umu.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
2345678 201 - 250 of 1569
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 201.
    Burman, Alexandra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Jensen, Paulina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Diet and Caries in 3-year-old Children in Northern Sweden2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to investigate the relationships between carbohydrate intakes, amounts of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli and caries prevalence in 3-year-old children. Data was collected from 144 children who participated in the MamBa-study and who attended the regular oral examination at the nearest Public Dental Clinic. Samples of saliva and dental plaque were collected, dental caries was registered and food questionnaires were answered by the caregivers of the children. The bacteria were cultured and the colonies counted (CFU/ml). The food questionnaires focused on the amount and intake frequencies of foods containing sugar, and the data was then compiled and analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics 21. The level of significance was set to p <0.05. The mean amounts of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli as well as the total cell counts were higher for girls than for boys. Significant differences were seen between sugar intake and amount of mutans streptococci (p <0.001), and between amount of mutans streptococci and caries prevalence (p <0.001). No significant difference could be seen between sugar intake and caries prevalence (p =0.676). The amount and frequency of the intake of foods and products containing sugar are essential to the increase in mutans streptococci, which in turn plays a substantial role in caries development in young children. It is important for the dental professional to help parents early on in establishing a healthy lifestyle and dietary habits for their children. This in order to impede caries development in young years as well as later in life.

     

     

  • 202.
    Bylund, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Saarinen, Niina
    Zhang, Jie-Xian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Widmark, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Johansson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Periodontology.
    Lundin, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Adlercreutz, Herman
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Stattin, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Mäkelä, Sari
    Anticancer effects of a plant lignan 7-hydroxymatairesinol on a prostate cancer model in vivo.2005In: Experimental biology and medicine (Maywood, N.J.: Print), ISSN 1535-3702, E-ISSN 1535-3699, Vol. 230, no 3, p. 217-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical intervention studies and experimental studies with lignan-rich diets suggest that lignans may have inhibitory effects on prostate cancer, but no clinical or experimental studies with purified lignans have been published. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a plant lignan 7-hydroxymatairesinol (HMR) on LNCaP human prostate cancer xenografts in athymic mice. Athymic nude male mice were injected subcutaneously with LNCaP cells. Starting 3 days after tumor cell injections, a control diet or a control diet supplemented with 0.15% or 0.30% of HMR was administered to mice and the tumor take rate and growth was observed for 9 weeks. HMR diet inhibited the growth of LNCaP tumors. Mice treated with HMR had smaller tumor volume, lower tumor take rate, increased proportion of nongrowing tumors, and higher tumor cell apoptotic index compared with controls. Furthermore, the cell proliferation index was reduced in mice receiving the 0.30% HMR diet compared with mice receiving the control diet. Our results suggest that dietary HMR started at the early phase of the tumor development inhibits the growth of the LNCaP human prostate cancer xenografts in athymic male mice.

  • 203.
    Byström, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Endodontics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Oral Microbiology.
    Evaluation of endodontic treatment of teeth with apical periodontitis1986Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Apical periodontitis, an acute or chronic inflamination around the apex of the tooth, is caused by bacteria in the root canal. In Sweden the dentists devote around 10X of their total time to treating this disease. The treatment usually requires 3 to 5 sessions. The treatment may fail in up to 25X of the cases. In the present study various treatment regimens were evaluated. One hundred and forty singlerooted teeth with apical periodontitis were treated. The importance of mechanical instrumentation, irrigating solutions and antibacterial dressings in eliminating bacteria from the infected root canals was studied using bacteriological techniques. The healing of the apical periodontitis after treatment was followed for 2 to 5 years on recall radiographs.

    Bacteria were found in all 140 root canals at the beginning of the treatment. Most of these bacteria were anaerobes and they represented a restricted group of bacteria compared to the bacteria present at other sites in the oral cavity. Mechanical instrumentation with files and reamers in combination with saline irrigation reduced the number of bacterial cells in the root canal 100- to 1000-fold during one treatment session. Bacteria could be eliminated from about half the number of root canals if this treatment was performed at 4 sessions.

    Mechanical instrumentation and irrigation with 0.5X or 5X sodium hypochlorite solutions or with the 5X solution in combination with 15X EDTA solution wa3 more efficient and the bacteria were eliminated from about half the treated canals after one treatment session. The bacteria which persisted in the root canal after this treatment usually increased in number during the interval up to the next session and reached levels which were often as high as in the initial sample at the previous session.

    All bacteria persistent in the root canals after the previous treatment regimens were with 2 exceptions eliminated by dressing the root canals for 1 to 2 months with calcium hydroxide paste. Thirty-four out of 35 root canals treated at the first session with mechanical instrumentation, irrigation with sodium hypochlorite solution and dressed with calcium hydroxide paste were free of bacteria at the second session. Calcium hydroxide paste was superior to camphorated phenol and camphorated paramonochlorophenol as dressing.

    Healing of 79 out of the 140 treated teeth was followed for 2 to 5 years. The majority of the lesions healed completely or decreased in size in such a way that they could be expected to heal. There was no or only an insignificant decrease in the size of the lesions in 5 cases. In 2 of these cases bacteria were demonstrated in the periapical tissues and in a third case dentin chips. Periapical lesions may thus fail to heal in a few cases due to an establishment of bacteria outside the root canal, and in that site the bacteria are inaccessible to conventional endodontic treatment.

    The present study showed that treatment of the majority of infected non-vital teeth can be completed in only 2 sessions, if mechanical instrumentation, sodium hypochlorite irrigation and calcium hydroxide dressing are combined.

  • 204.
    Bäck, Linnéa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Jennie, Frykholm
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Effect of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Leukotoxin on ATP Release through Pannexin Channels in Human Monocytes2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is strongly associated with aggressive periodontitis and one of several virulence factors is a leukotoxin (LtxA). The toxin has a consequential impact on human leukocytes which leads to an interference with the host ́s defences due to a chain reaction involving activation and release of a pro-inflammatory cytokine; interleukin-1β (IL-1β). As an early phase in this reaction chain the toxin stimulates a massive release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from human leukocytes. We hypothesize that leukotoxin-induced pro- inflammatory cell death is initiated by ATP release through pannexin channels in the human monocyte cell membrane. The aim of this study was to investigate if blocking of pannexin channels with carbenoxolone (Cbx) results in a reduction of ATP release. A human monocyte cell line (THP-1 cells) was exposed to purified LtxA, Cbx and oxidized ATP. Colorimetric ATP kit was used to evaluate levels of ATP release and thereafter the samples were read in a spectrophotometer. This study confirms that LtxA induces an ATP release from THP-1 cells. Our conclusion is that blocking of pannexin channels does not result in a statistically significant reduction in ATP release, which indicates that ATP is released by one or several other undetected pathways. 

  • 205.
    Bäckman, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Pediatric Dentistry.
    Amelogenesis imperfecta: an epidemiologic, genetic, morphologic and clinical study1989Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a genetically determined enamel defect characterized by genetic and clinical heterogeneity .

    The prevalence and incidence of AI were established in the county of Västerbotten, northern Sweden, in 3-19-yr-olds born 1963-79, as were the mode of inheritance and clinical manifestation of AI. The distribution of the inorganic component in the enamel of AI teeth was studied as well as the surface morphology and other morphological details, and the findings were correlated to genetic and clinical data.

    AI was diagnosed in 79 children and adolescents (index cases). The prevalence in the study population was 1.4:

    1 000. The mean yearly incidence 1963-79 was 1.3:1 000.

    The inheritance patterns for AI were established in 78 index cases from 51 families. Pedigree and segregation analyses suggested autosomal dominant (AD) inheritance in 3 3 families, autosomal recessive (AR) in six families, and X- linked recessive in two families; in ten families only sporadic cases were found. In one of the families with an AD inheritance pattern, X-linked dominant was a possible alternative.

    Examination of the families of the 78 index cases revealed 107 new cases of AI. The hypoplastic form was seen in 72% of all diagnosed cases and the hypomineralization form in 28% of the cases.

    A further classification of the clinical manifestations led to the identification of eight clinical variants. In 3 3 of the 51 families the same clinical variant was found in all affected members. In eight families affected members were assigned to different clinical variants. In three families with an X-linked inheritance pattern for AI, the clinical manifestation differed between women and men due to lyo- nization. Among the remaining five families, with an AD inheritance pattern for AI, variants clinically characterized by hypoplasia as well as variants characterized by hypomineralization were found in three families; in the other two families the clinical manifestation varied within the same main form of AI, i.e. hypoplasia or hypomineralization.

    Hypoplasia as well as hypomineralization were observed microradiographically in the enamel of most of the examined teeth. These findings were supported by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

    Both clinically and microradiographically as well as by SEM, similar variants of AI were found as AD and AR traits and/or among the sporadic cases. In the families with AI as an X-linked trait the genetic hypothesis was confirmed by the clinical, microradiographic and scanning electron microscopic findings.

  • 206.
    Bäckman, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Rey, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Dietary Habits, Physical Activity and Caries Experience during Childhood2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 207. Bäckström, I
    et al.
    Funegård, Ulrika
    Andersson, I
    Franzén, L
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Cariology.
    Dietary intake in head and neck irradiated patients with permanent dry mouth symptoms.1995In: European Journal of Cancer. Part B, Oral Oncology, ISSN 0964-1955, Vol. 31B, no 4, p. 253-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiotherapy of the head and neck region, which includes the major and minor salivary glands in the radiation field, usually leads to temporary or permanent xerostomia. This may affect eating and increase the risk of inadequate intake of energy and nutrients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of radiotherapy-induced xerostomia on energy and nutrient intake in individuals treated for malignancies in the head and neck region. The dietary intake of 24 patients with a low chewing stimulated whole saliva flow rate (< 0.5 ml/min) and in age and sex matched controls with normal flow rate (> 1.0 ml/min) was recorded for 7 days. The average daily energy intake was nearly 300 kcal lower in the irradiated patients with dry mouth symptoms than in the control group. The mean intake in the former group was 1925 kcal per day whereas the control group had an intake of 2219 kcal per day. Irradiated patients with dry mouth symptoms had significantly lower mean intakes of vitamin A, beta-carotene, vitamin E, vitamin B6, folacine, iron and zinc than those in the control group. There was also a lower intake of vitamin C, but this was not statistically significant. The intake of vitamins A and C exceeded or reached the levels recommended in the Swedish Nutritional recommendations, but the average intakes of fibre, iron, beta-carotene, vitamin E, zinc, selenium, and iron did not reach recommended levels, in neither the experimental nor the control group. There was a slight positive correlation between energy intake and saliva secretion rate in the control group, but the energy intake was totally independent of variations in secretion rate in the irradiated patients with low secretion rate.

  • 208.
    Börlin, Niclas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lindh, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Prosthetic Dentistry.
    An Implant-oriented method for dental digital subtraction radiography1999In: Computer Methods in Biomechanics & Biomedical Engineering — 2 / [ed] Middleton, J., Gordon and Breach Science Publishers , 1999, p. 705-712Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 209.
    Börlin, Niclas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lindh, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Prosthetic Dentistry.
    The threaded dental implant as a reference object for image alignment2001In: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, ISSN 1025-5842, E-ISSN 1476-8259, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 421-431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a method that uses the threaded dental implant as a reference object for the inter-image alignment necessary for digital subtraction radiography. The implant is furthermore used to define a measurement coordinate system and to automate the placement of reference areas used for contrast correction. The method is intended for studies of diffuse bone density changes in the vicinity of the implant. The method is shown to be insensitive to large variations in exposure time and geometry, and is together with the contrast correction method of Ruttimann et al., able to detect clinically invisible simulated bone density changes.

  • 210.
    Bülund, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Engström, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    The Aggregatibacter aphrophilus Type VI Secretion System - an Initial Characterization2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is an important virulence factor for many Gram-negative species, for example Vibrio cholerae. The T6SS translocates effector proteins. Hemolysin co-regulated protein (Hcp) is a protein important for the T6SS function and can be found on the outside of the bacteria. Presence of extracellular Hcp can therefore be used as a marker of an active T6SS. Genome sequence analysis has revealed genes of a T6SS in one isolate of Aggregatibacter aphrophilus (NJ8700). A. aphrophilus is an oral bacterium closely related to the periodontal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, which does not have a T6SS. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of T6SS- encoding genes and to test if the system was functionally expressed in three A. aphrophilus isolates, (AHI- 3151, IH- 90256, and CCUG 3715). A genetic map of the A. aphrophilus T6SS gene cluster was generated based on the whole genome sequence of NJ8700, showing many similarities with the T6SS gene cluster in V. cholerae. This also led to the identification of a putative A. aphrophilus T6SS substrate, Hcp protein. Conservation of three T6SS-associated genes was analyzed by PCR, results showed presence of these genes in all tested A. aphrophilus strains. The functionality of the T6SS was tested by immunoblot analyses using antiserum against Hcp of V. cholerae, however without detecting Hcp in any of the samples. Hcp and a T6SS related lipoprotein were however found in strain AHI-3151 culture supernatants using LC-MS/MS, which indicates an active T6SS in this A. aphrophilus strain.

     

  • 211. Cagar, E
    et al.
    Kavaloglu, SC
    Kuscu, OO
    Sandalli, N
    Lif-Holgerson, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Pediatric Dentistry.
    Twetman, Svante
    Effect of chewing gums containing xylitol or probiotic bacteria on salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli2007In: Clinical Oral Investigations, ISSN 1432-6981, E-ISSN 1436-3771, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 425-429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to evaluate the effect of xylitol and probiotic chewing gums on salivary mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli (LB). The material consisted of 80 healthy young adults (21-24 years) who volunteered after informed consent. They were assigned by random into one of four parallel study groups: A, probiotic gum group; B, xylitol gum group; C, probiotic + xylitol gum group; and D, placebo gum group. The gums were taken three times daily after meals, and the intervention period was 3 weeks. The probiotic gums contained two strains of Lactobacilli reuteri (ATCC 55730 at a dose of 1 x 10(8) CFU/gum and ATCC PTA 5289 at a dose of 1 x 10(8) CFU/gum), and each pellet of the xylitol gum contained approximately 1.0 g xylitol as single sweetener. Pretreatment and posttreatment samples of stimulated whole saliva were collected and quantified for MS and LB with chair-side kits. A statistically significant reduction (p < 0.05) of salivary MS was displayed in group A and B after the intervention when compared with baseline. A similar but nonsignificant tendency was seen in group C. No alterations of salivary LB was demonstrated in any group. In conclusion, daily chewing on gums containing probiotic bacteria or xylitol reduced the levels of salivary MS in a significant way. However, a combination of probiotic and xylitol gums did not seem to enhance this effect.

  • 212. Cagetti, MG
    et al.
    Fadini, L
    Pariset, P
    Strohmenger, L
    Twetman, Svante
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Pediatric Dentistry.
    Chlorhexidine concentration in saliva after topical treatment with an antibacterial dental varnish.2004In: American journal of dentistry, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 196-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the salivary levels of chlorhexidine (CHX) after a single professional treatment with an antibacterial dental varnish (Cervitec) containing 1% CHX and 1% thymol. METHODS: Unstimulated whole saliva from 21 healthy young adults was collected at baseline and up to 24 hours after treatment at designated time intervals and the CHX levels in saliva were quantified with high-performance liquid chromatography. Post-treatment saliva samples were added to suspensions of mutans streptococci and supragingival dental plaque for a growth inhibition. RESULTS: CHX concentration in saliva showed a peak value (76.5 microg/ml) after 5 minutes followed by a slow decrease with time. The elevation was statistically significant (P < 0.05) up to 4 hours after the application of the varnish and the recorded values were back to baseline levels after 24 hours. The 2- and 4-hour post-treatment saliva samples inhibited growth of mutans streptococci by 46% and 33%, respectively.

  • 213. Campmans-Kuijpers, Marjo J. E.
    et al.
    Sluijs, Ivonne
    Noethlings, Ute
    Freisling, Heinz
    Overvad, Kim
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Fagherazzi, Guy
    Kuehn, Tilman
    Katzke, Verena A.
    Mattiello, Amalia
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Masala, Giovanna
    Agnoli, Claudia
    Tumino, Rosario
    Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Ricceri, Fulvio
    Chamosa, Saioa
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, School of Dentistry.
    Winkvist, Anna
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Sluik, Diewertje
    Boeing, Heiner
    Beulens, Joline W. J.
    Isocaloric substitution of carbohydrates with protein: the association with weight change and mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes2015In: Cardiovascular Diabetology, ISSN 1475-2840, E-ISSN 1475-2840, Vol. 14, article id 39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The health impact of dietary replacement of carbohydrates with protein for patients with type 2 diabetes is still debated. This study aimed to investigate the association between dietary substitution of carbohydrates with (animal and plant) protein and 5-year weight change, and all-cause and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality risk in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Methods: The study included 6,107 diabetes patients from 15 European cohorts. Patients with type 1 diabetes were excluded. At recruitment, validated country-specific food-frequency questionnaires were used to estimate dietary intake. Multivariable adjusted linear regression was used to examine the associations between dietary carbohydrate substitution with protein and 5-year weight change, and Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for (CVD) mortality.

    Results: Annual weight loss of patients with type 2 diabetes was 0.17 (SD 1.24) kg. After a mean follow-up of 9.2 (SD 2.3)y, 787 (13%) participants had died, of which 266 (4%) deaths were due to CVD. Substitution of 10 gram dietary carbohydrate with total (ß = 187 [75;299]g) and animal (ß = 196 [137;254]g) protein was associated with mean 5-year weight gain. Substitution for plant protein was not significantly associated with weight change (β = 82 [−421;584]g). Substitution with plant protein was associated with lower all-cause mortality risk (HR = 0.79 [0.64;0.97]), whereas substitution with total or animal protein was not associated with (CVD) mortality risk.

    Conclusions: In diabetes patients, substitution with plant protein was beneficial with respect to weight change and all-cause mortality as opposed to substitution with animal protein. Therefore, future research is needed whether dietary guidelines should not actively promote substitution of carbohydrates by total protein, but rather focus on substitution of carbohydrates with plant protein.

  • 214. Campmans-Kuijpers, Marjo J
    et al.
    Sluijs, Ivonne
    Nöthlings, Ute
    Freisling, Heinz
    Overvad, Kim
    Boeing, Heiner
    Masala, Giovanna
    Panico, Salvatore
    Tumino, Rosario
    Sieri, Sabina
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Winkvist, Anna
    Katzke, Verena A
    Kuehn, Tilman
    Nilsson, Peter M
    Halkjær, Jytte
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Spijkerman, Annemieke M
    Arriola, Larraitz
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    May, Anne M
    Beulens, Joline W
    The association of substituting carbohydrates with total fat and different types of fatty acids with mortality and weight change among diabetes patients2016In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 1096-1102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Substitution of carbohydrates with fat in a diet for type 2 diabetes patients is still debated.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the association between dietary carbohydrate intake and isocaloric substitution with (i) total fat, (ii) saturated fatty acids (SFA), (iii) mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and (iv) poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with all-cause and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality risk and 5-year weight change in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    METHODS: The study included 6192 patients with type 2 diabetes from 15 cohorts of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Dietary intake was assessed at recruitment with country-specific food-frequency questionnaires. Cox and linear regression were used to estimate the associations with (CVD) mortality and weight change, adjusting for confounders and using different methods to adjust for energy intake.

    RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 9.2 y ± SD 2.3 y, 791 (13%) participants had died, of which 268 (4%) due to CVD. Substituting 10 g or 5 energy% of carbohydrates by total fat was associated with a higher all-cause mortality risk (HR 1.07 [1.02-1.13]), or SFAs (HR 1.25 [1.11-1.40]) and a lower risk when replaced by MUFAs (HR 0.89 [0.77-1.02]). When carbohydrates were substituted with SFAs (HR 1.22 [1.00-1.49]) or PUFAs (HR 1.29 [1.02-1.63]) CVD mortality risk increased. The 5-year weight was lower when carbohydrates were substituted with total fat or MUFAs. These results were consistent over different energy adjustment methods.

    CONCLUSIONS: In diabetes patients, substitution of carbohydrates with SFAs was associated with a higher (CVD) mortality risk and substitution by total fat was associated with a higher all-cause mortality risk. Substitution of carbohydrates with MUFAs may be associated with lower mortality risk and weight reduction. Instead of promoting replacement of carbohydrates by total fat, dietary guideline should continue focusing on replacement by fat-subtypes; especially SFAs by MUFAs.

  • 215. Carlsson, G
    et al.
    Wahlin, Ylva-Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology.
    Johansson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Periodontology.
    Olsson, A
    Eriksson, T
    Claesson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology.
    Hänström, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology.
    Henter, JI
    Periodontal disease in patients from the original Kostmann family with severe congenital neutropenia2006In: Journal of Periodontology, ISSN 0022-3492, E-ISSN 1943-3670, Vol. 77, no 4, p. 744-751Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients with Kostmann syndrome (severe congenital neutropenia [SCN]) typically normalize their absolute neutrophil count (ANC) upon granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) therapy. However, although they no longer experience life-threatening bacterial infections, they frequently still have recurrent gingivitis and even severe periodontitis, often starting in early childhood. METHODS: We studied the periodontal disease in the four surviving patients belonging to the family originally described by Kostmann. Their odontological records, x-rays, color photos, bacterial cultures, serum antibodies to oral bacteria, and histopathological examinations were reviewed. The data were also correlated to previous investigations on their antibacterial peptides and molecular biology. RESULTS: Three patients had periodontal disease, despite normal ANC and professional dental care, and had neutrophils deficient in antibacterial peptides. One of these patients also had a heterozygous mutation in the neutrophil elastase gene, had severe periodontal disease and overgrowth of the periodontal pathogen Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in the dental flora, and 15 permanent teeth had been extracted by the age of 27. One bone marrow-transplanted patient had no periodontal disease. CONCLUSIONS: Normalized ANC levels are not sufficient to maintain normal oral health in SCN patients, and because neutrophils are important for first-line defense and innate immunity, the deficiency of the antibacterial peptide LL-37 probably explains their chronic periodontal disease. Professional dental care is still important for SCN patients, despite treatment with G-CSF and normal ANC levels. Whether antibacterial peptides play a role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis in other patients remains to be elucidated.

  • 216.
    Carlsson, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Oral Microbiology.
    Berglin, Ewa H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Oral Microbiology.
    Claesson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Oral Microbiology.
    Edlund, Maj-Britt K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Oral Microbiology.
    Persson, Sten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Oral Microbiology.
    Catalase inhibition by sulfide and hydrogen peroxide-induced mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA1021988In: Mutation research, ISSN 0027-5107, E-ISSN 1873-135X, Vol. 202, no 1, p. 59-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lethal and mutagenic effects of hydrogen peroxide were studied in exponentially growing cultures of Salmonella typhimurium strain TA102. Exposure of the cultures to non-lethal levels of sodium sulfide significantly increased the lethality and mutagenicity of hydrogen peroxide. The catalase activity was decreased in cells exposed to sodium sulfide, but there were no changes in the cellular levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, or NADPH-dependent alkyl hydroperoxide reductase. Hydrogen peroxide-induced mutagenesis and killing of S. typhimurium strain TA102 in the presence of sulfide may in part be explained by an inactivation of catalase by sulfide.

  • 217.
    Carlsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Rönnberger, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Rhythmical Jaw Opening – Closing Patterns in Subjects with TMD Pain An analysis of jaw motor behavior during a 5 minute observation period2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A deeper understanding of jaw motor control is critical for clinical diagnosis and rehabilitation. Decreased jaw opening-closing amplitude and irregular frequency may be related to pain or dysfunction in the jaw system. This study observed how these parameters changed over a five minute rhythmical jaw opening-closing session among subjects with arthralgia and/or myalgia. Pre- and post-trial the subjects rated intensity of pain and sense of tiredness of the jaw on a numerical rating scale (NRS-11).

     

    In this pilot study, seven female patients with arthralgia/myalgia were instructed to perform a rhythmical jaw opening-closing task during five minutes. The movement was recorded with a 3D optoelectronic recording system. The variables were i) mean jaw opening amplitudes (mm), ii) mean jaw opening-closing cycle times (s) and iii) self-reported intensity of pain and sense of tiredness pre- and post-task. The data was analyzed using Wilcoxon signed rank test for two related samples.  P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

     

    The results showed a significant decrease in amplitude and cycle time between the first and the second minute, during the remaining four minutes the parameters kept steady. The self-rated intensity of pain and sense of tiredness were significantly higher after the test than prior to it. There was no difference in standard deviation for amplitude or cycle time between the recordings.

     

    It’s possible that the results are outcomes of the reported intensity of pain and sense of tiredness; additional research on the subject is needed to interpret the results to a bigger context.

  • 218.
    Carlsson, Sarah
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Lundgren, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Evaluation of a Postgraduate Course in Intraoral Imaging Technique2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 219.
    Cederbring, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Norberg, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Size and Position of the Active Area in Intraoral Radiographic Sensors2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 220. Cederholm, Tommy
    et al.
    Marcus, Claude
    Rössner, Stephan
    Hellénius, Mai-Lis
    Björck, Inger
    Bosaeus, Ingvar
    Forsum, Elisabet
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hulthén, Lena
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    Lissner, Lauren
    Nilsson, Ake
    Nyman, Margareta
    Palmblad, Jan
    Sandberg, Ann-Sofie
    Aman, Per
    Replik till Lars-Erik Holm: Forskaren, samhället och jäv [The researcher, the society and partiality]2008In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 105, no 16, p. 1206-1207Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 221.
    Cederlind, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Peltonen, Sandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Caries prevalence among three sub populations of 12-year old children in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia - an observation study2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 222. Chajes, Veronique
    et al.
    Biessy, Carine
    Ferrari, Pietro
    Romieu, Isabelle
    Freisling, Heinz
    Huybrechts, Inge
    Scalbert, Augustin
    de Mesquita, Bas Bueno
    Romaguera, Dora
    Gunter, Marc J.
    Vineis, Paolo
    Hansen, Camilla Plambeck
    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre
    Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise
    Fagherazzi, Guy
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Katzke, Verana
    Neamat-Allah, Jasmine
    Boeing, Heiner
    Bachlechner, Ursula
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Naska, Androniki
    Orfanos, Philippos
    Pala, Valeria
    Masala, Giovanna
    Mattiello, Amalia
    Skeie, Guri
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Agudo, Antonio
    Maria Huerta, Jose
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Jose Sanchez, Maria
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Ramon Quiros, Jose
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Winkvist, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Sonested, Emily
    Key, Tim
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Wareham, Nicolas J.
    Peeters, Petra H. M.
    Slimani, Nadia
    Plasma Elaidic Acid Level as Biomarker of Industrial Trans Fatty Acids and Risk of Weight Change: Report from the EPIC Study2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 2, article id e0118206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Few epidemiological studies have examined the association between dietary trans fatty acids and weight gain, and the evidence remains inconsistent. The main objective of the study was to investigate the prospective association between biomarker of industrial trans fatty acids and change in weight within the large study European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ( EPIC) cohort. Methods Baseline plasma fatty acid concentrations were determined in a representative EPIC sample from the 23 participating EPIC centers. A total of 1,945 individuals were followed for a median of 4.9 years to monitor weight change. The association between elaidic acid level and percent change of weight was investigated using a multinomial logistic regression model, adjusted by length of follow- up, age, energy, alcohol, smoking status, physical activity, and region. Results In women, doubling elaidic acid was associated with a decreased risk of weight loss ( odds ratio ( OR) = 0.69, 95% confidence interval ( CI) = 0.55- 0.88, p = 0.002) and a trend was observed with an increased risk of weight gain during the 5- year follow- up ( OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 0.97- 1.56, p = 0.082) ( p- trend<. 0001). In men, a trend was observed for doubling elaidic acid level and risk of weight loss ( OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.66- 1.01, p = 0.062) while no significant association was found with risk of weight gain during the 5- year follow- up ( OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.88- 1.33, p = 0.454). No association was found for saturated and cismonounsaturated fatty acids. Conclusions These data suggest that a high intake of industrial trans fatty acids may decrease the risk of weight loss, particularly in women. Prevention of obesity should consider limiting the consumption of highly processed foods, the main source of industrially- produced trans fatty acids.

  • 223.
    Chen, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Nasir, Ahmad
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Fluoride concentration in saliva after toothbrushing2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 224. Chiang, Huei-Min
    et al.
    Tranaeus, Sofia
    Sunnegårdh Grönberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Caries as experienced by adult caries active patients: a qualitative study2019In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 77, no 1, p. 15-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: In the western world, increased oral health has resulted in a skewed occurrence of caries disease where relatively few individuals now account for most caries disease. This study examines how adults with recurrent caries activity experience caries disease and treatment.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study is based on qualitative data from individual interviews, which were subjected to qualitative content analysis. The interviews were semi-structured and thematic and an interview guide was used that consisted of two main areas with open ended questions. Meaning units were condensed and labelled with a code which preserved the core content of the reduced text. Codes were assigned to different subcategories according to their similarities or differences. Subcategories formed categories which describe the manifest content of the text.

    RESULTS: The domain "experience with caries" consisted of four subcategories that formed the main category Caries - an unwelcomed acquaintance. The domain "experience with caries treatment" consisted of three subcategories that formed the category Caries treatment - pain for gain.

    CONCLUSION: Comprehensive non-operative treatment and close follow-ups should precede restorations; this would probably gain insight in how to avoid new cavities to a greater extent. If to be supportive, information and advice about self-care given to individuals with recurrent cavities should be delivered with respect to the patient's feelings about their experience of dental caries.

  • 225.
    Chiappe Olsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Lindholm, Emelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Prevalence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Saliva from Children aged 7-9: - and evaluation of two different DNA extraction methods2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease caused by bacterial infection that can lead to loss of supporting tissues around the teeth. Studies show that different ethnic populations demonstrate major differences in prevalence of the disease and in which form the disease occur. The presence of the bacteria Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A.a) is associated with the aggressive form of the disease, diagnosed primarily in young people. 

    The present study aims to describe the prevalence of A.a in children aged 7-9 years living in Sweden with different ethnic backgrounds and to evaluate two different ways of extracting bacterial DNA. The hypothesis was that prevalence of A.a would correlate with the origin of the subjects, thus anticipating a higher prevalence in subjects of African origin than those of other ethnicity. 

    Stimulated saliva samples from 85 children were studied. Two methods were used to extract DNA, manually and automatically. qPCR was used to investigate if the samples contained A.a. 

    The essential results showed that the highest prevalence of A.a was found in samples belonging to children with African origin. The manual method extracted DNA in a higher amount and from more samples compared to the automatic method. Sweden is nowadays multicultural and the clinical issues change with the population. Other clinical questions needs to be answered and previous truths need to be reassessed, for example periodontal problems in younger individuals. In this study, the manual method of extracting DNA proved to be more sensitive than the automatic, though more studies need to be conducted to draw any conclusions.

  • 226. Chuang, Shu-Chun
    et al.
    Norat, Teresa
    Murphy, Neil
    Olsen, Anja
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Overvad, Kim
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine
    Perquier, Florence
    Dartois, Laureen
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Teucher, Birgit
    Bergmann, Manuela M.
    Boeing, Heiner
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Lagiou, Pagona
    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
    Grioni, Sara
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Panico, Salvatore
    Palli, Domenico
    Tumino, Rosario
    Peeters, Petra H. M.
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    Ros, Martine M.
    Brustad, Magritt
    Asli, Lene Angell
    Skeie, Guri
    Quiros, J. Ramon
    Gonzalez, Carlos A.
    Sanchez, Maria-Jose
    Navarro, Carmen
    Aicua, Eva Ardanaz
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Drake, Isabel
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Cariology.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Key, Timothy
    Crowe, Francesca
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Wareham, Nicholas
    Ferrari, Pietro
    Slimani, Nadia
    Romieu, Isabelle
    Gallo, Valentina
    Riboli, Elio
    Vineis, Paolo
    Fiber intake and total and cause-specific mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort2012In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 96, no 1, p. 164-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous studies have shown that high fiber intake is associated with lower mortality. However, little is known about the association of dietary fiber with specific causes of death other than cardiovascular disease (CVD). Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the relation between fiber intake, mortality, and cause-specific mortality in a large European prospective study of 452,7 I 7 men and women. Design: HRs and 95% CIs were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by age, sex, and center and adjusted for education, smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI, physical activity, total energy intake, and, in women, ever use of menopausal hormone therapy. Results: During a mean follow-up of 12.7 y, a total of 23,582 deaths were recorded. Fiber intake was inversely associated with total mortality (HRper (10-g/d) (increase): 0.90; 95% Cl: 0.88, 0.92); with mortality from circulatory (HRper (10-g/d increase): 0.90 and 0.88 for men and women, respectively), digestive (HR: 0.61 and 0.64), respiratory (HR: 0.77 and 0.62), and non-CVD noncancer inflammatory (HR: 0.85 and 0.80) diseases; and with smoking-related cancers (HR: 0.86 and 0.89) but not with non-smoking-related cancers (HR: 1.05 and 0.97). The associations were more evident for fiber from cereals and vegetables than from fruit. The associations were similar across BMI and physical activity categories but were stronger in smokers and participants who consumed >18 g alcohol/d. Conclusions: Higher fiber intake is associated with lower mortality, particularly from circulatory, digestive, and non-CVD noncancer inflammatory diseases. Our results support current recommendations of high dietary fiber intake for health maintenance. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;96:164-74.

  • 227.
    Cistulli, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology.
    Gotsopoulos, Helen
    Marklund, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Ortodontics.
    Lowe, Alan
    Treatment of snoring and obstructive sleep apnea with mandibular repositioning appliances2004In: Sleep Medicine Reviews, Vol. 8, p. 443-457Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Snoring and obstructive sleep apnea form part of a spectrum of sleep disordered breathing affecting a significant proportion of the general population and particularly the middle aged. The consequences can be severe and even life threatening for both the individual directly affected and those more remotely involved. Adverse sequelae can manifest themselves acutely or in the longer term as a result of obstructive breathing induced hypersomnolence, neurocognitive deficits and cardiovascular abnormilities. The combination of anatomical and neuromuscular risk factors in the pathogenesis of OSA has resulted in a varied appoach to its management. One such treatment option is mandibular repositioning appliances (MRA), which mechanically stabilize the airway. Whilst the efficacy of this simple intervention has been rigorously proven quite recently in a significant proportion of patients with varying disease severity, individual patient selection in its application remains uncertain. Short-term side-effects are common but usually transient, whilst in the long-term minor permanent adverse developments on the dentition and occlusion have been reported. Considering both the medicolegal implications of snoring and OSA and the increasing popularity of MRA, it is recommended that skilled multidisciplinary respiratory and dental personnel form the primary care team.

  • 228.
    Claesson, Rolf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Gudmundson, Jan
    Östersund, Sweden.
    Höglund-Åberg, Carola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Haubek, Dorte
    Aarhus, Denmark.
    Johansson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Detection of a 640-bp deletion in the Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin promoter region in isolates from an adolescent of Ethiopian origin2015In: Journal of Oral Microbiology, ISSN 2000-2297, E-ISSN 2000-2297, Vol. 7, article id 26974Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The expression of the leukotoxin of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is regulated by the leukotoxin promoter. A 530-bp deletion or an 886-bp insertion sequence (IS) element in this region has earlier been described in highly leukotoxic isolates. Here, we report on highly leukotoxic isolate with a 640-bp deletion, which was detected in an adolescent of Ethiopian origin.

  • 229.
    Claesson, Rolf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Höglund-Åberg, Carola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Haubek, Dorte
    Johansson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Age-related prevalence and characteristics of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in periodontitis patients living in Sweden2017In: Journal of Oral Microbiology, ISSN 2000-2297, E-ISSN 2000-2297, Vol. 9, article id 1334504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The presence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in patients with periodontitis has been extensively studied for decades. Objective: To study the prevalence of A. actinomycetemcomitans in younger and older periodontitis patients and to genetically characterize isolates of this bacterium. Design: Data from microbiological analyses of 3459 subgingival plaque samples collected from 1445 patients, 337 'younger' patients (<= 35 yrs) and 1108 'older' patients (>35 yrs) during 15 years (2000-2014), has been summerized. Isolates of A. actinomycetemcomitans were serotyped, leukotoxin promoter typed (JP2 and non JP2) and arbitrarily primed PCR (APPCR) genotyped. The origin of the JP2 genotype detected in the study population was determined. Results: The prevalence of A. actinomycetemcomitans was higher among younger than older patients and samples from the younger patients contained higher proportions of the bacterium. Serotype b was more prevalent among younger patients and the majorty of these isolates was from the same AP-PCR genotype. The JP2 genotype was detected in 1.2% of the patients, and the majority of these carriers were of non-African origin. Conslusions: For presence and charcteristics of A. actinomycetemcomitans in clinical samples the age of the carriers were a discriminating factor. Additional, apparently non- African carriers of the JP2 genotype of A. actinomycetemcomitans were identified.

  • 230.
    Claesson, Rolf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Kanasi, Eleni
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Anders, Johansson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Sotirios, Kalfas
    School of Dentistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    A new cleavage site for elastase within the complement component 32010In: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 118, no 10, p. 765-768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lysosomal enzyme elastase was earlier shown to cleave the complement molecule C3. During somepreliminary experiments on the interactions of certain pathogenic bacteria with the innate defencemechanisms, we observed C3 cleavage, in the presence of elastase, to fragments not previouslydescribed. To elucidate this proteolytic reaction, the present study was conducted. Degradation of C3in mixtures with elastase or cathepsin G was detected by an immunoblot procedure using anti-C3c andanti-C3d antibodies after separating the proteins by SDS-PAGE. Certain C3 fragments were analysedfor amino acid sequence. The results revealed the existence of a cleavage site for elastase at the positionalanine1350 ⁄ lysine1351 of the C3 molecule, which has not been previously described. The fragmentresulted from this cleavage has a size of about 39 kDa and it contains a part or the whole of C3d. Thiscleavage was distinct from the one previously described at position 987 ⁄ 988, which gives a 34 kDaC3d-containing fragment.

  • 231.
    Claesson, Rolf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Lagervall, Maria
    Department of Periodontology at Skanstull, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Höglund-Åberg, Carola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Johansson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Haubek, Dorte
    Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Detection of the highly leucotoxic JP2 clone of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in members of a Caucasian family living in Sweden2011In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 115-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Carriers of the JP2 clone of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans exhibit an enhanced risk for developing aggressive periodontitis compared with individuals carrying non-JP2 clones. While the JP2 clone is almost exclusively detected among adolescents of African descent, reports on Caucasians colonized with the JP2 clone are remarkably few.

    Objective: The aim of this paper is to report on the history of periodontal disease and microbiological findings in a Caucasian family.

    Material and Methods: A. actinomycetemcomitans and other periodontitis-associated bacterial species in subgingival plaque samples were quantified by conventional culture technique. Leucotoxin promoter typing, serotyping and further characterizations of A. actinomycetemcomitans isolates were performed by PCR. DNA sequencing of the pseudogene, hbpA was performed to determine the origin of the detected JP2 clones. Further, genetically ancestry testing of family members was carried out.

    Results: The JP2 clone was detected in samples from two of the family members, a 33-year-old daughter and her 62-year-old mother. Relationship of their JP2 clones with JP2 clone strains from the Mediterranean area of Africa was indicated. Genotyping confirmed the Caucasian origin of all family members.

    Conclusions: Caucasian JP2 carriers exist and older subjects can carry the JP2 clone of A. actinomycetemcomitans.

  • 232.
    Claesson, Rolf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Sjögren, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Esberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Brundin, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Granlund, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Actinomyces radicidentis and Actinomyces haliotis, coccoid Actinomyces species isolated from the human oral cavity2017In: Anaerobe, ISSN 1075-9964, E-ISSN 1095-8274, Vol. 48, p. 19-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are few reports on the bacterial species Actinomyces radicidentis in the literature. In this study, putative A. radicidentis isolates were collected from 16 root canal samples from 601 examined patients. The isolates were examined by biochemical tests, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, Arbitrarily-primed (AP-) PCR, antibiotic susceptibility testing, and MALDI-TOF analyses. In parallel, two A. radicidentis reference strains and two putative A. radicidentis isolates from United Kingdom were tested. Sixteen of the 18 isolates were confirmed as A. radicidentis. The remaining two isolates, both of which were isolated from root canals (one from Sweden and the other from the UK), but were identified as Actinomyces haliotis by sequencing ∼ 1300 base pairs of the 16S rRNA-gene. This isolates had a divergent, but between them similar, AP-PCR pattern, and a common distribution of sequence signatures in the 16S rRNA gene, but were not identified by MALDI-TOF. A. haliotis is a close relative to A. radicidentis, hitherto only been described from a sea-snail. The identity of A. haliotis was confirmed by a phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences with species specific sequences included, and by additional biochemical tests. The examined bacteria exhibited similar antibiotic susceptibility patterns when tested for 10 separate antibiotic classes with E-tests (bioMérieux). The MIC90 for β-lactams (benzylpenicillin and cefuroxime) and vancomycin was 0.5 mg/L, for colistin and ciprofloxacin 8 mg/mL and for the other antibiotic classes ≤ 25 mg/mL The isolation of A. haliotis from infected dental root canals cast doubt on the accepted opinion that all Actinomyces infections have an endogenous source.

  • 233. Clavero, J
    et al.
    Lundgren, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.
    Ramus or chin grafts for maxillary sinus inlay and local onlay augmentation: comparison of donor site morbidity and complications.2003In: Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 154-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The placement of endosseous implants in edentulous areas is frequently limited by inadequate bone volume of the residual ridge. Local bone grafts from the mandible are a convenient source of autogenous bone for alveolar reconstruction prior to implant placement. PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to document and compare the morbidity and the frequency of complications occurring at two intraoral donor sites: the mandibular symphysis and the mandibular ramus. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study reviewed 53 consecutively treated patients: 29 with autogenous bone grafts from the mandibular symphysis and 24 with mandibular ramus bone grafts. Each patient received a questionnaire 18 months after surgery regarding problems that may have occurred during the postoperative period. RESULTS: In the patients in whom bone was harvested from the mandibular ramus, there were fewer postoperative symptoms immediately after the operation than with mandibular symphysis harvesting. Twenty-two of the 29 patients with symphysis grafts experienced decreased sensitivity in the skin innervated by the mental nerve 1 month after the operation. Five of the 24 patients with ramus grafts experienced decreased sensitivity in the vestibular mucosa corresponding to the innervation of the buccal nerve. Eighteen months after the surgery, 15 of the 29 patients in the symphysis group still had some decreased sensitivity and presented with permanent altered sensation. Only one of the patients grafted from the mandibular ramus presented with permanent altered sensation in the posterior vestibular area. No major complication occurred in the donor sites in any of the 53 patients. CONCLUSION: The results of this study favored the use of the ascending mandibular ramus as an intraoral donor site for bone grafting.

  • 234. Conaway, H. Herschel
    et al.
    Henning, Petra
    Lerner, Ulf H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Vitamin A metabolism, action, and role in skeletal homeostasis2013In: Endocrine reviews, ISSN 0163-769X, E-ISSN 1945-7189, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 766-797Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vitamin A (retinol) is ingested as either retinyl esters or carotenoids and metabolized to active compounds, such as 11-cis-retinal, which is important for vision, and all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), which is the primary mediator of biological actions of vitamin A. ATRA binds to retinoic acid receptors (RARs), which heterodimerize with retinoid X receptors (RXRs). RAR-RXR heterodimers function as transcription factors, binding RAR responsive elements in promoters of different genes. Numerous cellular functions, including bone cell functions, are mediated by vitamin A; however, it has long been recognized that increased levels of vitamin A can have deleterious effects on bone resulting in increased skeletal fragility. Bone mass is dependent on the balance between bone resorption and bone formation. A decrease in bone mass may be caused by either an excess of resorption or decreased bone formation. Early studies indicated that the primary skeletal effect of vitamin A was to increase bone resorption, but later studies have shown that vitamin A can not only stimulate the formation of bone resorbing osteoclasts, but inhibit their formation as well. Effects of vitamin A on bone formation have not been studied in as great a detail and are not as well characterized as effects on bone resorption. Several epidemiological studies have shown an association between vitamin A, decreased bone mass, and osteoporotic fractures, but the data are not conclusive, for other studies have found no associations, and some studies have suggested that vitamin A primarily promotes skeletal health. In this presentation, we have summarized how vitamin A is absorbed, metabolized, and functions intracellularly. Vitamin A deficiency and excess are introduced, and detailed descriptions of clinical and pre-clinical studies of the effects of vitamin A on the skeleton are presented.

  • 235. Conaway, H. Herschel
    et al.
    Henning, Petra
    Lie, Anita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Tuckermann, Jan
    Lerner, Ulf H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Centre for Bone and Arthritis Research at Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute for Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Activation of dimeric glucocorticoid receptors in osteoclast progenitors potentiates RANKL induced mature osteoclast bone resorbing activity2016In: Bone, ISSN 8756-3282, E-ISSN 1873-2763, Vol. 93, p. 43-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glucocorticoid (GC) therapy is the greatest risk factor for secondary osteoporosis. Pathogenic mechanisms involve an initial increase in bone resorption followed by decreased bone formation. To gain a better understanding of the resorptive activity of GCs, we have used mouse bone marrow macrophages (BMM) to determine if GCs can directly modulate RANKL stimulated osteoclast formation and/or activity. In agreement with previous studies, experiments performed in plastic wells showed that GCs (dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, and prednisolone) inhibited osteoclast number and size during the initial phases of RANKL stimulated osteoclastogenesis; however, in prolonged cultures, decreased apoptosis was observed and escape from GC induced inhibition occurred with an enhanced number of osteoclasts formed, many with an increased area. When BMM cells were seeded on bone slices, GCs robustly enhanced RANKL stimulated formation of resorption pits and release of CTX without affecting the number or size of osteoclasts formed and with no effect on apoptosis. Stimulation of pit formation was not associated with increased life span of osteoclasts or an effect on mRNA expression of several osteoclastic or osteoclastogenic genes. The potentiation of RANKL induced CTX release by dexamethasone was significantly less in BMM cells from mice with conditional knockout of the osteoclastic glucocorticoid receptor and completely absent in cells from Gem mice, which carry a point mutation in one dimerizing interface of the GC receptor. These data suggest that: 1. Plastic is a poor medium to use for studying direct effects of GCs on osteoclasts 2. GCs can enhance bone resorption without decreasing apoptosis, and 3. A direct enhancement of RANKL mediated resorption is stimulated by the dimeric GC -receptor.

  • 236.
    Conaway, H Herschel
    et al.
    University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences.
    Lerner, Ulf H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Molecular Periodontology.
    Retinoids and bone2011In: Contemporary aspects of endocrinology / [ed] Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis, InTech, 2011, p. 443-454Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 237. Conaway, H Herschel
    et al.
    Persson, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Oral Cell Biology.
    Halén, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Oral Cell Biology.
    Granholm, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Oral Cell Biology.
    Svensson, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Pettersson, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Lie, Anita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Oral Cell Biology.
    Lerner, Ulf H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Oral Cell Biology.
    Retinoids inhibit differentiation of hematopoietic osteoclast progenitors2009In: The FASEB Journal, ISSN 0892-6638, E-ISSN 1530-6860, Vol. 23, no 10, p. 3526-3538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether vitamin A promotes skeletal fragility, has no effect on fracture rate, or protects against bone loss is unclear. In the present study, effects of retinoids on osteoclast differentiation in cultured mouse bone marrow cells (BMCs), bone marrow macrophages (BMMs), spleen cells, and RAW264.7 cells were evaluated by analyzing osteoclast formation and expression of genes important in signal transduction and osteoclast function. All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) did not stimulate osteoclastogenesis in BMCs, but inhibited hormone and RANKL-induced gene expression and formation of osteoclasts. In BMMs, spleen cells, and RAW264.7 cells, osteoclast differentiation and formation stimulated by M-CSF/RANKL were inhibited (IC(50) = 0.3 nM) by ATRA. The effect was exerted at an early step of RANKL-induced differentiation. ATRA also abolished increases of the transcription factors c-Fos and NFAT2 stimulated by RANKL and suppressed down-regulation of the antiosteoclastogenic transcription factor MafB. By comparing effects of several compounds structurally related to ATRA, as well as by using receptor antagonists, evaluation pointed to inhibition being mediated by RARalpha, with no involvement of PPARbeta/delta. The results suggest that activation of RARalpha by retinoids in myeloid hematopoietic precursor cells decreases osteoclast formation by altering expression of the transcription factors c-Fos, NFAT2, and MafB.

  • 238.
    Conaway, H. Herschel
    et al.
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas.
    Pirhayati, Amir
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Molecular Periodontology.
    Persson, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Molecular Periodontology.
    Pettersson, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Svensson, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Lindholm, Catharina
    Center for Bone and Arthritis Research at the Institute for Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg.
    Henning, Petra
    Center for Bone and Arthritis Research at the Institute for Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg.
    Tuckermann, Jan
    Tissue-specific Hormone Action, Leibniz Institute for Age Research, Fritz Lipmann Institute, D-07745 Jena, Germany.
    Lerner, Ulf H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Molecular Periodontology.
    Retinoids Stimulate Periosteal Bone Resorption by Enhancing the Protein RANKL: a Response Inhibited by Monomeric Glucocorticoid Receptor2011In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 286, p. 31425-31436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased vitamin A (retinol) intake has been suggested to increase bone fragility. In the present study, we investigated effects of retinoids on bone resorption in cultured neonatal mouse calvarial bones and their interaction with glucocorticoids (GC). All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), retinol, retinalaldehyde, and 9-cis-retinoic acid stimulated release of (45)Ca from calvarial bones. The resorptive effect of ATRA was characterized by mRNA expression of genes associated with osteoclast differentiation, enhanced osteoclast number, and bone matrix degradation. In addition, the RANKL/OPG ratio was increased by ATRA, release of (45)Ca stimulated by ATRA was blocked by exogenous OPG, and mRNA expression of genes associated with bone formation was decreased by ATRA. All retinoid acid receptors (RAR alpha/beta/gamma) were expressed in calvarial bones. Agonists with affinity to all receptor subtypes or specifically to RAR alpha enhanced the release of (45)Ca and mRNA expression of Rankl, whereas agonists with affinity to RAR beta/gamma or RAR gamma had no effects. Stimulation of Rankl mRNA by ATRA was competitively inhibited by the RAR alpha antagonist GR110. Exposure of calvarial bones to GC inhibited the stimulatory effects of ATRA on 45Ca release and Rankl mRNA and protein expression. This inhibitory effect was reversed by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist RU 486. Increased Rankl mRNA stimulated by ATRA was also blocked by GC in calvarial bones from mice with a GR mutation that blocks dimerization (GR(dim) mice). The data suggest that ATRA enhances periosteal bone resorption by increasing the RANKL/OPG ratio via RAR alpha receptors, a response that can be inhibited by monomeric GR.

  • 239. Cornelis, M C
    et al.
    Byrne, E M
    Esko, T
    Nalls, M A
    Ganna, A
    Paynter, N
    Monda, K L
    Amin, N
    Fischer, K
    Renstrom, F
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research.
    Ngwa, J S
    Huikari, V
    Cavadino, A
    Nolte, I M
    Teumer, A
    Yu, K
    Marques-Vidal, P
    Rawal, R
    Manichaikul, A
    Wojczynski, M K
    Vink, J M
    Zhao, J H
    Burlutsky, G
    Lahti, J
    Mikkilä, V
    Lemaitre, R N
    Eriksson, J
    Musani, S K
    Tanaka, T
    Geller, F
    Luan, J
    Hui, J
    Mägi, R
    Dimitriou, M
    Garcia, M E
    Ho, W-K
    Wright, M J
    Rose, L M
    Magnusson, P K E
    Pedersen, N L
    Couper, D
    Oostra, B A
    Hofman, A
    Ikram, M A
    Tiemeier, H W
    Uitterlinden, A G
    van Rooij, F J A
    Barroso, I
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research.
    Xue, L
    Kaakinen, M
    Milani, L
    Power, C
    Snieder, H
    Stolk, R P
    Baumeister, S E
    Biffar, R
    Gu, F
    Bastardot, F
    Kutalik, Z
    Jacobs, D R
    Forouhi, N G
    Mihailov, E
    Lind, L
    Lindgren, C
    Michaëlsson, K
    Morris, A
    Jensen, M
    Khaw, K-T
    Luben, R N
    Wang, J J
    Männistö, S
    Perälä, M-M
    Kähönen, M
    Lehtimäki, T
    Viikari, J
    Mozaffarian, D
    Mukamal, K
    Psaty, B M
    Döring, A
    Heath, A C
    Montgomery, G W
    Dahmen, N
    Carithers, T
    Tucker, K L
    Ferrucci, L
    Boyd, H A
    Melbye, M
    Treur, J L
    Mellström, D
    Hottenga, J J
    Prokopenko, I
    Tönjes, A
    Deloukas, P
    Kanoni, S
    Lorentzon, M
    Houston, D K
    Liu, Y
    Danesh, J
    Rasheed, A
    Mason, M A
    Zonderman, A B
    Franke, L
    Kristal, B S
    Karjalainen, J
    Reed, D R
    Westra, H-J
    Evans, M K
    Saleheen, D
    Harris, T B
    Dedoussis, G
    Curhan, G
    Stumvoll, M
    Beilby, J
    Pasquale, L R
    Feenstra, B
    Bandinelli, S
    Ordovas, J M
    Chan, A T
    Peters, U
    Ohlsson, C
    Gieger, C
    Martin, N G
    Waldenberger, M
    Siscovick, D S
    Raitakari, O
    Eriksson, J G
    Mitchell, P
    Hunter, D J
    Kraft, P
    Rimm, E B
    Boomsma, D I
    Borecki, I B
    Loos, R J F
    Wareham, N J
    Vollenweider, P
    Caporaso, N
    Grabe, H J
    Neuhouser, M L
    Wolffenbuttel, B H R
    Hu, F B
    Hyppönen, E
    Järvelin, M-R
    Cupples, L A
    Franks, Paul W
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Malmo, Sweden.
    Ridker, P M
    van Duijn, C M
    Heiss, G
    Metspalu, A
    North, K E
    Ingelsson, E
    Nettleton, J A
    van Dam, R M
    Chasman, D I
    Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies six novel loci associated with habitual coffee consumption2015In: Molecular Psychiatry, ISSN 1359-4184, E-ISSN 1476-5578, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 647-656Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coffee, a major dietary source of caffeine, is among the most widely consumed beverages in the world and has received considerable attention regarding health risks and benefits. We conducted a genome-wide (GW) meta-analysis of predominately regular-type coffee consumption (cups per day) among up to 91 462 coffee consumers of European ancestry with top single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) followed-up in ~30 062 and 7964 coffee consumers of European and African-American ancestry, respectively. Studies from both stages were combined in a trans-ethnic meta-analysis. Confirmed loci were examined for putative functional and biological relevance. Eight loci, including six novel loci, met GW significance (log10Bayes factor (BF)>5.64) with per-allele effect sizes of 0.03-0.14 cups per day. Six are located in or near genes potentially involved in pharmacokinetics (ABCG2, AHR, POR and CYP1A2) and pharmacodynamics (BDNF and SLC6A4) of caffeine. Two map to GCKR and MLXIPL genes related to metabolic traits but lacking known roles in coffee consumption. Enhancer and promoter histone marks populate the regions of many confirmed loci and several potential regulatory SNPs are highly correlated with the lead SNP of each. SNP alleles near GCKR, MLXIPL, BDNF and CYP1A2 that were associated with higher coffee consumption have previously been associated with smoking initiation, higher adiposity and fasting insulin and glucose but lower blood pressure and favorable lipid, inflammatory and liver enzyme profiles (P<5 × 10(-8)).Our genetic findings among European and African-American adults reinforce the role of caffeine in mediating habitual coffee consumption and may point to molecular mechanisms underlying inter-individual variability in pharmacological and health effects of coffee.

  • 240. Couto, E
    et al.
    Boffetta, P
    Lagiou, P
    Ferrari, P
    Buckland, G
    Overvad, K
    Dahm, C C
    Tjønneland, A
    Olsen, A
    Clavel-Chapelon, F
    Boutron-Ruault, M-C
    Cottet, V
    Trichopoulos, D
    Naska, A
    Benetou, V
    Kaaks, R
    Rohrmann, S
    Boeing, H
    von Ruesten, A
    Panico, S
    Pala, V
    Vineis, P
    Palli, D
    Tumino, R
    May, A
    Peeters, P H
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B
    Büchner, F L
    Lund, E
    Skeie, G
    Engeset, D
    Gonzalez, C A
    Navarro, C
    Rodríguez, L
    Sánchez, M-J
    Amiano, P
    Barricarte, A
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Cariology.
    Manjer, J
    Wirfärt, E
    Allen, N E
    Crowe, F
    Khaw, K-T
    Wareham, N
    Moskal, A
    Slimani, N
    Jenab, M
    Romaguera, D
    Mouw, T
    Norat, T
    Riboli, E
    Trichopoulou, A
    Mediterranean dietary pattern and cancer risk in the EPIC cohort.2011In: British Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0007-0920, E-ISSN 1532-1827, Vol. 104, no 9, p. 1493-1499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Although several studies have investigated the association of the Mediterranean diet with overall mortality or risk of specific cancers, data on overall cancer risk are sparse.

    METHODS: We examined the association between adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern and overall cancer risk using data from the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and nutrition, a multi-centre prospective cohort study including 142,605 men and 335,873. Adherence to Mediterranean diet was examined using a score (range: 0-9) considering the combined intake of fruits and nuts, vegetables, legumes, cereals, lipids, fish, dairy products, meat products, and alcohol. Association with cancer incidence was assessed through Cox regression modelling, controlling for potential confounders.

    RESULTS: In all, 9669 incident cancers in men and 21,062 in women were identified. A lower overall cancer risk was found among individuals with greater adherence to Mediterranean diet (hazard ratio=0.96, 95% CI 0.95-0.98) for a two-point increment of the Mediterranean diet score. The apparent inverse association was stronger for smoking-related cancers than for cancers not known to be related to tobacco (P (heterogeneity)=0.008). In all, 4.7% of cancers among men and 2.4% in women would be avoided in this population if study subjects had a greater adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern.

    CONCLUSION: Greater adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern could reduce overall cancer risk.

  • 241.
    Cricchio, Giovanni
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.
    On guided bone reformation in the maxillary sinus to enable placement and integration of endosseous implants. Clinical and experimental studies.2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dental caries and periodontal disease are the major causes for tooth loss. While dental caries commonly involve the posterior teeth in both jaws, the teeth most commonly lost due to periodontal problems are the first and second molars in the maxilla. As a consequence, the upper posterior jaw is frequently edentulous. Implant therapy today is a predictable treatment modality for prosthetic reconstruction of edentulous patient. Insufficient amounts of bone, due to atrophy following loss of teeth or due to the presence of the maxillary sinus, can make it impossible to insert implants in the posterior maxilla. During the 1970s and 1980s, Tatum, Boyne and James and Wood and Moore first described maxillary sinus floor augmentation whereby, after the creation of a lateral access point, autologous bone grafts are inserted to increase crestal bone height and to create the necessary conditions for the insertion of implants. This surgical procedure requires a two-stage approach and a double surgical site: first, bone is harvested from a donor site and transplanted to the recipient site; then, after a proper healing period of between 4 to 6 months, the implants are inserted. This kind of bone reconstruction, even if well documented, has its limitations, not least in the creation of two different surgical sites and the consequent increased risk of morbidity. In 2004, Lundgren et al. described a new, simplified technique for the elevation of the sinus floor. The authors showed that by lifting the sinus membrane an empty space was created in which blood clot formations resulted in the establishment of new bone. The implants were placed simultaneously to function as “tent poles”, thus maintaining the sinus membrane in a raised position during the subsequent healing period. An essential prerequisite of this technique is to obtain optimal primary implant stability from the residual bone in the sinus floor. An extremely resorbed maxillary sinus floor, with, for example, less than 2-3 mm of poor quality residual bone, could impair implant insertion.

    The aims of the present research project were (i) to evaluate the donor site morbidity and the acceptance level of patients when a bone graft is harvested from the anterior iliac crest, (ii) to evaluate implant stability, new bone formation inside the maxillary sinus and marginal bone resorption around the implants in long term follow up when maxillary sinus floor augmentation is performed through sinus membrane elevation and without the addition of any grafting material, (iii) to investigate new bone formation inside the maxillary sinus, in experimental design, using a resorbable space-maker device in order to maintain elevation of the sinus membrane where there is too little bone to insert implants with good primary stability.

    In Paper I, 70 consecutively treated patients were retrospectively evaluated in terms of postoperative donor site morbidity and donor site complications. With regard to donor site morbidity, 74% of patients were free of pain within 3 weeks, whereas 26% had a prolonged period of pain lasting from a few weeks to several months. For 11% of patients there was still some pain or discomfort 2 years after the grafting surgery. Nevertheless, patients acceptance was high and treatment significantly improved oral function, facial appearance, and recreation/social activities and resulted in an overall improvement in the quality of life of formerly edentulous patients.

    In Paper I and III, some differently shaped space-making devices were tested on primates (tufted capuchin - Cebus apella) in two experimental models aimed at evaluating whether a two-stage procedure for sinus floor augmentation could benefit from the use of a space-making device to increase the bone volume and enable later implant installation with good primary stability, without the use of any grafting material. An histological examination of the specimens showed that it is possible to obtain bone formation in contact with both the Schneiderian membrane and the device. In most cases the device was displaced. The process of bone formation indicated that this technique is potentially useful for two-stage sinus floor augmentation. The lack of device stability within the sinus requires further improvement in space-makers if predictable bone augmentation is to be achieved.

    In Paper IV, a total of 84 patients were subjected to 96 membrane elevation procedures and the simultaneous placement of 239 implants. Changes of intra-sinus and marginal bone height in relation to the implants were measured in intraoral radiographs carried out during insertion after 6 months of healing, after 6 months of loading and then annually. Computerised tomography was performed pre-surgically and 6 months post-surgically. Resonance frequency analysis measurements were performed at the time of implant placement, at abutment connection and after 6 months of loading. The implant follow-up period ranged from a minimum of one to a maximum of 6 years after implant loading. All implants were stable after 6 months of healing. A total of three implants were lost during the follow-up period giving a survival rate of 98.7%. Radiography demonstrated an average of 5.3 ± 2.1 mm of intra-sinus new bone formation after 6 months of healing. RFA measurements showed adequate primary stability (implant stability quotient 67.4 ± 6.1) and small changes over time.

    In conclusion, harvesting bone from the iliac crest could result in temporary donor site morbidity, but in 11% of patients pain or discomfort was still present up to 2 years after surgery. However, patient satisfaction was good despite this slow or incomplete recovery, as showed by the quality of life questionnaire. Maxillary sinus membrane elevation without the use of bone grafts or bone substitutes results in predictable bone formation both in animal design, where the sinus membrane is supported by a resorbable device, and in clinical conditions, where the membrane is kept in the upper position by dental implants. This new bone formation is accompanied by a high implant survival rate of 98.7% over a follow-up period of up to 6 years. Intra-sinus bone formation remained stable in the long-term follow-up. It is suggested that the secluded compartment allowed bone formation in accordance with the principle of guided tissue regeneration. This technique reduces the risks of morbidity related to bone graft harvesting and eliminates the costs of grafting materials.

  • 242.
    Cricchio, Giovanni
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Imburgia, Mario
    Sennerby, Lars
    Lundgren, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Immediate Loading of Implants Placed Simultaneously with Sinus Membrane Elevation in the Posterior Atrophic Maxilla: a Two-Year Follow-Up Study on 10 Patients2014In: Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, ISSN 1523-0899, E-ISSN 1708-8208, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 609-617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Clinical studies on immediate loading of implants in the posterior atrophic maxilla are rare.

    PURPOSE: The study aims to evaluate immediate loading of implants placed with sinus membrane elevation without additional grafting material for bone augmentation of the maxillary sinus floor.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group comprised of 10 patients in whom a total of 10 maxillary sinus floor augmentations were performed. A total of 21 dental implants (1 to 4) were inserted through the residual bone to protrude into the maxillary sinus under the elevated sinus membrane. The implant site was underprepared to improve primary stability. All the implants were inserted with a torque insertion no less than 20 Ncm. Implants were loaded immediately after surgery with a screw-retained temporary acrylic restoration. Intraoral X-rays were taken at implant insertion, after 6 months loading, and after 1st and 2nd year of loading. Resonance frequency analysis (RFA) was performed at the time of initial placement and after 6 months of functional loading. RESULTS: RFA after implant insertion gave an implant stability quotient (ISQ) level with a range from 62 to 72. All implants remained clinically stable during the follow-up period of 2 years. Radiography demonstrated on average 5.7 ± 3.4 mm of intrasinus new bone formation after 6 months of implant loading. RFA measurements showed ISQ mean values of 67 (range: 62-72) and 68 (range: 62-71) at placement and after 6 months of loading, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Within the limits of this case series report, it is concluded that maxillary sinus membrane elevation with simultaneous placement and immediate loading of implants without the use of any additional grafting material shows predictable results after 2 years of functional loading. Moreover, evidence of intrasinus bone formation around the implants was found in all patients. Further studies are needed to study the influence of immediate loading on the mineralization of bone forming at dental implant sites.

  • 243.
    Cricchio, Giovanni
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.
    Lundgren, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.
    Donor site morbidity in two different approaches to anterior iliac crest bone harvesting2003In: Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, ISSN 1523-0899, E-ISSN 1708-8208, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 161-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Bone grafting is a surgical technique for the reconstruction of the atrophic edentulous maxilla prior to treatment with endosseous implants. The anterior iliac crest is a commonly used donor site.

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the donor site morbidity and complications when harvesting corticocancellous bone from the medial table of the anterior iliac crest and compare this with results when bone was harvested from the lateral and superior table of the anterior iliac crest. In addition, the outcome of the oral rehabilitation was evaluated by means of a quality-of-life questionnaire.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was composed of 70 consecutively treated patients with a mean age of 56 years. The patients were retrospectively evaluated with regard to postoperative donor site morbidity and complications at the donor site.

    RESULTS: For the donor site morbidity, 74% of the patients were free of pain within 3 weeks, whereas 26% of the patients had a prolonged period of pain lasting from a few weeks to several months. For 11% of the patients, there was still some pain or discomfort 2 years after the grafting surgery. For gait disturbance the figures were similar: 79% had no problems after 3 weeks. For the eight patients who still had some pain after 2 years, which was considered permanent, three also had gait disturbance. There was a total of three major complications (4%), one iliac wing fracture and two neurologic injuries.

    CONCLUSION: When harvesting a large amount of unicortical corticocancellous bone blocks from the the superolateral site of the iliac crest with a "peel off" technique, morbidity and complication rates do not differ significantly compared with those of the traditional anterior medial approach. Oral rehabilitation with maxillary reconstruction with bone grafts from the iliac crest and endosseous implants significantly improved oral function, facial appearance, and recreation/social activities and resulted in an overall improvement in quality of life in formerly edentulous patients.

  • 244.
    Cricchio, Giovanni
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.
    Palma, Vinicious Canavarros
    Faria, Paolo E P
    de Olivera, José Americo
    Lundgren, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.
    Sennerby, Lars
    Salata, Luiz A
    Histological outcomes on the development of new space-making devices for maxillary sinus floor augmentation2011In: Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, ISSN 1523-0899, E-ISSN 1708-8208, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 224-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous studies have pointed out that the mere elevation of the maxillary sinus membrane promotes bone formation without the use of augmentation materials.

    Purpose: This experimental study aimed at evaluating if the two-stage procedure for sinus floor augmentation could benefit from the use of a space-making device in order to increase the bone volume to enable later implant installation with good primary stability.

    Materials and Methods: Six male tufted capuchin primates (Cebus apella) were subjected to extraction of the three premolars and the first molar on both sides of the maxilla to create an edentulous area. The sinuses were opened using the lateral bone-wall window technique, and the membrane was elevated. One resorbable space-making device was inserted in each maxillary sinus, and the bone window was returned in place. The animals were euthanatized after 6 months, and biopsy blocks containing the whole maxillary sinus and surrounding soft tissues were prepared for ground sections.

    Results: The histological examination of the specimens showed bone formation in contact with both the schneiderian membrane and the device in most cases even when the device was displaced. The process of bone formation indicates that this technique is potentially useful for two-stage sinus floor augmentation. The lack of stabilization of the device within the sinus demands further improvement of space-makers for predictable bone augmentation.

    Conclusions: It is concluded that (1) the device used in this study did not trigger any important inflammatory reaction; (2) when the sinus membrane was elevated, bone formation was a constant finding; and (3) an ideal space-making device should be stable and elevate the membrane to ensure a maintained connection between the membrane and the secluded space.

  • 245.
    Cricchio, Giovanni
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.
    Palma, Vinícius Canavarros
    Faria, Paulo E P
    de Oliveira, José Américo
    Lundgren, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.
    Sennerby, Lars
    Salata, Luiz A
    Histological findings following the use of a space-making device for bone reformation and implant integration in the maxillary sinus of primates2009In: Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, ISSN 1523-0899, E-ISSN 1708-8208, Vol. 11, no suppl 1, p. e14-e22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that membrane elevation results in predictable bone formation in the maxillary sinus provided that implants can be placed as tent poles. In situations with an extremely thin residual crest which impairs implant placement, it is possible that a space-making device can be used under the sinus membrane to promote bone formation prior to placement of implants.

    PURPOSE: The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the use of a space-making device for elevation of the sinus membrane will result in predictable bone formation at the maxillary sinus floor to allow placement of dental implants.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight tufted capuchin primates underwent bilateral sinus membrane elevation surgery, and a bioresorbable space-making device, about 6 mm wide and 6 mm in height, was placed below the elevated membrane on the sinus floor. An oxidized implant (Nobel Biocare AB, Gothenburg, Sweden) was installed in the residual bone protruding into the created space at one side while the other side was left without an implant. Four animals were sacrificed after 6 months of healing. The remaining four animals received a second implant in the side with a space-making device only and followed for another 3 months before sacrifice. Implant stability was assessed through resonance frequency analysis (RFA) using the Osstell (Osstell AB, Gothenburg, Sweden) at installation, 6 months and 9 months after the first surgery. The bone-implant contact (BIC) and bone area inside the threads (BA) were histometrically evaluated in ground sections.

    RESULTS: Histologically there were only minor or no signs of bone formation in the sites with a space-making device only. Sites with simultaneous implant placement showed bone formation along the implant surface. Sites with delayed implant placement showed minor or no bone formation and/or formation of a dense fibrous tissue along the apical part of the implant surface. In the latter group the apical part of the implant was not covered with the membrane but protruded into the sinus cavity.

    CONCLUSIONS: The use of a space-making device, with the design used in the present study, does not result in bone formation at the sinus floor. However, membrane elevation and simultaneous placement of the device and an implant does result in bone formation at the implant surface while sites with implants placed 6 months after membrane elevation show only small amounts of bone formation. It is suggested that lack of stabilization of the device and/or a too extensive elevation of the membrane may explain the results.

  • 246.
    Cricchio, Giovanni
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.
    Sennerby, Lars
    Department of Biomaterials, Institute for Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Lundgren, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.
    Sinus bone formation and implant survival after sinus membrane elevation and implant placement: a 1- to 6-year follow-up study2011In: Clinical Oral Implants Research, ISSN 0905-7161, E-ISSN 1600-0501, Vol. 22, no 10, p. 1200-1212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate the long-term clinical and radiographic results of the maxillary sinus membrane elevation technique where implants were inserted in a void space created by the elevation of the sinus membrane without adding any graft material.

    Materials and methods: A total of 84 patients were subjected to 96 membrane elevation procedures and simultaneous placement of 239 implants. Changes of intra-sinus and marginal bone height in relation to the implants were measured in intraoral radiographs taken at insertion, after 6 months of healing, after 6 months of loading and then annually. Computerized tomography was performed pre-surgically and 6 months post-surgically. Resonance Frequency Analyses measurements were performed at the time of implants placement, at abutment connection and after 6 months of loading. The implant follow-up period ranged from a minimum of one to a maximum of 6 years after implants loading.

    Results: All implants were stable after 6 months of healing. A total of three implants were lost during the follow-up period giving a survival rate of 98.7%. Radiography demonstrated on average 5.3±2.1 mm of intra-sinus new bone formation after 6 months of healing. RFA measurements showed adequate primary stability (implant stability quotient 67.4±6.1) and small changes over time.

    Conclusion: Maxillary sinus membrane elevation and simultaneous placement of implants without the use of bone grafts or bone substitutes result in predictable bone formation with a high implant survival rate of 98.7% during a follow-up period of up to 6 years. The intra-sinus bone formation remained stable in the long-term follow-up. It is suggested that the secluded compartment allowed for bone formation according to the principle of guided tissue regeneration. The high implant survival rate of 98.7% indicated that the implants sufficiently supported the fixed bridges throughout the study period. This technique reduces the risks for morbidity related to harvesting of bone grafts and eliminates the costs of grafting materials.

  • 247.
    Cricchio, Giovanni
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Sennerby, Lars
    Lundgren, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Sinus floor augmentation without bone grafting2019In: The sinus bone graft / [ed] Ole T. Jensen, Batavia: Quintessence Publishing , 2019, 3, p. 66-72Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As research proceeds on treatment of the resorbed posterior maxilla, new techniques and innovations continue to be adopted to solve this clinical problem. While the previous edition of this book provided detailed information on the types of grafting materials and procedures available at the time, this completely revised version looks to the future with new strategies for treatment, some of which avoid grafting altogether. This book not only reviews the time-tested lateral window approach for sinus elevation and grafting but also describes a variety of techniques to approach the sinus transcrestally with or without grafting material. One section of the book is devoted entirely to the different types of implants and implant placement techniques available, many of which are designed specifically to avoid sinus elevation. In addition to clinical case studies and descriptions of how to perform specific surgical procedures, this book includes discussions on the science of bone formation and how continued research brings us closer every day to the ultimate goal of using tissue engineering to completely regenerate new teeth.

  • 248.
    Crnalic, Sead
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Hörnberg, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Wikström, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Lerner, Ulf H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Tieva, Åse
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Svensson, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Widmark, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Nuclear androgen receptor staining in bone metastases is related to a poor outcome in prostate cancer patients2010In: Endocrine-Related Cancer, ISSN 1351-0088, E-ISSN 1479-6821, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 885-895Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Androgen receptors (ARs) are probably of importance during all phases of prostate cancer (PC) growth, but their role in bone metastases is largely unexplored. Bone metastases were therefore collected from hormone-naive (n=11), short-term castrated (n=7) and castration-resistant PC (CRPC, n=44) patients by biopsy (n=4) or at surgery to alleviate symptoms from metastases complications (metastasis surgery, n=58), and immunostained for nuclear ARs, Ki67, active caspase-3, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and chromogranin A, and results were related to serum PSA, treatments and outcome. Nuclear AR immunostaining was decreased and apoptosis was increased, but cell proliferation remained largely unaffected in metastases within a few days after surgical castration. In CRPC patients, nuclear AR staining of metastases was increased when compared to short-term castrated patients. The nuclear AR staining score was related to tumour cell proliferation, but it was not associated with other downstream effects of AR activation such as apoptosis and PSA staining, and it was only marginally related to the presence of neuroendocrine tumour cells. Serum PSA at metastasis surgery, although related to outcome, was not associated with AR staining, markers of metastasis growth or PSA staining in metastases. High nuclear AR immunostaining was associated with a particularly poor prognosis after metastasis surgery in CRPC patients, suggesting that such men may benefit from the potent AR blockers now tested in clinical trials.

  • 249.
    Crossner, Claes-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Oral Microbiology.
    Försök till tidig diagnos av kariessjukdomen1980Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present thesis was to find a test for prediction of caries activity which would be useful in routine clinical work.Correlations between oral health, general health, food habits and socioeconomic conditions were investigated in 4- and 8-year-old children. It was found that the salivary secretion rate and the prevalence of oral lactobacilli were factors which might be useful in caries prediction.In 5- and 8-year-old children negative correlations between caries frequency and secretion rate, pH and buffer effect of saliva were demonstrated. However, these parameters showed a wide range of variation.A dip-slide test (Dentocult®), for determination of the number of lactobacilli in saliva, were investigated. The test proved to be reliable for determining of the number of lactobacilli in saliva.The clinical use of information on salivary secretion rate and number of lactobacilli in saliva in prediction of caries activity was examined in 115 14-year-old children over a period of 64 weeks. The number of lactobacilli in saliva, but not the salivary secretion rate, was correlated to caries activity. The number of lactobacilli in saliva seems to reflect the frequency of ingested fermentable carbohydrates and indirectly the risk for initiation of carious lesions. However, when the lactobacillus test is used it is important that there are no such areas of microbial retention on the teeth, as open cavities, poorly executed conservations, dentures or orthodontic bands. The lactobacillus test would make it possible to individualize prophylactic caries treatment.

  • 250.
    Dahlberg, Jesper
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Use of Herbal Medicinal Products in a Swedish Public Dental Service Population2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
2345678 201 - 250 of 1569
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf