), and also to give recommendations as to which field tests might be useful for evaluating firefighters' physical work capacity. Laboratory tests of isokinetic maximal (IM) and endurance (IE) muscle power and dynamic balance, field tests including maximal and endurance muscle performance, and simulated firefighting work tasks were performed. Correlations with work capacity were analyzed with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs). The highest significant (p<0.01) correlations with laboratory and field tests were for Cutting: IE trunk extension (rs = 0.72) and maximal hand grip strength (rs = 0.67), for Stairs: IE shoulder flexion (rs = −0.81) and barbell shoulder press (rs = −0.77), for Pulling: IE shoulder extension (rs= −0.82) and bench press (rs = −0.85), for Demolition: IE knee extension (rs = 0.75) and bench press (rs = 0.83), for Rescue: IE shoulder flexion (rs = −0.83) and bench press (rs = −0.82), and for the Terrain work task: IE trunk flexion (rs = −0.58) and upright barbell row (rs = −0.70). In conclusion, field tests may be used instead of laboratory tests. Maximal hand grip strength, bench press, chin ups, dips, upright barbell row, standing broad jump, and barbell shoulder press were strongly correlated (rs≥0.7) with work capacity and are therefore recommended for evaluating firefighters work capacity.

  • 243.
    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Winternet.
    Wiklund, Krister
    Andersson, Magnus
    Malm, Christer B.
    Firefighters' fit for duty score-model: Book of Abstracts2016In: 21st Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science: Crossing borders through sport science, ECSS , 2016, article id 2322Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical capacity has previously been deemed important for firefighters’ physical work capacity, and evaluation of fitness for duty is common in the pre-hiring process. Various methods have been used to establish cut-off limits, i.e. normative data or expert judges. In accordance with government regulation, both full-time and part-time firefighters in Sweden have to pass a medical examination and a test of physical work capacity for permission to execute smoke diving. The physical work capacity test is a pass or fail test: dressed in firefighting protective clothes and breathing apparatus (total weight 24 ± 0.5 kg), six minutes walking with the incline at 8 degrees and treadmill speed of 4.5 km/h is performed. Inclusion of additional physical tests and appropriate cut-off limits is a decision taken by each individual municipality. The aim of the present study was to create a score model for evaluation of fitness for duty in the pre-hiring process of firefighters. Methods A total of 128 (64 men and 64 women) subjects: full-time firefighters, part-time firefighters and civilians, were included. Subjects performed five simulated firefighting work tasks and a selected battery six of physical tests including; 500 m rowing, grip strength, endurance bench press, track running 3000 m, standing broadjump and upright barbell row. The combined information from subjective evaluated cut-off limits, breakpoint estimation, checkpoint estimation and percentiles were used to create a score-model MO-PM30 Performance: Mixed Session 424 21ST ANNUAL CONGRESS OF THE EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCE for evaluation of fit for duty. Results The models yielded various cut-off limits on the same physical test, depending on the work task investigated, but all tests were scored on a 1-11 scale. Consequently, the maximum total score was 66 and the minimum total score was 6. The recommended minimum total score of six tests is 36. Discussion In this study we created a score-model for evaluation of firefighters’ fit for duty in the pre-hiring process. When pre-hiring physical tests are performed, an easily conducted battery of physical tests is important in order to reduce costs but still maintain high validity and reliability. The score-model is easy to understand, performance gives the same score irrespectively of age and sex and makes it possible for the aspirants to prepare for the included physical tests. Since a specific physical test differs in importance in the prediction of simulated work task performance, the lack of performance in one physical test may not be fully compensated with a higher performance in another physical test. Simplifying and generalizing a method makes it practically usable at the detriment of accuracy on an individual level.

  • 244.
    Lindberg, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Sport Sciences Center.
    Professionalisering: Föräldrars åsikter om en organisationsförändring av den svenska barnidrotten2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish way to organize sport has a long tradition and the parents play an important role in ways to organize sport. Without the thousands of adults who voluntary work the sport associations would have problems to survive. However, there are tendencies to that commitment is reduced, which means that the activity is exposed. The purpose of this study was to examine parents opinions about a nonprofit children´s sport respective professional children´s sport. The study was based on questionnaires which were distributed to 83 parents in four different sports; equestrian sport, track and field sports, ice hockey and soccer. The results show that the parents value the sport, the physical activity, in itself, and not the actual organization of the non-profit sport. Furthermore, the parents seem to be in general positive about the changes a professionalising could mean.

  • 245. Lindberg, F
    et al.
    Öhberg, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Brodin, LA
    Grönlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Assessment of intramuscular activation patterns using ultrasound M-mode strain2013In: Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology, ISSN 1050-6411, E-ISSN 1873-5711, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 879-885Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The intramuscular activation pattern can be connected to the motor unit recruitment strategy of force generation and fatigue resistance. Electromyography has earlier been used in several studies to quantify the spatial inhomogeneity of the muscle activation. We applied ultrasound M-mode strain to study the activation pattern through the tissue deformation. Correlation values of the strain at different force levels were used to quantify the spatial changes in the activation. The assessment was done including the biceps brachii muscle of 8 healthy subjects performing isometric elbow flexion contractions ranging from 0% to 80% of maximum voluntary contraction. The obtained results were repeatable and demonstrated consistent changes of the correlation values during force regulation, in agreement with previously presented EMG-results. Both intra-subject and inter-subject activation patterns of strain were considered along and transverse the fiber direction. The results suggest that ultrasound M-mode strain can be used as a complementary method to study intramuscular activation patterns with high spatial resolution.

    (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 246.
    Lindfors, Marielle
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Holmgren, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Utvärdering och jämförelse av olika fälttester för fotbollsspelare2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Different field tests are currently used in a wide extent in different levels of soccer teams. To be able to assess the players’ physiological status the tests must have high validity, reliability and external validity. Many different tests have been developt, but currently only five of these tests are most commonly used: Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (YIRT), Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test (YIET), Multi-sprint-test, Beep-test and Cooper-test. Presently there is no definitive conclusion regarding which of these tests is most suitable for soccer players. Therefore the present study aimed to, on the basis of previous studies evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the five most commonly used field test; to analyze the physiological requirements on soccer players with respect to their aerobic and anaerobic capacity; and last to compare among the five field tests and evaluate the validity of the field tests through comparison of field tests results with results from laboratory and soccer matches.

    During soccer match about 75-96 % of the energy is provided by the aerobic systems, while the rest, 4-25 %, is provided by the anaerobic systems. This fits approximately most of the results from both field tests and laboratory tests through measurement of either pulse, running distance, VO2max or lactate. Among the five tests, Yo-Yo tests (YIRT and YIET) has the best correlation to soccer match with respect to physiological demands on both aerobic and anaerobic capacities. Among the different Yo-Yo tests YIRT2 seems to be the best compared to YIET1, YIET2 and YIRT1. 

  • 247.
    Lindholm, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Artikel 165 FEUF: ett genombrott i EU-rättens förhållande till idrotten?2011In: Artikelsamling. 2011 / [ed] Krister Malmsten, Stockholm: Svensk idrottsjuridisk förening , 2011, p. 160-175Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 248.
    Lindholm, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Dopad i praktiken: rättslig och idrottslig praxis2009In: Artikelsamling 2009, Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker , 2009, no 14, p. 85-102Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Idrottsrörelsen bedriver en omfattande, internationell kamp mot doping. I Sverige, till skillnad från i många andra länder, kan många idrottsliga dopingförseelser också utgöra brott i straffrättslig bemärkelse. En undersökning av vilka dopingärenden som prövas i de idrottsliga och rättsliga systemen visar att dessa system överlappar varandra i viss mån men att det också finns tydliga skillnader mellan vilka som fastnar i respektive system.

  • 249.
    Lindholm, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    The First Annual International Sports Law Journal conference2018In: International sports law journal, ISSN 1567-7559, Vol. 17, no 3-4, p. 117-118Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 250.
    Lindholm, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    The problem with salary caps under european union law: The case against financial fair play2011In: Texas Review of Entertainment and Sports Law, ISSN 1533-1903, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 189-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Salary caps have been part of U.S. professional sports for a long time. Salary caps can be designed in different ways and the term is used here broadly to include all measures that limit how much money a team can spend on player salaries. With the exception of three rugby leagues, salary caps do not exist in European professional sports. This will change in 2012 when UEFA’s recently revealed Financial Fair Play rules (FFP-rules) become applicable to all of European football. The FFP-rules contain a number of quite technical requirements but its core is the ”break-even requirement” according to which professional football clubs will be denied a UEFA competition license if their expenses exceeds their incomes. Unlike most current salary caps, the FFP-rules do not stipulate a fixed maximum payroll that is the same for all teams. Nevertheless, the rules still limit how much money a team can spend on player salaries. The paper will examine whether the FFP-rules are compatible with European Union law. The paper argues that the FFP–rules raise antitrust law issues as well as free movement issues. Consequently, the compatibility of the rules with European Union law turns on whether they can be justified. This, in turn, depends on whether it can be shown that they are proper and necessary to achieve an overriding interest. The paper concludes that this is highly questionable.

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