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  • 201.
    Carelli, Grazia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Development and Construct Validation of the Swedish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI).2011In: European Journal of Psychological Assessment, ISSN 1015-5759, E-ISSN 2151-2426, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 220-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we developed and evaluated a Swedish version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI;Zimbardo & Boyd, 1999). The original version of the ZTPI was extended by including a Future Negative scale, and the psychometric properties of both versions were examined in a sample of 419 adults aged between 18 and 80 years. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) provided support both for the original five-factor solution proposed byZimbardo and Boyd (1999) in a Swedish sample and for a six-factor solution with the Future Negative scale as an independent factor. These findings extend the original ZTPI and suggest that negative feelings about the future constitute a central dimension of the temporal perspective. The Swedish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI) provides a reliable and valid instrument for measuring time perspective in the context of Swedish research and to be beneficial in its application in multiple areas of psychology and related disciplines.

  • 202.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of  of scripted knowledge and contextual support on children's conversations1999In: Communication & Cognition, Vol. 32, p. 173-188-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 203.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Internalization, partecipation, and ethnocentrism1998In: Human Development, ISSN 0018-716X, E-ISSN 1423-0054, ISSN ISSN 0018-716X, EISSN 1423-0054, Vol. 41, p. 355-359-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 204.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Timelines of past event: reconstructive retrieval of temporal patterns2011In: Advances in Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 1895-1171, E-ISSN 1895-1171, Vol. 7, p. 49-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most naturalistic events are temporally and structurally complex in that they comprise a number of elements and that each element may have different onset and offset times within the event. This study examined temporal information processing of complex patterns of partially overlapping stimulus events by using 2 tasks of temporal processing. Specifically, participants observed a pantomime in which 5 actors appeared on the scene for different periods of time. At test, they estimated the duration each actor or reconstructed the temporal pattern of the pantomime by drawing a timeline for each actor. Participants made large errors in the time estimation task, but they provided rather accurate responses by using the timeline as a retrieval support. These findings suggest that temporal processing of complex asynchronous events is a challenging cognitive task, but that reliance on visuo-spatial retrieval support, possibly in combination with other temporal heuristics, may produce functional approximations of complex temporal patterns.

  • 205.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cusinato, Mario
    Department of psychology University of Padua, Italy.
    Preschool2003In: International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family Relationships, Vol. 1, no 264-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article summarizes the main important stages in children's cognitive, emotional and moral development during the preschool period.

  • 206.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cusinato, Mario
    Department of psychology univeristy of Padua Italy.
    Stages of infancy2003In: International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family Relationships, ISSN ISBN: 0028656725, Vol. 1, p. 253-258-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article was to summarize the main findings of research in the field of child development during infancy. Infancy refers to the period of child development  that begins at birth and ends at about two years of life. Recent research in ithe field of cognitive, emotional and language development, including  parent-child relationships , attachment and family environment are reviewd and discussed. 

  • 207.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Forman, Helen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Representation of multiple durations in children and adults2011In: Child Development Research, ISSN 2090-3987, p. 907601-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Keeping track of durations of multiple event attributes with different on set and offset times is a challenging task for both children and adults. In this study, children between 5 and 15 years and young adults observed a puppet show in which three puppets appeared on the scene during overlapping intervals of 30 s to 90 s. At test, participants completed a conventional time estimation task and a timeline task in which they reconstructed the temporal pattern by drawing a timeline for each puppet. For all age groups, the timeline task produced more accurate duration judgments than the time estimation task. Preschoolers’ time estimation was at chance level, but their timeline performance was surprisingly good and age differences were eliminated in some task conditions.

    These findings suggest that the timeline procedure provides an efficient retrieval support for complex temporal events and that even preschool-aged children are able to represent multiple asynchronous durations, possibly by relying on relational event knowledge in combination with visuospatial retrieval support.

  • 208.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Forman, Helen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sense of time and executive functioning in children and adults2008In: Child Neuropsychology, ISSN 0929-7049, E-ISSN 1744-4136, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 372-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of patient studies suggest that impairments in frontal lobe functions are associated with disorders in temporal information processing. One implication of these findings is that subjective experience of time should be related to executive functions regardless of etiology. In two experiments, we examined sense of time in relation to components of executive functioning in healthy children and adults. In Experiment 1, children between 8 to 12 years completed six experimental tasks that tapped three components of executive functioning: inhibition, updating, and mental shifting. Sense of time was examined in a duration judgment task in which participants reproduced stimulus durations between 4 to 32 s. In Experiment 2, adult participants completed the time reproduction task under varying concurrent task demands. Both experiments showed selective effects in that time reproduction errors were related to the inhibition and updating, but not to the shifting, components of executive functioning. However, the observed effects were modulated by task demands and age-related differences in cognitive competence. We conclude that individual differences in executive functioning are only weakly related to time reproduction performance in healthy children and adults.

  • 209.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Gender biases in children’s memory for expected and unexpected objects in real-world settings.1997In: British Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0261-510X, E-ISSN 2044-835X, ISSN ISSN 0261-510X, Vol. 15, p. 1-16-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 210.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Forman, Helen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cognitive control in children's time monitoring2004In: International Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0020-7594, E-ISSN 1464-066X, ISSN ISSN 0020-7594, EISSN 1464-066X, Vol. 39, no 5-6, p. 206-207-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined school-aged children's time monitoring in relation to individual differences in executive control functions. The present study involved an individual-difference approach with three latent executive functions - mental shifting, information updating and monitoring, and inhibition of prepotent responses. Children between 8 to 12 years completed a series of experimental tasks that were assumed to tap each target executive function as well as a parallel task of time monitoring. The findings are discussed in relation to the unity and diversity of executive functions and their contribution to children's time monitoring.

  • 211.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Neural correlates of time perspective2015In: Time perspective theory: review, research and application: essays in honor of Philip G. Zimbardo / [ed] M. Stolarski, N. Fieulaine, van Beek, W., Berlin: Springer , 2015, p. 231-242Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary aim of this chapter is to summarize our present knowledge about the neural correlates of time perspective and related constructs. We first briefly introduce functional magnetic resonance functional magnetic resonance imaging as a suitable technique to understand the underlying neural mechanisms when studying various constructs of time. Then, we discuss how the use of brain imaging techniques has improved our knowledge regarding concepts of time perspective. In this section it becomes evident that most studies have focused on mental time traveling. Finally we introduce a novel line of research in which we try to study neural correlates of time within the context of the Zimbardo framework. By such approach we are able to include the personality-like construct from the ZTPI to further understand the neural correlates of temporal processing.

  • 212.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Time out of mind: temporal perspective in adults with ADHD2012In: Journal of Attention Disorders, ISSN 1087-0547, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 460-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: ADHD is often associated with difficulties in planning and time management. In this study, the authors examined the hypothesis that these functional problems in ADHD reflect systematic biases in temporal orientation.

    Method: To test this hypothesis, adults with ADHD (n = 30) and healthy controls (n = 60) completed the Swedish version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI).

    Results: Although a majority of the ADHD participants were tested under stimulant medication, they showed significant differences in all the six subscales of the S-ZTPI. Logistic regression analysis, with age, education, depression, and response inhibition as covariates, showed that the Future Positive Scale was the primary predictor of ADHD status.

    Conclusion: These findings suggest that ADHD is associated with systematic biases in habitual time orientation and that these differences may contribute to functional problems in ADHD.

  • 213.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Broadening the TP Profile: Future Negative Time Perspective2015In: Time Perspective Theory; Review, Research and Application: Essays in Honor of Philip G. Zimbardo / [ed] Stolarski, Maciej, Fieulaine, Nicolas, van Beek, Wessel, New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 2015, 1, p. 87-97Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of the future as an arena for planning, self-regulation and achievement has been of considerable interest in past research. The majority of this research suggests that future-oriented thinking has considerable benefits for psychological adjustment and wellbeing. The future is nevertheless not only a temporal space for goal-setting and positive expectations, it may also be associated with fear, uncertainty and anxiety, which may ultimately have detrimental effects on both mental and physical health. Here we present the outline for the Swedish ZTPI (S-ZTPI) which extends the original ZTPI by separating the Future dimension into two sub-factors: The Future Positive scale and the Future Negative scale. We argue that separating the future into two separate dimensions thus comprehending both a positive and a negative valence of the future, adds important information regarding association between future time perspective and subjective well-being.

  • 214.
    Carlander, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Motivation och Self-efficacy i prestation och framgång: Chefkockars uppfattning om motivation och tilltro2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine chefs’ perception of motivation and self-efficacy at work. Self Determination Theory and Self-Efficacy Theory were used as theoretical frameworks. The participants were ten men working as chefs in Stockholm. Data were collected through interviews. The interviews included one part on motivation and one part on self-efficacy. A deductive thematic analysis was conducted. The results support previous research and are shown in themes based on perceived factors in motivation and self-efficacy. The major results showed that chefs have a strong internal motivation, consider that autonomy is important, have high self-efficacy which depends on earlier experiences and they are energized by challenges.

  • 215.
    Carlberg, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Are normative probabilty judgments a "system two"-operation?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on human judgment and decision making has demonstrated systematic and predictable biases of judgment in experimental settings. One example of this is the tendency to intuitively violate the conjunction rule - a simple rule of probability. This was well illustrated in the famous Linda-problem. (Tversky & Kahneman, 1983). According to the dual-process theory of reasoning, (Kahneman, 2011) reasoning fallacies such as the conjunction fallacy occurs when people fail to use analytic reasoning and instead overly rely on their intuition. The dual process theory proposes that cognitive processes underlying our intuitive impulses and our conscious reasoning constitutes two different modes in the mind –system 1 and system 2- and that the intuitive system 1 are not able to compute probabilities. Furthermore, it is assumed that processes that are labeled system 1 are fast whereas system 2 are thought to be slow. We tested these time course assumptions of dual process theory in a within-subject design by comparing response time latencies between conjunction fallacy judgments and accurate probability judgments. The results showed that inducing accurate responding did not result in delayed response latency. This indicates that making accurate probability judgments does not require more processing time which goes against what would be expected by the dual-process framework.

  • 216. Carlbring, P
    et al.
    Hassmen, P
    Nyström, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindner, P
    Andersson, G
    The relative effects of behavioral activation vs. physical exercise in the treatment of mild to moderate depression2016In: ISRII 8th Scientific Meeting Technologies for a digital world: Improving health across the lifespan, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 217.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University and Karolinska institutet.
    Succesful self-treatment of a case of writer´s block2011In: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 218.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    State-of-the-Art Treatment via the Internet: an optimistic vision of the future2011In: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 79-81Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 219.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Apelstrand, Maria
    Linköping, Sweden .
    Sehlin, Helena
    Linköping, Sweden .
    Amir, Nader
    San Diego, USA .
    Rousseau, Andreas
    Linköping, Sweden .
    Hofman, Stefan
    Boston, USA .
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping, Sweden; Stockholm, Sweden .
    Internet-delivered attention bias modification training in individuals with social anxiety disorder: a double blind randomized controlled trial2012In: BMC Psychiatry, ISSN 1471-244X, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 12, p. 66-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Computerized cognitive bias modification for social anxiety disorder has in several well conducted trials shown great promise with as many as 72% no longer fulfilling diagnostic criteria after a 4 week training program. To test if the same program can be transferred from a clinical setting to an internet delivered home based treatment the authors conducted a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Methods:

    After a diagnostic interview 79 participants were randomized to one of two attention training programs using a probe detection task. In the active condition the participant was trained to direct attention away from threat, whereas in the placebo condition the probe appeared with equal frequency in the position of the threatening and neutral faces.

    Results:

    Results were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis, including all randomized participants. Immediate and 4-month follow-up results revealed a significant time effect on all measured dimensions (social anxiety scales, general anxiety and depression levels, quality of life). However, there were no time x group interactions. The lack of differences in the two groups was also mirrored by the infinitesimal between group effect size both at post test and at 4-month follow-up.

    Conclusion:

    We conclude that computerized attention bias modification may need to be altered before dissemination for the Internet.

    Trial registration:

    ISRCTN01715124

  • 220.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Asmundson, Gordon J.G.Department of Psychology, University of Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada.
    40-year anniversary cognitive behaviour therapy2011Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 221.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Asmundson, Gordon JGUniversity of Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada .
    Cognitive behaviour therapy2011Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 222.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Degerman, Nicklas
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Jakob
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Internet-based treatment of pathological gambling with a three-year follow-up2012In: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 321-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective therapies for pathological gambling exist, but their use is limited to about 10% of the target population. In an attempt to lower the barriers for help, Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) has been shown to be effective when delivered to a non-depressed sample with pathological gambling. This study sought to extend this finding to a larger, more representative population, and also test a model to predict responder status. Following advertisement, a total of 284 participants started an 8-week ICBT programme with minimal therapist contact via e-mail and weekly telephone calls of less than 15 min. The average time spent on each participant, including telephone conversations, e-mail, and administration, was 4 h. In addition to a mixed effects model to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment, two logistic regression analyses were performed with the following eight pre-defined response predictor variables: work-life satisfaction, primary gambling activity, debts due to gambling, social support, personal yearly salary, alcohol consumption, stage of change, and dissociative gambling. ICBT resulted in statistically significant reductions in the scores of pathological gambling, anxiety, and depression as well as an increase in quality of life compared to pre-treatment levels. Follow-ups carried out in the treatment group at 6, 18, and 36 months indicated that treatment effects were sustained. Using the eight predictor variable model rendered an acceptable predictive ability to identify responders both at post-test (AUC = .72, p < .01) and at 36-month follow-up (AUC = .70, p < .01). We conclude that ICBT for pathological gamblers, even if depressed, can be effective and that outcome can partly be predicted by pre-treatment characteristics.

  • 223.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hanell, Åsa
    Journalist på Folkbladet, Norrköping.
    Ingen panik: fri från panik- och ångestattacker i 10 steg med kognitiv beteendeterapi2011 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
  • 224. Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Hägglund, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Luthström, Anne
    Dahlin, Mats
    Kadowaki, Åsa
    Vernmark, Kristofer
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Internet-based behavioral activation and acceptance-based treatment for depression: A randomized controlled trial2013In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 148, no 2-3, p. 331-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for depression has been tested in several trials but there are no internet studies on behavioral activation (BA), and no studies on BA over the internet including components of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). The aim of this study was to develop and test the effects of internet-delivered BA combined with ACT against a waiting list control condition as a first test of the effects of treatment. Methods: Selection took place with a computerized screening interview and a subsequent semi-structured telephone interview. A total of 80 individuals from the general public were randomized to one of two conditions. The treatment lasted for 8 weeks after which both groups were assessed. We also included a 3 month follow-up. The treatment included interactive elements online and a CD-ROM for mindfulness and acceptance exercises. In addition, written support and feedback was given by a therapist every week. Results: Results at posttreatment showed a large between group effect size on the Beck Depression inventory II d = 0.98 (95%CI = 0.51-1.44). In the treated group 25% (10/40) reached remission defined as a BDI score <= 10 vs. 5% (2/40) in the control group. Results on secondary measures were smaller. While few dropped out from the study (N = 2) at posttreatment, the average number of completed modules was M = 5.1 out of the seven modules. Limitations: The study only included a waiting-list comparison and it is not possible to determine which treatment components were the most effective. Conclusions: We conclude that there is initial evidence that BA with components of ACT can be effective in reducing symptoms of depression.

  • 225. Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Lindner, Philip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Martell, Christopher
    Hassmén, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Forsberg, Lars
    Ström, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    The effects on depression of Internet-administered behavioural activation and physical exercise with treatment rationale and relapse prevention: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial2013In: Trials, ISSN 1745-6215, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 14, p. 35-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite their potential as low-threshold, low-cost and high-flexibility treatments of depression, behavioural activation and physical exercise have not yet been directly compared. This study will examine the effects of these interventions, administered via the Internet. The added effect of providing a treatment rationale will also be studied, as well as a relapse prevention program featuring cognitive behavioural therapy components. Methods/Design: This randomised controlled trial will include 500 participants meeting the diagnostic criteria for major depression, recruited in multiple cycles and randomised to either a waiting list control group with delayed treatment, or one of the four treatment groups: (1) physical exercise without a clear treatment rationale; (2) physical exercise with treatment rationale; (3) behavioural activation with treatment rationale; or (4) behavioural activation without a clear treatment rationale. Post treatment, half of the participants will be offered a relapse prevention program. Primary outcome measure will be the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item. Secondary measures include diagnostic criteria for depression, as well as self-reported anxiety, physical activity and quality of life. Measurements done via telephone and the Internet -will be collected pre-treatment, weekly during treatment period, immediately post treatment and then monthly during a 24-month follow-up period. Discussion: The results of this study will constitute an important contribution to the body of knowledge of the respective interventions. Limitations are discussed.

  • 226.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Maurin, Linda
    Dept of Behavioural sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Törngren, Charlotta
    Dept of Behavioural sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Linna, Emma
    Dept of Behavioural sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Thomas
    Redakliniken, Linköping.
    Sparthan, Elisabeth
    svenska KBT-institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Strååt, Marcus
    Dept of Behavioural sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Marquez von Hage, Christian
    Dept of Behavioural sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Bergman-Nordgren, Lise
    Dept of Behavioural sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Dept of Behavioural sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Sweden, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Sweden, Dept of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Individually-tailored, Internet-based treatment for anxiety disorders: A rondomized controlled trial2011In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, no 94, p. 18-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

     

    Previous studies on Internet-based treatment with minimal to moderate therapist guidance have shown promising results for a number of specific diagnoses. The aim of this study was to test a new approach to Internet treatment that involves tailoring the treatment according to the patient’s unique characteristics and comorbidities.

    A total of 54 participants, regardless of specific anxiety diagnosis, were included after an in-person, semi-structured diagnostic interview and randomized to a 10 week treatment program or to a control group. Treatment consisted of a number of individually-prescribed modules in conjunction with online therapist guidance. Significant results were found for all dependent measures both immediately following treatment and at 1 and 2 year intervals. Mean between-group effect size including measures of anxiety, depression and quality of life was Cohen’s d ¼ 0.69 at post-treatment, while the mean withingroup effect size was d ¼ 1.15 at post-treatment and d ¼ 1.13 and d ¼ 1.04 at 1 and 2 year follow-up respectively.

    The tentative conclusion drawn from these results is that tailoring the Internet-based therapy can be a feasible approach in the treatment of anxiety in a homogeneous population. 

     

  • 227.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Maurin, Tommy
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sjömark, Josefin
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden;.
    Maurin, Linda
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Westling, Bengt E.
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden;.
    Ekselius, Lisa
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Cuijpers, Pim
    Department of Psychology, Vrije University, Department of Psychology, Vrije University.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping och Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    All at once or one at a time?: a randomized controlled trial comparing two ways to deliver bibliotherapy for panic Disorder2011In: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 40, no 33, p. 228-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bibliotherapy is potentially effective in the treatment of panic disorder (PD). A still unanswered question is whether pacing is important. This study was designed to test whether there is a difference between being assigned a full book as therapy and receiving one individual chapter every week (i.e. pacing). A total of 28 participants were randomized to either 10 paced chapters or one book with 10 chapters. To maximize compliance, short weekly telephone calls were added in both conditions ( M¼17.8 min,SD¼4.2). Both treatments showed promising results, with effects maintained up to 2 years and with within-group effect sizes (Cohen’s d) between 0.95 and 1.11. Pretreatment ratings of credibility were positively correlated with the change scores at both posttest and 2-year follow-up for three panic measures. Pacing of text material in bibliotherapy for PD is not needed, and all material can be provided at once when the treatment is guided by a therapist.

  • 228. Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Nyström, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindner, Philip
    Martell, Christopher
    Forsberg, L
    Ström, L
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Hassmen, Peter
    Behavioral activation vs physical exercise in the treatment of mild to moderate depression2015In: The 45th Annual European Association for Behavioural Cognitive Therapies Congress, Jerusalem, Israel, 31 August - 3 September 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 229.
    Carlehed, Gustav
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Katz, Jakob
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Somatic Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety: A population based study2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Somatization, depression and anxiety disorders are the most common mental disorders in primary care. Even though the association between these disorders has been thoroughly studied, the relationship between specific somatic symptoms and depression and anxiety disorders is still unclear. The objective of this study was to identify which specific somatic symptoms that are most strongly associated with depression and anxiety and to what extent these somatic symptoms can indicate depression and anxiety disorders. Data from 3223 participants (1809 women and 1414 men) from The Västerbotten Environmental Health Study was used. The instruments used were the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Patient Health Questionnaire 15-Item Somatic Symptom Severity Scale. The somatic symptoms that were most strongly associated with depression were feeling tired or having low energy; trouble sleeping; stomach pain; nausea, gas or indigestion; and constipation, loose bowels, or diarrhea. The somatic symptoms that were most strongly associated with anxiety disorders were feeling tired or having low energy; trouble sleeping; stomach pain; nausea, gas or indigestion; and headaches. Each of these somatic symptoms was associated with greater risk for either depression or anxiety disorders. The results support earlier research that has proposed an association between somatization and depression as well as anxiety disorders. When loss of energy, sleeping problems, gastrointestinal problems and headaches are present the risk of depression and anxiety disorders increases. It is important for primary care clinicians to be aware of these somatic symptoms when they are presented by patients, as they may indicate depression or anxiety disorders.

  • 230.
    Carlehed, Gustav
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Katz, Jakob
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Somatic symptoms of anxiety and depression: a population-based study2017In: Mental Health & Prevention, ISSN 2212-6570, Vol. 6, p. 57-62Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 231.
    Carlsson, Josefine
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ross, Selma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Skolpsykologer berättar om det salutogena perspektivet inom elevhälsan: Kommunikation som brygga2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    All pupils in Sweden are entitled to support from the Pupil Health Care for satisfactory completion of their education. The Pupil Health Care works with health promotion and prevention based on a salutogenic perspective. Health communication may be used for improved health. The Pupil Health Care in Umeå manages a project called Levla lärmiljön, where the goal is to improve the learning environment for pupils. The aim of the present study was to investigate the experiences of working in the transition from a pathological perspective to the salutogenic perspective. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five school psychologists and data was thematically analysed. The analysis resulted in five main themes: Organizational identity, From theory to practice is difficult, Desirable communication, Strategies for health communications and The responsibility of school psychologists. The results showed that Levla lärmiljön has so far not changed the communication between the school psychologists and school staff, and that the salutogenic perspective is not yet entirely incorporated in the communication within the Pupil Health Care. However, our conclusion is that a fully incorporated salutogenic perspective could be at the expense of an overall focus, a conclusion in line with the established guidelines for working with the salutogenic perspective.

  • 232.
    Carlsson, Rakel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Till arbetsmarknaden att fritt förfoga över: Den psykosociala arbetsmiljön enligt den som förväntas stå till förfogande2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A lot of people have become unemployed in recent years. They have slided further away from the regular market of work. Questions about work environment have been revived through sharpened legislation, and the employer responsibilities regarding the psychological-social work environment have been clarified. Previous research has displayed the importance of structural settings when supporting long-term unemployed people. This study takes a stand in the demand-control-support-model as described by Theorell (2003). The importance of balance between these becomes obvious in this study. Seven individuals have been interviewed using open questions. The interviews have been recorded and transcribed verbatim and then analysed thematically. They have given their view on labor market politics setting demands without adequate support. Self-control and decidal space is highly limited when it comes to planning and choosing unemployment activity.

  • 233.
    Catibusic, Linnéa-Rebecka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Trait Anxiety and Negative Health Risk Behaviors in Adults: The Relationship between Trait Anxiety, Alcohol Consumption and Physical Inactivity2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Relatively little is known regarding trait anxiety and its relationship with negative health risk behaviors such as alcohol consumption and physical inactivity in adults. This study aimed to examine whether negative health risk behaviors differ by sex and whether trait anxiety is associated with the negative health risk behaviors above and beyond sociodemographic factors and depression. Data used in the present study came from a published dataset from the Midlife in the United States 2 (MIDUS 2) study and include a sample of 1,054 adults whose age range from 34 to 84 years. There were significant sex differences in alcohol consumption, but not in physical inactivity. Age, sex, BMI, and depression were significantly associated with alcohol consumption or physical inactivity, whereas trait anxiety was not. These results suggest that sociodemographic variables and depression should be taken into consideration when studying negative health risk behaviors.

  • 234.
    Catibusic, Sanda-Wictoria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Subjective Well-Being and Biomarkers of Health: The Relationship between Subjective Well-Being, The immune system and Hypothalamic-Pituitary Adrenal Axis Activation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An association between inflammation and mood deterioration has been proposed as a potential explanatory mechanism underlying many pathologies. Previous research attributes this consistently reoccurring connection between inflammation and psychopathology that is often reported within the literature, to a relationship between the HPA axis, the body’s stress response system and the immune system. There is evidence of a bidirectional feedback loop between end-products of the immune system and the HPA-axis such as cytokines and cortisol. This is supported by research reporting that components of subjective well-being such as positive affect, optimism and life satisfaction can produce beneficial health outcomes by potentially targeting this feedback loop. The present longitudinal study tested if higher positive affect independently corresponds to lower levels of inflammatory markers Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) and HPA axis marker cortisol. The study further tested if higher subjective well-being decreases levels of IL-6 and CRP as well as cortisol. The study employed a subsample of participants from the Midlife in Japan (MIDJA) Biomarker project (n=174) that underwent testing at two separate time points across a period of 4 years. The data included subjective well-being, positive affect, IL-6, CRP, cortisol, perceived stress, neuroticism and demographic variables. Positive affect was not associated with any inflammatory marker or cortisol. Subjective well-being had no effect on CRP but reduced IL-6 and cortisol even when controlling for all control and demographic variables. It is concluded that subjective well-being may be linked to lower inflammation and HPA axis activity.

  • 235.
    Cercio, Sophie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sternudd, Anja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Komplex PTSD: Symtombild och lämplig behandling2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 236. Cernvall, Martin
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ljungman, Gustaf
    Von Essen, Louise
    Guided Self-Help as Intervention for Traumatic Stress in Parents of Children with Cancer: Conceptualization, Intervention Strategies, and a Case Study2013In: Journal of psychosocial oncology, ISSN 0734-7332, E-ISSN 1540-7586, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 13-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Being a parent of a child diagnosed with cancer poses an enormous stressor. Indeed, several parents have difficulties adjusting to such a situation and react with symptoms of traumatic stress, depression, and reduced quality of life. However, there is little conceptual work on behavioral mechanisms that contribute to suboptimal adaptation in these parents. The authors present a conceptualization in which experiential avoidance and rumination are suggested to contribute to increased levels of traumatic stress and suboptimal adaption. Based on this conceptualization, a recently developed intervention for parents of children with cancer, in the form of guided self-help, is presented. Finally, the authors present a successful case study as an example of the application of this intervention. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  • 237. Chan, D. K. C.
    et al.
    Ivarsson, A.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hagger, M. S.
    Inter-item distance changes the predictive power of motivation on health behavior?: a randomised controlled trial2016In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 23, p. S237-S237Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 238. Chan, Derwin
    et al.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Yang, Sophie
    Chatzisarantis, Nikos
    Hagger, Martin
    Response-Order Effects in Survey Methods: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Study in the Context of Sport Injury Prevention2015In: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 666-673Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consistency tendency is characterized by the propensity for participants responding to subsequent items in asurvey consistent with their responses to previous items. This method effect might contaminate the results ofsport psychology surveys using cross-sectional design. We present a randomized controlled crossover studyexamining the effect of consistency tendency on the motivational pathway (i.e., autonomy support → autonomousmotivation → intention) of self-determination theory in the context of sport injury prevention. Athletesfrom Sweden (N = 341) responded to the survey printed in either low interitem distance (IID; consistencytendency likely) or high IID (consistency tendency suppressed) on two separate occasions, with a one-weekinterim period. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups, and they received the survey of differentIID at each occasion. Bayesian structural equation modeling showed that low IID condition had strongerparameter estimates than high IID condition, but the differences were not statistically significant.

  • 239. Cherniack, Martin
    et al.
    Brammer, Anthony
    Lundström, Ronnie
    Morse, Timothy
    Neely, Gregory
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Tohr
    Peterson, Donald
    Toppila, Esko
    Warren, Nicholas
    Age and neuropathies in vibration exposed manual workers2009In: Canadian Acoustics, ISSN 0711-6659, E-ISSN 2291-1391, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 178-179Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 240. Chernicak, Martin
    et al.
    Brammer, Anthony J.
    Lundström, Ronnie
    Morse, Tim F.
    Neely, Greg
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Nilsson, Thor
    Peterson, Donald
    Toppila, Esk
    Warren, Nicholas
    Diva, Ulysses
    Croteau, Marc
    Dussetschleger, Jeffrey
    The effect warming methods on sensory nerve coduction velocity in shipyard workers occupationally exposed to hand-arm vibration2008In: Int Arch Occup Environ Health, ISSN 0340-0131, no 81, p. 1045-1058Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 241.
    Chona-Rouvali, Ariadni
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Exploring the effect of non-verbal drama activities on shyness with a focus on the behavioural component2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This exploratory study attempted to observe the behavioural characteristics of shyness of participants with some level of shyness who took part in a set of group drama activities. There was also interest to see if the more shy participants would achieve relaxation and self-expression. The Revised Cheek and Buss Shyness scale was administered to 20 individuals in order to measure shyness. A thematic content analysis was performed on data from open-ended questions. Out of the study’s sample there were no participants scoring high on the shyness scale causing difficulties to draw conclusions. There were some indications that more shy people were able to express themselves as they perform drama activities while interacting with others. Nevertheless the findings were difficult to evaluate since the way more shy were divided from the less shy participants was not solid.

  • 242.
    Christianson, Sven-Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Amnesia and emotional arousal1984Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present thesis was twofold. First, to study the role of emotional arousal in memory processes, and secondly, to relate this concept to empirical findings of amnesia. In both clinical and experimental settings it has been observed that remembering is impaired for events occurring prior to, and after a traumatic critical event. This memory impairment is also demonstrated for the traumatic event per se. In relation to these phenomena an interaction is commonly observed such that remembering of events aquired in a state of high emotionality, or arousal, is inferior to events aquired in neutral low arousal conditions at short test intervals, but superior at delayed test intervals. The general notion to be tested was how and to what extent these phenomena are mediated by an increase in emotional arousal. In order to test this hypothesis a series of experiments was designed so that retrograde and anterograde amnesia, and amnesia for the traumatic event, could be studied so as to evaluate the locus of the emotional arousal and amnesia effects with respect to encoding (attention), storage (consolidation), and retrieval (reconstruction). Emotional arousal was induced by sources associated with the to-be-remembered (TBR) material (traumatic pictures), and by sources not associated with the TBR-material (injections of adrenalin). Memory performance was measured by recall and recognition techniques. Amnesia was obtained only when the source of arousal was associated with the TBR-items. It was concluded that amnesia in connection to hightened emotional arousal depends on attention demanding characteristics of the traumatic event, rather than physiological properties of hightened arousal per se. An interaction between factors at encoding and retrieval was proposed as an explanation for the amnesia effects obtained. An interpretation in terms of consolidation has, throughout this thesis, been shown to be invalid in explaining the memory phenomena referred to.

  • 243.
    Christine, Österman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vi är kravmärkta: Äldreomsorgens förutsättningar ger konsekvenser för psykosocial arbetsmiljö och hälsa2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under 1990-talet skedde stora förändringar inom vård och omsorg i kommunal verksamhet på grund av kommunallagsändringen vilket innebar omorganiseringar, nedskärningar och effektiviseringar. Detta bidrog till sämre arbetsmiljö särskilt inom vård och omsorg. Belastningsskador och stress ökade. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka enhetschefers möjlighet att utöva närvarande ledarskap samt deras och medarbetares upplevelser av ledarskap och psykosocial arbetsmiljö och hälsa. Två äldreboenden i Umeå kommun ingick i studien i sammanlagt tre fokusgruppsintervjuer, en med enhetschefer och två med medarbetare totalt 12 deltagare. En abduktiv kvalitativ innehållsanalys genomfördes. Resultatet utmynnade i sju teman och visar att enhetscheferna upplevde att de inte har någon möjlighet att vara närvarande, att det är hög arbetsbelastning för både enhetschefer och medarbetare, att det upplevs saknas socialt stöd för enhetschefer och mellan enhetschef och medarbetare, att det brister i kommunikationen, delaktighet och rättvisa. Hälsan påstods vara bättre för enhetschefer än medarbetare men trivseln är bra i båda grupperna. Närvarande ledarskap ansågs i dagsläget svårt att utöva då det saknas både tid och stöd och det finns brister i den psykosociala arbetsmiljön som påverkar medarbetarnas hälsa negativt.

  • 244.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wikdahl, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyback, Maj-Helen
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Comorbidity of Airway Inflammatory Diseases in Chemical and Building-Related Intolerance2018In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 60, no 4, p. 295-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study investigated comorbidity in chemical intolerance (CI) and building- related intolerance (BRI) with (i) chronic sinusitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, allergic and nonallergic asthma and allergic rhinitis, and (ii) airway inflammatory symptoms. Methods: Data from two population-based questionnaire surveys, the Västerbotten and Österbotten Environmental Health Studies, were used. The participants were categorized as CI or BRI and referents, and binary logistic regression analysis was applied. Results: Prevalence rates for the case groups were 7.2% to 40.0% for diseases and 24.3% to 68.9% for symptoms, whereas adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were 3.4 to 26.1 for diseases and 3.3 to 17.0 for symptoms, all being significantly higher than unity. Prevalence rates and ORs were in general higher in BRI than in CI. Conclusion: Inflammatory airway diseases and symptoms are associated with CI and BRI, which encourages further research regarding underlying mechanisms and treatments.

  • 245.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Symptoms from masked acrolein exposure suggest altered trigeminal reactivity in chemical intolerance2017In: Neurotoxicology, ISSN 0161-813X, E-ISSN 1872-9711, Vol. 60, p. 92-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chemical intolerance (CI) is a widespread occupational and public health problem characterized by symptoms that reportedly result from low-levels of chemical exposure. The mechanisms behind CI are unknown, however modifications of the chemical senses (rather than toxic processes) have been suggested as key components. The aim of this study was to investigate whether individuals with self-reported CI report more sensory irritation during masked acrolein exposure compared to controls without CI. Methods: Individuals with CI (n = 18) and controls without CI (n = 19) were exposed in an exposure chamber. Each participant took part in two exposure conditions – one with heptane (the masking compound), and one with heptane and acrolein at a dose below previously reported sensory irritation thresholds. The exposures lasted for 60 min. Symptoms and confidence ratings were measured continuously throughout the exposure as were measurements of electrodermal activity and self-reported tear-film break-up time. Participants were blind to exposure condition. Results: Individuals with CI, compared with controls reported greater sensory irritation in the eyes, nose and throat when exposed to acrolein masked with heptane. There was no difference during exposure to heptane. Conclusions: Masked exposure to acrolein at a concentration below the previously reported detection threshold is perceived as more irritating by individuals with CI compared with controls. The results indicate that there is altered trigeminal reactivity in those with CI compared to controls.

  • 246.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fowler, Christopher J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Nording, Malin L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Perceived stress, sensory irritation and levels of prostaglandin F2 alpha in plasma after acrolein exposure: a pilot study2017In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 42, no 2, p. E28-E28Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 247.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Häggström, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Fowler, Christopher J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Nording, Malin L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Levels of oxylipins, endocannabinoids and related lipids in plasma before and after low-level exposure to acrolein in healthy individuals and individuals with chemical intolerance2017In: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, ISSN 0952-3278, E-ISSN 1532-2823, Vol. 121, p. 60-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxylipins and endocannabinoids play important biological roles, including effects upon inflammation. It is not known whether the circulating levels of these lipids are affected by inhalation of the environmental pollutant acrolein. In the present study, we have investigated the consequences of low-level exposure to acrolein on oxylipin, endocannabinoid and related lipid levels in the plasma of healthy individuals and individuals with chemical intolerance (CI), an affliction with a suggested inflammatory origin. Participants were exposed twice (60 min) to heptane and a mixture of heptane and acrolein. Blood samples were collected before exposure, after and 24 h post-exposure. There were no overt effects of acrolein exposure on the oxylipin lipidome or endocannibinoids detectable in the bloodstream at the time points investigated. No relationship between basal levels or levels after exposure to acrolein and CI could be identified. This implicates a minor role of inflammatory mediators on the systemic level in CI.

  • 248.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lidén, Edvard
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The role of perceived pollution and health risk perception in annoyance and health symptoms: a population-based study of odorous air pollution2013In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 86, no 3, p. 367-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Health effects associated with air pollution at exposure levels below toxicity may not be directly related to level of exposure, but rather mediated by perception of the air pollution and by top-down processing (e.g., beliefs that the exposure is hazardous). The aim of the study was to test a model that describes interrelations between odorous air pollution at non-toxic exposure levels, perceived pollution, health risk perception, annoyance and health symptoms.

    METHODS: A population-based questionnaire study was conducted in a Swedish community of residents living near a biofuel facility that emitted odorous substances. Individuals aged 18-75 years were selected at random for participation (n = 1,118); 722 (65 %) agreed to participate. Path analyses were performed to test the validity of the model.

    RESULTS: The data support a model proposing that exposure level does not directly influence annoyance and symptoms, and that these relations instead are mediated by perceived pollution and health risk perception.

    CONCLUSIONS: Perceived pollution and health risk perception play important roles in understanding and predicting environmentally induced annoyance and health symptoms in odorous environments at non-toxic levels of exposure.

  • 249.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lind, Nina
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Econ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Human exposure to acrolein: Time -dependence and individual variation in eye irritation2016In: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, ISSN 1382-6689, E-ISSN 1872-7077, Vol. 45, p. 20-27Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 250.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lind, Nina
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Human exposure to acrolein: Time-dependence and individual variation in eye irritation2016In: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, ISSN 1382-6689, E-ISSN 1872-7077, Vol. 45, p. 20-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine the time dependence on sensory irritation detection following exposure to threshold levels of acrolein, in humans. The exposures occurred in an exposure chamber and the subjects were breathing fresh air through a mask that covered the nose and mouth. All participants participated in four exposure conditions, of which three consisted of a mixture of acrolein and heptane and one of only heptane. Exposure to acrolein at a concentration half of the TLV-C lead to sensory irritation. The perceived sensory irritation resulted in both increased detectability and sensory irritation after about6.8 min of exposure in 58% of the participants. The study confirm the previously suggested LOAEL of about 0.34 mg/m3for eye irritation due to acrolein exposure. The sensory irritation was still significant 10 min after exposure. These results have implications for risk assessment and limit setting in occupational hygiene.

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