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  • 201.
    Carlén, Ola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). SLU.
    Bostedt, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Rekreationsfiske i Sverige 2013: omfattning och värde2016Report (Other academic)
  • 202.
    Cialani, Catia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    CO2 emissions, GDP and trade: a panel cointegration approach2017In: International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, ISSN 1350-4509, E-ISSN 1745-2627, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 193-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the relationships among per capita CO2 emissions, per capita GDP and international trade based on panel data spanning the period 1960-2008 for 150 countries. A distinction is also made between OECD and non-OECD countries to capture the differences of this relationship between developed and developing economies. We apply panel unit root and cointegration tests and estimate a panel error correction model. The results from the error correction model suggest that there are long-term relationships between the variables for the whole sample and for non-OECD countries. Finally, Granger causality tests show that there is bidirectional short-term causality between per capita GDP and international trade for the whole sample and between per capita GDP and CO2 emissions for OECD countries.

  • 203.
    Cialani, Catia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Essays on growth and environment2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of a summary and four self-contained papers.

    Paper [I] Following the 1987 report by The World Commission on Environment and Development, the genuine saving has come to play a key role in the context of sustainable development, and the World Bank regularly publishes numbers for genuine saving on a national basis. However, these numbers are typically calculated as if the tax system is non-distortionary. This paper presents an analogue to genuine saving in a second best economy, where the government raises revenue by means of distortionary taxation. We show how the social cost of public debt, which depends on the marginal excess burden, ought to be reflected in the genuine saving. We also illustrate by presenting calculations for Greece, Japan, Portugal, U.K., U.S. and OECD average, showing that the numbers published by the World Bank are likely to be biased and may even give incorrect information as to whether the economy is locally sustainable.

    Paper [II] This paper examines the relationships among per capita CO2 emissions, per capita GDP and international trade based on panel data spanning the period 1960-2008 for 150 countries. A distinction is also made between OECD and Non-OECD countries to capture the differences of this relationship between developed and developing economies. We apply panel unit root and cointegration tests, and estimate a panel error correction model. The results from the error correction model suggest that there are long-term relationships between the variables for the whole sample and for Non-OECD countries. Finally, Granger causality tests show that there is bi-directional short-term causality between per capita GDP and international trade for the whole sample and between per capita GDP and CO2 emissions for OECD countries.

    Paper [III] Fundamental questions in economics are why some regions are richer than others, why their growth rates differ, whether their growth rates tend to converge, and what key factors contribute to explain economic growth. This paper deals with the average income growth, net migration, and changes in unemployment rates at the municipal level in Sweden. The aim is to explore in depth the effects of possible underlying determinants with a particular focus on local policy variables. The analysis is based on a three-equation model. Our results show, among other things, that increases in the local public expenditure and income taxe rate have negative effects on subsequent income income growth. In addition, the results show conditional convergence, i.e. that the average income among the municipal residents tends to grow more rapidly in relatively poor local jurisdictions than in initially “richer” jurisdictions, conditional on the other explanatory variables.

    Paper [IV] This paper explores the relationship between income growth and income inequality using data at the municipal level in Sweden for the period 1992-2007. We estimate a fixed effects panel data growth model, where the within-municipality income inequality is one of the explanatory variables. Different inequality measures (Gini coefficient, top income shares, and measures of inequality in the lower and upper part of the income distribution) are examined. We find a positive and significant relationship between income growth and income inequality measured as the Gini coefficient and top income shares, respectively. In addition, while inequality in the upper part of the income distribution is positively associated with the income growth rate, inequality in the lower part of the income distribution seems to be negatively related to the income growth. Our findings also suggest that increased income inequality enhances growth more in municipalities with a high level of average income than in municipalities with a low level of average income.

  • 204.
    Cialani, Catia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Growth and inequality: a study of Swedish municipalitiesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the relationship between the growth rate of the average income and income inequality using data at the municipal level in Sweden for the period 1992-2007. We estimate a fixed effects panel data growth model where the within-municipality income inequality is one of the explanatory variables. Different inequality measures (Gini coefficient, top income shares, and measures of inequality in the lower and upper ends of the income distribution) are also examined. We find a positive and significant relationship between income growth and income inequality, measured as the Gini coefficient and top income shares, respectively. In addition, while inequality at the upper end of the income distribution is positively associated with the income growth rate, inequality at the lower end of the income distribution seems to be negatively related to the growth rate. Our findings also suggest that increased income inequality enhances growth more in municipalities with a high level of average income than in those with a low level of average income.

  • 205.
    Cialani, Catia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Lundberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Growth, migration and unemployment across Swedish municipalitiesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fundamental questions in economics are why some regions are richer than others, why their economic growth rates vary, whether their growth tends to converge and the key factors that contribute to the variations. These questions have not yet been fully addressed, but changes in the local tax base are clearly influenced by the average income growth rate, net migration rate, and changes in unemployment rates. Thus, the main aim of this paper is to explore in depth the interactive effects of these factors (and local policy variables) in Swedish municipalities, by estimating a proposed three-equation system. Our main finding is that increases in local public expenditures and income taxes have negative effects on subsequent local income growth. In addition, our results support the conditional convergence hypothesis, i.e. that average income tends to grow more rapidly in relatively poor local jurisdictions than in initially “richer” jurisdictions, conditional on the other explanatory variables.

  • 206. Cioffi, Francesco
    et al.
    Lall, Upmanu
    Rus, Ester
    Krishnamurthy, Chandra Kiran B.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Space-time structure of extreme precipitation in Europe over the last century2015In: International Journal of Climatology, ISSN 0899-8418, E-ISSN 1097-0088, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 1749-1760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the space-time structure of extreme precipitation in Europe over the last century, using daily rainfall data from the European Climate Assessment & Dataset (ECA&D) archive. The database includes 267 stations with records longer than 100 years. In the winter season (October to March), for each station, two classes of daily rainfall amount values are selected that, respectively, exceed the 90th and 95th percentile of daily rainfall amount over all the 100 years. For each class, and at each location, an annual time series of the frequency of exceedance and of the total precipitation, defined respectively as the number of days the rainfall threshold (90th and 95th percentiles) is exceeded and total precipitation on days when the percentile is exceeded, are developed. Space-time structure of the frequency and total precipitation time series at the different locations are then pursued using multivariate time and frequency domain methods. The identified key trends and organized spectral modes are linked to well-known climate indices, as North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The spectra of the leading principal component of frequency of exceedance and of total precipitation have a peak with a 5-year period that is significant at the 5% level. These are also significantly correlated with ENSO series with this period. The spectrum of total rainfall is significant at the 10% level with a period of similar to 8 years. This appears to be significantly correlated to the NAO index at this period. Thus, a decomposition of both secular trends and quasi-periodic behaviour in extreme daily rainfall is provided.

  • 207.
    Collin, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Forecasting Volatility on Swedish Stock Returns: A study comparing the performance of different volatility forecasting models2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to find the model which generates the best volatility forecasts of single stock returns on the Swedish Market. The models are estimated using an in-sample dataset of daily observations from 2010.01.01 to 2018.12.31, they produce out-of-sample forecasts during the period 2019.01.01 to 2019.03.31 which are evaluated against a proxy for daily realized volatility using 4 loss functions. The forecasts are also evaluated against daily implied volatilities. The models considered in this study are ARCH(1), GARCH(1,1), EGARCH(1,1) and Implied Volatility measures. The study finds that, in the evaluation against daily realized volatility, the EGARCH(1,1) generates the best forecasts, which is consistent with literature. However, results indicate that the naïve ARCH(1) outperforms the GARCH(1,1) which is not consistent with previous research. In the evaluation against implied volatilities, the ARCH(1) specification performed the best. Although, the differences in the losses of the different ARCH-family models were often very small.

  • 208.
    Coria, Jessica
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Jaraite, Jurate
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Transaction Costs of Upstream Versus Downstream Pricing of CO2 Emissions2019In: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 72, no 4, p. 965-1001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper comparing empirically the transaction costs of the monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) required by two environmental regulations aimed to cost-efficiently reduce greenhouse gas emissions: a carbon dioxide (CO2) tax and an emissions trading system. We do this in the case of Sweden, where a set of firms are covered by both types of regulations—the Swedish CO2 tax and the European Union’s Emissions Trading System (EU ETS). Our results indicate that there is a significant degree of heterogeneity in the transaction costs of the firms in our sample. Moreover, for some of the firms, the transaction costs are high when compared with the actual cost of the CO2 tax and the price of the EU ETS. Furthermore, we find that the MRV costs are lower for CO2 taxation than for the EU ETS, which confirms the general view that regulating emissions upstream via a CO2 tax yields lower transaction costs vis-á-vis downstream regulation via emissions trading.

  • 209.
    Corrales, Alejandra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Vega, Jorge
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Effect of immigration on Sweden natives' wages: The post-secondary and post-graduate case2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 210.
    Dahlqvist-Sjöberg, Philip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    ENVIRONMENTAL TAX ON FOOD IN SWEDEN: How can taxation affect emissions from protein consumption?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how policy reform can reduce emissions from the consumption of protein goods in Sweden. The data material used is time-series aggregated sales and price indexes on an annual basis of goods: beef, pork, poultry, fish, and egg, together with respective mean kilograms of emissions. To calculate the tax, elasticities have been estimated using the LA/AIDS model to find the theoretical appropriate excise tax of approximately 1.70 SEK per kilograms of emissions. This tax yields a reduction in emissions of ten percent based on the results from the model.

    The study also provides the insight that public data within the field of the environmental food industry is limited but would, if available, provide useful analysis to decelerate global warming. The estimations in the study lack significance but is in linear with previous studies and with enough data, the results would give a more accurate course of action to follow.

  • 211.
    Daniel, Aemiro Melkamu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Household fuel choice and use: A multiple discrete-continuous frameworkManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a joint analysis of multiple fuel types and use choices and explores the socio-demographic and housing characteristics that influence household fuel use decisions. Using household survey data from urban Ethiopia, this paper estimates a mixed multiple discrete-continuous extreme value (MMDCEV) model. The results indicate that households with a female head are more likely to combine traditional biomass fuels (firewood and charcoal) and electricity for different uses, while households with less-educated heads, larger families, and poorer living conditions (fewer rooms) tend to rely on traditional biomass fuels. The results also show that households with an individual electricity meter are significantly less likely to use charcoal. Furthermore, The results show that the satiation effect from increased use of a fuel is relatively higher for firewood and lower for electricity. The findings in this paper can be useful for information energy policy, including more effective targeting of subsidies for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) purchases and private electricity meter installations, and for interventions that promote adoption of improved biomass cookstoves. 

  • 212.
    Daniel, Aemiro Melkamu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Household heterogeneity in valuing electricity demand flexibility servicesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we look at investigating heterogeneity in households' valuation of electricity contract attributes that reflect demand-side flexibility in the Swedish residential sector. Using stated preference data generated from a choice experiment, we estimated a mixed logit model in willingness-to-pay space and derivative individual-specific conditional mean valuations for contract attributes which include various load controls and distribution of electricity consumption information. We perform a posterior analysis and identify different segments based on the monetary values ​​households attach to the contract attributes. We find that a large proportion of households ask for substantial compensation to accept various load controls and to share their electricity consumption information. However, Some households are willing to share their electricity consumption information and ask for relatively lower compensation to allow load controls. We also find that some households that accept load controls at relatively low compensation require sizeable compensation to share their electricity consumption information, and vice versa. From the perspective of contract providers, these findings suggest that information-optional contracts can generate more customers than contracts that bundle households' consumption information with various load controls. 

  • 213.
    Daniel, Aemiro Melkamu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Towards sustainable energy consumption: Electricity demand flexibility and household fuel choice2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper [I] investigates household heterogeneity in valuing electricity contract attributes that include various load controls and information sharing to induce demand flexibility. Using a stated preference choice experiment conducted with Swedish households, this paper shows that, although a large proportion of households ask for substantial compensation, some households are willing to share their electricity consumption information and require relatively lower compensation to allow load controls. In addition, this paper finds that some households that are willing to provide flexibility by accepting load controls at a relatively low compensation ask for sizable compensation to share their electricity consumption information, and vice versa. From the perspective of the contract providers,

    Paper [II] uses a flexible model to accommodate heterogeneous decision rules in analysing data obtained from a discrete choice experiment aimed at eliciting Swedish households’ willingness to accept compensation for restrictions on household electricity and heating use during peak hours. The model combines behavioural processes based on random utility maximization with an elimination-by-aspects strategy, where the latter involves a two-stage decision process. In the first stage, respondents are allowed to eliminate from their choice set alternatives that contain an unacceptable level, in this case restrictions on the use of heating and electricity. In the second stage, respondents choose between the remaining alternatives in a rational utility maximizing manner. Our results show that about half of the respondents choose according to an elimination-by-aspects strategy, and considering elimination-by-aspects behaviour leads to a downward shift in elicited willingness-to-accept.

    Paper [III] tests the effect of a pro-environmental framing on households’ stated willingness to accept restrictions on their electricity use. We use a split-sample choice experiment and ask respondents to choose between their current electricity contract and hypothetical contracts featuring various load controls and monetary compensation. Our results indicate that the pro-environmental framing has little impact on the respondents’ choices. We observe a significant framing effect on choices and marginal willingness-to-accept for only a few contract attributes. The results further suggest that there is no significant framing effect among households that are already engaged in pro-environmental activities.

    Paper [IV] explores the socio-demographic and housing characteristics that influence household fuel choice and fuel use decisions in urban Ethiopia. The results indicate that, whereas households with a female head are more likely to combine traditional solid (firewood and charcoal) and modern (electricity) fuels for different uses, households with less-educated heads, many family members, and poor living conditions (fewer rooms) tend to use traditional solid biomass fuels. We find that households with an individual electricity meter are significantly less likely to use charcoal. Further, the results show the satiation effect of the increasing use of a fuel by households is relatively higher for firewood and lower for electricity.

  • 214.
    Daniel, Aemiro Melkamu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Sandorf, Erlend Dancke
    Accounting for Elimination-by-Aspects Strategies and Demand Management in Electricity Contract Choice2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on a discrete choice experiment aimed at eliciting Swedish households’ willingness-to-accept a compensation for restrictions on household electricity and heating use during peak hours. When analyzing data from discrete choice experiments, we typically assume that people make rational utility maximizing decisions, i.e., that they consider all of the attribute information and compare all alternatives. However, mounting evidence shows that people use a wide range of simplifying strategies that are inconsistent with utility maximization. We use a flexible model capturing a two-stage decision process. In the first stage, respondents are allowed to eliminate from their choice set alternatives that contain an unacceptable level, i.e., restrictions on the use of heating and electricity. In the second stage, respondents choose in a compensatory manner between the remaining alternatives. Our results show that about half of our respondents choose according to an elimination-by-aspects strategy, and that, on average, they are unwilling to accept any restrictions on heating in the evening or electricity use, irrespective of time-of-day. Furthermore, we find that considering elimination-by-aspects behavior leads to a downward shift in elicited willingness-to-accept. We discuss implications for policy.

  • 215.
    Daniel, Aemiro Melkamu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Sandorf, Erlend Dancke
    Accounting for elimination-by-aspects strategies and demand management in electricity contract choice2018In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 73, p. 80-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we report on a discrete choice experiment aimed at eliciting Swedish households' willingness-to-accept a compensation for restrictions on household electricity and heating use during peak hours. When analyzing data from discrete choice experiments it is typically assumed that people make rational utility maximizing decisions, i.e., that they consider all of the attribute information and compare all alternatives. However, mounting evidence shows that people use a wide range of simplifying strategies that are inconsistent with utility maximization. We use a flexible model capturing a two-stage decision process. In the first stage, respondents are allowed to eliminate from their choice set alternatives that contain an unacceptable level, in this case restrictions on the use of heating and electricity. In the second stage, respondents choose in a compensatory manner between the remaining alternatives. Our results show that about half of the respondents choose according to an elimination-by-aspects strategy, and that, on average, they are unwilling to accept any restrictions on heating in the evening or electricity use irrespective of time-of-day. Furthermore, considering elimination-by-aspects behavior leads to a downward shift in elicited willingness-to-accept. We discuss implications for policy.

  • 216. De Gooijer, JG
    et al.
    Brännäs, Kurt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Invertibility of nonlinear time-series models1995In: Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods, ISSN 0361-0926, E-ISSN 1532-415X, Vol. 24, no 11, p. 2701-2714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sufficient conditions for invertibility of non-linear time series models are available in the literature only for a few special cases. In this paper a practical and general method for checking invertibility is presented. Briefly stated, it consists of feeding independent and identically distributed innovations into the non-linear model and then observing whether the model blows up or not. Using this idea invertibility conditions are derived for several recently proposed non-linear moving average models. Finally, the method is applied to a number of bilinear models fitted to economic time series.

  • 217.
    Drake, Samielle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Determinants of Regional Unemployment Rate Differentials: An Empirical Analysis of Swedish Municipalities 2008-20172018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats undersöker faktorer som skulle kunna förklara de regionala skillnaderna i arbetslösheten mellan Sveriges kommuner under perioden 2008 till 2017. Uppsatsen avser även att undersöka huruvida det finns någon skillnad i relationen mellan arbetslösheten och de förklarande variablerna när individer som deltar i arbetsmarknadsprogram exkluderas ur arbetslöshetsnivån. Inrikes inflyttningsöverskott, andel utrikesfödda, skattenivå och utbildningsnivå är några faktorer vars påverkan på arbetslösheten som kommer undersökas. Uppsatsen behandlar ett datamaterial som omfattar samtliga 290 kommuner under en 10 årsperiod. Genom paneldataanalys tas hänsyn till både tidsspecifika och entitetspecifika egenskaper i datamaterialet.

    Resultaten visar att det finns stora skillnader i både öppen arbetslöshet och total arbetslöshet mellan Sveriges kommuner under den undersökta perioden. Det finns därtill även stora skillnader mellan olika grupper av kommuner, som visar att det är möjligt att en ekonomisk policy skulle kunna ge större effekt i vissa regioner än i andra.

    Resultaten visar vidare att effekten av en förändring i de förklarande variablerna påverkar arbetslösheten i samma riktning för både definitionerna.

  • 218.
    Duvhammar, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Does Saving Cause Growth?: An Aggregate Approach2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses the Toda-Yamamoto procedure to find the direction of causality between growth and savings on four aggregated groups of countries defined by income level (The 2017 World Bank classification). Between these groups is represented each country of the world. Furthermore, possible differences regarding the causality nexus among these groupsare investigated. We find that the general causal direction is bifold and is harder to determine for higher income groups. These findings both support and contradict neoclassical growth models and empirical findings, showcasing the need of new theoretical models and new approaches in future research.

  • 219.
    Duvhammar, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Familjestorlek och barns utfall i livet: Ett test av kvalitets-kvantitetsmodellen för fertilitet i Niger2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats letar efter evidens för kvalitets-kvantitetsmodellen för fertilitet i Niger. Familjestorlekens effekt på barns utbildningsnivå skattas genom att fört använda 2sls, därefter marginaleffektsregressioner. I 2sls visar resultaten små, men signifikanta negativa effekter av familjestorleken på barns utbildning. Inga signifikanta resultat hittas i marginaleffektsregressionerna. Resultaten indikerar att politiska åtgärder som syftar på att minska fertiliteten i Niger kan ha positiva bieffekter på barns utbildning. Om effekten är entonigt för alla familjestorlekar eller om marginaleffekterna varierar för olika familjestorlekar går inte att fastställa i denna uppsats. Båda resultaten kan bero på att en stor majoritet av barnen i samplet är outbildade

  • 220.
    Edlund, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Grön upphandling: En analys av hur gröna krav påverkar anbudspris och antalanbudsgivare vid offentlig upphandling av lokalvård2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Grön offentlig upphandling (GPP) används som styrmedel för att myndigheter genom inköp ska kunna påverka marknader att bli mer miljövänliga. GPP innebär att den upphandlande myndigheten inför miljökrav i upphandlingen som leverantören måste uppfylla. Miljökraven kan vara obligatoriska eller användas som grund för utvärdering av anbuden. I denna uppsats har jag undersökt hur anbudspriser och antal anbudsgivare som deltar i upphandlingarna påverkas av de miljökrav som ställs av myndigheter vid offentliga upphandlingar av lokalvård. Underlaget utgörs av information från offentliga upphandlingar av lokalvård i Sverige mellan åren 2015 och 2017 och för analysen används en hedonisk prismetod. Huvudhypotesen i uppsatsen är att den upphandlande myndigheten betalar ett premiumpris för att leverantören ska uppfylla miljökraven. Miljökraven antas också fungerar som en inträdeskostnad för de potentiella anbudsgivarna vilket i sin tur kan påverka antalet faktiska anbudsgivare. Resultatet tyder på att miljökraven som ställs i upphandlingarna har ingen eller mycket liten påverkan på anbudspriserna och antal anbudsgivare.

  • 221.
    Edlund, Karolina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Does economic freedom affect the growth rate?: Evidence from middle-income countries2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Despite half a century of aid programs, many countries have not shown a sufficient degree of economic development, leaving their population in poverty. The varying level of productivity has contributed to these dissimilarities and many economists argue that the degree of freedom experienced by citizens is the underlying source of differences in productivity, as it influences the freedom to perform economic activity. In this study, I examine the effect economic freedom has on the growth rate in middle-income countries. Liberal economists are arguing that higher degree of freedom surrounding economic activities is fundamental for economic growth. This point of view is largely adopted by a major lender to less developed countries; the IMF. Common conditions for loans provided by the IMF is to decrease the size of government, privatize public companies, and open up the nation to international trade. I my analysis, including 48 middle-income countries, I test whether these variables affect the economic growth though regression analysis during the years of 2000 to 2014. My results show that economic freedom is an important factor for economic growth, but that the components of economic freedom have different effects on the growth rate. Furthermore, the results differ greatly when comparing the richer and the poorer sections of middle-income countries. I find no evidence that the conditions of the IMF is a good model for development, rather that the countries have different characteristics and are affected differently. The legal system and respect for property rights is shown to have a positive effect on growth, as well as regulating the product, capital, and labor market, while high inflation is associated with low economic growth.

  • 222.
    Edsborg, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Samhällsekonomisk analys: Är det samhällsekonomiskt lönsamt med en gruvetablering inom Jokkmokks kommun?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 223.
    Edvinsson, Simon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Backtesting av VaR för OMXS30: Utvärdering av GARCH-modellers Value-at-Risk-prediktering2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 224.
    Edvinsson, Simon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Pricing of European Options with Subjective Probability: Ambiguity aversion in the options market during the European sovereign debt crisis2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay develops an option pricing formula where the market participantsare assumed to not follow a uniform approach with respect to uncertainty thatarises under extreme market events. By using a continuous Choquet randomwalk for modeling asset dynamics, as well as including marginal utility, an optionprice kernel is obtained- this is opposed to the unique price that arises inthe standard MMBS framework. By numerically backsolving for the ambiguityparameter, the impact of investor ambiguity aversion can be estimated fromobserved market option prices. This method is applied on European call optionswhere the underlying assets are various European bank equities observedduring the European sovereign debt crisis from late 2009 through early 2011.

  • 225.
    Ejelöv, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Ett stort svart hål?: En studie av sambandet mellan bistånd och ekonomisk tillväxt i Tanzania2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 226. Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Johansson, Maria
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Waldo, Åsa
    Kommunerna och vindkraften2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska vindkraften står inför en massiv utbyggnad de närmaste tio åren, vilket har manifesterats i både nationella och internationella beslut och målsättningar. I praktiken sker emellertid utbyggnaden i det lokala (kommunala) sammanhanget, vilket innebär en rad utmaningar och ställningstaganden både för dem som projekterar vindkraften, för dem som beslutar om den och för dem som ska bli grannar med den.

    I den här studien ligger fokus på det lokala sammanhanget – de fysiska resurserna och de sociala förutsättningarna. Ett grundantagande är att kommunala skillnader i fysiska resurser och sociala förutsättningar har betydelse för kommunens inställning till vindkraft. Sveriges 290 kommuner analyseras med utgångspunkt i hur mycket installerad effekt vindkraft som finns i respektive kommun. Analysen visar att vindkraftsutbyggnaden i Sverige framför allt har präglats av stora variationer – där vissa kommuner har mycket befintlig vindkraft medan andra kommuner helt saknar vindkraft. När det gäller den framtida vindkraftsutbyggnaden, de projekt som planeras idag, baseras analysen framför allt på statistik på länsnivå, vilket begränsar möjligheterna att relatera utbyggnaden till olika kommuner. Det kan ändå konstateras att tendensen att vindkraften etableras på vissa platser, i vissa kommuner och län, men inte andra, ser ut att fortsätta.

    Denna ojämna utveckling av vindkraften gör det intressant att undersöka vilka lokala förutsättningar som är relaterade till utbyggnad. I en ekonometrisk analys relateras installerad effekt (kW) vindkraft till kommunernas fysiska resurser och sociala förutsättningar. Valet av faktorer som ingår i analysen är baserat på ett resonemang kring att en kommuns potential för vindkraft avgörs dels av fysiska resurser såsom markyta och vind och dels av sociala förutsättningar såsom kommunens utvecklingstrend som boende-, besöks- och företagsmiljö. Resultaten visar att det är mer sannolikt att det finns vindkraft i kommuner med en positiv befolkningsutveckling, låg befolkningstäthet och mycket fritidsturism. Betydelsen av ett kustnära läge, en stor markyta och ett lokalt miljöengagemang kan däremot inte statistiskt säkerställas. Utbyggnaden tycks vidare vara oberoende av kommunens vindresurser (baserat på hur stor andel riksintresse för vindbruk som finns i kommunen) och företagsklimatet i kommunen. Vindkraften är således utbyggd främst i kommuner som är attraktiva boende- och besöksarenor, men oberoende av om kommunen är en attraktiv affärsarena eller inte. 5

    Flera av resultaten pekar i en oväntad riktning, vilket gör dem svårtolkade. De processer som leder fram till en stark eller svag utbyggnad lokalt är komplexa och drivs sannolikt av förhållanden som inte kan analyseras inom ramen för en tvärsnittsstudie.

    Denna studie ska ses som ett första försök att identifiera och testa betydelsen av olika lokala faktorer för vindkraftsutbyggnaden. Kombinationen av perspektiv och metoder från nationalekonomi, miljöpsykologi och sociologi har gett en bredd till analysen och pekar på möjligheter att fördjupa analysen med bättre och mer fullständig statistik. Exempelvis skulle statistik för den planerade vindkraftsutbyggnaden på kommunnivå ge en helt annan bild och förståelse för vilka lokala förutsättningar som har betydelse för utbyggnaden. Vidare skulle en mer omfattande longitudinell studie kunna visa vilka processer som samvarierar med en viss utvecklingstendens. Slutligen skulle en fördjupad analys genom intervjuer med centrala aktörer i det lokala sammanhanget kunna öka förståelsen för vilka resonemang som i praktiken föranleder beslut för eller emot vindkraft

  • 227.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Priorities and preferences in the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive - A case study of the river Alsterån2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper elicits local and semi-local citizens’ preferences for water quality attributes explicitly related to the water framework directive. A river basin in southeast of Sweden is used as a case study. The sample consists of 502 respondents living in the municipalities through which the river passes, or neighboring municipalities. By the use of a choice experiment tailored to the specific case study area, the paper analyzes public attitudes and willingness to pay for selected attributes related to water quality management. The attributes and their corresponding levels are based on real criteria for ecological water status, used in the implementation of the WFD in the river basin. Although participants live in or close to the catchment area, the results reveal a general lack of knowledge and interest in matters related to the environmental quality of the river. All attributes included in the choice experiment proved to have a statistically significant impact on the choice probabilities. There was however no significant evidence that the preferences differ between respondents with regard to self reported previous experience or knowledge about the water body, nor with regard to differences in recreational habits in the area. The results can potentially be used as inputs in practical policy making with its inevitable trade offs and priorities. 

  • 228. Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Priorities and preferences in water quality management – a case study of the Alsterån river basin2020In: Water resources management, ISSN 0920-4741, E-ISSN 1573-1650, no 34, p. 155-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is a decentralised country where local managers, who are key actors in water management, often deal with relatively difficult prioritisations, tradeoffs and conflicting goals. Many of these challenges relate to the effective implementation of the European Union Water Framework Directive. As an input to these challenges, the present paper elicits and analyses local and semi-local citizens’ preferences for water quality attributes related to the European Water Framework directive in a river basin located in southeast of Sweden. Based on a choice experiment tailored to the case study area, the paper analyses preferences for selected attributes based on real criteria for ecological water status in the implementation of the directive. The target population lives in the municipalities through which the river passes, or in municipalities neighbouring those. Despite this spatial proximity to the river, the analysis reveals limited knowledge and interest in matters related to the environmental quality of the river. There is no evidence that preferences differ between respondents with regard to experience or knowledge about the water basin, nor with regard to recreational habits in the area. These results offer input to local water management by providing information about preferences for explicit water quality attributes.

  • 229. Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    The economics of the European Water Framework Directive - A retrospective remark focusing on Sweden2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) explicitly acknowledges the role of economics in the process of reaching the environmental quality objectives. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the implementation of the WFD in Sweden based on standard economic theory regarding instruments for cost efficient- and effective solutions to environmental problems. A lesson is that although incentive based instruments are beneficial from a cost-efficiency perspective, the complexities associated with environmental water management may somewhat challenge their implementation. Flexibility is a key issue for cost-effectiveness and, since Swedish water management mainly consists of command-and control instruments, the cost effectiveness is likely to be limited. Furthermore, the paper also points at how policy instruments relate to the economic burden aspect and the PPP – both highlighted in the Directive. 

  • 230.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Economics Unit, Luleå, Sweden.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Wind farms - where and how to place them?: A choice experiment approach to measure consumer preferences for characteristics of wind farm establishments in Sweden2014In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 105, p. 193-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores preferences among the general public in Sweden for attributes related to the establishment of wind power farms. The method applied is a choice experiment where people are asked to choose between two hypothetical wind farms characterized by different attributes. Five attributes are included in the experiment: (i) type of landscape, (ii) type of ownership, (iii) the degree of local participation in the planning process, (iv) the choice to transfer revenue to the society in a pre-specified way, and (v) a monetary cost in terms of an additional electricity certificate fee. The data are analyzed with multinomial logit, random parameter logit, and latent class models. The results indicate that consumers in Sweden are more likely to accept the higher renewable electricity certificate fee if: (a) wind power farms in areas used for recreational purposes are substantially avoided, (b) the establishment is anchored by whole or partial ownership in the local community and, (c) the locals are involved in the planning and implementation process. Our policy simulation exercise shows that respondents are willing to pay a higher electricity fee corresponding to about 0.6 Euro cents per kWh to avoid wind farms located in the mountainous area and private ownership.

  • 231. Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Wind farms - Where and how to put them?: A choice experiment approach to measure consumer preferences for characteristics of wind power developments in Sweden2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims at measuring preferences for attributes related to the establishment of wind power farms among the general public in Sweden. The method applied is a choice experiment where people are asked to choose between two hypothetical wind farms, each characterized by different attributes. Five attributes are included in the experiment: (i) type of landscape, (ii) ownership, (iii) the extent to which the local public is invited to participate in the planning process, (iv) the choice to transfer revenue to the society in a pre-specified way, and (v) a monetary cost in terms of an additional electricity certificate fee. The results are based on the survey responses from 1500 individuals and show that all attributes have a significant impact on the choice of the preferred wind farm. The results indicate that the electricity consumers in Sweden are more likely to accept the higher costs (through the renewable electricity certificate fee) if; (a) wind power farms in areas used for recreational purposes are substantially avoided, (b) if the establishment is anchored by whole or partly ownership in the local community and, (c) if the local population is involved in the planning and implementation process. Our policy simulation exercise shows that respondents are willing to pay a higher electricity fee corresponding to about four öre to avoid wind farms located in the mountainous area and to avoid private ownership. People consider extended consultation processes and earmarked transfers for nature conservation to the local community as changes for the better, while the opposition towards wind energy in the mountainous areas and privately owned wind farms dominates the positive effects from consultation and transfers.

  • 232.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Lulea University of Technology, Division of Economics and Social Sciences, Luleå, Sweden.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Johansson, Maria
    Lund University, Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Lund, Sweden.
    Waldo, Åsa
    Lund University, Department of Sociology, Lund, Sweden.
    Location of Swedish wind power - Random or not?: A quantitative analysis of differences in installed wind power capacity across Swedish municipalities2013In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 58, p. 135-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of installed wind power varies significantly across municipalities although the financial support for wind power production and the technology available is identical in all Swedish municipalities. This study analyses how local differences between municipalities, such as local wind prerequisites and socioeconomic conditions, might explain the establishment of wind power. The analysis is carried out for a cross section of Swedish municipalities. The time periods before and after 2006 are analyzed separately; and results reveal that the factors affecting wind power establishments are different between the two periods. In the later time period we found a statistically significant positive relationship between good wind resources and the presence of wind power as well as with the amount of wind energy installed. This result is consistent with the idea that the first wind power investments in Sweden were highly affected by individual wind energy enthusiasts, while in the more recent large-scale investments market-based judgments about future profitability may have become increasingly important. In addition, previous experience seems to be a factor that in itself facilitates additional future wind power establishments, thereby pointing to the role of accumulated institutional capacity.

  • 233.
    Ek, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Momentum Trading Strategy when Using Exchange Traded Funds2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 234.
    Ekelund, Astrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Parking as a strategic tool: Stated Preferences of commuters in Umeå municipality2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 235.
    Ekelund, Tom
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Molin, Simon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    English Premier League: An economics study of parameters’ impact on final position in the English Premier League 2009-20172019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Football is the most exerted sport worldwide and can arguably be considered as a major industry on its own, where the English Premier League stands out as the most popular league in the world. This thesis examines what factors that generate utility, given the assumption that clubs are utility maximization units, for the individual club in the English Premier League. Where final position is of utmost interest. For this analysis, ordered logit and multinomial logit regressions are performed through the usage of 180 observed final positions between the years of 2009-2017. Although this thesis focuses on the club’s individual utility, socio-economic utility tends to appear as a consequence when producing sports. Several parameters are discovered to have a significant and substantial impact on clubs’ final position and thus their utility.

  • 236.
    Ekvall, Hans
    et al.
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Bostedt, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Jonsson, Mattias
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Least-Cost Allocation of Measures to Increase the Amount of Coarse Woody Debris in Forest Estates2013In: Journal of Forest Economics, ISSN 1104-6899, E-ISSN 1618-1530, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 267-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) is crucial for maintaining biodiversity in forests but conservation measures to increase CWD must be performed cost efficiently. We estimate least-cost combinations of CWD-increasing measures in a spruce-dominated Swedish forest estate. Specifically, we investigate how using combinations of the measures tree retention, creating high stumps, manual scarification, prolonged rotations, and retention of dying trees impacts the amount of CWD and net present value at the estate level. We found that by combining CWD-increasing measures in an optimal way the amount of CWD on the estate could be increased 322% with a decrease in present value of only 10%. The optimal combination of conservation measures depends on the desired increase in CWD. The analysis thus shows that huge improvements in cost-efficiency of biodiversity-oriented forestry are possible.

  • 237.
    Ekvall, Hans
    et al.
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Löfgren, Stefan
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Bostedt, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Ash recycling: a method to improve forest production or to restore acidified surface waters?2014In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 45, p. 42-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This cost-benefit analysis compared different strategies for ash recycling in southern Swedish forests, with a special emphasis on the potential to use ash recycling as a measure to ameliorate acidification of soils and surface waters caused by acid deposition. Benefit transfer was used to estimate use values for sport fishing and non-use values in terms of existence values. The results show that the optimal share of acidified forest land that should be treated with ash depends on how optimistic one is about the effect of using ash to restore lakes and streams from acidification. More optimistic assumptions imply that the ash to larger extent should be used to ameliorate acidification. Using the most realistic assumption, given the experiences of forest liming, shows that acidified forest land should not be treated with ash with the aim of restoring lakes and streams from acidification. From a socioeconomic point of view, ash simply does more good as fertilizer on forested organic soils.

    (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 238.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis.
    Haapanen, Mika
    Jyväskylä University.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. School of Business and Economics, University of Jyväskylä.
    Regional Concentration and Migration of Human Capital in Finland and Sweden2019In: Aluetalouksia Tutkimassa: kehitys, työmarkkinat ja muuttoliike : Hannu Tervon juhlakirja / [ed] Signe Jauhianien, Jyväskylä: Jyväskylän Yliopiston Kauppakorkeakoulu , 2019, p. 105-120Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 239.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Haapanen, Mika
    Jyväskylä University.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Regional concentration of university graduates: the role of high school grades and parental background2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyse long-term changes in the regional distribution and migration flows of university graduates in Finland and Sweden. The study is based on detailed longitudinal population register data, including information on high school grades and parental background. We find a distinct pattern of skill divergence across regions in both countries over the last three decades. The uneven distribution of human capital has been reinforced by the mobility patterns among university graduates, for whom regional sorting by high school grades and parental background is evident. Our findings indicate that traditional measures of human capital concentration most likely underscore actual regional differences in productive skills.

  • 240.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Growth Analysis, Studentplan 3, 831 40 O¨stersund, Sweden.
    Hansson, Pär
    Are workers more vulnerable in tradable industries?2016In: Review of World Economics, ISSN 1610-2878, E-ISSN 1610-2886, Vol. 152, no 2, p. 283-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reduced trade barriers and lower costs of transportation and information have meant that a growing part of the economy has been exposed to international trade. In particular, this is the case in the service sector. We divide the service sector into a tradable and a non-tradable part using an approach to identify tradable industries utilizing a measure of regional concentration of production. We examine whether the probability of displacement is higher and income losses after displacement greater for workers in tradable services and manufacturing (tradable) than in non-tradable services. We also analyze whether the probability of re-employment is higher for workers displaced from tradable services and manufacturing than from non-tradable services. We find that in the 2000s the probability of displacement is relatively high in tradable services in comparison to non-tradable services and manufacturing. On the other hand, the probability of re-employment is higher for those displaced from tradable services. The largest income losses are found for those who had been displaced from manufacturing. Interestingly, the income losses of those displaced from manufacturing seems mainly to be due to longer spells of non-employment, whereas for those displaced in tradable services lower wages in their new jobs compared to their pre-displacement jobs appears to play a larger role.

  • 241.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Hansson, Pär
    Growth Analysis, Box 574, 101 31, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindvert, Markus
    Growth Analysis, Studentplan 3, 831 40, Östersund, Sweden.
    Do firms learn by exporting or learn to export?: evidence from small and medium-sized enterprises2012In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 453-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a matching approach, we compare the productivity trajectories of future export-entrants and matched nonentrants. Future exporters have higher productivity than do nonentrants before entry into international markets, which indicates self-selection into exports. More interestingly, we also observe a productivity increase among export-entrants relative to nonentrants before export entry. This might be explained by higher investments in physical capital prior to export entry. We find no evidence that the productivity gap between export-entrants and nonentrants continues to grow after export entry. Our results suggest that learning to export occurs but that learning by exporting does not. In contrast to previous studies on Swedish manufacturing, we focus particularly on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

  • 242.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Growth Analysis, Studentplan 3, 831 40 Östersund, Sweden.
    Hansson, Pär
    Lindvert, Markus
    Effects of foreign acquisitions on R&D and high-skill activities2017In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 163-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using Swedish microdata, we find no evidence for the concerns circulating in the public debate that foreign acquisitions lead to reductions in both R&D expenditures and high-skilled activities in targeted domestic firms for either MNEs or non-MNEs. Previous studies have only focused on larger firms. In this paper, we are able to study the impact on smaller firms (fewer than 50 employees), which is important because 90% of the firms acquired by foreign enterprises meet this criterion. For this group of firms, there is no information on R&D, but by using the register of educational attainment, we obtain data on the share of high-skilled labour in all Swedish firms, irrespective of size. Interestingly, we find that among smaller firms, foreign enterprises tend to acquire high-productive, skill-intensive firms (cherry-picking). After the acquisitions, skill upgrading appears in acquired smaller, non-MNE firms, particularly in the service sector.

  • 243. Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Geographical labour mobility: Migration or commuting1999Report (Other academic)
  • 244.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Nakosteen, Robert A.
    Isenberg School of Management, University of Massachusetts, MA/ Tufts University, Boston, MA.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Zimmer, Michael A.
    Department of Economics, University of Evansville, Evansville, IN, USA.
    All in the Family: self Selection and Migration by Couples2014In: Papers in regional science (Print), ISSN 1056-8190, E-ISSN 1435-5957, Vol. 93, no 1, p. 101-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines determinants of couple migration in a model that accounts for self-selection of migrant couples. The study is based on a sample of married couples from the Swedish population. The model incorporates controls for earnings of both spouses preceding the move, and explicitly addresses unmeasured heterogeneity in the family decision to migrate. Two statistical formulations are presented. In the first version, migration is measured as a dichotomous move/stay decision. A second formulation replaces the dichotomous indicator with the distance moved by migrants. Results suggest that family migration is selective of relatively low earning wives with unmeasured potential for strong earnings.

  • 245.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Graduate migration, self-selection and urban wage premiums across the regional hierarchy2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We use Swedish longitudinal population register data on university graduates and estimate the effect of migration on earnings. Migration between regional labour markets is used to identify static and dynamic agglomeration effects on earnings. Heterogeneity in effects is examined by individuals’ position in the ability distribution and by origin-destination size categories of regional labour markets. The results indicate that the effect of upward migration (from smaller to larger labour markets) on earnings is positive throughout. Downward migration (from larger to smaller labour markets) is generally associated with negative or no convincing signs of positive effects on earnings. The estimates indicate positive short-term urban wage premiums (UWP) for all origin-destination flows of upward migration, especially high UWP for in-migration to the Stockholm labour market region. The UWP of upward migration is positive also for movers in the lower end of the ability distribution, but it is substantially higher for high ability migrants. We also find evidence of a positive dynamic UWP of migration to Stockholm from the other regions, particularly for high ability migrants.

  • 246.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Tillväxtanalys.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Regional agglomeration of skills and earnings: from convergence to divergence?2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyse the geographical distribution of skills and the human capital content of migration flows between Swedish local labour markets. The study is based on detailed longitudinal population register data. During the last three decades, we find a distinct pattern of skill divergence across regions. The uneven distribution of human capital is reinforced by the mobility of the highly educated population. The pattern of skill divergence coincides with declining or even reversed income convergence across Swedish regions. The skilled regions become both more skilled and richer, while the less skilled regions lag behind. This development has potentially important implications for both regional and national economic policy.

  • 247.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Westlund, Hans
    Attributes influencing self-employment propensity in urban and rural Sweden2013In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 479-514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policies aiming at promoting entrepreneurship are in general formed on national levels, without any consideration of differences between urban and rural areas. Usually, cities are provided with better and more modern infrastructure; cities have better supply of physical, financial and human capital, and connected services, and cities have a more modern industrial structure in the sense that their shares of growing industry are higher. Thus, it is possible that policies for entrepreneurship, which in general are designed for urban areas, might be less effective when they are implemented in rural areas. A first step to test the validity of this hypothesis could be to investigate the differences between cities and countryside regarding self-employment propensity and factors affecting the choice to become self-employed. Based on an exceptionally rich data set containing very detailed socio-economic and geographical information on all residents in Sweden, this paper examines: (a) the scope and structure of self-employment propensity in urban and rural areas, respectively, in Sweden, divided into full-time and part-time self-employment, and (b) the importance of a number of attributes that may have an impact on individuals' propensity to start an enterprise in the two area types. Variables being tested are connected to demography and education, labor market status, plant characteristics, self-employment experience, financial resources, family links and regional attributes. The main results indicate that self-employment entry is influenced by the same factors in the same way in urban and rural areas. However, countryside's industrial structure has a smaller share of growing industries. The fact that countryside's startups follow the existing industrial structure means that this "modernity gap" between densely built up areas and countryside remains. From a policy perspective, this must be seen as a serious problem for countryside's growth potential. This gives an argument for designing a special entrepreneurship policy for the countryside in order to increase its share of growing trades and thereby modernize its industrial structure.

  • 248.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Westlund, Hans
    Johansson, Mats
    Determinants of Net Migration to Rural Areas, and the Impacts of Migration on Rural Labour Markets and Self-Employment in Rural Sweden2015In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 693-709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Across most of Europe, the countryside seems to show a polarized development in which large districts are depopulating, while certain areas, mainly around big- and mid-sized cities, are increasing in population. The latter development is often described in concepts of "rural gentrification" and "rurbanization", symbolizing a transformation of rural communities to communities with urban values and lifestyles. Most studies of the effects of these processes have focused on social and cultural consequences, as e.g. the displacements of lower-income households with higher-income residents and of rural culture and values with urban ones. This paper examines the phenomenon from another perspective, namely the effects of the "rurbanization" processes on countryside's labour markets and economic life. This paper aims at analysing the determinants of net migration to rural areas in general and to different types of regions, and the impacts of in-migration on rural labour markets, self-employment and other socio-economic conditions in Sweden for the period of 2003-2005. We find that net migration into rural areas increases with the size of adjacent local and regional centres, whereas net migration decreases with the average commuting distance of workers in the rural areas. When comparing in-migrants to rural areas with rural area stayers, our results indicate that the former has lower incomes, a lower employment ratio and a lower degree of entrepreneurial activities. These differences could-at least partly-be explained by the fact that rural area stayers were on average 6 years older than rural area in-migrants, i.e. the two groups were in different stages of their life cycles.

  • 249.
    Elsner, Dominik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a Hypothetical Dengue Vaccination Campaign in Bolivia2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis for a hypothetical vaccination campaign against dengue fever in Bolivia, a low-income country with endemic risk of Dengue in the eastern lowlands of the country. A vaccination campaign is evaluated using a societal perspective and accounting for different disease incidence rates. The analysis is based on a Markov model previously used in neighboring Argentina and adapted to the Bolivian context by use of information published in scientific journals and information obtained by personal communication with Bolivian doctors. The vaccination campaign was found likely to be cost-effective when the clinical/suspected case incidence is used. Cost-effectiveness is not given when only the laboratory confirmed case incidence is used. The results are similar for a sensitivity analysis that accounted for differences in costs for treatment or vaccination. A probabilistic analysis yielded a probability of 100% at the three-times GDP per capita threshold of 9,231 US$ for the clinical incidence and correspondingly a 56% probability of cost-effectiveness for the lower incidence measure.

  • 250.
    Elsner, Dominik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Admission Prices in the German Motion Picture Exhibition Market: Estimating Quantitative Effects of Cinemas in Large German Cities2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Thesis aims to estimate the quantitative effect of the number of cinemas on ticket prices. The analysis uses a dataset comprising German cities with more than 200,000 inhabitants and non-monopolistic market conditions. Furthermore, the determining factors for the number of cinemas in those cities are also analyzed. For both questions, a panel data set containing those cities for the time period 2007-2016 was studied by means of panel regression with fixed effects. The results suggest even smaller effects that cinema numbers have on ticket prices for Germany than found by Davis (2005) in his seminal paper for the US. In addition, cinema numbers are mostly affected by labor costs. Against theoretic expectation, past revenue data is estimated to have detrimental effects on cinema numbers.

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